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Speed and acceleration are important components of most sports. There are various ways to train for these, both in and out of the weight room. Outside the weight room, resisted and assisted methods are used in training programs to increase performance. Therefore, the aim of this brief review is to examine methodological differences between these two approaches while concluding with specific training programs unique to resisted and assisted techniques designed to increase sprint speed and acceleration.
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Review Article
Volume 1 Issue 1 - March 2017
J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports
Copyright © All rights are reserved by Lee E Brown
Resisted and Assisted Training for Sprint Speed:
A Brief Review
Whitney D Leyva, Megan A Wong and Lee E Brown*
Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, USA
Submission: March 19, 2017; Published: March 28, 2017
*Corresponding author: Lee E. Brown, Department of Kinesiology, Center for Sport Performance and Human Performance Laboratory,
California State University, Fullerton, KHS 192, 800 N. State College Blvd, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA, Tel:
Email:
Introduction
Sprinting speed and acceleration can be found in major
sports such as soccer, football, baseball, and basketball. Speed
         
 
       
of change of velocity and is calculated by dividing change in
         
Coaches implement a variety of training programs to increase
both components, and athletes are always searching for the best
ways to improve their performance. An assortment of different
approaches have been implemented to increase speed such as
resistance training to increase strength [1,2]. Implementation
        
increase speed and athletic performance [3]. In this way, training

        
with strength coaches are overload or resisted training and over
speed or assisted training [4-6].
Resisted training consists of applying an overload via a sled,
parachute or weighted vest [7,2] while assisted training consists
of over speed via downhill running, elastic cord assistance or
assisted towing [4,8,9]. Resisted and assisted training methods
      
          
literature related to resisted and assisted sprint training and
attempt to elucidate best practices for these two divergent
methods for strength and conditioning coaches.
Resisted/Overload
Since speed and acceleration are essential components
          

  
        
additional resistance as an overload stimulus may help improve
the speed of athletes via increased leg strength. Sprinting is
similar in comparison to the movement pattern while pulling
the additional resistance used as an overload stimulus. Common
methods used to create this overload stimulus include sled
towing, parachute towing, and weighted vest sprinting. As
these devices are being implemented in training programs,
optimal loads must be considered to improve the acceleration or

Sled towing (Figure 1)
Lockie et al. [10] investigated the optimal towing load by
comparing heavy (32.2% bodyweight-BW) and light loads
         
Heavy loads resulted in greater kinematic changes during the
acceleration phase when compared to light loads. Therefore,
they concluded that towing with lighter loads was preferred
for training. Alcaraz et al. [11] loaded a sled to 16% BW using
11 male and 7 female competitive athletes who specialized in
 
sprint devices. Their results demonstrated a greater increase in
J Phy Fit Treatment & Sportsl 1(1): JPFMTS.MS.ID.555554 (2017) 001
Journal of
Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports
Abstract
Speed and acceleration are important components of most sports. There are various ways to train for these, both in and out of the weight
room. Outside the weight room, resisted and assisted methods are used in training programs to increase performance. Therefore, the aim of this
 

Keywords: Sled; Towing; Downhill Running; Weighted Vest
How to cite this article: Leyva WD, Wong MA, Brown LE. Resisted and Assisted Training for Sprint Speed: A Brief Review. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports.
2017; 1(1): 555554.
002
Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports
trunk lean compared to using a parachute and they concluded
that 16% was near the optimal load for effective training during
        
and 20 meter sprint performance over a range of relative towing
          
BW using 13 male rugby players and 20 male football players.
As load increased, time increased, stride length decreased and

training load could not be recommended based on their results.
Figure 1: Sled towing.
The long-term effects of sled towing on sprint performance


increased sprint velocity in the acceleration phase, with no
        
the acute effects of a post activation potentiating warm-up on
       
trained male and female participants complete 40-yd sprints
while towing a sled of 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% BW and saw that
heavier loads demonstrated greater improvements in sprint
speed. Kawamori et al. [14] compared the effects of heavy and
light loads with a sled on sprint acceleration with 21 physically
         
hockey, basketball, and Australian Rules football. The heavy load
was 30% BW and the light was 10% BW. Following two training

