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Rethinking the Internet of Things - A Scalable Approach ..

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... Message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) [2], is very known Internet of Things (IoT) M2M connectivity. Factory automation has been based on tight sensor-actuator control loops, where sensors "feed" data into Programmable Logic Controllers through the wired analog and digital I/O ports of the controllers [3][4][5]. ...
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Many industries, such as aeronautics construction are still equipped with legacy machines and are not keen to change old, however fully functional, equipment to new ones. Hence, an upgrade must be found to cope the legacy and fully functional machines to IoT technologies. This paper is a contribution to embrace those challenges in a new IoT architecture able to support the creation of solutions for Smart Industries. Internet of Things is increasing acceptance and the infrastructure for them is becoming available. This leads to an insurgence on investments and development of new dedicated IoT infrastructures. Industries need to adapt quickly to this constant technological evolution, implementing measures and connecting machines and robots at critical points to the Internet, instrumenting them using the concept of IoT, with the major goal of implementing a flexible, secure, easy to maintain and capable to evolve infrastructure, when legacy equipment is involved. The availability of machines and other critical assets directly affects the effectiveness of manufacturing operations. The architecture design offers security, flexibility, simplicity of implementation and maintenance, and is resilient to failures or attacks and technologically independent. Field tests are reported to evaluate key aspects of the proposed architecture.
... These devices not only communicate with the environment ISSN: 2582-5267 www.ajbsr.net 5 bur also monitor and execute tasks and coordinate decisions [15]. Due to the deployment of tremendous number of physical objects into the internet, Internet of Things (IoT) face a lot of consequences [16]. Being bounded to humans closely and their environment a smallest of vulnerability could lead to a major financial loss. ...
... In the health sector, pervasive systems can monitor patients' vital signs in real time, or pervasive systems can establish control of important assets in a certain hospital, where they are and how they are used, and so on. In smart cities, the use of these technologies helps the control of pollution, street lighting, traffic management, etc. [1]. ...
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Implementing a wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) in Internet of Things (IoT) applications is a complex task. The need to establish the number of nodes, sensors, and actuators, and their location and characteristics, requires a tool that allows the preliminary determination of this information. Additionally, in IoT scenarios where a large number of sensors and actuators are present, such as in a smart city, it is necessary to analyze the scalability of these systems. Modeling and simulation can help to conduct an early study and reduce development and deployment times in environments such as a smart city. The design-time verification of the system through a network simulation tool is useful for the most complex and expensive part of the system formed by a WSAN. However, the use of real components for other parts of the IoT system is feasible by using cloud computing infrastructure. Although there are cloud computing simulators, the cloud layer is poorly developed for the requirements of IoT applications. Technologies around cloud computing can be used for the rapid deployment of some parts of the IoT application and software services using containers. With this framework, it is possible to accelerate the development of the real system, facilitate the rapid deployment of a prototype, and provide more realistic simulations. This article proposes an approach for the modeling and simulation of IoT systems and services in a smart city leveraged in a WSAN simulator and technologies of cloud computing. Our approach was verified through experiments with two use cases. (1) A model of sensor and actuator networks as an integral part of an IoT application to monitor and control parks in a city. Through this use case, we analyze the scalability of a system whose sensors constantly emit data. (2) A model for cloud-based IoT reactive parking lot systems for a city. Through our approach, we have created an IoT parking system simulation model. The model contains an M/M/c/N queuing system to simulate service requests from users. In this use case, the model replication through hierarchical modeling and scalability of a distributed parking reservation service were evaluated. This last use case showed how the simulation model could provide information to size the system through probability distribution variables related to the queuing system. The experimental results show that the use of simulation techniques for this type of application makes it possible to analyze scalability in a more realistic way.
... Este modelo é baseado em quatro camadas tecnológicas: dispositivos, rede, suporte a serviços e aplicações, e segurança da informação (UIT, 2019). A diversidade de aplicações da Internet das Coisas requer o desenvolvimento e/ou aperfeiçoamento de inúmeras tecnologias, abrangendo todas as camadas apresentadas, ou seja, desde o componente semicondutor que permite a um sensor medir uma determinada grandeza física e que será controlado por um chip (Camada de Dispositivos), passando pelo equipamento que irá transmitir esse dado por radiofrequência (Camada de Rede), até um servidor que trata a informação, agregando-lhe valor (Camada de Suporte a Serviços e Aplicações); e tudo isso com privacidade e confiabilidade (Camada de Segurança da Informação) (DACOSTA, 2013). ...
