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Polydextrose (PD) is a low calorie, sugar free, low glycemic carbohydrate that has a variety of functional properties including high water solubility, high glass transition temperature, prebiotic properties, good stability at elevated temperature and over a broad range of pH and is widely recognized as soluble dietary fibre. PD induces physiological effects, such as increasing fecal bulking, softening stools, decreasing fecal pH, increasing short chain fatty acid concentrations and reduces the concentration of carcinogenic substances in the colon. It also aids blood glucose homeostasis and can decrease low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in blood serum. These functional and physiological benefits have led to considerable interest from the food industry to use PD in the development of new healthy products. PD is widely used in food applications such as baked goods, ice cream, beverages, confectionery, chocolate, yoghurt, and salad dressings, among many others. There is no maximum established limit for PD. However, good manufacturing practices (GMP) limit the quantity to the amount necessary to accomplish intended purpose in the food. This review describes the production process, chemistry, functional properties, physiological functions, food applications, safety and tolerance, and regulatory and labeling information of PD.
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IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
239
REVIEW ARTICLE
Polydextrose as a functional ingredient and its food applications: A review
Veena N, Surendra Nath B and Sumit Arora
Received:16August2015/Accepted:08November2015
VeenaN
1
(),SurendraNathB
2
andSumitArora
3
1
DairyChemistryDepartment,CollegeofDairyScienceandTechnology,
GuruAngadDevVeterinaryandAnimalSciencesUniversity,Ludhiana,
Punjab,India.
2
DairyChemistryDepartment,NationalDairyResearchInstitute,Southern
RegionalStation,Bengaluru,Karnataka,India.
3
DairyChemistryDivision,NationalDairyResearchInstitute,Karnal,
Haryana,India
VeenaN
1
DairyChemistryDepartment,CollegeofDairyScienceandTechnology,
GuruAngadDevVeterinaryandAnimalSciencesUniversity,Ludhiana,
Punjab,India.
Email:veena.ndri@gmail.com;Mobile:+919855886831
Abstract: Polydextrose(PD) is alowcalorie, sugar free, low
glycemiccarbohydratethathasavarietyoffunctionalproperties
includinghighwatersolubility,highglasstransitiontemperature,
prebioticproperties,goodstabilityatelevatedtemperatureand
overabroadrangeof pHandiswidelyrecognizedassoluble
dietaryfibre.PDinducesphysiologicaleffects,suchasincreasing
fecalbulking,softeningstools,decreasingfecalpH,increasing
shortchainfattyacidconcentrationsandreducestheconcentration
ofcarcinogenicsubstancesinthecolon.Italsoaidsbloodglucose
homeostasis and can decrease lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL)
cholesterol and totalcholesterollevels inbloodserum.These
functionalandphysiologicalbenefitshaveledtoconsiderable
interestfromthefoodindustrytousePDinthedevelopmentof
newhealthyproducts.PDiswidelyusedinfoodapplications
such  as bake d goods , ice cr eam, bev erages , confe ctione ry,
chocolate, yoghurt, and salad dressings, amongmany others.
ThereisnomaximumestablishedlimitforPD.However,good
manufacturingpractices(GMP)limitthequantitytotheamount
necessarytoaccomplishintendedpurposeinthefood.Thisreview
describestheproductionprocess,chemistry,functionalproperties,
physiologicalfunctions,foodapplications,safetyandtolerance,
andregulatoryandlabelinginformationofPD.
Keywords:Polydextrose,functional properties,physiological
functions,foodapplications,safetyandtolerance
Introduction
Thelevelofhealthawarenessamongtheconsumersworldwide
has in crease d and th e conce pt of f ibre-r ich die t is gai ning
importanceduetoitswellknowndigestivehealthbenefits.In
therecentyears,manylow-caloriefibrefoodshavebecomea
partofthe consumer’sdailydiet.Amongthose,PDhas been
iden tified as  a source  of solub le dieta ry fibre i n foods a nd
beveragesinmanycountries(Wangetal.2014).
PDiscomprised
of90%solublefibreandanenergyvalueofonly1kcal/g.Itisa
non-digestiblepolysaccharidecomposedofrandomlycross-linked
glucose.Duetoitsgoodprocessingperformanceandpotential
healthbenefits,itiswidelyusedaslow-caloriebulkingagentin
avarietyoffoods andapartialreplacement for fatandsugar
(Černáetal.2003).PDhasbeenapprovedasadirectfoodadditive
(21CFR172.841)bytheUSFoodandDrugAdministrationfor
useasanutrientsupplement,texturizer,stabilizerorthickener,
formulation aid and humectants(Burdock and Flamm,1999).
Previousclinicalandin vitrostudiesrevealedthatPDinduces
physiologicaleffects,suchasincreasingfecalbulking,softening
stools,decreasingfecalpH,reducestransittime,increasingshort
chai n fatt y acid ( SCFA) co ncent ration s and th e amoun t of
beneficialbacteria(e.g.LactobacillusandBifidobacterium)(Jie
etal.2000;Probertetal.2004;Lahtinenetal.2010;Raninenet
al. 2011; Tiihonen et al. 2011).In addition, PDfermentation
reducesthe concentrationofcertain putrefactive/carcinogenic
substances(e.g.indole and p-cresol)inthecolon(Endoetal.
1991).PDalsoaidsbloodglucosehomeostasisbecauseofits
lowglycemicindexcomparedtothereferenceglucose(Foster-
Powelletal.2002)andcandecreaseLDLcholesterolandtotal
cholesterolvaluesinhumanblood(LiuandTsai,1995).Thehigh
toleranceandfunctionalpropertiesofPDallowthedevelopment
of food products with avariety of nutritional improvements
withoutcompromisingtasteandtextureprofile(Tiihonenetal.
2011).Thepresentreviewfocusesonthestructure,functional
properties,physiologicalfunctions,foodapplications,safetyand
toleranceandregulatoryandlabelinginformationofPD.
Productionprocess
PD is prepared  by a vacuum m elt process involving
polycondensationofglucoseinthepresenceofsmallamountsof
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
240
sorbitoland citricacid/phosphoric acid in the ratio 89:10:1,
respectively.Sorbitol actsasaplasticizerandcitric acidasa
catalystinthepolymerization(Rennhard,1973;Radostaetal.
1992).Typically,cornglucose isused.Itisimportantthatthe
molecularsizeofthepolymeriscontrolled(MWabout5,000)
duringthemanufacturingprocessinordertorestricttheformation
oflargemolecularweightmolecules.Thiscontrolpreventsthe
formationofinsolublematerialsandresultsinthehighlywater
solublenatureofPD(Beereboom,1981;Allingham,1982).The
polymerissubjectedtovariousclean-upprocedurestoproduce
severalqualitiesofPD.TheprocesswaspatentedbyRennhard
in1975.Itisavailableintwoforms:PD-A(acidform)andPD-
N(neutralisedform), the latterbeingapracticallyneutralised
productobtained bythe addition ofpotassium hydroxide or
carbonatetoasolutionofPD-A(BurdockandFlamm,1999).It
tastesbitter,astringentandsourandthatiswhyitismodifiedby
refinement (e.g.removal ofcitrate esters, neutralization and
reduc tion) to  remove un desirab le charac teristic s. It may  be
neutralizedwithanyfood-gradebaseand/ordecolourizedand
deionisedforfurtherpurification.Thebittertastecouldalsobe
remediedbypassingthefinalPD,inaqueoussolution,through
anion-exchangeresinandthision-exchangeprocedureremoves
theboundacid.CommercialPDismorepurifiedformavailable
underbrandnamessuchasSta-Lite
®
byTate&Lyle,Decatur;
Litesse
®
 byDani sco, New Cent ury, Kan., no w a division o f
Du Pont N utr iti on and  Hea lth; a nd Tr imcal
®
 fr omC& H
Ingredients,Farington,UK.
Chemistryofpolydextrose
PDisdescribedinitsFoodsChemicalsCodex(FCC)monograph
(Anonymous,2004)asarandomlybondedcondensationpolymer
of D-g lucose, so rbitol an d citric ac id. Commer cial PD al so
containssmallamountsoffreeglucose,sorbitol,citricacid,and
1,6-anhydro-D-glucose(levoglucosan).PDishighlybranched,
withadegreeofpolymerisationbetween2and110(onaverage
approximately12glucoseunits),andwithanaveragemolecular
weightof~2,000Daltons(Allingham,1982;Murray,1988).
