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This study examined the longitudinal trends of mobile learning (M-Learning) research using text mining techniques in a more comprehensive manner. One hundred and forty four (144) refereed journal articles were retrieved and analyzed from the Social Science Citation Index database selected from top six major educational technology-based learning journals based on Google Scholar metrics in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2015. Content analysis was implemented for further analysis based on (a) category of research purpose, (b) learning domain, (c) sample group, (d) device used, (e) research design, (f) educational contexts (i.e., formal learning and informal learning), (g) learning outcome (i.e., positive, negative and neutral), (h) periodic journal, (i) country, and (j) publisher. This review study of M-Learning presents findings, which can become a layover platform and guidance for researcher, educators, policy maker or even journal publisher for future research or reference in the realm of M-Learning regarding the latest trends.
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Chee, K. N., Yahaya, N., Ibrahim, N. H., & Noor Hassan, M. (2017). Review of Mobile Learning Trends 2010-2015: A
Meta-Analysis. Educational Technology & Society, 20 (2), 113126.
ISSN 1436-4522 (online) and 1176-3647 (print). This article of the Journal of Educational Technology & Society is available under Creative Commons CC-BY-ND-NC
3.0 license ( For further queries, please contact Journal Editors at ets-ed
Review of Mobile Learning Trends 2010-2015: A Meta-Analysis
Ken Nee Chee1*, Noraffandy Yahaya1, Nor Hasniza Ibrahim1 and Mohamed Noor
1Department of Educational Science, Mathematics and Creative Multimedia, Faculty of Education, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia // 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia // // // //
*Corresponding author
(Submitted October 20, 2015; Revised March 22, 2016; Accepted June 2, 2016)
This study examined the longitudinal trends of mobile learning (M-Learning) research using text mining
techniques in a more comprehensive manner. One hundred and forty four (144) refereed journal articles
were retrieved and analyzed from the Social Science Citation Index database selected from top six major
educational technology-based learning journals based on Google Scholar metrics in the period from
January, 2010 to December, 2015. Content analysis was implemented for further analysis based on (a)
category of research purpose, (b) learning domain, (c) sample group, (d) device used, (e) research design,
(f) educational contexts (i.e., formal learning and informal learning), (g) learning outcome (i.e., positive,
negative and neutral), (h) periodic journal, (i) country, and (j) publisher. This review study of M-Learning
presents findings, which can become a layover platform and guidance for researcher, educators, policy
maker or even journal publisher for future research or reference in the realm of M-Learning regarding the
latest trends.
Mobile learning, M-Learning, Research trends
With the advent of mobile technologies, new paradigm of teaching and learning with technology aid had been
emerged, that is mobile learning (M-Learning). Mobile technologies purvey opportunities to hold new and
interesting methods of teaching and learning, both beyond and inside the classroom. Apropos to the teaching-
learning process, the integration of mobile devices into educational context has considerable benefits and
profoundly potential which consistence with Valero et al. (2012) who claimed that the technological features of
M-Learning are portability, immediacy, connectivity, ubiquity and adaptability. It enables collaboration among
pupils, knowledge creation, information searching and improved interaction and communication between teacher
and student. Moreover, it facilitates access to learning anytime and anywhere by enabling connectivity and the
employ of multiple apps for educational purposes (Fundación Telefónica, 2013). In short, M-Learning has been
recognized as one of the most influential technologies for education (Johnson, Adams, & Cummins, 2012).
Therefore, this paper intends to provide insights into the research trends and issues in the studies of M-Learning
through content analysis of selected journals from January, 2010 to December, 2015, covering six major
journals: (1) Computer & Education (C&E), (2) British Journal of Educational Technology (BJET), (3)
Educational Technology & Society (JETS), (4) Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (JCAL), (5) The Internet
and Higher Education (IHE) and (6) The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning
This study reported herein, investigated longitudinal trends of M-Learning research with text mining techniques.
In sum, this study systematically reviews and synthesizes the relevant literature through a meta-analysis
(Creswell, 2002, pp. 351-353) to provide a more comprehensive analysis of previous studies.
Specifically, the present study poses the four research questions:
What are the sources of the article regarding periodic journal, publisher and country that were related to M-
Learning that were published in these selected journals from 2010 2015?
What are the main research purposes, sampling and outcome/conclusion that was related to M-Learning that
were published in these selected journals from 2010 2015?
What are the learning domains, device used, and educational context related to M-Learning that were
published in these selected journals from 2010 2015?
What types of research design have been applied in article research of M-Learning that were published in
these selected journals from 2010 2015?
Literature review
Definition of M-Learning
M-Learning, which means learning through mobile devices (such as smart mobile phones and tablet PCs), is
changing the educational environment by offering learners the opportunity to engage in asynchronous,
ubiquitous instruction (Hyman et al., 2014). M-learning is a teaching method that has the intersection between
mobile computing and e-learning (Quinn, 2000; Keengwe, 2014) that integrates several software and firmware
technology in multimedia applications (Lavín-Mera et al., 2008) which facilitate learning through a variety of
wireless mobile devices (Kukulska-Hulme, 2005; Stevens & Kitchenham, 2011) using wireless networks (WiFi)
or broadband services (Caudill, 2007) without limit in terms of location or time. (Kukulska-Hulme, 2005; Hussin
et al., 2012; Quinn, 2000). Furthermore, Keegan (2002) contemplates the possibility of M-Learning as a
harbinger of the future of learning.
M-Learning research
The use of mobile devices for educational purposes, recognized as M-Learning has gained substantial attention
from researchers in the technology-enhanced learning discipline. Recent research findings on using mobile
devices in different learning environments have exemplified their ability to effectively enhance students’ learning
knowledge. Understanding and experience in divergent subject areas such as science (Looi et al., 2011; Hwang
Wu, & Ke, 2011; Ahmed & Parsons, 2013), mathematics (Huang et al., 2012; Mahamad et al., 2010; Lan et al.,
2010), language and art (Yu et al., 2013; Martin & Ertzberger, 2013), social science (Shih et al., 2010),
engineering (Yang et al., 2013) and others. This promising role in education can tremendously be noticeable
within the informal and formal learning context, such as guiding an interactive tour with museum visits (Sung et
al., 2010; Hou et al., 2014) facilitating knowledge acquisition in field trips (Menkhoff & Bengtsson, 2012),
game-based learning (Young et al., 2012), in-class collaboration learning (Echeverría et al., 2011). Nevertheless,
there is always a contrasting scenario in every context, including M-Learning as Chu (2014) argued that the
performance of students, known to be “effective,” might be disappointing or may even negatively affect the
students” learning achievements if without proper treatment employed.
