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Predictable Influence of IoT (Internet of Things) in the Higher Education



Internet of things (IoT) is a relatively an emergent technology that facilitate interaction between the real and virtual objects. As it develops and matures, it grows in scale and dimension influences the context of our life such as the education, in particular higher education; this article focuses on a research associated with the predictable impact of IoT in the superior education. A theoretical analysis along with a statistical study is explored in this paper. The theoretical and statistical results showed non-ignorable influence of the IoT in the education ecosystem in terms of the learning and managing factors. In some cases such as the hyper- connectivity, collaboration and research opportunities the effect is significant. Emergent technologies such as the IoT at present are rapidly developing in the digital world and transforming traditional education system into a scalable, adaptable with rapid dynamic changes, flexible and more efficient E-learning with a topology where the huge number of physical and virtual interacting objects are involved in the process of learning. It is projected the IoT will make possible to develop the intelligent E-learning systems which can predict and determine the particular educational needs of the students, based on the study of data obtained from the connected objected.
AbstractInternet of things (IoT) is a relatively an emergent
technology that facilitate interaction between the real and
virtual objects. As it develops and matures, it grows in scale and
dimension influences the context of our life such as the
education, in particular higher education; this article focuses on
a research associated with the predictable impact of IoT in the
superior education. A theoretical analysis along with a
statistical study is explored in this paper. The theoretical and
statistical results showed non-ignorable influence of the IoT in
the education ecosystem in terms of the learning and managing
factors. In some cases, such as the hyper- connectivity,
collaboration and research opportunities the effect is significant.
Emergent technologies such as the IoT at present are rapidly
developing in the digital world and transforming traditional
education system into a scalable, adaptable with rapid dynamic
changes, flexible and more efficient E-learning with a topology
where the huge number of physical and virtual interacting
objects are involved in the process of learning. It is projected
the IoT will make possible to develop the intelligent E-learning
systems which can predict and determine the particular
educational needs of the students, based on the study of data
obtained from the connected objected.
Index TermsInternet of things (IoT), higher education,
hyper-connectivity, e-learning, physical objects, virtual
The arrival of Microprocessors in the 1970s created the
first mean of PCs (personal computers), followed in the late
1980s by the network of smart devices concept and enabling
the first internetconnected appliance [1]. In 1988, Mark
Weiser introduced the ubiquitous computing (many
computers for one person) [2], [3]. At the same decade, the
United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) has been initiated the Distributed Sensor Network
(DSN) program in order to survey the experiments in
implementing distributed wireless sensor networks [4].
Finally, A decade later, in 1999, Kevin Ashton, a British
entrepreneur, invented the term of Internet of Things [IoT]
for the first time while was working at Labs Auto-D centers,
referring to the RFID) [5].
The basic idea of (IoT) is a new model based on the
presence of a variety of objects like Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID) tags, sensors and actuators that are able
to interact with each other [6].
It is considered as the internetworking of smart physical
Manuscript received October 26, 2016; revised February 20, 2017.
The authors are with National University of Costa Rica, Informatics
School, Heredia (e-mail:,
objects that are enabled to collect and exchange data through
the unique IPv6 addressing schemes. Also, it refers to the use
of smartly connected objects, agent and devices to manage
data obtained by embedded sensors in machines and other
physical-virtual objects. Based on the recommendation of
The Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things
(IoT-GSI); IoT has been defined as the global infrastructure
for the information society that can facilitate the
interconnecting all types of objects such as physical and
virtual things based on the presented telecommunication
protocols and technologies. IoT-GSI also, emphasized on the
establishing a new Study Group on the IoT and its
applications, including: smart cities and communities [7].
IoT, based on the Internet society (ISOC), refers to the
scenarios where network connectivity and computing
capability covers to devices, objects and sensors to generate,
send/receive, exchange data without the human intervention
[8]. IoT provides the advanced connectivity of objects,
devices and systems that goes beyond machine-to-machine
(M2M) communications which focuses on the sensor
networksmachines communicating. These entire things
converse through the cloud technology, make decisions, and
share information [9], [10].
By IoT the objects can sense around environment and can
be sensed and controlled remotely through existing network
infrastructure such as Internet in such a way each object is
uniquely detectable through its embedded hardware system
and is able to interact within the existing Internetworking
architecture [11], [12]. These objects such as the computers,
smart-phones, laptops, tablets, phablets, and/or any type of
the devices that can receive an IP address comprise the stack
of the Internet of Things (IoT). They also, can be joined by
other smart devices with/without human intervention which
can collect and transfer data, and make a control decision
Predictions for the growth of the IoT are a glimpse into the
future: Based on the IDC experts, the worldwide market for
IoT solutions grows at a 20% CAGR from $1.9 trillion in
2013 to $7.1 trillion in 2020. More than 20 to 50 billion
devices will be connected by 2020 and the worldwide market
for IoT solutions will reach to $7.1 trillion in four years. It is
calculated by 2020, IoT will impact close to 6% of the global
economy [14].
The 2013 Horizon Report calculates that smart devices
will become ubiquitous in higher education by 2017. Also,
the Cisco systems forecasts IoT in education has a 10-year
net present value of US$175 billion, which will be deal out
through the personalized instructions, data collection for
making efficient decisions and decreasing the overheads on
the educational resources [15].