       
      
[7] conducted a study consisting of two training sessions per
        
 
and dynamic strength measures. A sled was loaded using 12.6-

          
increase initial acceleration speed from a static start.
    

distance in 17 off-season NCAA Division III and University Sports’
 

 
       
        
West et al. [16] compared the effects of combined weighted sled
towing and sprinting vs. bodyweight sprinting with two training
sessions per week for 6 weeks with 20 professional rugby union
players. Sled towing consisted of using 12.6% BW for 10-m and
     
reduced sprint times in the 10-m and 30-m sprint.
Parachute running (Figure 2)
Figure 2: Parachute running.
Another resisted sprint device is using a parachute as
        
sled towing, parachute running, and weighted vest sprints on

sized parachute was attached at the waist by a harness where
   
         
was recommended to provide an overload stimulus due to
      
 
        
sprinters. The parachute group made improvements in running
velocity in the acceleration phase while the unresisted group

Weighted vest sprinting (Figure 3)
Alcaraz et al. [11] loaded a weight vest at 9% BW while
   

athletes had shorter take-off distances. This could indicate

investigated the long-term effects of weighted sled and weighted
vest sprinting in a 7-week training program with collegiate male

  
         
   
   
 
How to cite this article: Leyva WD, Wong MA, Brown LE. Resisted and Assisted Training for Sprint Speed: A Brief Review. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports.
2017; 1(1): 555554.
003
Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports
and 20% BW were used and they found that an 8% BW load
       
         
increased sprint at 10-m and 40m. Additionally, leg power and
      

        
greater leg power were more affected by heavier loads during
the acceleration phase while participants with less leg power
showed decreasing results for all loading conditions. Based on
      
       

Figure 3: Weighted vest running.
Summary
A variety of methods such as sled towing, parachute running,
and weighted vest sprinting may provide an overloaded stimulus
to an athlete. Incorporating these methods for resisted sprint
training programs varies based on the desired outcome (Table
1). Various loads and distances may be altered to enhance
.
Table 1: Critical program design variables for resisted sprint training.
Frequency Intensity Volume Rest Outcome
Sled
Towing
2-3/week
for
4-8 weeks
10-12.6%
or
30% BW
1-4 sets

reps for
10-20s
or 20-
40m
2-6
min
Light loads
to improve
acceleration.
Heavy loads

speed
Para-
chute
Running
2-3/week
for
4 weeks
Medium

1.2 m) or
large
1-4 set
of 4 reps
for
10-20s
or 20-
30m
4-6
min
Improve
acceleration
and

speed
Weight-
ed Vest
Sprint-
ing
2-3/week
for
4-7 weeks
8-20%
BW
1-4 sets

reps for
10-20s
or 20-

3-4
min
Improve
acceleration
and

speed
Assisted/Overspeed
Assisted sprinting or overspeed training allows the athlete

methods consist of downhill running; elastic cord assisted
running or assisted towing. Building a strong conditioning base
before starting overspeed training is recommended.
Downhill running (Figure 4)
Figure 4: Downhill running.
Methods such as downhill sprinting have been shown to
        
Ebben et al. [19,20] investigated the optimal slope for downhill
sprinting by having 13 NCAA Division III athletes run downhill at


in the athletes. A slope of 6.9° was the point of diminishing
returns due to possible breakdown in running mechanics and
         
training on sloping surfaces by having subjects run uphill-
       
consisted of physical education students running on an uphill-
downhill platform which consisted of a 20-m horizontal section,
a 20-m 3° uphill section, a 10-m horizontal section, a 20-m 3°
         



uphill-downhill training group and the downhill group. There
        

Therefore, training with a downhill slope of 3° has also been
    
effective way for a strength coach to increase sprint speed.
Elastic cord assistance running (Figure 5)
Elastic cords are used to assist the runner to sprint faster
than normal by a percentage of their BW [2]. Bartolini et al. [4]
 