Previous review paper on M-Learning
In recent years, there were three literature reviews with high citation as in December, 2015 in Google scholar
studied on research trends in M-Learning. Literature review paper with the title, “Examining M-Learning trends
20032008: a categorical meta-trend analysis using text mining techniques” which written by Hung and Zhang
(2012) and cited 45 times according to Google Scholar, used text mining techniques to investigate research
trends in 144 academic articles based on five journal include Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), JETS,
JCAL, C&E, and International Journal of Engineering Education on mobile learning (IJEEML) from 2003 to
2008 taken from the SCI/SSCI database. In general, they investigated publication date, publication category,
taxonomy, article clusters, and country, university and journal of origin. Results showed that articles on M-
Learning increased from 8 in 2003 to 36 in 2008; the most popular domains in M-Learning studies are
effectiveness, evaluation, and personalized systems and studies on strategies and frameworks are more likely to
be published. Apart from that, they found that Taiwan is the most contributing country and university regarding
journal publications on M-Learning.
Another review paper entitled “Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: a review of publications in
selected journals from 2001 to 2010” which written by Hwang and Tsai (2011) and cited 121 times according to
google scholar, reviews the advancement of mobile and ubiquitous learning research from 2001 to 2010 by
selecting 154 articles on mobile and ubiquitous learning based on the articles published in six major SSCI
journals included BJET, C&E, JETS, Educational Technology Research & Development (ETRD), JCAL and
Innovations in Education and Teaching International (IETI). It is found that the number of articles has
significantly increased during the past 10 years; moreover, researchers from other countries have contributed to
the related field in recent years. Scope of the review included a number of articles published, research sample
groups selected, research learning domains, and country of origin. They found out that research in mobile and
ubiquitous learning increase drastically in number between 2006 and 2010; higher education students were the
most frequent research sample, followed by elementary school students and high school students; most studies
did not explicitly focus on any particular learning domain but rather investigated the motivation, perceptions and
attitudes of students toward mobile and ubiquitous learning, along with course-orientation for engineering
(including computers), language and art, and science; and most articles were contributed from US-based authors,
followed by authors in the UK and Taiwan for the first five years and it was vice versa for the another second
five years.
Following these two literature reviews-based studies, another review paper entitled “Review of trends from M-
Learning studies: A meta-analysis” which written by Wu et al. (2012) and cited 162 times according to Google
scholar comes about to step into the breach since there were issues that still needed to be examined from other
directions such as the distribution of research purposes. This study takes a meta-analysis approach to
systematically review the literature of 144 studies based on the articles published in six major SSCI journals
included JCAL, Computer in Human Behavior (CHB), BJET, JETS, and IRODL from 2003 to 2010. Major
findings include that most studies of M-Learning focus on effectiveness, followed by M-Learning system design,
and surveys and experiments were used as the primary research methods. Apart from that, mobile phones and
PDAs are currently the most widely used devices for M-Learning, but these may be displaced by emerging
technologies. Moreover, most M-Learning studies feature positive outcomes and M-Learning is more prevalent
at higher education institutions, followed by elementary schools. In addition, the most highly-cited articles are
found to focus on M-Learning system design, followed by system effectiveness.
Apart from the above mentioned on high cited review paper, there were another review paper that ought to be
included in this section which is review paper entitled “Applications, impacts and trends of mobile technology-
enhanced learning: a review of 20082012 publications in selected SSCI journals” which written by Hwang and
Wu (2014) and cited 26 times according to Google scholar, reviews the 214 publications from 2008 to 2012 in
seven well-known SSCI journals of technology-enhanced learning included C&E, JETS, Educational
Technology Research and Development (ETRD), IETI, BJET, JCAL and Interactive Learning Environments
(ILE) as to examine on the applications and impacts of mobile technology-enhanced learning. It is found that M-
Learning is promising in improving students” learning achievements, motivations and interests with proper use
of mobile technologies and education design together with proper support and strategy; top four applications
were language learning, environmental and ecological education, engineering and computer education and
historical and cultural education; most of the applications were conducted both indoor and outdoor activities
indoors, followed by indoor and then outdoor; smartphones and followed by Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
are the most frequently used M-Learning devices, and only then tablet PCs, but smartphones and tablet PCs had
replaced on the use of PDAs in educational settings which started from 2011 and 2012; mobile technologies have
been increasingly applied to formal and informal.
After all, recent literature review paper seems to be filling in the breach of previous review papers, which were
incomplete and act as complementary. This study adopts a meta-analysis method in examining trends in M-
Learning studies in term of the various criteria across years in the period under review comprehensively all in
one as to refine and update with the most present M-Learning trend. These findings may provide insights for
researchers and educators, even policy makers into research trends in M-Learning.
Data sources and search strategies
This study examines the M-Learning papers published in the SSCI database from 2010 to 2015. Top six major
educational technology-based learning journals were selected to analyze the research trends, including the (1)
C&E, (2) BJET, (3) JETS, (4) JCAL, (5) IHE and (6) IRODL. These journals are widely accessed with high
impact factors based on top publication reports released by the Google Scholar metrics. The thorough and
plenary searching were through manual electronic searches of the following databases: Science Direct for journal
(1) and (5), ProQuest for journal (3) and (6) and Wiley Online Library for journal (2) and (4).
Two researchers who have had years of experience carrying out studies in this area were asked to filter the M-
Learning studies from the 1338 papers published by these six journals (378 from BJET, 61 from JCAL, 492 from
C&E, 70 from IHE, 243 from JETS, and 94 from IRODL) from 2010 to 2015. Only papers that were identified
as being of the type “articles” in the SSCI were considered; that is, publications such as “book reviews,
“letters, “colloquium, “conference paper, “workshop paper, “presentation paper, “book chapter,”
proceeding,” “thesis,“dissertation” and “editorial materials” were all excluded from this study. We intend to
include all of the papers published in these journals about Mobile Learning and M-Learning without utilizing
other filtering criteria. It is expected that such a review can provide a more thorough view of M-Learning
research. To be more precise in selecting the M-Learning articles from the candidate pool, the articles selected by
the two researchers were compared to see if there were inconsistent selections, and if so, these selections were
shown to the researchers for further discussion. A total of 144 studies concerning M-Learning were selected after
two iterations of filtering the papers and discussing on the inconsistency of decisions.
