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Achieving Urban Resilience: Through Urban Design and Planning Principles

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The concept of resilience is gaining momentum within both academia and practice. It has been linked to sustainability and is identified as a mobilizing concept. This paper looks specifically at urban resilience within the built environment. It seeks to identify key urban planning and design principles and interventions that contribute to increasing a city's level of urban resilience. This study defines urban resilience as social, economic and environmental resilience. Theoretical and analytical research was used to develop the Urban Resilience Conceptual Framework, which identifies morphological components and urban design qualities that contribute to urban resilience. Relevant interventions and lessons have been highlighted through the study of secondary case studies. The paper aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice by conducting qualitative research on a live case study in East London. Interventions and propositions were developed using enquiry by design and the Urban Resilience Conceptual Framework. An observation study was conducted to gain insight on the built environment. Interventions targeted the four key morphological elements identified in this paper: streets and spatial structures, green, blue networks and open space, building typologies and density and patterns of use. These have been identified as aspects of the built environment that influence and foster resilience. The paper establishes the need for change in the urban planning and design process and promotes building capacity for learning, innovation and adaptability. It advocates for the development of long-term plans, which encourage flexibility, robustness and collaboration. This change in status quo can foster natural evolution and transformation as cities adapt to changes in population, economic shifts, technological advances, lifestyle changes and climate change.
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... Beside choose the suitable mode of movement (walking, cycling, driving, public transit). It can be achieved by the planning of the street through the block size, street pattern and the grain texture (Yasaman, 2016). ...
... The accessibility can reached by the permeability which allows users to choose how they move through the city and making it a resilience moving from one street to another without any interruptions (Luo, 2002). This accessibility can affect the level of activity, the density and the security (Yasaman, 2016). ...
... The clearness of the way where users moved in, this can achieve by recognized and reading the urban context of the street (buildings and spaces) whether for walking or driving users (Rudlin, 2013), it refers to how it is easy to understand the street and provide a sense of location (Yasaman, 2016). The legibility can be supported by many elements such as landmarks which oriented the users. ...
... And yet, the resilient city is able also to maintain and enhance resistance robustness, and absorption capacities in response to abrupt shocks. (Sharifi & Yamagata, 2018;& Siavash, 2016). It is important to clarify that a resilient city is needed as the Global Forum on Urban Resilience and Adaption has identified, a city that is "prepared to absorb and recover from any shock or stress while maintaining its essential functions, structures and identity, as well as adapting and thriving in the face of continual change" (ICLEI, 2015, as cited in Siavash 2016). ...
... It "Achieving urban resilience requires incorporation of essential principles and characteristics such as robustness, stability, diversity, redundancy, flexibility, resourcefulness, coordination capacity, modularity, collaboration, agility, efficiency, creativity, equity, foresight capacity, self-organization, and adaptability into the urban system." (Sharifi & Yamagata, 2018) Figure 9: Essential principles and characteristics for achieving urban resilience (Siavash, 2016) As figure () illustrates, fostering urban resilience entails research in four interconnected themes of Metabolic Flows or urban metabolism, Social dynamics, Governance, Built environment and urban form. Figure 10: "Four interconnected research themes for prioritizing urban resilience research" (Harrison, et al., 2014) ...
... To achieve urban resilience, Siavash identified key urban planning and design principles and interventions that contribute to increasing as city's level of urban resilience [78]. A system of four key morphological elements consists of streets and spatial structures, green, blue and open space networks, building typologies and density, and patterns of uses. ...
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