How to cite this article: Leyva WD, Wong MA, Brown LE. Resisted and Assisted Training for Sprint Speed: A Brief Review. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports.
2017; 1(1): 555554.
004
Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports
in collegiate women soccer playersat0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% BW
assistance and found that an elastic cord assistance level of 30%
 
          
   
sprinting. Ten high school and college-age (6 men, 4 women)

2.8%, 3.8% and 4.7% of BW. An elastic cord was attached to
the subjects via a waist belt while the other end was attached
to an anchor. Results showed a decrease in contact time for
all conditions. They concluded that towing force magnitude
       
greater than 3.8% was detrimental because of the negative
effects it had on the running mechanics of the athlete. However,
they did not perform a training study.
Figure 5: Elastic cord assistance running.
           
       
level swimmers between over strength, overspeed, and control
      
crawl sprints while attached to an elastic cord pulled with an
initial force of 60N. The overstrength group swam all out 30
second front crawl sprints with a 30-second recovery while
tethered to the starting platform via a belt around their pelvis
        
         
the over strength and overspeed groups, swim performance
         
swim and the over strength group showed a larger impact on

      

over strength group.
Assisted towed running (Figure 6)
A third type of assisted training is towing where the focus
        
involves two people, one pulling the other, with the person
being towed focusing on overspeed training. Nealer et al. [24]
used 30% bodyweight assistance to determine the acute effects
of rest intervals following a 20m bodyweight sprint. Sprint time

et al. [6] compared the effects of different training programs
       
velocity and acceleration in Division 1A female soccer athletes.
  
20-yd deceleration. The assisted training group was attached to
a speed harness via a research assistant. The resisted training

       
      
       
        
      
training group. Speed was unchanged for the traditional sprint
training group. Assisted sprint training was effective for athletes
        
  
should use resisted training methods.
Figure 6: Assisted towing.
        
towing on the kinematics of acceleration with collegiate sprinters

sprints were performed using a speed harness with an elastic
        

However, elastic-cord towing resulted in changes in sprint
kinematics in the acceleration phase and appears to be more

           
different days on a motorized treadmill. Day 1 consisted of a

day 3 was a 10-km time trial with horizontal towing applied to
their waist, and on day4 subjects completed a 7-min standing
        
showed that towing improved overall running performance.
Summary
The importance of assisted sprint training is that it
      
(bodyweight) cannot provide alone. Programming for assisted
sprint training uses a variety of methods such as downhill
running, elastic cord assisted running, or assisted towed running
(Table 2). These methods help athletes reach speeds they are

of these methods can add variety to training programs and
enhance speed.
How to cite this article: Leyva WD, Wong MA, Brown LE. Resisted and Assisted Training for Sprint Speed: A Brief Review. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports.
2017; 1(1): 555554.
005
Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports
Table 2: Critical program design variables for assisted sprint training.
Frequency Intensity Volume Rest Outcome
Downhill Running
3/week
for
8 weeks

slope
1-3 sets of 4-6
reps for
20m
2-10 min Improve acceleration

Elastic Cord Running
6/week
for
3 weeks
4-30%
BW

reps for
30m
2-6 min Improve acceleration
Assisted Towed
Running
3/week
for
4 weeks