Data coding and analysis
Ten features related to the quality of study research methodology were coded, including (a) category of research
purpose, (b) learning domain, (c) sample group, (d) device used, (e) research design, (f) educational contexts
(i.e., formal learning and informal learning), (g) learning outcome (i.e., positive, negative and neutral), (h)
periodic journal, (i) country, and (j) publisher.
This study uses the methodology of content analysis to analyze trends and issue about M-Learning. Stemler
(2001) confirmed that content analysis indeed is a powerful method for examining trends and patterns in
documents. It is also a useful technique to discover and describe the focus of individual, group, institutional or
social attention (Weber, 1990). By conducting a content analysis from the 144 selected journals in the timeframe
of 2010 to 2015, this study will look out for issues and trend that underlies the studies of M-Learning currently.
Besides that, this study cross-examines papers related to M-Learning; published in six selected journals from
2010 to 2015. Three databases were chosen for the cross-examine purpose. The different databases were chosen
due to the availability of certain journals and accessibility of the abstract and full text of the selected articles. The
databases were; ProQuest Education Journals, Science Direct and Wiley Online Library. Google scholar as a
search engine was also used for the purpose above.
The first procedure in conducting this research is setting three items to search for the related articles in all
databases above. They are; (1) Selected Journal Name for Journal Name, Publication Title or Journal Title
column, (2) mobile learning for Topic or Title column and (3) 2010-2015 in Time span, Year or Coverage
column. This step is important to ensure standardization in order to search the related articles in spite of the
different interface between all databases.
There were 162 articles have been identified from the first procedure. The next procedure consists of further
comprehensive review, which needs the researchers to examine 162 articles carefully to determine the articles
which is related to M-Learning. Finally, a total of 144 articles were selected for the analysis.
Trend analysis
Trend analysis of an article can show the periodic discussion taking place in a knowledge discipline (Erford et
al., 2010). In the analysis of trend and frequency, justification for selection of articles is found in the BJET,
JETS, C&E, ETS, IHE and IRODL only.
Content analysis
Based on content analysis or the process of summarizing and reporting of written data (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005).
The research topics in the articles selected for analysis were categorized involves counting and comparisons
according to key words in the given abstracts and content, issues discussed as well as research scope followed by
the interpretation of the underlying context. Throughout the data analysis carried out, each category identified
was further clarified using thematic analysis.
Research question 1
Trend of periodic journal contributing to M-Learning field across the years
As depicted in Figure1 and Table 1, out of top six major educational technology-based learning journals that
were selected to analyze the research trends, which including the C&E, BJET, JETS, JCAL, IHE and IRODL, it
is obvious that JETS (26.39%) were the most contributing journal towards M-Learning field till peak in 2014
then drop abruptly in 2015, which causes BJET (27.78%) leads in front for the six year period due to its sudden
increment in 2015. This rank is followed by C&E (23.61%), IRODL (13.89%), JCAL (6.26%) and IHE (2.08%).
BJET and C&E saw a dramatically growth between the six year period. The rest fluctuated unevenly over the
years. Overall, there is a tremendous increment in total from year to year except in 2011.
Table 1. Distribution of M-Learning studies by periodical journal across years from 2010 to 2015
Periodical Journal
Figure 1. Distribution of M-Learning studies by periodical journal across years from 2010 to 2015
Trend of publishers that contributing to M-Learning field across the years
Two periodic journals embodied in each publisher database. Science Direct consist of journal C&E and IHE,
while ProQuest comprises of journal JETS and IRODL and whereas Wiley Online Library contain journal BJET
and JCAL. Since database sources are linked to the periodic journal, it is acceptable that ProQuest headed up all
the rest and so violently increase in between 2012 to 2014 due to the proliferation of total number of journal
JETS and IRODL followed by Wiley Online Library and Science Direct as illustrated in Figure 2. Apart from
that, Wiley Online Library rises gradually along these years while Science Direct shown considerable fall in
2014 and then increase tremendously in 2015 due to the proliferation of journal C&E in 2015.
Figure 2. Distribution of M-Learning studies by publisher database across years from 2010 to 2015
Trend of countries that contributing to M-Learning field across the years
As indicated in Figure 3, it is perceivable that more country has contributed their research on M-Learning as
there are new emerging country like China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Iran and several more. This may due
to the existence of awareness on the significance of M-Learning as a new and trendy teaching and learning
paradigm in this advent of the technology era. Conspicuously, Taiwan is the most dominance country
contributing to M-Learning research with the total up across the years at 25.30%, followed by USA (15.06%),
United Kingdom (7.23%), Singapore (6.63%), Turkey (6.02%), Canada (5.42%), and others country with
percentage less than five percent.
Figure 3. Distribution of M-Learning studies by country across years from 2010 to 2015
Research question 2
Trend of issue category regarding M-Learning across the years
Articles were categorized into one of four categories according to its research purpose: (1) evaluating the effects
of M-Learning, (2) designing a mobile system for learning, (3) elicit perceptions of M-Learning, (4) review on
M-Learning or (5) evaluate or explore the factor towards M-Learning. As delineated in Figure 4, evaluating the
effects of M-Learning was the most common research purpose (52.53%) which mainly covered large portion of
the stacked area line chart across years, followed by review on M-Learning (17.09%), evaluate or explore the
factor towards M-Learning (15.82%), elicit perceptions of M-Learning (7.59%) and designing a mobile system
for learning (6.96%). Category of evaluating the effects of M-Learning start to increase progressively in 2012 till
2015. For the category of evaluating or explore the factor towards M-Learning, it showed gradually rising along
these years. Nevertheless, the rest categories had shown fluctuation along these years.
Figure 4. Distribution of M-Learning studies by issue category across years from 2010 to 2015
Trend of sampling taken regarding M-Learning across the years
By exclusion from review paper, Figure 5 shows that M-Learning research mainly focuses on higher education
institution (36.17%), followed by not specific (35.11%), elementary or primary school (21.28%), High or
Secondary School (6.38%) and the rest were working adult. There was a sharp shoot up in 2014 for the number
of articles using higher education as sample institution while the rest was showing up and down unstably.