Predictable Influence of IoT (Internet of Things) in the
Higher Education
Majid Bayani Abbasy and Enrique Vílchez Quesada
International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 7, No. 12, December 2017
doi: 10.18178/ijiet.2017.7.12.995
IoT is in the early stages and a few applications are
currently developed based on it. But it is expected that in
future, there will be implemented a large number of the
applications for smart systems and ecologies [16].
The scope of IoT application and the technologies that
drive it, is extended form the smart connected cities to the
healthcare systems. The smart cities, online business, smart
homes, smart environment, security & emergencies,
transportation, smart energy consumption, industrial process
& education and monitoring are the most observable
examples under the domain of IoT applications. In fact, IoT
comprises all macro human/object activities. Education is
one of the most visible macro activities in the human life.
Communication Technology has been converted to an
essential component in the new education models. It allows
passing from a knowledge-transfer model to a collaborative,
active, self-directed, and engaging model that helps to
increase knowledge and skills of the students (digital
students) as well as developing their skills in the “learning
digital Society” [15].
As use of IoT implementation in the education area is in
the premature steps, there are very dispersed & limited papers
that focused on the usage of IoT on higher education and its
measurable impact. This paper presents a descriptive
research along with a statistical methodology as a
supplementary support. A theoretical analysis on the Internet
of education things model and their components will be
outlined in the following.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has a very relatively new
implementation perspective (less than 10 years) in the high
education systems [16].
Typically, IoT creates a high capacity ecosystem that
provides an open infrastructure for both virtual and physical
objects. This potential allows making possible to develop
numerous applications based on it [17].
As said, one of the most common applications of IoT is in
education, in particular, online education. Online education is,
creatively, the most tangible achievement which provides a
robust-scalable platform for E-learning that allows to
educators and students, as the education objects, work
together in the real time. This collaboration can increase,
perceptibly, the learning performance, efficiency and the
rapid online assessment.
Because of the IoT’s nature and the technologies that go
along with it such as cloud technology & virtualization
devices, the education agents have access to a big Data-Base
of the resources. It means the linking the huge number of
institutes around the world which can offer a vast domain of
opportunities to the researchers as well as remarkable topics
such as accurate predictive and sensibility analysis.
The exclusivity of IoTs’ characteristics in the education
system applications, especially in higher education allows
forming a novel IoT model such as “Internet of Education
things (IoET)”.
As an assumption, several related features were defined to
describe the IoET in order to study the influence of those
features in higher education. They are explained in details as
follows getting along with a theoretical impact analysis of
each pillar that has on the superior education learning
A. Engagement in the Learning Process
If we consider student engagement in education as the
degree of attention, interest, inquisitiveness, curiosity,
awareness, motivated. optimism, and passion that learners
show when they are being taught, which extends to the level
of enthusiasm they have to study and improve in their
education [16], the two-sided interactive characteristics of
the IoT are the effective tools that facilitate more
participating of the student in the learning process.
Students by means of the different communication
technologies, provided in the IoT learning environment, can
answer the questions and/or any type of inquires,
questionnaires and giving feedbacks rapidly and frequently.
The interactive tools of IoT can contribute the positive youth
development. It can make possible forming multi-sized
groups of the young students to share their experiences and
opinions that ends to the social & emotional engagement as
well as physical and behavioral. Also, the educators can
define different educational techniques and strategies in
order to capture the learner feedback in real time.
B. Creativity
In reality, IoT’s diversity promotes creativity as a subset of
intelligence actions by the capability to observe the world in
the new and diverse ways to make connections between
physical and virtual objects in such a way it can change the
existing domain and transform an existing into a new one
The possibility of interaction between the huge numbers of
objects makes it possible to generate the predictable and
unpredictable things or ideas.
The Internet of things can encourage creativity in many
topics, integrating a wide range of educational technologies
which can turn the educators and students into creators.
C. E-Learning
Although, the origin of the E-learning phrase that
originated during the 1980's is not completely clear but in
general, refers to applying electronic tool, soft & hardware
applications and web-based processes to learn [19].
Now days, the prodigious technology evolution and
communication tools enable online learning through the huge
learning environment names Internet. The IoT can represent
an expansion of the learning ecosystem combining the
physicality and virtuality, and will come close to the
susceptibility of the learning process [20].
IoT can introduce two key factors into the traditional
E-learning in a vast domain. They are: intelligence and object
interaction (things to everything, machine to machine).
The main function of the Intelligent Agents which offer the
automated dynamic operational system is to help a user (an
object/smart thing) in order to interact with a computer
application [21].
As the E-learning provides a more appropriate virtual
access for learners from any geographical position, it also
introduces some limitations in the communication,
collaboration and “face-to-face” interactions between
International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 7, No. 12, December 2017
students & instructors. The solution for these types of issues
is using the intelligent objects in the learning environment
[21], [22] that IoT is the most limitless provider of interactive
smart agents.
In addition, the possibility of cooperation between agents
(virtual & physical objects) in the IoT ecosystem is predicted
in a high level of probability.
IoT provides a novel electronic teaching and learning
platform with a wide variety of distance learning objects. The
virtual object (teacher) interacts with another object (student)
as well as interaction between e-classmate objects that
generates a different means for collaboration between
e-groups. The experiments have shown that using the system
based on the intelligent agents can optimize the quality of the
system [22].