All
possi ble linkag es with the  glycosidi c carbon of  glucose ar e
present:α-andβ-(1,2),(1,3),(1,4)and(1,6)withthe(1,6)linkage
predominating(Auerbachetal.2007).Arepresentativestructure
ofPDisgiveninFigure1anditsphysico-chemicalproperties
aresummarizedinTable1.
Technicalandfunctionalproperties
PD is an odourless, neutraltaste,white tocream amorphous
powderwithvirtuallynosweetness. Itishighlysolubleinwater
(approximately80%w/wat20
o
C)andsolutionshaveahigher
visco sity  than suc rose  or sorbi tol s olut ions at e quiv alent
concentrationsandtemperatures.ThischaracteristicenablesPD
toprovidethedesirablemouthfeelandtexturalqualitieswhen
replacing sugarsandfats (Mitchel,1996). PD can beused to
replacebothsucroseandfatinchocolateandtoffeeconfectionery.
Thishasled to thedevelopmentof light, reducedcalorie and
tooth-friendlyproductswhichutilisehydrogenatedPDthatdoes
notcontainresidualcariogenicmonosaccharides.PDalsoexhibits
excellent stability over awide rangeof temperaturesand pH
conditions.ModelsystemcontainingPDhaveindicatedverygood
stabilityagainsthydrolysisoverbroadrangeofpH4.5-6.0and
temperaturemakingitidealforuseinmanybeverageapplications,
even those atlowerpH. No significant hydrolysis would be
expectedatanystoragetemperaturewhenpHishigherthan4.0
(Beeretal.1991).
AnimportantcharacteristicofPDisthatithaswateractivity
closelyresemblingthatofsucroseandcanfunctionashumectants
helpingtoslowdownundesirablechangesinthemoisturecontent
offoods(Mitchel,1996).Thisprolongsshelf-lifeandisespecially
importantforbakedgoods.Inshortcrustpastry,thefatcontent
can be reduced by up to 50% with the additionof PDwhile
maintainingthetexturenormallyassociatedwithtraditionalfull-
fatpastry(Murphy,2001).
PDisafunctionalfoodadditiveduetoitsprebioticproperties
(Kolidaetal.2002;Srisuvoretal.2013).Itcontributesonly25
percentofthecaloriesofsugar(1kcal/gversus4kcal/g)and
only11percentofthecaloriesoffat(9kcal/g).Thelowcalorie
contentof PD isaresult of itspoordigestibilityinthe small
intes tine and i ncomple te ferment ation in  the large i ntestine
(Oliveria etal. 2009).The random bonds inthe PD polymer
preventmammaliandigestiveenzymesfromreadilyhydrolysing
the m olecule  (Murphy, 20 01). This  propert y has led t o the
acceptanceofPDasadietaryfibreinmanycountries(Craiget
al.1999;Floodetal.2004).Thefunctionalityofthisprebioticis
beneficialtohumansandincludessuchaspectsaspromotingthe
growthofhealthybacteriaandstimulatingtheimmunesystem
(Gibson,2004;Srisuvoretal.2013).
Theamount ofwater in a foodsystem greatly influencesPD
functionality andits subsequent effecton the glass transition
tempera ture (T g) of th e compo site fo od. PD p owder i s an
amorphousglasswithananhydrousglasstransitiontemperature
of110°C,whichissignificantlyhigherthanthatofmostother
carb ohydrat es and is  partly a  functio n of its r elative ly low
molecularweight.ThishighTgofPDcanbehelpfulinraising
thecompositeTgoffoods (Stowell, 2009).Whenusedinice
creamandfrozenproducts,thefreezingpointdepressionfactor
permitsthetextureofthefinishedproducttobebalancedtocreate
a rich, creamy smoothness.Products stored in a freezercan
undergo deleterious changes intexture(e.g.ice- and solute-
crystallization,starchretrogradation),structure(e.g.collapseand
shrinkage),and chemicalcomposition (e.g.oxidation flavor/
colourdegradation).PDmay do thisbyinterruptingsugaror
polyolre-crystallizationand/orstarchretrogradation,byproviding
structureand/orraisingthe compositeTg which isthe glass
transitiontemperatureofamaximallyfreezeconcentratedsolution
(Craigetal.1994).TheTgvalues(whereicecannolongerform)
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
241
oflactose(-28
o
C),sucrose(-32
o
C),fructose(-42
o
C),glucose(-
43
o
C)andsorbitol(-43.5
o
C)arealllowerthanPD(-24
o
C).This
mean s that rep lacemen t of thes e sugars  with PD ra ises the
compositeTgofafood(SladeandLevine,1995).Italsoimproves
storagestabilitybynarrowingthedifferencebetweenthestorage
temperatureandthecompositeglasstransitiontemperatureof
maximallyfrozenconcentratedsolutionsforfrozendesserts.
Intransparentbeverages,PDisamagnificentchoiceofdietary
fibre.Highsolubility,clarityandrheologicalpropertiessimilar
tosucrosemakePDversatileenoughtoaddadesirabletexture
toavarietyofliquids,includingdairydrinksandyogurts,sauces
anddressings,whilereducingcaloriesfromfatorsugar.PDworks
particularly well infoods that requirebulkingagentsorthose
thataretraditionallysweetorrichinfat.Itisabletomaintainthe
textureandmouthfeelthatoftenislostintheprocessofremoving
sugarandfattoreducecalories.Sometimesithelpstomaskoff-
flavorsthatmightbegettingfromvitaminsorminerals(Beristain
et al. 2006). Being a humectant,stabilizer,thickening agent,
sol uble f ibre a nd a pr oven p rebio tic su bstan ce, PD  offers
opportunitiesforcreatingnewfoodswithmorediversesensory
characteristics.
Physiologicalfunctions
Digestivehealth:fibreandprebioticaction
PD  is h ard ly d ige ste d in  the  sma ll i nte sti ne a fte r or al
administration,with60%ofthePDexcretedinfecesand30%
fermentedinthelowergutbyintestinalmicroflora(Figdorand
Rennhard,1981).TheslowandincompletefermentationofPD
ensuresminimalproductionofgasincomparisontoothermore
quicklyfermentableoligosaccharides(Hernotetal.2009).PD
produ ces v olat ile f atty aci ds (V FA) c ause d by micr obia l
fermentation in the large intestineandlowersthepHoflarge
intestinalcontents.Theuniquearrangementofglycosidiclinkages
of PD  makes it  resist ant to hy drolys is by hu man dige stive
enzymes.Thishasbeendeterminedusing[
14
C]labeledPDinrat
andhuman intervention studies(Figdor andRennhard, 1981;
FigdorandBianchine,1983).AfteringestionPDpassesintact
into thecolonwhere it is partiallyfermented by the colonic
microflora.TheslowandconsistentfermentationofPDwasfirst
demonstrated usinganin vitrocolonsimulator (Probertetal.
Figure 1. ChemicalStructureofPD
Molecularweightrange 162-5000(90%)
Appearance White-cream
amorphouspowder
Odour None
Meltingpoint 130
o
C
Solubility(25
o
C) 80%w/w
Viscosity(25
o
C,50%w/w) 33.3centipoise
Heatofsolution 9kcal/g
Wateractivity(20%w/w) 0.992
pHinwater(100g/litre) 2.5-3.5
Titratableacidity 0.14-0.16meq/g
Caloricvalue 1kcal/g
Relativesweetness None
Water Max4%
Sorbitol Max2%
(anhydrousashfreebasis)
Glucose Max4%
Table 1 Thephysico-chemicalpropertiesofgenericPD
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
242
2004;Mäkivuokkoetal.2005)andsubsequentlyconfirmedina
studyontheeffectof PD on intestinalmicrobesand immune
functionsinpigs(Favaetal.2007).Ithasalsobeenshownin
vitro thatthe microbes that ferment PD prefer branched and
espe ciall y singl e-bran ched PD r esidue s over n on-bra nched
residues,especiallythe(1,6)pyranosemoietiesaresubjectedto
microbialdegradationoverothertypesofglycosidiclinkagesin
themolecule(Lahtinenetal.2010).