Besides, Fig. 6 indicates that higher education student leads the trend (50.75%), followed by elementary or
primary school student (19.40%), elementary or primary school teacher (13.43%), high or secondary school
student (7.46%) and lastly tailed by higher education instructor (1.49%). A number of articles that were utilizing
higher education students as the sample are topping all others sample, but it's shown unstably fluctuate as others
sample except in year 2015.
Figure 5. Distribution of M-Learning studies by sample institution across years from 2010 to 2015
Figure 6. Distribution of M-Learning studies by sample individual across years from 2010 to 2015
Trend of outcome/conclusion resulting in M-Learning across the years
Despite of irrelevant outcome (37.66%) synthesized by others from the evaluating effect purpose, Figure 7
indicates that 52.60% of studies reported positive research outcomes, while only 6.49% and 3.25% respectively
reported neutral and negative outcomes generated from the journal with evaluating effect purpose. All the
outcomes showed a steady increase along the period.
Figure 7. Distribution of M-Learning studies by outcome across years from 2010 to 2015
Research question 3
Trend of learning domain regarding M-Learning across the years
Regardless of journal without specific on learning domain with reach 53.06%, a majority of published M-
Learning studies focused on two subject areas: Science (12.24%) and Language and Art (12.93%). Additional
studies were conducted in fields like Social Science (8.16%), others (6.80%), Engineering (4.08%), and
Mathematics (2.72%). Despite of that, Science, and Language and Art peaked in 2015 although all categories
shown up down pattern.
Figure 8. Distribution of M-Learning studies of learning domain across the years from 2010 to 2015
Trend of device used regarding M-Learning across the years
Mobile phone in this study referred to the basic cell phone without the function that exist in a smartphone, which
included 3G/4G, or Wi-Fi connection. Term of smartphone used in this study is a general term without specifying
in android or iOS as a platform. In spite of journal without specific stated device used (57.02%), Fig. 9 indicates
that, among the 144 studies, smart phone was most commonly used for M-Learning (14.09%), followed by
PDAs (8.05%), mobile phone (7.38%), tablet (5.37%), iPad (4.70%), iPhone (2.68%), and iPod (1.34%) in total.
All the line moves unstable along the period as the preferred device used in M-Learning research, however, it
can be observed that PDA has shown a sharp drop starting in the year 2013.
Figure 9. Distribution of M-Learning studies by device used across the years from 2010 to 2015
Trend of educational context regarding M-Learning across the years
As can be seen in Figure 10, informal learning (11.11%) was predominant in the M-Learning studies compared
to formal (8.33%) and a combination of both (6.25%). Formal line and informal line showed gradual increase
along these years while a combination of formal and informal line shown up and down.
Figure 10. Distribution of M-Learning studies by educational context across years from 2010 to 2015
Research question 4
Trend of research design regarding M-Learning across the years
Quantitative approach (47.92%) is the most employed research designs for M-Learning research studies,
followed by a mixed method (18.75%) and Qualitative (14.58%) as depicted in Figure 11. Out of 144 articles
analyzed, there were 18.75% articles with no specific approach due to the existence of the review paper. There
was a dramatically shot up shown by the quantitative design line in 2012, whereas others shown unstable rise
and fall across the years.
Figure 11. Distribution of M-Learning studies by research design across the years from 2010 to 2015
Based on several studies selected and merely four literature review papers as reference, this review paper can be
produced in a more detailed and refined even up-to-dated all in one version. This is because in the previous three
review papers on M-Learning recently authored by Hwang and Tsai (2011), Hung and Zhang (2012), Wu et al.
(2012), and Hwang and Wu (2014) are just a compliment to each other with the older version of the newborn.
Wu et al. (2012) reproved on the previous two is still incomplete in their criteria and the topic being further
explored from different directions. This study imparts comprehensive results and new findings. For example, this
research found that most M-Learning research paper could be obtained in certain journals like JETS, BJET and
C&E whereas in a database like ProQuest based on the frequency count and even country that most M-Learning
research is derived from Taiwan followed by the USA which in line with Hung and Zhang (2012). There were
more findings that will further describe at below.
Taiwan is the most dominance country contributing to M-Learning research
As claimed by Hung and Zhang (2012) in the research period, and Hwang and Tsai (2011) in the second half
period, Taiwan has become the top country regarding M-Learning research which corresponds with finding in
this paper.
BJET and JETS are the most Periodic Journal while ProQuest is the most Publisher Contributing to M-
Learning Field
From the result, it is affirmed that BJET and JETS are the most Periodic Journal while ProQuest is the most
Publisher Contributing to M-Learning Field.
Most studies of M-Learning focus on effectiveness, followed by M-Learning review
Out of the 144 studies, 52.53% took evaluating the effectiveness of M-Learning as the main research purpose as
depicted in Figure 4. This focus on effectiveness evaluation is in line with Wu et al. (2012), and Hung and Zhang
(2012). The second-most frequently cited research purpose was M-Learning review, which is also a new finding
which is contrary to Wu et al. (2012), and Hung and Zhang (2012). More importantly, we found that the number
of studies devoted to all M-Learning research increased over time, which supported by Hwang and Tsai (2011)
and Hung and Zhang (2012). This may be due to the advent of mobile technology and the enormous advantages
that bring along with and mean that the trends are still keep increasing till to date.
Most M-Learning studies took samples from a higher education institution, followed by the elementary or
primary school
As seen in Figure 5, the result which consistent with Wu et al. (2012) revealed that higher education institution is
the main sampling pool regarding to M-Learning research may be due to the convenience factor. This is because
researchers mostly were originated in university or college. Primary school is the next most sampling taken
from. Reason behind this need to be justified in the future research. As a result, there is tremendous room for
research to be carried out for others sample such as secondary or high school and working adult.
Most M-Learning studies took higher education students as sample, followed by elementary or primary
school student
As shown in Figure 6, the result which consistent with Hwang and Tsai (2011) revealed that higher education
student is the main sampling pool regarding to M-Learning research may be due to the convenience factor, the
same reason as a sampling institution above. Again, this is because researchers mostly were originated in
university or college. The primary school student is the next most sampling taken from. Reason behind this need
to be justified in the future research. As a result, there are tremendous room for research to be carried out for
others sample such as working adult, primary or elementary school teacher, secondary or high school teacher and
Most M-Learning studies feature positive outcomes
Figure 7 shows that most of the 144 M-Learning studies present positive outcomes. This finding corresponds to
the finding from (Wu et al., 2012). Neutral outcome ranked next and negative outcome ranked the least.