D. Self- learning
Self-learning, auto-didacticism or self-education is the
learning act about a subject or subjects in a self-motivated
situation without formal education that considered as a
complement to education, in order to encourage students to
do more independent work [23]. The automation
characteristics of the IoT allow to the human objects
(students, educators or hardware elements) interacts
independently to carry out the educational operational job.
By IoT can integrate the constant self-directed learning
into all contexts of human lives because all IoT objects are
around of us. They build the whole interconnected world,
available to everyone and almost everywhere and every time,
interacting with everything.
A student can access to the numerous educational
resources any time researching, doing homework,
investigating topics of interest, sending and receiving any
material or feedback to the educators.
The teachers, by means of IoT, can send and receive any
materials from the students as well as the administrative tasks,
online student assessment, doing research and connecting to
the plentiful research platforms around the world from
anywhere connecting to anything. For example, a student can
connect by a registered mobile device to the cloud system of
institute which is studying form the home or anyplace in the
city, checking the possible lab-works (predesigned by
teacher), virtually connecting to the lab and experiment the
exercises and receive the answer online.
E. Research Opportunity
The Internet of things can be considered as an interactive
methodology in computing which by connecting billions of
everyday objects to the Internet; collect huge volumes of
information that could reshape the context of the human life.
As it develops, it influences and dominants the content of
the social & professional activities. Working at the same time
creates the new opportunities and challenges for industry,
education, production and business sections. It enables
transforming the means of our life through the unexpected
technological changes in the real life efficiency [24].
The rise of ubiquitous object-to-object &
machine-to-machine connectivity is almost everywhere, any
time can create many opportunities and challenges for the
researchers in different areas of science and technology.
Based on some acknowledged analytical reports [25] the
growth of IoT applications and services involve the most
desirable topics of the R&D science groups around the world
such as electric vehicles, biology, sporting, healthcare, smart
cities & house, automation, transportation, construction,
manufacturing, energy saving, security, telecommunication
and more, that are targeted by enormous numbers of the
research and development departments related to the
institutes and Universities around the world.
It can be also, considered as one of the most revolutionary
infrastructure roadmap to support future investment decision
in research infrastructure to embrace technological
innovation. IoT, as mentioned, is expected to promote
significant improvements in the production, education,
manufacturing, healthcare, energy, transportation, security,
communication, government, and economic growth which
means generating innovative modern challenges finding
solutions [26].
On the other side, “resources” have a fundamental role in
the research process. High grade of real time constant
connectivity between different objects (DB, Infrastructures,
internetworking) has generated an elevated degree of access
to the great volumes of cloud resources that IoT is expected
to provide it.
IoT provides connecting the massive number of the
institutes, universities and research centers in the real time.
This enables the researchers to have access to the big data in
order to seek the necessary information for the subjects that
are investigating, as well as identifying the future projected
As expected, In IoT all objects and machines around us are
connected and lived. Every second they are generating new
signals and make connection one-to-many as well as
many-to-many type. Also, the local objects can connect to
others virtual or physical things through the inter-networking
architecture with external things (Internet). In a higher
education environment, it means the researchers are living in
a 7/24h of the real-time atmosphere. They can have access to
the raining of data they need, or the information related to the
original technical facts that, automatically, can generate
many challenges for them.
Another motivating side, in this topic, would be: The IoT
is projected a growth opportunity for involving the more
potential hardware smart devices such as sensors, actuators,
networks, servers which can receive an IP address along with
the giant cloud infrastructures. It makes possible execution
the large volume of analysis in a faster-speed than before.
Intelligent devices with the multiple capacities of
observation, monitoring, communication and decision
making can transform the research culture to a different era of
smart researching in a multiple volume of topics.
In case of M2M, they can observe, monitor, collect and
analysis conducted to the novel results and emerging new
It is predicted in the early future, in an IoT-based
environment, the smart-physical-virtual objects can define
the future needs of the community based on the input data
and past experiences, automatically.
F. Collaboration
International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 7, No. 12, December 2017
As the recent models of education continues moving
towards online or e-learning, a more collaborative ecosystem
becomes more and more imperative [27]. IoT provides a big
open interactive platform that enhances, effectively
collaboration in different layers in the higher education
systems. The effective communication is the most
fundamental context in the collaboration. IoT can offer the
efficient communication between virtual and physical
IP-based things with a high degree of interactions. This is
because the hyper-connected and interactive nature of IoT.
Technically, it is expected the IoT can create a big and high
performance virtual collaboration platform by using the
competent tools, sensors, actuators and storage technology.
This can be projected as redesigning the traditional
collaboration to a new means names the intelligent
The intelligent collaboration can be one of the most
valuable and novel topics where the multiple users (students
or educators in this case) form a team group in order to
accomplish predefined tasks of a particular project.
In a typical intelligent collaboration environment, the
education objects can schedule their meeting by using the IoT
and the peripheral technologies that drive it such as
intelligent software, virtual platforms and cloud technology
without the location or any physical-place limitation. The
functions can be programmed automatically based on the
predefined agenda and users can connect, interact and share
their knowledge that it means an essential improvement in the
collaboration efficiency.
Educators, researchers and students can work together
globally, within or out of the education centers or located in
different countries without any borders.
G. Hyper-Connectivity
Based on the Gartner that is the world's leading
information technology research and advisory company, the
size and scale of the IoT can reach to 26 billion connected
devices by 2020. Cisco corporation predicted over 50 billion
things will be connected and this number can reach to 75
billion connected objects (physically and/or virtually) as
forecasted Morgan Stanley [28].