InahumaninterventionstudybyEndoetal. (1991) inwhich
eighthealthyvolunteerswerefedadietrichincholesteroland
hadadailyintakeof15gofPDfor6weeks,changesincolonic
florawereaccompaniedbyadecreaseinfecalconcentrationsof
Clostridium spp.Inanotherhumanstudy,significantincreasesin
thenumbersofculturableBifidobacteriaandLactobacillitogether
withdecreasedBacteroidesnumbershavebeendemonstratedin
aplacebo-controlled,randomized,double-blindinterventionstudy
comp rising 1 20 subj ects (Ji e et al. 20 00). Imp roved bo wel
functionwasalsodemonstratedinthesamestudywithdailyintake
of4-12gPDwithnoadverseeffects,suchasabdominaldistention,
crampsordiarrheareported.SupplementationwithPDat5g/
day and  a probiotic  mixture tog ether was fo und to incre ase
cul turab le fec al Bifidobacteria over s upplemen tatio n with
probioticmixturealonewhencomparedovera2weekperiodin
twentyhumansubjects(Tiihonenetal.2008).Also,shortened
oro-fecaltransittime,implicatingtheroleofPDinalleviating
constipation,hasbeenshown(Hengstetal.2009).Thesefindings
suggestthatdietaryPDisasolubledietaryfibre-likesubstance
andshownprebioticpropertieslikemodificationofthemicrobiota
composition,activityandhealthbenefits.
Digestivehealth:bowelfunctionandfecalcharacteristics
Fivehumaninterventionstudies(TomlinandRead,1988;Endo
etal.1991;Archouretal.1994;Jieetal.2000;Floodetal.2004)
andonestudyinrats(Okuetal.1991)haveallreportedincreased
fecalweightinconjugationwithdietarysupplementationwith
PD.Nakagawaetal.(1990)andTomlinandRead(1988)reported
stoolsoftening,andJieetal(2000)reportedimprovedeaseof
defecationincombinationwithPDsupplementation.Twohuman
studieshavereportedincreasedstoolfrequencyonconsumption
ofPD(Endoetal.1991;Jieetal.2000)whiletwootherstudies
haveshownnoeffect(TomlinandRead,1988;Nakagawaetal.
1990).Aratstudy(Okuetal.1991)showedreducedtransittime
inassociationwithPDconsumptionwhiletwohumanstudies
showednoeffect(TomlinandRead,1988;Archouretal.1994).
DecreasedcolonicpH,associatedwiththeincreasedproduction
ofSCFAs,hasbeenconsistentlyreportedinstudies inhuman
(Endoetal.1991;Jieetal.2000),rats(Peuranenetal.2004;
Yoshiokaetal.1994),andintwoin vitrostudiessimulatinghuman
colonicdigestion(Probertetal.2004;Mäkivuokkoetal.2005).
Hence,  the abilit y of PD to fa vorably aff ect gut pH is  well
documented.
Serumcholesterolandtriglyceridelevels
PDisafermentablenon-viscousfibre,andhasbeenshownto
exhibitlipidmetabolismregulatingeffects(Raninenetal.2011).
Typicallytheseeffectshavebeenassociatedwithtwophysico-
chemicalpropertiesofsolublefibres:viscosityandfermentability.
PDhasbeenreportedtoconferlipidmodulatingeffectsinhuman
clinicalinterventionstudies,aswellasinanimalstudies.Intwo
ratsfeedingstudiesinwhichPDwereaccompaniedwithalipid
load,reducedlipidlevelswerereported.Inoneofthestudy,rats
weregiventwodifferentdosagesofcornoil,10%and20%,to
representamoderateorhigh-fatdiet,for8weeks,withorwithout
5% PD. Rat s in the PD group showed de creased serum
triglyceridesascomparedtoaguargumcontrolinthehigh-fat
diet, in creased leve ls of serum HDL c holesterol b oth in the
moderatefatandhighfatdiet(Choeetal.1992).Anotherstudy
hasbeendonewithgerbilsfor4-weeks,thegerbilswerefedwith
0.15%cholesterolwith30%oftheenergycomingfromfatand
withinclusionof6%PD.Liverandplasmatotalcholesterolas
wellasfreeandesterifiedcholesterolfromliverdecreasedinthe
PDgroup(PronczukandHayes,2006).Theacuteresponseof
PDonserumlipidvalueshasalsobeenstudiedinrats,buttogether
withlactitol(Shimomuraetal.2005).Theratsshowedreduced
serumtriglyceridelevels,andanincreaseinluminaltriglyceride
levelsinthececumafter150minutesofingestionofPD,which
wouldindicatethatthecombinationofPDandlactitolreduced
eithertheleveloffatabsorptionintheearlierpartofsmallintestine
or pro mote d the  transi t tim e of f at th roug h the  intest ine
(Shimomuraetal.2005).
In human study withnormal healthy adults withno reported
hypercholesterolemiaareductionintheamountoftotalHDLby
administrationof15gofPDfortwomonthswithconcomitant
decreaseinapolipoproetinA-I,whichisthemaincomponentof
HDLcholesterol,hasbeenobserved(Sakuetal.1991).Inanother
studywithhealthyadults,administrationof10gofPDfor18
dayswasshowntodecreaseLDLcholesterolandtotalcholesterol
valueswithnoeffectonHDLcholesterolortriglycerides(Liu
andTsai,1995).Therearealsocontradictoryresultswithhealthy
humans,asadministrationofPDinanamountfrom4to12gper
dayfor29daysdidnotaffecttriacylglycerol,orcholesterol(Jie
etal.2000).Authorsreportedthatduetorelativelylowfatcontent
(20%ofenergyfromfat)inChinesediet,theydidnotexpectto
measureaneffectofPDonbloodlipids.Inhypocholesterolemic
individuals,theeffectofPDhasbeenstudiedina4-weekstudy
withadministrationof15gand30gPD daily (Pronczukand
Hayes,2006).Inthisstudyitwasnotedthat5ofthe6individuals
ingesting30gofPDwereinaseparaterespondergroup,andin
thirdgrouptheLDLcholesterolvaluesdeclined significantly,
andtherewasatendencyforreducedtotalcholesterol,butno
changeinHDLcholesterol.However,whenall6individualswere
studiedtogether,nochangecomparedtocontrolwasobserved.
Another studyinvestigated the effect of PD on postprandial
triglyceride(TG)responsesinthreeindependenttrialsincluding
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
243
a nor molipi demic,  obese  and hyp erlipi demic s ubject s. The
maximumpostprandialTGconcentrationwasmorepronounced
inhyperlipidemicgroupcomparedtonormolipidemic(p<0.001)
orobesegroups(p<0.01).ThemodeledTGresponseanalysis
showed that ir respective  of the s tudy po pulation, PD
supplementation was one of the factors significantlyreducing
triglycerideresponsecomparedtotheplacebotreatment(p<0.05)
(Tiihonenetal.2015).
TheeffectofPDonlipidvalueshasbeenofinterestintwostudies
withindividualsshowingabnormalglucosemetabolismortype-
2diabetes.Insubjectswithimpairedglucosemetabolism,PD
administeredfor12weeksat16g/dayhasbeenobservedtolower
LDLcholesterol,increaseHDLcholesterolandcausenochange
intriglycerides(Schwabetal.2006).Inacombinationstudywith
7gPDand3goligofructoseadministereddailyfor6weeksin
adultswithtype-2diabetes,adecreaseintotalcholesterol,TG,
VLD L chol ester ol, an d rati os of t otal c holes terol  to HDL
cho leste rol, a nd LDL cholest erol t o HDL c holes terol  was
observed,whileHDLcholesterolincreased(Ciceketal.2009).
Inadoubleblindandrandomizedstudy,nineteenhealthyyoung
adultsconsumedtwiceastandardhamburgermealwithorwithout
acoladrinkcontaining PD (12.5g).Postprandialtriglyceride
responsewasmeasuredupto360minafterthemeal.Thearea
underthecurvewas25%inthePDtrialthanontheplacebotrial
(VasankariandAhotupa,2005).Aspostprandialhyperlipidemia
isbelievedtobeanindependentriskfactorfortheatherosclerotic
vasculardiseases,PDmayprovidenewdietaryconcepttoreduce
riskfactor.