M-Learning most frequently support learning in the Language and Art, followed by Science
Figure 8 illustrates that studies on M-Learning in educational contexts, most frequently focus on use in
supporting subject Language and Art, followed by the Science, Social Science, others, Engineering and
Mathematics. In terms of M-Learning activity in various sub-disciplines, our findings partially support those of
Wu et al. (2012), and Hwang and Wu (2014) but fully support to Hwang and Tsai (2011). For instance, Wu et al.
(2012), and Hwang and Wu (2014) showed M-Learning was often used in language courses. Profoundly, the
present study found that M-Learning is also widely used in courses related to Science, Social Science,
engineering and others but considerably less in other courses such as Mathematics. Nevertheless, there is scarcity
of M-Learning research in the related fields should be emphasized in the future research conducted as to fill in
the gap.
Smartphone currently is the most widely used devices for M-Learning
The type of devices that were used in the context of M-Learning is influenced by the mobile consumer
preference. Figure 9 indicates that smartphones are most widely used as teaching and learning tool in educational
contexts corresponds with the Mobile Consumer Report (Nielson, 2013) which stated that smartphone owners
may be the majority of mobile users in countries like the US and UK PDAs ranked second as it has been used as
learning tools a decade ago and thus supporting the result from Wu et al. (2012), and Hwang and Wu (2014) but
it is shown a sharp drop starting in year 2013 due to displacement of smartphones and tablet PCs as emerging
technologies over the use of PDAs in educational settings consistent with Wu et al. (2012), and Hwang and Wu
McQuiggan et al. (2015) affirmed that it is widely predicted that mobile devices are the wave of the
foreseeable future in educational technology. Thus, through the advancement of technology, the invention of new
mobile devices will never come to an end and it will be applied to the educational context if its efficacy towards
the field. This is supported when Martin et al. (2011) used predictions from 2004 to 2010 (i.e., from seven
Horizon Reports), which cover the period 20042014, to analyze the technologies that have impacted education
in the past or are likely to have an impact in the future. Horizon report 2007 predicted that the use of mobile
phones in M-Learning, particularly in higher education, would increase dramatically after 2009, which
corresponds with our findings.
Informal learning is the most preferred approach carried out along with M-Learning
As depicted in Figure 10, informal learning dominates the M-Learning context which in line with Traxler (2007)
claimed that M-Learning definition can emphasize those unique attributes that position it within informal
learning, rather than formal.
Most M-Learning studies adopted quantitative method as the primary research design
Figure 11 shows that, among the 144 studies, quantitative approaches were favored over mixed method approach
and qualitative approaches. This finding corresponds with finding from Wu et al. (2012).
Three previous literature review-based studies on the use of M-Learning in academic contexts provided valuable
insights, but they were just a compliment amongst them to cover up their incompleteness. This study was
conducted a systematic meta-analysis to provide more comprehensive analysis of past studies, refined on
previous review studies, and discusses the implications of new findings.
The current study presents nine new findings: (1) Taiwan is the most dominance country contributing to M-
Learning research. (2) BJET and JETS are the most periodic journal while ProQuest is the most publisher,
contributing to the M-Learning field. (3) Most studies of M-Learning focus on effectiveness, followed by M-
Learning review. (4) Most M-Learning studies took sample from higher education institution, followed by
elementary or primary school. (5) Most M-Learning studies took higher education students as sample, followed
by elementary or primary school student. (6) Most M-Learning studies feature positive outcomes. (7) M-
Learning most frequently supports learning in the Language and Art, followed by Science. (8) Smartphone
currently is the most widely used devices for M-Learning. (9) Informal learning is the most preferred approach
carried out along with M-Learning. (10) Most M-Learning studies adopted quantitative method as the primary
research design. As a conclusion, this study of issues in M-Learning presents findings, which can become a
layover platform and guidance for researchers, educators, policy makers or even journal publishers for future
research or reference in the realm of M-Learning.
Implications for research and practice
The findings of this study contribute to an in-depth understanding of M-Learning, by providing a broad and a
longitudinal overview of reputable publications according to Google Scholar metrics. It provides a quick,
comprehensive overview for scholars interested in publications on M-Learning. For instance, researchers know
which journal to be targeted on when M-Learning take its place. It has also identified the topics and areas that
have been studied more intensively regarding M-Learning. Furthermore, the findings suggest topics and areas
needing additional research to fill in the gap. Thus, researchers should pay more attention to the gap that is a
scarcity of research and development of M-Learning in order to synthesize knowledge in the field.
As an emerging research method, text mining enables researchers to obtain summative information in virtually
any given field. This study illustrates the power and potential of text mining techniques to discover research
patterns, themes, and trends. These techniques enable scholars to pay more attention to data interpretation and
pattern analysis, comparing to traditional information processing or data (content) analysis.
For government policy makers, the findings will provide supporting information to enhance understanding of
research strengths and weaknesses, which in turn can influence decision-making and policy change towards the
advancement in educational discipline.
For researchers, this finding will give a bigger picture on how importance of M-Learning as it gains more and
more attention from all over the world due to the proliferation of country that have embarked on this new and
trendy paradigm of teaching and learning method in education fields. Researchers and educators will ascertain
on where to find about and target on M-Learning research with remarkable quantity and quality articles.
For journal publishers, this finding will notify on the statistics about M-Learning research published in their
journal or even their database so that call for paper on M-Learning will be ushered in as to lure more papers
regarding M-Learning into particular journal publisher if it is necessary and create a healthy competition in the
publication battlefield.
Limitation of the study
The results and conclusion are limited and not intended to be exclusive. SSCI journals adopt stringent journal
reviewing criteria. Articles might take 2 years from submission to publication. In addition, the SSCI database
does not collect conference proceedings in education. Therefore, the findings in this study may not reflect the
most recent research trends.
This study used only two search terms to analyze M-Learning publications from the beginning of 2010 to year
end of 2015 collected in the SSCI databases at that time. Future studies with greater resources, using more search
terms, are needed to expand these findings.