N
1-3 sets of 8-10 reps
for
20m
2-3 min Improve acceleration
Conclusion
The previous studies demonstrate that overspeed or assisted
and overload or resisted training can increase acceleration and

variables of load, volume, and rest must be altered. Accordingly,
load, volume, and restare different for assisted sprint training.
Depending on the needs of the athlete, strength and conditioning

or acceleration. Refer to Tables 1 & 2 for critical program design
variables for assisted or resisted acceleration and speed training.
Resisted sprinting is a common way to train for speed. Coaches
and athletes may consider using resistance methods such as a
sled, parachute, or weighted vest in order to apply an overloaded
stimulus to train for muscular strength. Assisted sprinting is a
         
athletes wanting to acutely reduce ground contact time, increase
       
methods such as downhill running, elastic cord assistance, or
assisted towing. For the greatest enhancement of acceleration

be utilized where appropriate.
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         

23.          
and resisted sprint training in swimming. J Strength Cond Res 20(3):

How to cite this article: Leyva WD, Wong MA, Brown LE. Resisted and Assisted Training for Sprint Speed: A Brief Review. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports.
2017; 1(1): 555554.
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
times in female collegiate soccer players. The Journal of Strength &
Conditioning Research 31: 88-94.
Corn R, Knudson D (2003) Effect of elastic-cord towing on the
kinematics of the acceleration phase of sprinting. J Strength Cond
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
... In physical conditioning programs, especially in group sports, resisted means are very widespread, which are a method or form of training based on applying a endurance/overload to a movement or sporting gesture through a sled, parachute, weighted vest, beach sand and inclines (Alcaraz et al., 2009;Leyva et al., 2017;Martínez-Valencia et al., 2014). This is a type of training based on performing sprints with an external resistance or load that hinders such running (hence the adjective resisted). ...
... Another study was conducted by Brady, cited by Leyva et al., (2017), where he compares assisted, resisted and regular training of full speed or sprint running, in 12 training sessions for 4 weeks. They found that the assisted training was more effective in distances below 13.7 m and the resisted sprint training was more effective in distances between 13.7 and 36.6 m. ...
... The main findings of this study suggest that 12 weeks of sled resisted training with intensities lower than 10 %, taking as a starting point what is described by Murray et al., 2005, cited by Leyva et al., (2017), which suggests the application of sled loads in relation to the percentage of the individual maximum strength of the athlete, although there are other protocols proposed by Alcaraz et al. (2009) and (Lockie et al., 2012), which have established an equation to know the loads to be applied based on the percentage of the athlete's body weight, considering the loss of speed produced by the increase of the load of the same, in the maximum speed training with this device. ...
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El entrenamiento individualizado de carreras específicas con medios resistidos es una importante herramienta para la mejora de la velocidad. En virtud a la demanda de esta capacidad para el buen desempeño de los jugadores de béisbol, se re conoce como objetivo del presente estudio diseñar un entrenamiento de sprin t mediante el uso de trineo y paracaídas. Se planifica un cuasiexperimento, con dos grupos: control y experimental y en dos momentos: pre y postest. La etapa experimental se desarro lla durante la pretemporada, conformada por una muestra de diez sujetos con 20.84 años de edad y 79.82 kg. de peso promedio. Se emplearon como métodos teóricos el analíticosintético, inductivodeductivo, históricológico, sistémicoestructuralcomo empíricos el análisis de contenido, la observación, la medición. Para la medición de la velocidad lineal, las variables analizadas son el funcional y test máxima del trineo y de squat de 60 yardas y los test . Los resultados alcanzados indicaron mejoras de fuerza significativas en el grupo experimental en los tres test realizados, con % de incrementos iguales a 3.48, 7.25 y 7.46 % respectivamente. Además, se obtiene que existe una elevada correlación entre la fuerza máxima del trineo y la de squat con respecto al peso de rendimiento al esfuerzo de los atletas, con coeficientes de Pearson iguales a 63.6 % y 62.9 % respectivamente y para un 95 % de confianza. Se demuestra que el entrenamiento resistido nos proporciona información clave en la fase de velocidad máxima para la mejora del rendimiento de sprint en el béisbol.