Hyper connectivity of the IoT in the higher education
means connecting numerous academies, institutes and
educational centers all over the map. Enormous number of
sensors, actuators & IP-based virtual or physical objects will
be connected, generating Big Data. Large amount of
information will be generated and available for researchers,
instructors as well as the students. The biggest virtual
technological platforms will connect all IP-based points over
the map, globally. Global video-conference implementation,
global institutions and educational centers can be
implemented and connect internal education group to the
external links.
It is a realistic vision: the worldwide implementation and
management of the investigations and projects technically
and financially. This global feasible vision is predicted for
the future which can transform education style of the human
being, all because the hyper connectivity features of IoT.
H. Other factors
Other influence factors related to this study are considered
as indirect indicators; they are: Scalability, Education Object
Performance (Student & Teacher), Cognitive aspects,
Learning Efficiency and Big Data (archive).
Scalability as such is one of the intrinsic characteristics
concerning by well-designed Internetworking of things.
As the property of IoT, it can be considered a built attribute
in the structure and might have the significant influence over
the IoT-based education infrastructures. There is no
limitation to add or remove any object from the structure and
is flexible to the topology changes.
IoT bring with is it Big Data, this is because of the large
domain of objects that are enabled to interact and generate
large set of Data. It is expected the scalability of IoT in terms
of the virtual classrooms size, number of physical and virtual
IPv6-based objects, sensors and actuators, and specifically in
number of the object Nodes.
Student and teacher performance is a very common
indicator that has been discussed by many researchers and
there is not any standard parameter for that. But, many
researchers tried to study the impact of ICT on the student’s
achievement and instructor’s efficiency [29]-[32].
There is a similarity between ICT and IoT in this theme as
well as some essential differences.
The main difference between two concepts is the scope
and domain of the IoT, technologically. IoT can cover large
parts of the ICT subjects. The use of IoT in higher education
might help the students and instructors to share their
knowledge and experience in a real time expanded
The speed of sharing and access to the Data generated by
other institutes around the world and the volume of the
objects involved in the learning process significantly,
increases. This characteristic ends to a significant
enhancement in the performance of both students and
teachers in terms of the learning efficiency.
Some factors such as self-learning, collaboration, learning
speed are mainly considered as the essential cognitive
learning elements [33].
Using IoT in the education environment has the same
effect as ICT-based education systems. It can make the
education and learning process more motivating and
effective [29].
As discussed, IoT can have direct and indirect influences,
in terms of these parameters, in the higher education that are
not the focal point in this paper, but they are considered in the
statistical questionnaire as a support for this study.
In order to verify and measure the validity and analysis of
the findings in this study, it is used an appropriate statistical
methodology as a support to examine the proposed
hypothesis in the previous section.
A. Sampling
A ten item questionnaire is used to collect the related data
from participants includes students and instructors. A total of
10 predefined factors using a mixed method approach (verbal
and written) were surveyed in this questionnaire. Assuming
International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 7, No. 12, December 2017
International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 7, No. 12, December 2017
that the goal population is 1000, then the proper sample
sizing is determined according to the pilot study by Cochran
formula and so, the correct number will be around 257 [22].
Figs. 1 and 2 have presented the graphical illustration of
the (teacher & student)-based questionnaire results. Data
obtained in this survey is based on the perception of the
University students and instructors both.
B. Results
Results of the questionnaire revealed that most of teachers
believe that IoT is composed of the huge number of
hyper-connected objects interacting between themselves.
The results showed a high percentage of instructors (80 to
90%) agree with the idea that applying IoT in the higher
education ecosystem has a significant influence on the
general cognitive aspect of learning such as the learning
efficiency and collaboration.
Also, IoT implementation in the higher education institutes,
school and universities, effectively, can increase research
opportunities for researchers and instructors as well as
Fig. 1 predicts statically that IoT might have relatively the
weak impact over scalability of Internet of education things.
Also, IoT will not help in encouraging the teachers or
students to involve in the learning process. Based on the Fig.
1, the expectancy of the fact that IoT can produce the novel
ideas and values in order to change the previous models and
replace them by new types is not so high and probably
oscillate between 60 and 70%.
Fig. 1 depicts as well, there is a big gap between the
(teacher & student) performance impact and other factors.
Almost half percentage of the interviewees thinks IoT
doesn’t embrace the creativity as part of learning process.
Fig. 1. Graphical representation of the teacher-based questionnaire results.
Fig. 2. Graphical representation of the student-based questionnaire results.
The result of student’s perception is shown in Fig. 2.
As Fig. 2 demonstrates, in some cases prediction version
of the student is different and in other cases has the certain
similarities with the teacher’s perception. Fig. 3, illustrates a
comparison between two prediction versions.
Fig. 3. Comparison between the predictions of teacher-based and student
A graphical comparison results is shown in Fig. 3. Based
on the Fig. 3, both cases intersect in three factors: E-learning,
Research opportunity and Hyper-connectivity. Both groups
believe that the IoT has a significant influence on those
factors in the higher education IoT ecosystem. The important
difference is in case of cognitive learning aspects that the
learners consider it, as the main impact factor in the
questionnaire. And also, Self-learning factor has an essential
place in the opinions of the student that doesn’t have the same
significance in the teacher view. Influence of the IoT
employment in the superior education about the collaboration
issue is another difference between two sights. Instructors
think that the IoT facilitates significantly effective
collaboration and teamwork meanwhile students don’t give
the same importance as teachers.