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... Mobile, ubiquitous and pervasive learning study [24] 2010-2015 Any Any 144 Trends in mobile learning [25] 2010-2015 Any PK- 12 113 Study of m-learning in PK-12 [15] 2003-2016 Math & Science Secondary school 60 High quality empirical evidence on m-learning in secondary school science and maths education [26] 2010-2016 Any Higher education 72 Mobile learning research in higher education settings [27] 2007-2016 Language Any 93 Design and application of mobile language learning [28] NS Any Any NS General literature review [4] 2000-2016 Any Any 100 ...
... Indeed, in [25] formal context represented 50% of the studies, in [26] 54%, and 44% in [15] (even it is not higher than 50% we should take into account that it is the main category in this review and that is also considered in other classifications where several education contexts are used with a 27%). The only review that report different results comes from [24] where informal learning obtained higher values (11.11% vs 8.33%). These results show that more research should be made in informal or semi-formal contexts. ...
... In these SLRs, they cover both generic and specific apps, and we are seeing that the isolation of specific apps do not make a significant change. In related work they only survey that reports not so clear good results is from [24] that only achieved a 52.6% of positive outcomes between 2010 and 2015. ...
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Surveys in mobile learning developed so far have analysed in a global way the effects on the usage of mobile devices by means of general apps or apps already developed. However, more and more teachers are developing their own apps to address issues not covered by existing m-learning apps. In this article, by means of a systematic literature review that covers 62 publications placed in the hype of teacher-created m-learning apps (between 2012 and 2017, the early adopters) and the usage of 71 apps, we have analysed the use of specific m-learning apps. Our results show that apps have been used both out of the classroom to develop autonomous learning or field trips, and in the classroom, mainly, for collaborative activities. The experiences analysed only develop low level outcomes and the results obtained are positive improving learning, learning performance, and attitude. As a conclusion of this study is that the results obtained with specific developed apps are quite similar to previous general surveys and that the development of long-term experiences are required to determine the real effect of instructional designs based on mobile devices. These designs should also be oriented to evaluate high level skills and take advantage of mobile features of mobile devices to develop learning activities that be made anytime at anyplace and taking into account context and realistic situations. Furthermore, it is considered relevant the study of the role of educational mobile development frameworks in facilitating teachers the development of m-learning apps.
... Interestingly, the number of publications has continued to exhibit a significant growth trend ever since. The study is convergent with previous studies in this area [40][41][42][43]. This growth implies that MLHE is increasingly attracting the attention of scholars. ...
... The leading roles of these top three countries are also documented in m-learning research (e.g. [25,40,42]). In terms of total citations by country, the US was still the country with the largest number of citations with 5979 citations (equivalent to 20.05%), followed by the UK with 3577 citations (11.99%) and Taiwan with 2557 citations (8.57%). ...
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This study explores the research landscape of mobile learning in the context of higher education (MLHE) by conducting a comprehensive bibliometric analysis over the years. A total of 2477 papers published in peer-reviewed journals and conferences up to May 2022 were retrieved from the Scopus database. The results revealed an increase in MLHE research over time with a peak in 2021. The first paper was published in 2002, indicating the beginning of the field. The works of J. Gikas and M. M. Grant, L. F. Motiwalla, and J. Cheon et al. stand out as the most cited articles among the analyzed documents. T. Cochrane, F. J. García-Peñalvo, and H. Farley are the most prolific authors. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, and International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation are the most productive sources. University of Salamanca, Science University of Malaysia (Universiti Sains Malaysia), and the University of Southern Queensland are the most active institutions. China, the US, and the UK are the most relevant countries. Keywords such as “mobile learning”, “m-learning”, “higher education”, “e-learning”, and “mobile devices” remain the trending keywords in this area. This review offers a comprehensive overview of scientific production and the future direction of the field.
... Because mobile learning may transcend geographic and temporal boundaries, its usage in educational research has gained prominence [3]. In this regard, academics have concentrated on how mobile technology might offer learning opportunities that include innovative teaching techniques, both within and outside of the classroom [4,5]. [6] emphasizes the potential of mobile technology to offer engaging and cutting-edge educational approaches. ...
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Compared to traditional classroom lessons, mobile learning is hailed as a simple, convenient, engaging, innovative, and modern means of learning. Students exhibit more self-discipline and organization during the mobile learning process. Mobile learning is becoming increasingly prevalent in the classroom. It is crucial to develop a shared understanding of the research conducted to comprehend how mobile learning is used. The goal of the study is to summarize the literature on mobile learning based on a bibliometric evaluation of several journal articles published in the Scopus database and to determine fresh ideas and knowledge gaps as a resource for more research. The technique is a bibliometric analysis using the programs VOSviewer, SEforRA, and Publish or Perish. The findings of this analysis show that from 2000 to 2018, the growth of mobile learning research on the Scopus database trended upward and peaked. The expanding trend of research on mobile learning has led to the discovery of numerous themes or keywords that might be used as the basis for further study. In conclusion, the bibliometric analysis provides knowledge and information about the development of mobile learning research for the possibility of a new study
... Wahyuda Meisa Diningrat et al., 2019)states that "mathematics lessons emphasize understanding concepts", meaning that in learning mathematics, students must first understand mathematical concepts in order to solve problems and be able to apply the learning in the real world (Herawati et al., 2013). In line with that, MohdSholeh Abu stated that if the understanding of concepts in mathematics learning is not achieved, it will reduce students' interest in learning mathematics itself and students will find mathematics difficult (Chee et al., 2017). Learning with problem posing means that students are taught to make their own problems according to the existing situation. ...
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This study aims to describe the implementation of multimedia learning in blended learning in mathematics in grade 4 elementary schools on the topic of fractions. Articulated storyline is an effective medium for elementary school students that is easily developed as one of the multimedia blended learning used in the blended learning method. In our research we examined how the impact of implementation blended learning using multimedia articulated storylines, In this case, it is also discussed how the influence of multimedia articulation storylines as one of the multimedia that can be developed easily to help teachers in distance learning, especially mathematics learning in schools. Primary school related to fraction learning. In this research, students are taught how to interpret the understanding of the concept of fraction problems and proof in life related to mathematics learning problems, so that they can describe mathematical problems and can understand the concept of fractions using logical reasoning so that they are able to prove reasoning about fraction problems according to their abilities. The use of reasoning is needed to determine the concepts that have been made based on the understanding of the concept of fractions that the students have. This study was designed to see the effect of blended learning which is applied as a learning model used to teach logical reasoning in mathematics learning, especially about fraction problems, and how the effect of the application of blended learning on learning outcomes of primary school students at Muhammadiyah Elementary School Pangkalpinang
... Over the past decade, relevant systematic reviews on the adoption of mobile technologies in education indicated that most empirical studies focused either on tertiary and secondary education (Chee et al., 2017;Kumar & Chand, 2019;Shadiev et al., 2017), while primary education -and the early stages in particular -received limited attention (Durak & Çankaya, 2018). In addition, the limitations of relevant empirical studies indicated that teachers' consistent guidance and feedback can greatly influence students' attitude toward the intervention. ...