... En los programas de acondicionamiento físico, sobre todo de deportes colectivos, son muy difundidos los medios resistidos, que son un método o forma de entrenamiento basados en aplicar una resistencia/sobrecarga a un movimiento o gesto deportivo a través de un trineo, paracaídas, chaleco lastrado, arena de playa y cuestas (Alcaraz et al., 2009;Leyva et al., 2017;Martínez-Valencia et al., 2014). ...
... Otro estudio fue el realizado por Brady, citado por Leyva et al., (2017), donde compara el entrenamiento asistido, resistido y regular de la carrera a toda velocidad o sprint, en 12 sesiones de entrenamiento durante 4 semanas. Encontrando que con el entrenamiento asistido fue más efectivo en distancias por debajo de 13.7 m. y el entrenamiento resistido de sprint fue más efectivo en distancias entre 13.7 y 36.6 m., probablemente porque el entrenamiento asistido de sprint logra un movimiento muy rápido de las piernas, mientras el entrenamiento resistido de sprint hace las piernas más potentes. ...
... Las investigaciones realizadas demuestran que, con este tipo de entrenamiento específico de sprint, con el trineo se mejora la fuerza muscular y favorece a una mayor activación neural, reclutando unidades motoras de contracción rápida(Alcaraz et al., 2014). En caso específico de los paracaídas de velocidad, los mismos potencian el incremento de la fuerza específica, resistencia a la velocidad, fuerza-resistencia, mejora de la aceleración, la máxima velocidad y la explosividad(Tabachnik, 1992, citado por Alcaraz, 2010.Los principales hallazgos de este estudio sugieren que 12 semanas de entrenamiento resistido con trineo con intensidades inferiores al 10 %, teniendo como punto de partida lo descrito por Murray et al., 2005, citado porLeyva et al., (2017), el cual sugiere la aplicación de las cargas del trineo en relación con el porcentaje de la fuerza máxima individual del deportista, aunque existen otros protocolos propuestos porAlcaraz et al. (2009);(Lockie et al., 2012), los cuales han establecido una ecuación para conocer las cargas que se deben aplicar a partir del porcentaje del peso corporal del deportista, considerando la pérdida de velocidad producida por el incremento de la carga del mismo, en el entrenamiento de máxima velocidad con este dispositivo. ...
Article
Full-text available
El entrenamiento individualizado de carreras específicas con medios resistidos es una importante herramienta para la mejora de la velocidad. En virtud a la demanda de esta capacidad para el buen desempeño de los jugadores de béisbol, se re conoce como objetivo del presente estudio diseñar un entrenamiento de sprin t mediante el uso de trineo y paracaídas. Se planifica un cuasiexperimento, con dos grupos: control y experimental y en dos momentos: pre y postest. La etapa experimental se desarro lla durante la pretemporada, conformada por una muestra de diez sujetos con 20.84 años de edad y 79.82 kg. de peso promedio. Se emplearon como métodos teóricos el analíticosintético, inductivodeductivo, históricológico, sistémicoestructuralcomo empíricos el análisis de contenido, la observación, la medición. Para la medición de la velocidad lineal, las variables analizadas son el funcional y test máxima del trineo y de squat de 60 yardas y los test . Los resultados alcanzados indicaron mejoras de fuerza significativas en el grupo experimental en los tres test realizados, con % de incrementos iguales a 3.48, 7.25 y 7.46 % respectivamente. Además, se obtiene que existe una elevada correlación entre la fuerza máxima del trineo y la de squat con respecto al peso de rendimiento al esfuerzo de los atletas, con coeficientes de Pearson iguales a 63.6 % y 62.9 % respectivamente y para un 95 % de confianza. Se demuestra que el entrenamiento resistido nos proporciona información clave en la fase de velocidad máxima para la mejora del rendimiento de Palabras clave sprint : Entrenamiento resistido; en el béisbol.
... However, strength and conditioning coaches should choose the most effective model for their athletes, considering the competition distance. The analysis of relevant literature sources indicates that sprint training should be specific [free sprinting, resisted sprinting with bands, sleds, or incline running, assisted sprinting with towing devices or a downhill slope], nonspecific [resistance and plyometric training], or combined [a combination of specific and nonspecific] methods on various sprint distances (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 31+ m) [8,19,20]. The speed development methods are usually classified into primary (performing proper movement technique of a specific motor ability), secondary (sprint resistance and sprint assistance), and tertiary (flexibility, strength, and speed-endurance) [21]. ...