Finally, students weakly believe in the fact that the IoT
implementation can promote creativity in the higher
education and teachers with a little percentage difference
don’t give a high importance to the same factor as well.
This paper explored the possible influence of IoT in the
higher education in terms of the various factors. A
theoretically analysis was developed in order to study the
predicting the possible impact of the IoT on higher education
environment and their elements.
Based on the results obtained from the instructorbased
questionnaire, it can be concluded that the hyper connectivity
is considered as the property of IoT which both interviewee
groups believe that the virtually and physically
implementation of the IPv6-objects can increase significantly
internal interactions between the components of higher
education system. As expected, IoT can establish a huge
scalable intelligent network digitally interconnecting
different institutes, schools and educational centers through
the Internet. It means also, IoT can be considered as the
biggest flexible virtual education platform that facilitates
effective collaboration through increasing more objects in
terms of the quantity and intelligence, and in a more
interactive manner.
IoT technology eliminates the physical presence limitation
and expands the access to any education’s recourse like
teachers, any tools and anywhere facilitating the E-learning
efficiently. IoT promises a significant impact on the process
of learning in higher education by offering access to the
international resources and possibilities for students and
teachers. Therefore, one of the major impacts of the
IoT-based learning environments is that the conventional
student and instructors’ tasks can be changed considerably.
Students and teachers can retain didactic materials and/or
laboratory virtually at any time, from anywhere they can
connect. The Internet of things is projected to promote the
large number of investigation opportunities for educators,
students and researchers around the world. Although it can’t
contribute the great teacher & students’ performance, but
based on the student judge can encourage them to involve in
the learning process through the linking the real objects in
their tasks, homework, and scientific investigations.
In conclusion, the theoretical and short regional statistical
studies show that the effectiveness and influence of the IoT in
the higher education and learning process is predictable and
shouldn’t be ignored.
Flexibility, hyper-connectivity between the real and virtual
objects, accessibility, adaptability and scalability are
properties of the IoT. They might be considered as the major
advantages of the IoT-based learning system which despite of
the existing challenges can create new revolution in the
higher education ecosystem in the close future. Based on this
reality, our future work will be focused on the existing IoT
applications in the higher education area.
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International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 7, No. 12, December 2017
Conference on Cognitive Info-communications, Dec. 2-5, 2012, pp.
Majid Bayani received his MS degree in computer
science from UCR, CR, (Universidad de Costa Rica) and
his BS degree in electrical engineering from Sharif
University of Technology SUT (IRAN). Since 2009, he
has joined the UNA, Heredia, Costa Rica, in 2009 as an
instructor and researcher. He has published many papers
in the area of computer engineering (among them: IEEE)
and participated as a member of technical committee of
some international conferences. His main areas of research interest are ICT,
information technology and applications, networking, technology
management, telecommunication, WSN, modeling internet of things,
performance & simulation, electronic process, digital electronic and virtual
world. He is a member of the IEEE (CR section) and currently researching
and teaching the computer architecture, networking and communication in
the National University of Costa Rica (UNA) as a full time Instructor.
Enrique Vílchez Quesada is a full-time professor and
researcher at the National University of Costa Rica
(UNA), School of Informatics. He has published more
than forty scientific papers in the field of educative
computer and mathematics. Also, has participated as a
keynote & invited speaker in more than fifty
conferences, at both national and international levels,
held in: USA, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Dominican
Republic, Cuba, Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia and Costa Rica. His
research contributions cover a wide range of topics in mathematics and its
applications, information and communication technologies as well as virtual
International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 7, No. 12, December 2017
... IoT provides a respectable and comfortable way of life for persons with disabilities, where they can learn new skills and then get employment to support themselves regardless of their disabilities. Abbasy and Quesada (2017) considered the IoT an e-learning tool that uses software, hardware applications, and web-based sites to create a new electronic learning platform. This tool concentrates on distance learning objects in which a virtual object (teacher) interacts with another object (student). ...
... This continuous connection will also strengthen the instructor's engagement and collaboration with more students. According to Abbasy and Quesada (2017), IoT offers a broad, open, collaborative platform that facilitates collaboration effectively across various layers of higher education systems. IoT can provide effective communication between virtual and physical IP-based objects. ...
... IoT adoption also enhances the opportunity for researchers in higher education institutions to perform research in different areas of science and technology due to the ability of IoT to connect billions of objects to the Internet (Abbasy & Quesada, 2017;Bandara & Ioras, 2016). IoT connects a massive number of universities, research centers, and institutions. ...
Full-text available
IoT is among the most recent innovation that is increasingly growing and being implemented in different areas like higher educational institutions. IoT supports faculty members and students in a dynamic learning environment and influences their collaboration and communication. This innovation has created new excitement and challenges for higher education professionals. Nevertheless, the literature on IoT context focuses more on the technical aspect of IoT and does not give more attention to the behavioral part that explains the users' behavioral intention toward IoT adoption. The main objective of this study is to find the crucial elements that affect students' intention to adopt IoT technologies in Saudi Arabia's higher education institutions. An extended approach based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), as well as six external factors: knowledge sharing (KS), mobility (MOB), interactivity (INTR), innovativeness (INNOV), training (TR), and virtual reality (VR) is offered to achieve this goal. This study employs a questionnaire method for evaluating students' perceptions toward various IoT applications or services used in a saudi higher educational institution. The study can help researchers further investigate the issues affecting IoT adoption in higher education. Also, it creates trustworthy literature to guide decision-makers to adopt IoT to improve and facilitate the learning process and to increase the adoption of IoT technologies academic context.