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A Internet e as Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TICs) estão transformando a economia mundial. No âmbito do agronegócio, a IoT pode contribuir com uma agricultura mais precisa, otimizando o uso de recursos como fertilizantes e água e aumentando a produtividade. Embora o Brasil possua fortes e significativas vantagens competitivas no agronegócio, ele ainda possui desafios a enfrentar, e a IoT é uma grande oportunidade para que o país consolide sua liderança mundial. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar os produtos e/ou serviços das Agtechs brasileiras de acordo com a lista de aplicações definida no Plano Nacional de IoT do Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Comunicações (MCTIC, 2018). Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa documental na internet e um estudo de casos múltiplos, por meio de entrevistas com os fundadores de 4 Agtechs brasileiras. Constatou-se que, com base nos eixos prioritários do Plano Nacional de IoT, apenas o uso eficiente de recursos naturais e insumos possui um número significativo de empresas atuantes. Com relação às camadas da arquitetura de IoT, apenas as de dispositivos e de suporte a serviços e aplicações apresentaram um número relevante de empresas com soluções proprietárias.
... The Internet, especially the cloud computing, has become the backbone of several applications in different domains such as healthcare, transportation, energy, and agriculture. The Internet has made the interconnectivity of seemingly every object possible; human social networks and even the machineto-machine (M2M) communications [30] [31]. The impending Internet will absolutely encompass a large number of smart objects that provide information and services to the users. ...
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In recent years, we have witnessed a paradigm shift in mobile operator deployment from Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) to fifth generation (5G) networks. With the completion of the 3GPP Release 15 standards supporting-Non-Standalone 5G‖ in late 2018, attention has shifted to Standalone 5G, whilst operators across the globe continue to accelerate deployment of 5G based on the latest specifications. This paper addresses the global trends and challenges for early 5G rollout with a focus on the Nigeria market. It also provides solutions to guide Nigerian mobile operator on pitfalls and barriers to entry, to allow smooth transitioning from 4G to 5G technology in Nigeria. Finally, the paper provides empirical evidence suggesting UE connected to the small cells use lower transmit power, hence improving uplink performance.
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Mobile media are changing everyday social practices, including modes of travel and the way social networks are developed, sustained, and transformed. This chapter presents findings from an explorative study of urban travelers in Oslo, drawing on structuration theory and social practice theory. Findings show that travel routines are becoming increasingly entangled with the use of personal and social media in everyday life. Many young travelers have social relationships that are embedded in an “omnipresent” stream of mediated communication, changing the content and experience of being on the move. Communication practices appear to be moving towards a real-time mode, where mundane pictures of objects encountered in the flux of everyday life, spontaneous reflections, discussion, and web stories are continually produced and circulated as part of the maintenance of social networks. Partly, this seems to be founded on social norms and expectations for a high frequency of communication within networks of close friends. However, personal and social media also actively influence how people plan and coordinate various social gatherings, as well as on the meanings given to them afterwards.
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Home automations provide full control and flexible monitoring of home appliances for increased comfort, efficient energy use, costs saving, improved safety and security, and have driven the development of various smart homes technologies. This paper presents the implementation of a home automation system utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) technology. This work tackles the problems of complexity and incompatible standards inherent in the existing home automation solutions using a robust distributed computing approach. The embedded system operates on dual Advanced Virtual RISC (AVR) microcontrollers, ATmega328p and ATmega16L, interfaced to input and output modules-sensors, actuators, Wi-Fi shield, LCD, keypad etc.-for interactions with users, appliances and the environment. The HTML5 based intuitive mobile and web applications, developed for the system, induces unrestricted flexibility in the system operations and management. The system deploys a novel Web Application Messaging Protocol (WAMP), implemented with WebSocket full-duplex and persistent connection protocol and JSON data serialization, for seamless individual applications and subsystems integration with a relatively high level of security through web service security protocol. This cloud-based home automation solution has lower implementation cost compared to the existent systems because, as it removes the expensive costs of on-premise high-end computers and dedicated public IP addresses.
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The objective of this chapter is to give basic introductions to the Internet of Things and Big Data in the context of PLM. This will help those working in a company’s PLM Initiative to understand where the IoT fits with PLM. In turn, this understanding will help them to participate more fully in the PLM Initiative and add more value. This chapter also aims to give students taking a PLM course a basic understanding of the IoT and of Big Data.
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