Glycemiccontrolandinsulinresponse
TheeffectofPDingestiononglucoseandpostprandialinsulin
responsehasbeeninvestigatedinseveralstudies.PDhasavery
lowglycemicindex(4to7)withglycemicloadof1comparedto
thereferenceglucose(100)(Foster-Powelletal.2002).Based
onarecentEFSAscientificopinion,PDissuitableforthosewho
wanttofollowalowglycemicdietwhenitisusedas asugar
replacer(EFSA,2011).PDhasbeenreportedtoattenuate the
bloodglucoseraisingpotentialofglucose,astheglycemicindex
ofglucosewasreducedfrom100to88when12gofPDwas
ingestedtogetherwithglucosebyhealthyadults(Jieetal.2000).
Similarresultswereobservedinastudywithhealthyadultswhen
14gwasingestedtogetherwith50gofglucoseor106gofbread
(Shimomuraetal.2004).Plasmaglucoselevelsweredecreased
by28%and35%,comparedtoglucoseandbreadwithoutPD,
respectivelywithsignificantlyreducedseruminsulinlevelsin
theglucoseplusPDgroup.TheseobservationsindicatethatPD
couldreducetheabsorptionofglucose.WhentheeffectofPD
wasstudiedwithhumansubjectswithimpairedglucosetolerance
or impairedfasting glucose, no changein plasma glucoseor
insulinhasbeenobserved(Schwabetal.2006).DiurnallyPD
didnotseemtochangeplasmasugarlevels,butadecreasein
insulinaftermealswasnoted(Ozawaetal.1993).Indogs,PD
showedanattenuatedpostprandialglycemicandlowerrelative
insulinresponsesthanthecontrolsugarmaltitol(Knappetal.
2008).
Inoneofstudy investigatedtheeffects of a lactose-freemilk
drink,PD-enrichedmilkdrink(fat-andlactosefree),andregular
fat-free milkon fasting insulinand glucose levels in healthy
sub jects ( Lummel a et al. 200 9). The i nsuli n respo nse wa s
significantlylowerforthefibre-enrichedmilkdrinkthanitwas
fortheothermilkproductsandhowever,nodifferencesinthe
responseforglucose.PDhasbeenalsostudiedintrialsinwhich
thereferencegroupreceivedanormalmeal/snackwithglucose,
andtheinterventiongroupthesamebutwiththeglucose,andthe
interventiongroupthesamebutwiththeglucosepartiallyreplaced
withPD.Involunteerswithtype-2diabetes,cranberrieswith10
gofPDshowedattenuatedplasmaglucoseandinsulinresponse
comparedtocranberrieswithglucose (Wilsonetal.2010).In
onestudywithhealthyadults,significantlylowerpostprandial
glucoselevelswereobservedafteringestionofstrawberryjam
with40%PDthanafteringestionofstrawberryjamsweetened
with sugar, cornsyrup, orapple juice, butthis studydid not
measur e insulin (K urotobi et a l. 2010). Thes e above resul ts
indicatethat PDmight havea roleindecreasingpostprandial
glucoseabsorptionandinsulinresponse.
Anti-carcinogenicactivity
Cecalfermentationmaybeanimportantfactorininhibitingcancer
formation, because the fermentationproduct butyrate isanti-
carcinogenic(Perrinetal.1994).Animalstudyhasshownthat
theingestionofPDhassignificantsuppressiveeffectonformation
ofaberrantcryptfoci(ACF)inducedby1,2-dimethylhydraine
(DMH).TheinhibitoryeffectofdietaryPDwassignificantonly
in th e case tha t the PD w as fed fr om 1 week b efore DM H
indicationwhencomparedwithday0,1and7,indicatingthe
timingofinterventionwiththePD-containingdietiscriticalfor
theinhibitoryeffectonACFdevelopmentandtheeffectwasmost
pronouncedintherectum(Ishizukaetal.2003).Theseresults
suggest  that th e inges tion of  PD ma y preve nt colo rectal
carcinogenesis.
Balancingimmuneresponsesinthelargeintestineisespecially
importantforreducingtheriskofcoloncancerdevelopment.A
possiblemechanismforreductionincancerdevelopmentinvolves
theregulationofmucosalgeneexpression.Overexpressionof
thecyclooxygenage-2(cox-2)geneisrelatedtoearlystagesof
coloncancerdevelopmentandchronicinflammatorydiseasesin
theintestine.Mäkivuokkoetal.(2005)combinedtwodifferent
in vi tro sy stems, n amely a  four-st age sim ulator  of colo nic
fermentationandacell-culture-basedmodelofhumanintestinal
epithelialfunction,inordertostudytheeffectsofPDoncolon
cancerdevelopment.Adose-dependentdecreasingeffectoncox-
2expressionwasobservedinCaco-2cells(ahumancoloncancer
cellline).Thisreductionofcox-2expressionassociatedwiththe
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
244
colonicfermentationofPDfurthersuggestsaprotectiveroleof
PDagainstcoloncancer.Recently,theeffectsofPDfermentation
metabolitesoncoloncancercellsandtheirgeneexpressionwere
investigatedinwhole-genomescaleusingAffymetrixgenechips
(Putaalaet al. 2011). Inthisstudy, itwas observed that PD
fermen tation met abolites i ncreased c aspase-2 an d caspase- 3
activation,whichisahallmarkofapoptosis,increasedthelevel
ofapoptosis aswell as diminished cell proliferation ofcolon
cancercells.ThesestudiescombinedindicatethatPDmightbe
beneficialinpreventingriskfactorsassociatedwithcolorectal
carcinogenesis,whichcouldrelatetoitsabilitytopromoteSCFAs
production(Makelainenetal.2007).
Mineralabsorption
Prebiotics likePD contribute toa reducedpH of the colonic
digestathroughtheirfermentationandtherebytoanenhanced
solubilizationtobothcalciumandmagnesium.Animalstudies
hav e shown tha t PD im proves  calci um abs orpti on both  in
gastrectomizedratsandnormalrats(Haraetal.2000;Santoset
al.2009),wheretheformerprovideamodelforseverelyhampered
calciumabsorption.Innormalrats,PDincreasedtheamountof
calciumandmagnesiuminbone(Haraetal.2000),withincrease
intotalandfemoralbonemineraldensityandcorticalareaand
thickness(Weaveretal.2010).Ironisnormallyabsorbedinthe
small intestine with thestomachplayingan essential role in
improvingthebiologicalavailabilityofiron.Ingastrectomized
rats,PDhasbeenshowntoimproveapparentironabsorptionto
levelsapproachingthoseofnormalrats.Also,innormalrats,
ironabsorptionwasshowntobeimprovedbyPD(Santosetal.
2010).Thestudydemonstratedtheeffectsofcomponentsfroma
typicalJapanesediet(isoflavones,teacatechinordietaryfibre)
on e quol (i s a metab olite  of the i soflav one dia dzein ( Dz))
productionandbonemetabolisminovariectomised(OVX)mice.
Dietaryfibre(PDorraffinose)increasedequolproductionand
inhibitbonelossinOVXmice.Thiseffectwasgreaterthanthat
ofDzaloneforpreventingbonelossinmice.PDthusseemsto
beabletoplayaroleinimprovingmineralstatus.
Foodapplications
ThefunctionalbenefitsofPDhaveledtoconsiderableinterest
fromthefoodindustry,leadingtotheuseofthisingredientinthe
developmentofnewhealthyproducts(Murphy,2001).PDallows
thedevelopmentoffoodproductswithawidevarietyofnutritional
impr ovemen ts such  as preb iotic, f ibre fo rtific ation,  calori e
red uction , reduc ed gly cemic l oad as w ell as s ugar a nd fat
reduc tion. The t echnolo gical pro perties o f PD facil itate th e
productionofproductswithatasteandtextureprofilesimilarto
thatofstandardproducts.InUnitedStates,PDisapprovedby
FoodandDrugAdministration(FDA)foruseinthefollowing
product categories: Chewing gum, confections andfrostings,
dressingsforsalads,frozendairydessertsandmixes,gelatins,
puddingsandfillings,hardcandy,softcandy,bakedgoodsand
bakingmixes,fruitspread,peanutspreads,toppingsandsweet
sauces.