... IoT converts traditional e-learning into intelligent and interactive e-learning by integrating smart objects. Using smart objects provides learners with good communication and interaction with instructors and other parties from anywhere [21]. IoT motivates students and teachers. ...
... IoT has devices that let it sense and collect data from other devices, which it then shares for the good of everyone. The association of RFID tags, sensors, and actuators with each other has made this technology a modern and unique model [21]. IoT technologies are different from other technologies because they are everywhere and encourage people to come up with their own independent and smart solutions [41]. ...
... Unlimited communication through the IoT enables learners, teachers, and researchers to work globally [21]. IoT can be used in e-learning systems for various activities to support the learning process [18]. ...
... IoT-connected devices also improve speed and save time in carrying out some routine classroom activities such as tracking students (Kiryakova et al., 2017), promoting smart teaching and a smart university campus (Xie and Yang, 2021;Gilman et al., 2020;Banica et al., 2017), while keeping costs under control. Similarly, IoT removes the limitation of physical persons and broadens access to any educational resource, both to teachers and students, anywhere facilitating accessibility to university education (Abbasy and Quesada, 2017), as well as the management of the educational institution (Kiryakova et al., 2017;Villegas et al., 2019). 5.1.5 ...
... The implementation of an educational IoT system presents other challenges, such as the costs of the various devices. This occurs mainly at the time of acquiring the necessary equipment, but in the long term this technology reduces costs (Abbasy and Quesada, 2017). ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of the studies in terms of country, participant profile and methodology, as well as to determine what the Internet of Things (IoT) is currently contributing to higher education. Design/methodology/approach The study was developed following the methodology supported by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and the PICOS strategy, retrieving scientific literature from Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar. Of the 237 studies that the search yielded, 11 were included. Findings The results showed that among the opportunities offered by IoT is that it not only brings the introduction of information and communication technology into the classroom, but also enhances student interest, thus, improving the quality of teaching in higher education. On the other hand, one of the challenges it faces is the attitude of teachers towards its adoption, as well as the level of digital competence of teachers. Originality/value This study presents how higher education institutions are including the IoT in their educational activities. The IoT refers to a network of digital interconnectivity between devices, people and the internet itself that enables the exchange of data between them, allowing key information about the use and performance of devices and objects to be captured to detect patterns, make recommendations, improve efficiency and create better user experiences.
... Virtuales de Aprendizaje. Fuente: adaptada de (Bagheri & Movahed, 2016) El trabajo en (Abbasy & Quesada, 2017) se enfoca sobre una investigación asociada con el impacto predecible de IoT en la educación superior. Se realizó un estudio estadístico que dejo ver la influencia de IoT en el ecosistema de educación en términos de factores de manejo del aprendizaje. ...
... Los docentes también pueden usar dispositivos vestibles y teléfonos inteligentes en las aulas para mejorar la enseñanza y aprendizaje. En (Abbasy & Quesada, 2017) realizaron una investigación metodológica basada en un estudio de caso y un modelo experimental y explicativo. El trabajo demostró mejor desempeño en el estudio del procesamiento digital de señales de un grupo de estudiantes del sexto semestre de la Carrera de Ingeniería en Teleinformática de la Universidad de Guayaquil que emplearon herramientas basadas en IoT y de computación en la nube. ...
Full-text available
Las tecnologías de Industria 4.0 en el ambiente universitario abre nuevas posibilidades para aplicaciones y servicios, conduciendo a innovaciones científicas en el proceso de enseñanza- aprendizaje que faciliten la llegada de la Educación 4.0. En este artículo, se estructura una ruta en la dirección de la educación superior consolidar esfuerzos en la formación de ingenieros idóneos para afrontar los retos de la Industria 4.0 consistiendo de: nuevos cursos en los programas de ingeniería, cualificaciones y habilidades entre las que se destacan las competencias blandas, y fábricas de aprendizaje como enlace entre la Academia a proyectos reales de la industria. Adicional, se aborda Internet de las Cosas como una de las tecnologías claves para el alcance de la Educación 4.0, en la que su aplicación lleva al mejoramiento del proceso de enseñanza- aprendizaje, y al monitoreo de salud, y emociones de los estudiantes
... Bu kapsamda Türkiye'de bazı dijital öğrenme ortamları oluşturulmakta ve öğretmenler, teknoloji yeterliğine sahip olma ve uzaktan eğitim ortamlarını kullanma-ya teşvik edilmektedir (Abbasy & Quesada, 2017). Bu platformlardan biri hiç kuşkusuz Eğitim Bilişim Ağı (EBA)'dır. ...