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Background and Study Aim. Periodised training strategies, due to their demonstrated success in improving athletic performance, have become increasingly utilised by coaches, athletes, and strength and conditioning practitioners as a key training methodology. As a consequence, a coach’s knowledge of periodisation and training methods have become increasingly important for improvement of sport-sprint performance. Despite their importance of performance at the elite level, it was suspected that little is known about the Sri Lankan context. As a result, the purpose of this formative exploratory study was to examine knowledge about, and application of, periodisation and training methods by Sri Lankan elite-level coaches working with short-sprint athletes. Material and Methods. With institutional ethics approval, ten (n=10) expert short-sprint coaches volunteered to participate in the study, with data collected via semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed inductively, to identify ‘patterns’, ‘themes’ and ‘categories’ using the NVivo 12 qualitative software. Results. Four primary themes emerged from the interview data. These included “Periodisation models”, “Monitoring training”, “Strength development”, and “Speed development”. Findings revealed that coaches reported minimal or inadequate knowledge of periodised training and consequently, there did appear to be a gap between coach knowledge of periodised training, but additionally in regard to general training methodology; including aspect such as prescribing strength and speed training loads and, monitoring of training loads. The coaches believed that their knowledge was inadequate to support athletes with Olympic level potential. Conclusions. The findings identified a potential knowledge gap in coach education and development for elite sprint coaches in Sri Lanka.
... However, strength and conditioning coaches should choose the most effective model for their athletes, considering the competition distance. The analysis of relevant literature sources indicates that sprint training should be specific [free sprinting, resisted sprinting with bands, sleds, or incline running, assisted sprinting with towing devices or a downhill slope], nonspecific [resistance and plyometric training], or combined [a combination of specific and nonspecific] methods on various sprint distances (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 31+ m) [8,19,20]. The speed development methods are usually classified into primary (performing proper movement technique of a specific motor ability), secondary (sprint resistance and sprint assistance), and tertiary (flexibility, strength, and speed-endurance) [21]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Periodised training strategies, due to their demonstrated success in improving athletic performance, have become increasingly utilised by coaches, athletes, and strength and conditioning practitioners as a key training methodology. As a consequence, a coach’s knowledge of periodisation and training methods have become increasingly important for improvement of sport-sprint performance. Despite their importance of performance at the elite level, it was suspected that little is known about the Sri Lankan context. As a result, the purpose of this formative exploratory study was to examine knowledge about, and application of, periodisation and training methods by Sri Lankan elite-level coaches working with short-sprint athletes. Material and Methods With institutional ethics approval, ten (n=10) expert short-sprint coaches volunteered to participate in the study, with data collected via semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed inductively, to identify ‘patterns’, ‘themes’ and ‘categories’ using the NVivo 12 qualitative software. Results Four primary themes emerged from the interview data. These included “Periodisation models”, “Monitoring training”, “Strength development”, and “Speed development”. Findings revealed that coaches reported minimal or inadequate knowledge of periodised training and consequently, there did appear to be a gap between coach knowledge of periodised training, but additionally in regard to general training methodology; including aspect such as prescribing strength and speed training loads and, monitoring of training loads. The coaches believed that their knowledge was inadequate to support athletes with Olympic level potential. Conclusions The findings identified a potential knowledge gap in coach education and development for elite sprint coaches in Sri Lanka. Keywords: coaches’ knowledge, periodised training, sprint training, sports performance, elite level