Bakedgoods
PDiswidelyusedasalow-caloriebulkingagentthatcanreplace
partofthesugarsandsomeofthefatinlow-caloriefoodswhile
maintainingapleasanttextureandmouthfeelofbreads,rolls,
cracke rs, flour tor tillas, pita  bread, pizza  crust, and muff ins
(Mitchelletal.2001;Chaudharyetal.2013).Itwouldfunction
primarilyasahumectantandwaterbindingingredienttohelp
slowdowntheeffects of undesirablechangesinthe moisture
contentandhenceprolongtheshelflifeoftheseproducts.
Martínez-Cervera et al. (2012) evaluatedthe suitability ofa
mixtureofsucraloseandPDtoreplacedifferentpercentagesof
sucroseinmuffins.Low-sucrosemuffinsinwhichthesucrose
hadbeen totally or partially replaced(25%, 50%, 75%)by a
sucralose:PDmixture(1:1012).Thestructuralcharacteristicsof
themuffinsbattersandofthebakedmuffinswerestudiedthrough
rheomet ry, microsco py, image anal ysis and text ure analysis.
Replacementof25%sucrosebyamixtureofPD-sucralosealtered
noneoftheeatingqualitypropertiesofthereformulatedmufûns.
FurtherreplacementofsucrosebyPD-sucraloseprogressively
affectedthebatterstructure,bothbeforeandduringthebaking
process. Thereplacement of sucrose decreased the viscosity,
viscoelasticiyandspecificgravityoftherawmuffinsbatter.It
furtherresultsinamuffinswithlessheightandfewerfinalair
cellsasthe sucrosewasreplaced, and withlowhardness and
spring iness. For 50 % sucrose  rep lacement, th e appearance ,
colour,texture,favourandsweetnessandgeneralacceptability
weresimilartothoseofthecontrol.Significantlylessacceptable
muffinswereobtainedwith75and100%sucrosereplacement.
Inasubsequentstudy,muffinswereproducedwhere30%sucrose
oftheformulationwasreplacedagainstaniso-sweetamountof
Steviolglycosides (or rebaudiosideAfromStevia rebaudiana
Bertonileaves)incombinationwithseveralfibres(peafibre,oat
fibre,wheatfibre,wheatbran,applefibre,cellulose,maltodextrin,
PD and  inulin) ( Zahn et al . 2013). Mu ltivari ate analys is of
instrumental and sensorydataindicatesthat acombinationof
inu lin or PD  with r ebaudi oside A res ults i n produ cts wi th
characteristicsclosetothatofareference.Theuseofwheatbran
orapplefibreasbulkreplacerforsucrosegivesproductswhich
mainlydeviateincrumbcolourandarecharacterisedbyawhole
meal  off-tast e, wher eas incr eased c rumblin ess and  reduced
elasticityistheconsequenceofpartialsucrosereplacementby
oat,peaorwheatfibre,celluloseormaltodextrin.Comparedto
thereferencemuffinwith1.3goffibre/100g,thereplacementof
30%sugarbyinulinincreasesfibreinmuffinsto4.6g/100gso
thatitallowstheclaim“sourceoffibre”(EC,2006).Muffins
withPDcanberegardedas“highfibre”(7.1g/100 g) source
(Zahnetal.2013).
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
245
PDcanbeusedtomakefat-reducedpastry.Inshortcrustpastry,
thefatcontentcanbereducedbyupto50%withtheadditionof
PD whi le maint aining th e textur e normall y associa ted with
traditionalfull-fatpastry.Studieshaveshownthattheadditionof
PDtoshortcrustpastryincreasedthecripsiness;reducedpastry
shrinkage; improved themachinabilityof verythin sheets of
dough; causedbrowning under microwavereheat conditions;
reducedamountofsugarsandfatsinshortcrustpastrywithout
affectingtheorganolepticqualityoftheproduct.UsingPD,the
fatcontentofshortcrustpastrycanbereducedtoaslittleas13to
15% of dou gh weight whil e maintainin g acceptable se nsory
characteristics(Mitchel,1996).
Beveragesanddairydrinks
PDwouldbeusedtoreplacesugarand/orfatintheseproductsas
lowcaloriebulkingagenttoimprovecreaminessandmouthfeel.
PDcanbeusedinvarietyofbeveragesincludingcarbonatedand
non-carbonated,concentratedandready-to-drink,hotandcold
beverages.Itisusedindairydrinks;neutralorflavoured,orlow
pH, pa steurized , or UHT and  in many oth er clear be verage
formats.PDimprovethemouthfeel,givingthetasteexperience
ofaproduct of a muchhigherfatcontent;thisisparticularly
noticeableinlow-fatdairydrinkapplications(Anonymous,1991).
PDisalsoaddedtobeveragesasasourceofdietaryfibreasitis
verysoluble,formingclearsolutions,andisverystableovershelf
life.
Chocolateconfectionary
Thedevelopmentofchocolateandcompositechocolateproducts
withreducedcalories,sugarandfibreenrichmentispossiblewith
PD.PDfunctionstoreplacesugarandprovidewarm,creamy
textureinthechocolatematrixwithoutcontributingmouthcooling
effectorscratchyaftertaste(Mitchel,1996).PDcompletesthe
chocol ate flavor thr ough the form ation of smal l amounts of
caramelduringprocessing.Itslowresidualacidityensuresthat
thedelicate cocoaandsweetflavors are broughtforwardand
maintained(Renauldetal.2003).PDmaybeaddedtochocolate
asanediblecarbohydrateandintensesweetener(Afoakwaetal.
2007).Gomesetal.(2007)obtainedadietchocolateusingvarious
bulkingagentsassucrosesubstitutes.Thebulkingagentsinthe
studywerePD(24.14–48.27%),inulin,fructooligosaccharides,
lactitol andmaltitol and sucralose used with a high intensity
sweetener.TheformulationscontainingPD,PDandlactitol,and
PDandmaltitol wereevaluated for a sensoryanalysis due to
theirgoodtechnologicalperformanceandadequatemachinability
of the chocolate mass atdifferent stages of the process. The
sensoryanalysisrevealednosignificantdifferenceinthethree
evaluatedformulationsintermsofaroma,hardness,meltingin
themouthandflavorandtherewasnosignificantdifferencein
the i ntenti on to pur chase t he thre e chocol ate for mulatio ns,
althoughapreferencewasshownfortheformulationcontaining
PD(32.60%)andmaltitol(15.57%).
The productionof alow-sugar milk chocolate with prebiotic
propertiesofinulin was evaluatedbyFarzanmehrandAbbasi
(2009).Variousratiosofinulin,PDandmaltodxetrin(MD)along
withsucralose (0.04%w/w) wereusedinstead ofsucrose. In
general,formulationswithhighratiosofPDandMDweremoister
andsofterthancontrol.Thelowestmoisturecontentandhighest
hardnesswereobservedforthemoderateratios.Inaddition,MD
inducedtheleastdesirablesensorialeffects,whereasPDandinulin
pronouncedlyimprovedtheoverallacceptability.PDhasbeen
reportedasagoodoptionsasbulkingagenttoimprovetheoverall
acceptability of low-sugarmilk chocolates (Farzanmehr and
Abbasi,2009).Thediabeticprototypesofmilk-chocolateswere
preparedbysubstitutingsucrosewithhigh-intensitysweeteners,
sucraloseor stevioside, anda PD/lactitol (60/40) blend asa
bulkingagent(Meloetal.2010).