Full-text available
Bu çalışma öğretim elemanlarının Teknoloji Öz Yeterlik düzeylerine göre ihtiyaç duydukları dijital ve uzaktan eğitim konuları ile ilgili verilecek olan eğitimlerin belirlenmesine odaklanmıştır. Bunun için öncelikle öğretim elemanlarının teknoloji öz yeterlik düzeyleri tespit edilmiştir. Bu düzeye göre öğretim elemanlarının dijital ve uzaktan eğitim okuryazarı olmaları için gerekli ihtiyaçları incelenmiştir. Daha sonra onlara verilecek eğitimler belirlenmiştir. Araştırmada nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden betimsel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın katılım grubunu Erzincan Binali Yıldırım Üniversitesi’nde 16 farklı fakültede görev yapmakta olan 243 öğretim elemanı oluşturmuştur. Araştırma süresince öğretim elemanlarına veri toplama aracı olarak Türkçeye uyarlanmış ve geçerlik, güvenirlik çalışmaları yapılmış olan “Teknoloji Öz-Yeterlik Ölçeği (Technology Proficiency Self Assessment Scale)” uygulanmış ve hangi dijital ve uzaktan eğitim eğitimlerini tercih ettikleri sorulmuştur. Çalışmanın sonunda ise öğretim elemanları, açık ders materyallerinin kullanımı, paylaşımı ve etkili canlı ders süreçleri üzerine yoğunlaşmışlardır. Ayrıca ölçek puanı yüksek olan akademisyenler, senkron/asenkron ders sürecinde etkileşimli ve kaliteli bir öğretim ortamı oluşturabilecekleri eğitimleri tercih etmişlerdir.
... Educational systems embracing learning environment methods rather than focusing only on the learning content, in a peer-learning environment is quite important (Kamar and Ali, 2017). Abbasy and Quesada (2017) says IoT is transforming traditional education system into a scalable, adaptable with rapid dynamic changes, flexible and more efficient e-learning with a topology where the huge number of physical and virtual interacting objects are involved in the process of learning. Making IoT in learnings systems would open up new pathways to proffer effective learning. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract Like the other open and distance learning (ODL) institutions in the world, The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL) experiences low completion and high student dropout rates. If institutions are to act against the increasing student dropout rates, they need to determine the reasons for this student behavior. Studies carried out in other ODL institutions have demonstrated that learner drop outs may depend on variables such as, motivation, adaptation to the system, congruence of expectations and individual interests. Previous research studies have tested various student support models which focus on individual student needs to tackle this issue. Specifically, ‘proactive motivational support’ systems were identified to support individual students through praising their effort and strengths, allowing increased interaction with teachers and encouraging students to be involved in studies with high levels of motivation. At present, OUSL mostly practices a ‘reactive support’ system, where students initiate and request support. With the recent rates of low completion and high dropouts, it would be a timely endeavor to develop an effective learner support system as identified through literature. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that affect students’ performance, their motivation and retention. A questionnaire was designed based on a comprehensive review of similar studies in other ODL institutions and by using researchers’ experience. It was pilot tested, and the revised questionnaire was administered to students from the Faculties of Natural Sciences, Health Sciences, Engineering Technology and Humanities and Social Sciences at OUSL and around 10% responses were collected. Factors such as adjustment to the ODL system, balancing workload and student’s commitments, quality of the course material, flexibility in scheduling academic activities, effective course delivery, staff student interactions, peer and family support were identified as significant in developing a proactive support mechanism.
... Education was never this accessible and interactive before. Integrating IoT in the U-learning enables institutions to include the following advantages [26,44,[46][47][48][49]: ...
Full-text available
The progress made in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has played a crucial role in turning the Internet of Things (IoT) into a reality. IoT is an emerging technology that refers to networks of interconnected and Internet-enabled objects equipped with sensors, processors, and actuators that interact with each other to create significant collaboration and interaction environments. The field of education is one of the areas where IoT can be applied. However, the implementation of IoT poses security and privacy risks, such as unauthorized access, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, and interference with wireless signals where IoT devices collect a significant amount of data, including user’s personal information like identity, location, and daily behavior. Therefore, it is crucial to protect users’ privacy in IoT applications. The innovative Ubiquitous Learning Environments (ULEs) have been created by ubiquitous computing technologies (mobile, wireless, network), which provide learners with learning experiences beyond the traditional classroom in both the real and virtual worlds. Ubiquitous learning (U-learning) is an emerging technology as a result of the tremendous technological revolution of ICT. U-learning is a novel learner-centered approach that aims to enhance learning, motivation, and creativity by utilizing innovative technology and IoT. U-learning enables learners to access the appropriate learning content, collaborate with the right learning partners, and engage in self-learning at the right time and place in a ubiquitous computing environment. To support learners in developing their social skills, in this study a framework for implementing the ULE based on the Internet of Things is designed, which consists of three main layers: perception, network, and application. The article explores the effects of IoT on education and how U-learning, which incorporates IoT to enhance learning experiences, has the potential to replace traditional classroom learning. Furthermore, the article addresses privacy preservation measures for different layers within the IoT environment and ULE. A framework for implementing the ULE model is in progress, which is a part of our future work.