... Kemampuan seseorang dalam berlari dapat didukung oleh beberapa faktor diantaranya kapasitas fisik seperti kekuatan otot dan daya tahan vascular. Kecepatan dan akselerasi adalah komponen penting dari sebagian besar olahraga, ada berbagai cara untuk melatihnya, diantaranya latihan beban atau dikenal dengan istilah metode resisted dan assisted digunakan dalam program pelatihan untuk meningkatkan kinerja (Leyva, Wong, & Brown, 2017). Selain itu faktor teknik dasar juga memberikan kontribusi terhadap kemampuan berlari, melatih teknik dasar berlari dapat dilakukan dengan latihan yang berulang dengan jarak 40 meter (Tønnessen, Shalfawi, Haugen, & Enoksen, 2011). ...
... Dengan abc running drill gerakan lari dibuat bervariasi dan disusun berdasarkan sistematika berbagai bentuk gerakan kaki dari yang mudah sampai yang sulit (Brown & Ferrigno, 2014). Pentingnya gerakan yang benar dalam sprint membuat gerakan berlari lebih efektif dan efisien sehingga dapat mengurangi energi yang terbuang saat berlari karena teknik berlari yang salah (Leyva, Wong, & Brown, 2017). Oleh karena itu, proses pembelajaran perlu direncanakan secara optimal agar dapat memenuhi tujuan dan harapan yang akan dicapai dengan hasil yang baik. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an effect of the abc running drill on the ability to sprint 50 meters. The research was conducted using an experimental method with one group pretest-posttest design. At the initial stage, data collection was carried out to determine the initial conditions of students' sprint abilities which included the ability of basic running techniques and 50 meters sprint speed. Data collection techniques using observation and tests. Observations were made by observing basic squat start techniques, running techniques and finishing techniques while the test was used to take a sprint time of 50 meters. The instrument used in the study used a rubric for the assessment of the 50 meter sprint ability. To calculate the data obtained, the Wilcoxon nonparametric test data analysis was used. Based on the results of data analysis, the Asym.Sig. (2-tailed) <0.05, then Ha is accepted. Asym.Sig. (2-tailed) (0.000 <0.05) means that there is an effect of abc running drill on the ability of students to sprint 50 meters.Keywords: Abc Running Drill, 50 Meter Sprint, Students
... Ball striking sports have not only used heavier implements to induce PAPE as part of warm-ups, but also lighter than standard striking implements to enhance performance based on overspeed principles. Overspeed training involves the use of an external stimulus to exceed unassisted maximal velocities of a specific sporting task (Leyva et al., 2017). Sprinting commonly uses overspeed training via downhill (Ebben et al., 2008) or band-assisted (Upton, 2011) running, for instance, to enhance sprinting and acceleration abilities both acutely and chronically over a training period. ...
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High-level golfers use various warm-up strategies to enhance clubhead and ball speed, including weighted equipment. We investigated the acute effects of the SuperSpeed Golf™ weighted-club warm-up on clubhead, ball, and swing kinematics, and the persistence of any acute effects in subsequent sets. Twelve competitive golfers (handicap < 3.0) completed five sets of five swings using their own drivers under two randomised warm-up conditions (Control and SuperSpeed). We compared swing, peak segment and club angular velocity, and centre of mass (COM) parameters collected using a 3D motion capture system (500 Hz) between conditions. The temporal persistence of any meaningful (Cohen’s d ≥ small) and significant (p≤ 0.05) effect detected in the first set was investigated in subsequent sets. SuperSpeed led to small significant changes in clubhead speed (2.6 mph); downswing time; peak angular velocities of the torso, lead arm, and club; and two COM variables in the initial set. There was no significant change in ball speed, resulting in a large negative change in smash factor acutely (d − 0.82, p= 0.009). Nearly all changes observed were no longer meaningful or significant in subsequent sets. Overall, golfers can expect an increase in driving clubhead speed on the first tee using the SuperSpeed Golf™ vs Control warm-up, with trivial effects from the second tee onwards.
... In the present study, we used a sloping surface with an angle of 4° for uphill and downhill training, and 0° for horizontal running. Several methods including running with vests, resistance cords, or parachutes are also shown to improve running duration [30,47]. To our knowledge, there is no study in the literature showing the effects of training on a sloping surface with an angle of 4°. ...
Article
