Article

From Surviving to Thriving: Four Research-Based Principles to Build Students’ Reading Interest

Authors:
Article

From Surviving to Thriving: Four Research-Based Principles to Build Students’ Reading Interest

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

In an educational climate in which many teachers may feel the tension between achieving grade-level literacy standards and creating lifelong readers, interest can be a powerful mediator that impacts students’ cognitive and affective experiences with reading. This practical article presents four research-based principles of reading interest—individual interests, situational interest, text-based interest, and interest regulation—and describes how each can be used and implemented in the classroom to nurture motivated and resilient readers.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Students who are motivated and engaged in reading read often and enjoy the experience (Gambrell, 2015). They also are more likely to use strategies to help them through difficulties, have higher overall comprehension and achievement (Afflerbach & Harrison, 2017;Guthrie, Wigfield, & You, 2012), and develop expertise on particular topics (Springer, Harris, & Dole, 2017). ...
... All readers, no matter how accomplished or avid, experience ebbs and flows in reading motivation and engagement; however, more accomplished readers have a willingness and know how to persist using self-regulation strategies, even when reading is tough or uninteresting (Springer et al., 2017). Yet, interest, which is one important aspect of motivation and engagement, is a powerful motivational force and is essential to students' long-term academic success (Harackiewicz, Smith, & Priniski, 2016;Hidi & Renninger, 2006;Robertson, Dougherty, Ford-Connors, & Paratore, 2014). ...
... Despite this evidence, U.S. educational policies understandably focus on raising students' academic performance, but they pay little attention to understanding how to sustain students' interest in school tasks. Whereas some teachers and schools may feel they need to choose between a focus on students' motivation and interests or a focus on teaching skills and strategies, the two actually reciprocally support each other (Springer et al., 2017). We argue that interest itself does not exist in a vacuum. ...
Article
Interest-based instruction involves attending to students’ individual interests as well as triggering new situational interests. Individual interests include students’ existing topical interests, while situational interests can be cultivated during instruction. Understanding four teaching actions - intentional approach to curriculum planning, contextualize learning, build relevance and utility in the task or topic, and incorporate inquiry and project-based learning - is important in cultivating an interest-based approach. This article examines the roles of interest and teaching actions in promoting students’ motivation and interest. Two vignettes demonstrate how interest and teaching actions can drive planning, instruction, and instructional activities to promote students’ reading and writing development.
... Instruction specifically aimed at supporting motivation and engagement is positively associated with improved strategy use and overall reading achievement (Taboada, Tonks, Wigfield, & Guthrie, 2009). Strategy use to self-regulate complex reading is vital for ongoing learning and reading development as it provides students with the tools to persist when reading becomes challenging or the topic is not of personal interest (Springer, Harris, & Dole, 2017). Relatedly, measured reading levels seem to matter less when students are interested in their reading materials, as interest serves as a compensatory factor for a lack of reading skills (Duke, Pearson, Strachan, & Billman, 2011). ...
... In addition, a section of the library should be dedicated to a carefully curated, multimodal collection of texts deliberately chosen to support students' development of knowledge relevant to current curriculum topics. Surrounded by interesting and relevant texts, students need extended classroom time to read texts they choose (Robertson & Padesky, 2019); and they also need instructional time to read and respond to texts specifically related to the curriculum (Springer et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
Purpose: To describe how an approach to instruction that intentionally considers elements of motivation and engagement, intensity of instruction, and cognitive challenge can accelerate the reading achievement of lower-performing readers by giving them access to and support to meet reading and knowledge building with success. Design: The authors discuss a set of high-leverage practices squarely under the teacher's control. Grounded in longstanding and rigorous research, the integrated set of practices have been shown time and time again to accelerate achievement beyond typical growth while also intentionally considering the experiences, cultures, and linguistic knowledge students bring to the classroom. The re-conceptualized approach forefronts student agency and engages students in meaningful interactions with text to build knowledge of the world they live in. Findings: The authors illustrate the comprehensive approach through a composite vignette drawn from work with teachers and students in school and clinical contexts. The focus of the vignette is on the actions of the classroom teacher who is working to meet the needs of three struggling readers within the broader context of her 5th-grade classroom, while also establishing a coherent instructional approach with fellow teachers.
... Even though its effect on student achievement may be lower than one would anticipate, there is a general consensus that interest facilitates learning (Renninger & Hidi, 2011), improves the quality and depth of the learning process (Savelsbergh et al., 2016) and compensates for the lack of skills when solving difficult tasks (Springer, Harris, & Dole, 2017). The importance of student motivation for their achievement might be particularly relevant for young children in the domain of reading (Mullis & Martin, 2015). ...
... In their study of attitudes towards school subjects among Czech students at 2 Although the prototypical trajectory goes from situational to individual interest, an opposite process of arousing situational interest on the basis of a strong individual interest can also be observed (Krapp, 2002). For example, students' interest in reading can be raised when the teacher offers them books on topics they are already interested in (Springer, Harris & Dole, 2017). lower secondary level (Grades 6 to 9), mathematics was perceived as the most difficult and the third most unpopular subject. ...