Full-text available
The application of the Internet of Things is increasing in momentum as advances in artificial intelligence exponentially increase its integration. This has caused continuous shifts in the Internet of Things paradigm with increasing levels of complexity. Consequently, researchers, practitioners, and governments continue facing evolving challenges, making it more difficult to adapt. This is especially true in the education sector, which is the focus of this article. The overall purpose of this study is to explore the application of IoT and artificial intelligence in education and, more specifically, learning. Our methodology follows four research questions. We first report the results of a systematic literature review on the Internet of Intelligence of Things (IoIT) in education. Secondly, we develop a corresponding conceptual model, followed thirdly by an exploratory pilot survey conducted on a group of educators from around the world to get insights on their knowledge and use of the Internet of Things in their classroom, thereby providing a better understanding of issues, such as knowledge, use, and their readiness to integrate IoIT. We finally present the application of the IoITE conceptual model in teaching and learning through four use cases. Our review of publications shows that research in the IoITE is scarce. This is even more so if we consider its application to learning. Analysis of the survey results finds that educators, in general, are lacking in their readiness to innovate with the Internet of Things in learning. Use cases highlight IoITE possibilities and its potential to explore and exploit. Challenges are identified and discussed.
IoT has contributed tremendously to the development of the society by contributing in the field of communication and information technology. In recent times, there has been tremendous growth in the field of Information and Technology. IT has impacted everyone's life in some way or the other. One such thing it has taught us is that ‘everything is possible, it only takes our willpower to do it’. In the recent times, there has been unimaginable success especially in the IT and education sector. The following paper discusses how to maximize the impact and benefits of IoT in higher education and minimize the risks involved.KeywordsInternet of ThingsIoT in higher educationIoT as a global network
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The growing era of technology through the internet, Internet of Things (i.e. IoT) has a powerful and strong industrial system that provides an opportunity to grow and applications to use ubiquitously. Its applications use sensor, wireless, mobile and RFID technology devices. In recent years IoT applications are enhancing to being deployed as well as developed. The IoT promises to have a great future era of the Internet uses that involves machine-to-machine communication. It helps to enable the sensor network as well as technologies, even IoT got involved in our day-to-day routine such that it supports to control and to monitor a human being's mundane by providing mobile access, remotely. Undoubtedly, remote access is the incredible feature of the IoT which has been given to this world. The main objective of IoT is to provide remotely accessible at low-cost that too by often visits through electronic devices. This paper presents the maximum possibilities of challenges, applications, security issues and techniques of IoT.
Conference Paper
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This article focuses on the research associated with the influence of Experimental Laboratory Skills and Simulation on the cognitive learning aspects that occurs through using a simulator or participation in a real implementation exercise. A theoretical analysis along with a statistical study is explored in this paper. The theoretical and statistical results confirm that the integration of simulation (computer software) into traditional practical work efficiently, enhances the performance of the students in terms of the learning cognitive indicators.
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The purpose of the paper is to review some previous researches examining ICT efficiency and the impact of ICT on educational output/outcome as well as different conceptual and methodological issues related to performance measurement. Moreover, a definition, measurements and the empirical application of a model measuring the efficiency of ICT use and its impact at national levels will be considered. For this purpose, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique is presented and then applied to selected EU-27 and OECD countries. The empirical results show that the efficiency of ICT, when taking educational outputs/outcomes into consideration, differs significantly across the great majority of EU and OECD countries. The analysis of the varying levels of (output-oriented) efficiency (under the VRSTE framework) shows that Finland, Norway, Belgium and Korea are the most efficient countries in terms of their ICT sectors. Finally, the analysis finds evidence that most of the countries under consideration hold great potential for increased efficiency in ICT and for improving their educational outputs and outcomes.
Internet of Things is a platform where every day devices become smarter, every day processing becomes intelligent, and every day communication becomes informative. While the Internet of Things is still seeking its own shape, its effects have already stared in making incredible strides as a universal solution media for the connected scenario. Architecture specific study does always pave the conformation of related field. The lack of overall architectural knowledge is presently resisting the researchers to get through the scope of Internet of Things centric approaches. This literature surveys Internet of Things oriented architectures that are capable enough to improve the understanding of related tool, technology, and methodology to facilitate developer’s requirements. Directly or indirectly, the presented architectures propose to solve real-life problems by building and deployment of powerful Internet of Things notions. Further, research challenges have been investigated to incorporate the lacuna inside the current trends of architectures to motivate the academics and industries get involved into seeking the possible way outs to apt the exact power of Internet of Things. A main contribution of this survey paper is that it summarizes the current state-of-the-art of Internet of Things architectures in various domains systematically. Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), Architecture, Cyber physical system
The next big wave of data-driven technological innovation will connect physical devices embedded with tiny computing devices to the Internet in an effort to seamlessly improve the measurements, communications, flexibility, and customization of our daily needs and activities. This “Internet of Things” (IoT) is already growing at a breakneck pace and is expected to continue to accelerate rapidly. This paper provides a brief explanation of IoT technologies before describing the current projections of the economic and technological impacts that IoT could have on society. In addition to creating massive gains for consumers, IoT is projected to provide dramatic improvements in manufacturing, health care, energy, transportation, retail services, government, and general economic growth.
Not for download, only for purchase at Amazon or Elsevier. This book outlines the background and overall vision for the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine- to-Machine (M2M) communications and services, including major standards. Key technologies are described, and include everything from physical instrumentation of devices to the cloud infrastructures used to collect data. Also included is how to derive information and knowledge, and how to integrate it into enterprise processes, as well as system architectures and regulatory requirements. Real-world service use case studies provide the hands-on knowledge needed to successfully develop and implement M2M and IoT technologies sustainably and profitably. Finally, the future vision for M2M technologies is described, including prospective changes in relevant standards. This book is written by experts in the technology and business aspects of Machine-to- Machine and Internet of Things, and who have experience in implementing solutions.