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Study aim : Several sprint interval training applications with different slope angles in the literature mostly focused on sprint running time and kinematic and dynamic properties of running. There is a lack of comparative studies investigating aerobic and anaerobic power. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of sprint interval training on sloping surfaces on anaerobic and aerobic power. Material and methods : A total of 34 male recreationally active men aged 20.26 ± 1.68 years and having a BMI of 21.77 ± 1.74 were assigned to one of the five groups as control ( CON ), uphill training ( EXP1 ), downhill training ( EXP2 ), uphill + downhill training ( EXP3 ) and horizontal running training ( EXP4 ) groups. Gradually increased sprint interval training was performed on horizontal and sloping surfaces with an angle of 4°. The training period continued for three days a week for eight weeks. The initial and the final aerobic power was measured by an oxygen analyser and anaerobic power was calculated from the results of the Margaria-Kalamen staircase test. Results : Following the training programme, an increase in aerobic power was found in all training groups ( EXP1 = 20.79%, EXP2 = 14.95%, EXP3 = 26.85%, p < 0.01) and EXP4 = 20.46%) (p < 0.05) in comparison with the CON group (0.12%), but there were no differences among the training groups. However, significant increases in anaerobic power were found in uphill training (4.91%) and uphill + downhill training (8.35%) groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion : This study showed that all sprint interval studies on horizontal and sloping surfaces have a positive effect on aerobic power, and uphill and combined training are the most effective methods for the improvement of anaerobic power.
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The ability to move fast is a key strength and conditioning feature. Its most common manifestation is sprint running (SPR), namely, the ability to run and cover a certain distance in the shortest period of time. The most significant differences between adults and children in the developmental age, besides the lowest maximum values of SPR achieved by the children, is the duration and the distance of the acceleration phase (especially the secondary acceleration phase). The main reason for this differentiation is the restrictions observed in key factors that cause the augmentation of muscle power in children. Also, differences are observed in key biomechanical factors that determine the optimization of sprint running technique in the maximum velocity phase. For this reason, the learning of the sprint running technique is essential in relation to the development of SPR and its training during the developmental ages. A key point for the development of SPR during development is the period where the peak height velocity occurrs, as then SPR performance is significantly improved. After the maximum growth rate, boys are significantly faster than girls. Emphasis during training should be given to the elongation of the maximum velocity phase in addition to learning the ideal personalized combination of step length and frequency in this phase. SPR improvement is suggested to be more effective with combined plyometric training and sprint running loads, rather than with SPR training that is comprised only with sprint running stimuli. It is of importance to adapt training stimuli and means to the level of maturity, technical skill and physical condition of the developing child. In every case, SPR training during the developmental ages should be implemented within a pedagogical frame that contains a variety of playful activities, where the main goal is the correct execution of the sprint running technique.
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Weighted sled towing is a common resisted sprint training technique even though relatively little is known about the effects that such practice has on sprint kinematics. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of sled towing on acceleration sprint kinematics in field-sport athletes. Twenty men completed a series of sprints without resistance and with loads equating to 12.6 and 32.2% of body mass. Stride length was significantly reduced by similar to10 and similar to24% for each load, respectively. Stride frequency also decreased, but not to the extent of stride length. In addition, sled towing increased ground contact time, trunk lean, and hip flexion. Upper-body results showed an increase in shoulder range of motion with added resistance. The heavier load generally resulted in a greater disruption to normal acceleration kinematics compared with the lighter load. The lighter load is likely best for use in a training program.
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