PDandlactitolareusuallywell
toleratedbutmayalsohavesomedose-relatedundesirableeffects
owi ng to their n atura l osmo tic p otent ial and/ or exc essiv e
fermentation (Marteauand Flourié,2001). Shahetal. (2010)
studiedthedevelopmentofasucrose-freechocolatesweetened
withStevia rebaudianaextractandcontainingPDandinulinasa
bulkingagent.Aidooetal.(2014)examinedoptimumconditions
forthe use of inulinand PD mixturesassucrose replacersin
sug ar-fr ee cho colat e, an d effec ts on  rheol ogical, phy sical
propertiesandmicrostructurewasalsostudied.TheCassonplastic
viscos ity increase d with increas ing inulin co ncentration  and
reductionin PD, whilstCassonyieldstress was reduced.The
propertiesofchocolateformulatedwith100%PDor100%inulin
werecompared.Chocolateformulatedwith100%PDrevealed
largecrystals withdensesmaller particles and minimalinter-
particlespacescomparedtolargecrystalswithmorevoidspaces
inchocolatesformulatedwith100%inulin.Chocolateformulation
consistingof75.3594%PDand24.6406%inulinwasfoundas
the o ptimum c oncentra tions pr oducing  the most  accepta ble
rheologicalandphysicalqualitycharacteristics.Inasubsequent
study,Aidooetal.(2015)investigatedtherheologicalproperties,
meltingbehavioursandotherphysicalqualitycharacteristicsof
sugar-freechocolatesprocessedfrominulinandPDmixtures(36
and12,%w/w)(ratioof25:75)asbulkingagentssweetenedwith
stevia(0.24%w/w)andthaumatin(0.06%w/w)extracts.The
sugar-freechocolates(steviaandthaumatin)showedsimilarflow
(rheological)andmeltingpropertiesascomparedtothereference
chocolatecontaining48percentsucrose.Sugar-freechocolates
showedsignificantlyhigherviscositythanthereferencechocolate.
Therewerehowever nosignificant differencesinthemelting
beha viour an d textu re of the  sugar-f ree choc olates  and the
reference.Chocolatescontainingthesugarsubstitutesrecorded
low er onse t tempe rature s and hi gher p eak wid ths tha n the
referencesample.AuthorsconcludedthatinulinandPDmixtures
cou ld be  used  for s ugar- free cho cola te manuf acture w ith
satisfactoryphysico-chemicalpropertieswhensweetenedwith
steviaorthaumatinextracts.
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
246
Pastaandnoodles
Fibreenhancementofnoodleandpastaproductsispossiblewith
PDaswellassomeprocessimprovementbenefitstomechanical
propertiesofthedough.TheadditionofPDtothedoughimproves
thefirmnessthatcanaidformingnoodleorspaghettistrandsor
pastashapes.Thetextureofthecookedproductisnotsignificantly
alteredbyadditionofPDand95%oftheaddedPDremainsin
thepastaornoodlesaftercooking(Matsuda,2006).
Fishandmeatapplications
PDwouldbeusedtoreplacenutritivesweetenersorpolyolsin
surimi(myofibrillarproteinconcentrate)andothercomminuted
fishandmeatproductssuchaschickenfingers,salmonpatties,
etc.Itisaneffectivecryoprotectant,whichunlikesorbitolorcorn
syrupdoesnotaddsweetnesstotheproduct(MacDonaldand
Lanier,1991).Toprotectthemuscleproteinsfromdenaturation
andsoimprovethe technologicalproperties of frozenmuscle
tissuecryoprotectivesubstancesareoftenused.PDcanbeused
inmeatproductssuchaschickennuggetstobindmoistureinthe
meatpatty.Moisturelossisreducedduringcookingaswellas
moisturemigrationtothebatterandbreadcrumbcoating.This
hastheeffectofkeepingthechickennuggetmoistandjuicywhile
thecrispnessofthecoatingisimprovedandstayscrispierfor
longer after cooking (Satsuba andOkuma, 1995).
Park etal.
(1993) foundthatthefunctionalqualityofsaltedpre-rigormince
treatedwithPDascryoprotectantandstoredfor6monthsat-
28°Cwasabout equal tothatofpost-rigor freshmuscle.Itis
possiblethatcryoprotectantscouldhelpmaintainthefunctional
propertiesofpre-rigorsaltedminceduringlong-termchilledor
frozenstorage.SadlerandSwan(1997)investigatedthefunctional
propertiesofmincedbeefthatwassaltedpre-rigorwithorwithout
addedPD, then stored,chilled inavacuum pack oracarbon
dioxidecontrolledatmospherepack,orstored frozen.Adding
PD (2.6%)to salted mince improved batter strain and stress
comparedwiththenon-additiveandsalt-onlysamplesandthus
helpedinmaintainingthemeat’sfunctionality.Tomaniaketal.
(1998)studiedtheeffectsofcryoprotectants(sucrose,D-sorbitol,
malto dextrin a nd PD) on fro zen red me at from sl aughtere d
domesticmammals.TheysuggestedthatPDasthecryoprotectant
ofchoiceinredmeat.Dueitsleastsweetness,tastewasdistinctly
suppressedbymeat,itsdurationofsweetnesswastheshortest
anditstotalflavourimpact(thetotalareaunderthetimeintensity
curve)wasthesmallest.
Insurimi andreformed meatproducts,PDmay beused as a
cryoprotectanttomodifytheglasstransition(Tg)ofthefrozen
matrixandprotectmyofibrillarproteinsfromcolddenaturation
duringfrozen storage(Okada,1992). Kovačevićetal.(2011)
investigatedthecryoprotectiveeffectsofPDonchickensurimi
usingtwodifferentthermalanalysistechniques.Thesamplesof
chickensurimiweremixedwithdifferentmassfractionsofPD
(w=2-10%)plusκ-carrageenan(w=0.5%),PD(w=2-10%)
plus sodium chloride (w= 2%),and PD (w= 2 - 10%). The
additionofPDresultsinstabilizationofmyofibrillarproteins.
Theshiftinthethermaltransitiontemperaturesofmyosinand
actintohighertemperatures,increaseofenthalpiesofmyosin
andactintransition,andshiftofinitialfreezingpointtolower
valuesasthemassfractionofPDincreases,indicatingthatPD
actsinaccordancewithcryoprotectingmechanismandinteracts
with proteinsin chickensurimi. Nopianti et al. (2012) used
different types oflow calorie sweetnesssugar (lactitol,MD,
palati nit, PD and tre halose) as a cr yoprotecta nt on physico -
chemicalpropertiesofthreadfinbream(Nemipterusspp)surimi
duringsixmonthsofstoragewasinvestigated.Theyreportedthat
surimi treate d with a cryoprotect ant exhi bits better
physicochemicalpropertiescomparedwithrawsurimi.PDwas
abletomaintainbetterphysico-chemicalproperties(waterholding
capa city, fold ing test , gel st rength e tc.) th an the ot her low
sweetnesssugarsandsucroseduringsixmonthsoffrozenstorage
an d hence sug gested that,  PD as  a po tential al ternative
cryoprotectanttoreplaceotherlow-sweetnesssugars(Nopianti
etal.2012).
Frozendairydesserts
PDreplacesthebulk,creaminess,smoothness,andmouthfeelof
sugarandfatand enablingtheformation of high-quality,low
calorieandreduced-fatproducts(Kappas,1998).Ithasgreater
visc osity i n solut ion tha n sucro se or so rbitol  at equi valent
concentrationsanditsroleinfreezing-pointdepressionhelpsin
achievingcreamy,palatablefrozendesserts.Adessertcanreadily
beformulatedwithPDtoachievea50%caloriereductionwhen
usedwithahigh intensitysweetener.GoffandJordan(1984)
usedPDandaspartame(0.06to0.1%)assugarsubstitutesina
frozendessertsystem.Smoothnessandacceptability,asevaluated
bysensorymethods,indicatedthatsubstitutionofPDfornomore
than12%ofthe14%totalcarbohydratesinthemixproduced
acceptableproducts.Layereddessertsandyoghurtshavebeen
successfullyformulatedusingPDasalow-caloriebulkingagent
(BarranatesandTamime,1993).SpecterandSetser(1994)studied
theeffectsof milkfatandsucrosesubstitutesonphysicaland
sensory propertiesof a frozendessert systemby sensoryand
instrumentalmethods.Twocomplexcarbohydratefatreplacers,
tapioca dextrinand potato maltodextrin, and aPD-aspartame
sweetening system were evaluated. PD-aspartame effectively
com pensa ted fo r func tiona l prop ertie s that  norma lly we re
conferredbysucroseandmilkfat.Replacementofmilkfatwith
tapiocadextrinorpotatomaltodextrinincreasedcoarsenessand
waterinessanddecreasedcreaminessrelativetothecontrol.