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The paper presents an experimental study aiming to explore primary school students’ response to Mobile Seamless Learning activities. The educational intervention and the consequent investigation were conducted in a suburban primary school in Greece, with second grade pupils, in the context of a learning subject entitled “Studying our Living Environment”. The participant students (n = 14) engaged in both face-to-face (in-class, outdoor) and online (home) collaborative and individualistic activities supported by a variety of digital applications. Primary research data were gathered upon completion of the intervention via 5 group interviews and 12 individual interviews. The findings have shown that Mobile Seamless Learning can facilitate pupils’ active engagement and improve their attitudes toward collaboration. Moreover, this approach can lead to the development of a learning community that promotes learners’ motivation, enables them to construct new knowledge, and develop essential skills.
... Typically, a smartphone has a touch screen, media players, digital cameras, sensors, and navigation [1]. The advanced development of smartphones prompts educators to use them in the teaching and learning process [2], [3], [4]. ...
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The development of smartphones has shifted the primary function of the mobile phone as a communication device. A smartphone is like a pocket computer that enables users to access multimedia, browsing information on the internet, and install many applications to help them in doing various activities. Various functions of smartphones prompt educators to utilize smartphones in promoting teaching and learning. In this work, we develop a mobile application that can assist students in learning high-school physics. The topic focuses on circular motion. As this application is developed for the smartphone platform, it can be accessed by students anytime and anywhere. According to the experts' evaluation, the application is appropriate to support high school students in learning circular motion. A field testing has been conducted on 23 students in a private high school in Indonesia. Students' learning achievement moderately improves, with a normalized gain of 0.59. Also, the students' response to the developed mobile application is positive.
... These attitude-related factors are significant because they have the potential to influence students' math performance in subsequent mathematics learning (Aunola et al., 2006). College and elementary students were the primary participants of mLearning because of convenience (Chee et al., 2017). However, research is scarce at the higher educational levels in this study. ...
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This study conducted a scoping review of publications in mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning for mathematics. Papers published between 2007 and 2021 inclusive were retrieved from research databases to achieve this goal. Twenty-eight papers met the inclusion-exclusion criteria of the study. It was shown that two papers were published on average over the last 15 years. The majority of the papers were published in peer-reviewed journals. Intending to improve mathematics pedagogy, the two most popular math mCSCL contents were general elementary mathematics and geometry. The review also revealed that math mCSCL benefited elementary students the most. The majority of math mCSCL software was custom-built and designed for synchronous sharing. The research designs were consistent with the existing reviews. The effects on social and attitude skills, as well as mathematics competency, were the most frequently mentioned benefits of math mCSCL. Usability issues, device unfamiliarity, inability to track students' activities, synchronization, and coordination concerns were among the problems highlighted during the implementation of math mCSCL. The implications for future research are discussed.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan validitas modul pembelajaran IPA SMP berbasis literasi sains pada materi sistem tata surya berdasarkan penilaian para validator. Modul pembelajaran dikembangkan dengan model pengembangan 4D. Tetapi, pada penelitian ini hanya sampai pada tahap validasi. Instrumen yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah lembar validasi modul pembelajaran berbasis literasi sains, yang telah di validasi oleh lima orang validator. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis validitas isi menurut Aiken’s V. sedangka kriteria valid yang digunakan berdasarkan tabel Aiken’s V adalah nilai indeks V yang didapat minimal berjumlah 0.87. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh berdasarkan data hasil validasi menunjukkan bahwa modul pembelajaran berbasis literasi sains memiliki tingkat validitas yang sangat baik ditinjau dari lima aspek: 1) kelengkapan penyajian buku memperoleh skor 0.96 kriteria sangat valid, 2) kelayakan isi memperoleh skor 0.90 kriteria sangat valid, 3) teknik penyajian memperoleh skor 0.98 kriteria sangat valid, 4) bahasa memperoleh skor 0.93 kriteria sangat valid, dan 5) literasi sains memperoleh skor 0.84 juga dengan kriteria sangat valid. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh, dapat disimpulkan modul pembelajaran IPA SMP berbasis literasi sains pada materi sistem tata surya yang dikembangkan oleh peneliti dinyatakan valid pada kelima aspek tersebut. Peneliti berkeyakinan bahwa modul pembelajaran yang dikembangkan ini dapat memfasilitasi guru dalam proses pembelajaran dan diharapkan dengan modul pembelajaran yang dikembangkan ini peserta didik juga dapat memahami dan menguasai pembelajaran IPA terpadu dengan lebih mudah.
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Handhelds (e.g., cell phones, tablets) are promising learning tools, so they are now used in formal classroom settings in many educational institutions around the world. Previous meta-analyses have focused predominantly on the direct effects of handhelds on academic achievement. From a psychological perspective, however, achievement is the outcome of a complex and multifaceted process involving adaptive cognitions and motivation for learning. While these factors are also themselves desirable learning outcomes, previous meta-analyses have neglected the effect of handheld use on these outcomes. This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize how the use of handhelds in formal educational contexts is associated with a broad range of motivational (e.g., intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy) and other learning-related factors (cognitive load, satisfaction with learning, attitude towards learning) beyond academic achievement. The question how handhelds can be used most effectively in learning settings is also addressed by considering studies’ learning designs. We included 59 samples (N = 4,259) in 58 studies published between 1998 and 2021. Only studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental research design providing pre- and/or post-test data and comparisons between experimental and if available control groups were included. We found overall moderate to high effect sizes for learning-related factors (gs between .41 and .77) and for academic achievement (g = .71). None of the presumed moderating variables (handheld types, learning designs, students’ age, gender) significantly explained heterogeneity in the respective outcomes. Our findings demonstrate a broad range of positive effects of handheld use thereby implying a multicriterial, sustainable impact on educational trajectories.
