We investigated the effects of inoculation of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on cucumber plant growth promotion and on the contents of plant hormones, amino acids, and mineral nutrients. We showed that treatment with all three bio-inoculants significantly increased the shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and chlorophyll content, via secretion of indole acetic acid and/or organic acids. Inoculation with R. sphaeroides had more favorable effect on plant growth than did inoculation with L. plantarum or S. cerevisiae, by significantly enhancing the gibberellin and reducing the abscisic acid contents. The results of amino acid analysis revealed that inoculation with R. sphaeroides, L. plantarum, and S. cerevisiae generally increased the contents of 17 amino acids, namely, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, cysteine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine, and proline. With the exception of cysteine, all these amino acids were present in higher concentrations in plants inoculated with R. sphaeroides than in control plants or in plants inoculated with L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, inoculation with R. sphaeroides significantly increased the calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphate contents. Our results suggest that the use of R. sphaeroides, L. plantarum, and S. cerevisiae in agricultural fields can improve plant growth. Moreover, inoculation of cucumber plants with R. sphaeroides regulates plant functional metabolites, thereby promoting plant growth.