Rolandetal.(1999)demonstratedtheeffectsoffatreplacerson
thephysical andsensory properties offat-free icecream. Ice
creams(0.5%milk fat) were formulatedwithmaltodextrin,
mil k prot ein co ncent rate,  or PD.  Lacto se-re duced , free ze-
concentratedskimmilkwasusedtoprepareaicecreammix.Ice
creamswith10or0.1%fatwerepreparedascontrols.Theaddition
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
247
offatreplacerstofat-freeicecreamdecreasedtheamountofice
intheproduct.Whencomparedwith0.1%faticecream,these
fatreplacersimprovedtheappearanceandtextureoftheicecream
butdidnotmatchtheattributesimpartedby10%milkfat.The
samplecontainingonlymaltodextrinhadthegreatestcreamflavor
and th e bes t tex tura l cha ract eris tics  comp ared  to sa mple
containingPDormilkproteinconcentrate.Inasubsequentstudy,
lowcalorieicecreamsampleswere producedbymixingmilk
powder(2,4,6or8%)witheithermaltodextrin(10%),PD(10%)
oramixturecontainingequalratiosofmaltodextrin-PD(5%+
5%)onweight basisandartificial sweeteners(aspartame and
asesulfame-K) wereadded tomixes withreduced fatcontent
(Güzeler etal. 2011). Maltodextrin added icecream samples
meltedlateordidnevermelt.However,meltingofsampleswith
PDtakesplaceearlier.Therefore,PDhasapositiveeffectonthe
physicalpropertiesoficecreamthanmaltodextrin.Butsample
containingPDreceivedlowersensoryscoresthanothers.Authors
demonstratedthattheuseofequalmixtureofPDandmaltodextrin
hadpositiveimpactbothonthephysicalandsensoryproperties
oficecreams.
Cultureddairyproducts
Yoghurtisahealthyfoodduetothebeneficialaspectsofitshigh
proteinandcalciumcontents(McKinley,2005).PDcanbeused
asfatandsugarsubstitutesinlow-fatdairyproductsowingto
theiradvantageousfunctionality.Numerousresearchershavetried
toimprovetexturalandfunctionalpropertiesoflow-fatyoghurt
byusingthisfatreplacer.Whenusedasfatreplacer,theygive
fat-likemouthfeelandtexture(Hellandetal.2004).Allgeyeret
al. (2 010) demo nstrated  the effect  of adding  prebioti cs and
prob iotics i nto yogh urt drin k (stirre d yoghu rt) syste m. The
prebioticsinulin,solublecornfibre,andPDwereshowntoalter
thesensorypropertiesoftheyoghurtdrinkwhenincorporatedat
differentlevels.Whenprobiotics(Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12
and La ctobacillus acidophilus LA-5 ) wer e inc orpo rated,
add itiona l senso ry cha nges we re iden tifie d. Tota l varia nce
explainedbytheprincipalcomponentanalysisbiplotoffactors1
and2was65%,whichshowedyoghurtdrinkswithsolublecorn
fibreandinulinvaryingbythesweetversussourattributesand
yoghurtdrinkswithPDvaryingbythemouthfeelattributes.Based
ontheresultsofthisstudy,onlythePDtreatmentwouldbean
acceptablevehicletodelivertheprobiotichealtheffectsatthe
endofthe30daysstorageperiod.Srisuvoretal.(2013)studied
theeffectsoftwoprebiotics(inulinandPDasfatreplacer,each
at1,2or3g/100mLofreconstitutedmilk)onphysico-chemical
andsensorypropertiesoflow-fatsetyoghurt.Theadditionof
eachprebioticcouldimprovephysicalandsensorypropertiesof
theyoghurtand2gofPD/100mLwasthemostsuitablelevel.
Further,theprobiotic-cultured(withLactobacillus paracasei
Lpc-37)bananapuréewaspreparedandusedasfruitbaseofthe
prod uct a nd some physi coch emical and microb iolo gical
characteristicsweremonitoredduring21daysofstorage.The
numberoftheprobioticswasstillhighlyacceptableat8.86log
CFU/gduringthe entire storageperiod;however,itsphysical
propertiesgraduallydeterioratedafter14days.Authorsconcluded
that theuse ofbananapurée as a source ofnutrientsfor the
probioticandthePDasafatsubstituteinthesetyoghurtwas
beneficialbothfortheconsumersandthemanufacturers.
Cakes
Therearesomestudiesreportedthereplacementofsucrosein
spongecakesbyPD,withorwithoutnonnutritivesweeteners.
Thetextureofyellowlayercakeswasoptimized by Frye and
Setser(1991)usingsixbulkingagents:sorbitol,hydrogenated
sta rch hy drolysate mixture, la ctito l, iso malt,  18-de xtros e-
equivalent maltodextrinand PD incombinations tototally or
partially replace sucrose. Sorb itol at 100%  level result ed in
moderatemouthdryingcomparedtoPDwhichcausedlongand
severemouthdrying,whilealessprolongeddryingoccurredfrom
themixtureofthePDwithmaltodextrin,sorbitolorisomalt. Attia
etal.(1993)studiedtheeffectofreplacingsucrosewithfructose,
acesulfame-Koraspartame,withorwithouttheadditionofPD,
onthephysicalpropertiesofcakes.Theresultsindicatedthat
addingPDcausedanimprovementintexturalpropertieswhich
ledtospongecakeswithsimilaracceptabilitytothatofsugar
cake with a40% reduction incalories. Pateras et al. (1994)
demonstratedtheeffectofsucrosereplacementbyPDonfoam
characteristicsofcakebatters.PDcausedanincreaseinthemean
sizeofairbubbles,andintroducedalargervariationinbubble
sizedistributioninthecakebatter.Hicsasmazetal.(2003)studied
theeffectofPDsubstitutiononahigh-ratiocakesystem.Authors
foundthesameincreaseinthemeanbubblesizeandshowedthat
PDwascapableofimitatingthesucrosecakebatterintermsof
bubblesize distribution.Also,theyfoundthatincrease inPD
resultedinasignificantdecreaseincakeheightandasensible
changeinthelightnessandinthecrumbcolourhue.Rondaetal.
(2005)evaluatedtheeffectonspongecakevolume,colourand
texturepropertiesoftotalreplacementofsucrosebysevenbulking
agents. Several polyols - maltitol, mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol,
isomaltoseandtwooligosaccharides-PDandoligofructosewere
testedasbulkingagents.Bestresultswereobtainedwithxylitol
andmaltitol,leadingtospongecakesmoresimilartothecontrol
onemanufacturedwithsucroseandwiththehighestacceptance
levelinsensoryevaluations.Panelistsassignedthelowestscore
in  overall  acceptabi lity t o mannitol  cakes, f ollowed by
oligofructoseandPDones.Thepoorsensoryscoresgiventothe
oligofructoseand PDcakes were mainlyrelatedto taste and
aftertaste.SitiFaridahandNoorAziah(2012)preparedreduced
caloriechocolatecakewithjackfruitseedflourandPD.Optimized
productwasobtainedbypartiallyreplacingsucrosewithPDat
11%andresultedin34%caloriereductionascomparedtothe
controlcake.
Safety
IndianJDairySci69(3),2016
248
ThesafetyofPDinthehumandiethasbeencomprehensively
demonstrated(BurdockandFlamm,1993).BoththeJointFAO
andWHOexpertcommitteeonfoodadditives(JECFA)andthe
EuropeanCommision,ScientificCommitteeonFood(EU/SCF)
haveassignedanacceptabledailyintake(ADI)“notspecified”,
meaningthatneitheragencyfounditnecessarytostipulatean
upperlevelofsafeintakebecauseexcessiveconsumptionisa
matteroftoleranceratherthansafety(JECFA,1987;EC/SCF,
1990).Therefore,PDispermittedforuseinanyfoodatanylevel
withoutrestrictionotherthanGMPinmostmarkets.WhilePDis
notconsideredtoxicathighdosages,laxationeffectshavebeen
observedwhenintakesareelevated,similartoothernondigestible
carbohydrates.Childrenareconsiderednomoresensitivethan
adultstoPDwhengivenatthesamelevelonaperbodyweight
basis  (Flood et  al. 2004) .As r eported i n a compend ium by
BurdockandFlamm(1999),anextensivearrayoftoxicological
studies,conductedinavarietyofanimalmodels(i.e.mice,rats,
rabbits,dogs)forextensiveperiodsoftime(3–24months),have
fully  supporte d the safe ty of two fo rms of PD  ( acidic an d
neutralizedforms)asfoodingredients.