Nowadays, with the advancement of technology, mobile learning is becoming increasingly popular in higher education learning and teaching systems. However, the issue of integration between technical and pedagogical factors in mobile learning applications remains one of the main concerns for researchers. The aim of this systematic literature review was to investigate mobile application development, especially in light of pedagogical aspects in the context of mobile learning applications, such as instructional design, instructional strategy, and learning theory. The method used in this study was Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) involving two databases, namely Scopus and Web of Science (WOS). The study found 19 articles relevant to the objectives of the study. The main findings showed the variety of instructional design models used in mobile learning application development, with the most common model being the ADDIE model. However, most studies neither adopt any instructional strategies nor state the learning theories in their mobile application. While instructional design models and instruction strategies provide systematic procedures for developing mobile applications for educational contexts and the organisation of learning activities in mobile applications, learning theory is fundamental to both. This indicates that pedagogical aspects and their integration with technological aspects in mobile applications are still overlooked, especially in the learning contexts where the studies have been conducted. Several recommendations were proposed, namely to conduct reviews in more databases, to research on how to implement pedagogical aspects in mobile learning applications, and to assess the impact of mobile applications on students’ learning. The study concludes that instructors need specific interventions to increase their level of teaching expertise in Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPACK) as instructional designers so that they will be able to design learning materials effectively tailored to their students’ needs.KeywordsLearning technologyLearning theoryInstructional strategyMobile application
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The original thought piece published in LineZine. I encourage you to read something more recent, like Designing mLearning (Wiley, 2011), The Mobile Academy (Jossey-Bass, 2012), or my articles for the eLearning Guild, where my definition of mLearning is a bit more informed.This was old and naive.
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The use of mobile devices for informal learning has gained attention over recent years. Museum learning is also regarded as an important research topic in the field of informal learning. This study explored a blended mobile museum learning environment (BMMLE). Moreover, this study applied three blended museum learning modes: (a) the traditional museum visit accompanied by a learning website, (b) paper-based learning sheets used during museum visits accompanied by a learning website, and (c) an interactive mobile learning system used during museum visits accompanied by a learning website (i.e., BMMLE). Furthermore, the study explored the learning process through the use of each mode by museum visitors and empirically examined the differences between the learning performances and behavioral patterns of visitors. Study participants included 58 college students. A performance analysis, a behavior analysis of learners' participation on the website and a sequential analysis of the videotaped behaviors of visiting participants were conducted. The findings showed that the BMMLE proposed in this study may enable visitors to focus on the interactions between on-site exhibits and mobile learning systems and that the BMMLE may also extend the interaction period between on-site learning and the learning website, thus facilitating the implementation of the museum's learning activities. ©International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
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Owing to the advancement of mobile and wireless communication technologies, an increasing number of mobile learning studies have been conducted in recent years. In a mobile learning environment, students are able to learn indoors and outdoors with access to online resources at any time. However, whether or not new learning scenarios that combine both real-world contexts and digital-world resources are beneficial to the students has been questioned. Moreover, it is also interesting to probe whether the existing e-learning strategies are effective when situated in those mobile learning scenarios. In this study, an in-field activity on an indigenous culture course of an elementary school with a formative assessment-based learning strategy was conducted to investigate the possible negative effects of mobile learning by analyzing the students' cognitive load and learning achievement. It is interesting to find that, without proper treatment, the performance of students using those existing online learning strategies, known to be "effective," might be disappointing or may even negatively affect the students' learning achievements. Furthermore, the negative effects could be due to the heavy cognitive load caused by an improper learning design. Such findings offer good references for those who intend to design and conduct mobile learning activities. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
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The use of mobile technologies in learning has attracted much attention from researchers and educators in the past decade. However, the impacts of mobile learning on students' learning performance are still unclear. In particular, some schoolteachers still doubt the effectiveness of using such new technologies in school settings. In this study, a survey has been conducted by reviewing the 2008-2012 publications in seven well-recognised Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) journals of technology-enhanced learning to investigate the applications and impacts of mobile technology-enhanced learning. It is found that mobile learning is promising in improving students' learning achievements, motivations and interests. In addition, from the survey, it is found that smartphones and tablet PCs have gradually become widely adopted mobile learning devices in recent years, which could affect the adoption of sensing technologies in the future. Accordingly, several open issues of mobile learning are addressed.
Mobile Learning: A Handbook for Developers, Educators and Learners provides research-based foundations for developing, evaluating, and integrating effective mobile learning pedagogy. Twenty-first century students require twenty-first century technology, and mobile devices provide new and effective ways to educate children. But with new technologies come new challenges-therefore, this handbook presents a comprehensive look at mobile learning by synthesizing relevant theories and drawing practical conclusions for developers, educators, and students. Mobile devices-in ways that the laptop, the personal computer, and netbook computers have not-present the opportunity to make learning more engaging, interactive, and available in both traditional classroom settings and informal learning environments. From theory to practice, Mobile Learning explores how mobile devices are different than their technological predecessors, makes the case for developers, teachers, and parents to invest in the technology, and illustrates the many ways in which it is innovative, exciting, and effective in educating K-12 students. Explores how mobile devices can support the needs of students. Provides examples, screenshots, graphics, and visualizations to enhance the material presented in the book. Provides developers with the background necessary to create the apps their audience requires. Presents the case for mobile learning in and out of classrooms as early as preschool. Discusses how mobile learning enables better educational opportunities for the visually impaired, students with Autism, and adult learners. If you're a school administrator, teacher, app developer, or parent, this topical book provides a theoretical, well-researched discussion of the pedagogical theory and mobile learning, as well as practical advice in setting up a mobile learning strategy.
Rapid advancements in technology are creating new opportunities for educators to enhance their classroom techniques with digital learning resources. Once used solely outside of the classroom, smartphones, tablets, and e-readers are becoming common in many school settings. Advancing Higher Education with Mobile Learning Technologies: Cases, Trends, and Inquiry-Based Methods examines the implementation and success of mobile digital learning tools. With the inclusion of data on specific learning environments enhanced by ubiquitous educational technologies, this publication emphasizes the benefits of exploration and discovery in and out of the classroom. This book is an essential reference source for academicians, professionals, education researchers, school administrators, faculty, technology staff, and upper-level students interested in understanding the future of higher education.
The clear and practical writing of Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Researchhas made this book a favorite. In precise step-by-step language the book helps you learn how to conduct, read, and evaluate research studies. Key changes include: expanded coverage of ethics and new research articles.