Tolerance
Floodetal.(2004)havereviewednineclinicalstudiesinadults
andchildrenwereconductedwithPDtoevaluatetheextentof
gastrointestinalsymptoms.ThesestudiesdemonstratedthatPD
isnotlikelytoinducediarrheainadultsatdoseslessthan50g
perday(apracticalno-effectdose),andmostindividualsmay
onlyexperiencediarrheafrommuchhigherdoses.Thesestudies
showedthatPDisbettertoleratedthanmostotherlow-digestible
carbo hydr ates . The fac t tha t les s gas  is pr oduc ed du ring
fermentationislikelyacontributingfactor(Hernotetal.2009;
VesterBoleretal.2009).ThediarrheainducedbyPDisisolated
andtransient.Clinicalchemistryandmetabolicbalancestudies
haveshownnotreatmentrelatedeffectfromingestionofhigh
dosesofPD(Floodetal.2004).PDiswelltolerated,andamean
laxativethresholdof90g/day(1.3g/kgbw)or50gasasingle
dosehasbeengiven(JECFA,1987).TheSCFrapporteurpointed
out,however,thatsuchestimatesareonlyprovidedasaguide
andshouldnotbeusedtoestablishmaximumlevelsofuse(Van
Esch,1987).
Regulatoryandlabelingguidelines
The use  of PD in foods  has receive d approval i n numerous
countries.Itisapprovedforuseinfoodsin57countries,56of
whompermituseof1kcal/genergyvalueforlabeling(Auerbach
etal.2006).PDhasbeenapprovedasafoodadditiveintheUS
since1982(FoodandDrugAdministration21CFR172.841).In
the EU,  PD is appro ved under  the Miscel laneous Addit ives
Directive -Annex I, permitting the useof PD in virtually all
foodstuffsfollowingthequantum satisprincipleandislistedas
E1200.InJapan,theMinistryofHealthandWelfare(MOHW)
recognizesPDasafood(Mitchell,2001;Stowell,2009).InIndia,
according to the Food Safety and Standards(FoodProducts
StandardsandFoodAdditives)Regulations(2011),PD(INSNo.
120 0) ma y be us ed as  bulki ng ag ent, s tabi lizer,  thic kner,
humectantandtexturizerinicecream,frozendesserts, cakes,
biscuits,yoghurt,whiptopping,sugarboiledconfectionary,jam,
fruitjellyandtraditionalIndiansweets(carbohydratebasedand
milkbased)asperGMPlevels(FSSA,2006).
FoodscontainingPDdesignedforspecialdietaryuse,suchas
reducedorlowcaloriefoods,mustbelabeledinaccordancewith
21CFRPart105.Theingredientstatementoffoodscontaining
PD(eitherthepowderorthe70%solutionpartiallyneutralized
withpotassiumhydroxide)shouldincludetheofficialrecognized
nameoftheingredientPD.Foodscontaininginexcessofthe50
mgspotassiumperservingmustalsodeclarepotassiumhydroxide
intheingredientstatement.Aclarifyingstatementmustalsofollow
suchas“forneutralization”or“toadjustpH”.FDArecognizes
thatPDcontainsonlyonecaloriepergramanddoesnotobject
totheuseofthisvalueforpurposeofdeterminingthecaloric
contentoffoodsformulated with PD(Smiles, 1982).
TheUS,
however,allowsPDuseasafoodadditiveinspecificfoodsonly,
andrequiresthat‘Thelabelandlabelingoffood,asingleserving
ofwhichwouldbeexpectedtoexceed15goftheadditive’shall
bear th e statement : ‘Sensiti ve individu als may expe rience a
laxativeeffectfromexcessiveconsumptionofthisproduct’(Flood
et al. 2 004). According t o FSSAI regula tions in Ind ia, food
containingmorethan10%PDshallbearthelabelonpackage
“PDmayhavelaxativeeffects”.
Conclusions
PD is added tofoods for itsphysiological andtechnological
reasons.Itshighstabilityinheatandacidicenvironments,low
viscosity,high solubility in water,and bulkingand texturing
propertiesandblandtastelendsitselftoawidevarietyoffood
and be verage form ulations.  PD can impro ve mineral s tatus,
attenuatepostprandialbloodtriglycerides,maintainsbloodsugar
levels,regulates bowel function,softenedthefeces, improves
the ease of defe cation and hel ps in prevention  of colon
carcinogenesis.InthisregardPDallowsthedevelopmentoffood
productswithawidevarietyofnutritionalimprovementssuchas
prebiotic,fibrefortification,caloriereduction,reducedglycemic
loadaswellassugarandfatreduction.Hence,PDisaversatile
foodingredientthatcanbeusedtoimprovethenutritionalprofile
ofawiderangeofprocessedfoods.
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... In addition polydextrose is a non-digestible polysaccharide and is widely used in a wide variety of low-fat foods as a fat replacer and is also regarded as a functional ingredient due to its prebiotic effects on bacterial growth (Do Carmo et al., 2016). Polydextrose has the ability to binding water, give a fat-like mouthfeel, and providing smoothness (Veena et al., 2016). Besides, it is fermented in the colon and thus increased the activity of beneficial live active cultures, inhibition of pathogens, and harmful bacteria in the digestive tract (Do Carmo et al., 2016). ...
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Full-text available
This work was planned to investigate the influence of polydextrose as a fat replacer on the properties of skimmed yogurt. So, five batches were prepared; full-fat yogurt (control) and four skimmed yogurt batches prepared with 0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% polydextrose, respectively. Addition of polydextrose had significant effects on pH values and acidity and skimmed yogurt with 3% polydextrose exhibited significantly (p ≤ .05) higher in the apparent viscosity, WHC, and lower in syneresis. The viable counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in samples containing polydextrose remained above ˃106 CFU/g. Microstructure showed stronger and more stable gel structures in treatment with 3% polydextrose. No significant differences were noted between yogurt with 3% polydextrose and full-fat yogurt in sensory attributes except flavor. Higher sensory scores were observed for yogurt with 3% polydextrose. Thus, the addition of 3% polydextrose was sufficient to develop skimmed yogurt with desired properties.
... Ergun et al. (2010); 3.Boonyai et al. (2004); 4.Kawai et al. (2005); 5.Veena et al. (2016); 6.Zhu and Yu (2017). ...
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Stickinessis an inherent textural property in many sugar‐rich foods, which can be problematic to the processing of confectionery products. The adhesion between foods and contact surfaces during processing and consumption has not been well understood in academia or industry. The theories of adhesion were discovered by scientists in the adhesive field of study, some of which can explain the stickiness phenomenon of confections. This work reviewed these theories in the context of sugar‐rich foods, followed by a survey on the sensory and instrumental analyses of stickiness. Furthermore, the contributions of ingredients, temperature, compression, and contact surfaces to sugar‐rich food adhesion are highlighted.
... In addition polydextrose is a non-digestible polysaccharide and is widely used in a wide variety of low-fat foods as a fat replacer and is also regarded as a functional ingredient due to its prebiotic effects on bacterial growth (Do Carmo et al., 2016). Polydextrose has the ability to binding water, give a fat-like mouthfeel, and providing smoothness (Veena et al., 2016). Besides, it is fermented in the colon and thus increased the activity of beneficial live active cultures, inhibition of pathogens, and harmful bacteria in the digestive tract (Do Carmo et al., 2016). ...
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... According to Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012, the synonym for the food additive E 1200 is modified polydextroses. Another synonym for the nonneutralised polydextrose found in the literature is polydextrose-A (Burdock and Flamm, 1999;Veena et al., 2016). ...
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