... One of the skills is reading. Reading becomes an important bridge to the students who want to integrate interactive ability (Springer, Harris, & Dole, 2017). Reading is considered an important skill that needs to be learned and mastered by the students to acquire knowledge and gather information. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study are to find out whether (1) animated video is effective in teaching reading comprehension, (2) students with high reading interest have better reading comprehension achievement than those with low reading interest, and (3) there is an interaction between the teaching media and the students’ reading interest in teaching reading comprehension. This study is experimental research. The population of this study is the students of MTs Negeri Prambanan. Two classes were taken as the sample, and the sampling technique used was cluster random sampling. This study applied tests and a questionnaire in collecting the data and Kolmogorov-Smirnov formula, One Way ANOVA, and multifactor analysis of variance in analyzing the data. Based on the result of data analysis, the research findings are: (1) animated video is effective in teaching reading comprehension of the students in MTs Negeri Prambanan (Fobtain = 7.60, Sig. Value 0,05); (2) the students in MTs Negeri Prambanan with high reading interest have better reading comprehension achievement than those with low reading interest (Fobtain = 9.19, Sig. Value 0,05); (3) there is an interaction between the teaching media and the students’ reading interest in teaching reading comprehension of the students in MTs Negeri Prambanan (Fobtain = 6.15, Sig. Value 0,05). Based on these research findings, it can be concluded that animated video is effective in teaching reading comprehension of the students of MTs Negeri Prambanan. It brings improvement to the students’ reading comprehension achievement.
... Regardless of the reason, these findings are useful in knowing that reading a text from a screen does not appear to have any deleterious effect on situational interest. Given that situational interest can often lead to longer-term benefits in reading motivation (Guthrie et al., 2005) and be useful for promoting learning in the classroom (Springer et al., 2017b), these findings are reassuring for teachers who have students read from screens. ...
Article
Full-text available
Both medium (paper or screens) and interest have been noted as important factors in learning from reading text, but connections between them have not been examined. The purposes of this study are to examine whether reading medium and interest, both individual and situational, interact to predict performance on a reading assessment and whether medium affects situational interest. College students (N = 206) reported their individual interest in the content of a textbook excerpt, were randomly assigned to read a textbook excerpt from paper or screen, and then reported their situational interest in the textbook excerpt. Based on the findings of this study, individual interest did not interact with medium to predict reading performance; however, situational interest was more predictive of performance when reading from screens than from paper. Medium did not influence situational interest.
... AS enhances the reading comprehension process through increasing performance goal attention time (Berthiaume et al., 2010), maintaining reading motivation level (Law, 2009;Logan et al., 2011;Schaffner and Schiefele, 2013), and controlling the negative experience effect (Guthrie et al., 2007;Bråten et al., 2013). For example, Lu and Liu (2015), Springer et al. (2017), and Wigfield et al. (2016) reported that the AS increased the reading interest and reading motivation of readers, and controlled feelings of boredom while reading. The assessment of AS included all possible strategies that decrease negative emotions and increase positive emotions or affective feelings (e.g., reading motivation strategy). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study synthesized the correlation between reading strategy and reading comprehension of four categories based on Weinstein and Mayer's reading strategy model. The current meta-analysis obtained 57 effect sizes that represented 21,548 readers, and all selected materials came from empirical studies published from 1998 to 2019. Results showed that reading strategies in all the four categories had a similar correlation effect size with reading comprehension. The correlation between monitoring strategy and reading comprehension was significantly larger in first language scripts than second language scripts. Affective strategy and elaboration strategy had an independent effect on reading comprehension, which was not significantly moderated by selected moderators. Results suggested that the reading strategies of all the four categories may have a similar contribution to text comprehension activities.
... According to S.E. Springer, S. Harris, and J. Dole [16], teacher's assistance to select texts based on individuals' preference will cultivate students' reading interest. ...
... SRL can affect student motivation and student motivation can influence learning achievement [34] . Students' reading interest can be enhanced by fostering individual interest, fostering situational interest, choosing reading reading readings and using interesting learning strategies [35] . The students' problems expressed above will be very disadvantageous for the younger generation even for the future of the nation, a solution must be sought. ...
Article
Full-text available
The profile of the science education problem in West Sumatera and surroundings is reported in this paper. The purpose of this work is to investigate the various problems in science education in West Sumatera and its surroundings. Descriptive research method is used in the research. An addition, closed and open questionnaire instrument is applied in data collecting. The certified and non-certified teachers are selected as respondents using accidental and snowball sampling technique. The descriptive statistic and qualitative technique are performed in data analysis. Based on the investigated data, the main problems in science education in West Sumatera are (1) teacher (quality, uneven distribution and teaching load), (2) curriculum (amendment and implementation), (3) students (interest and learning creativity), (4) managerial (headmaster and leadership), (5) parents (parent or family care), (6) government (government polices), (7) community environment (lack of support), (8) infrastructure and facilities (uneven of building, laboratories, libraries, and other facilities), (9) problems of UN application as determinant of graduation, and (10) problem of teacher’s teaching burden postcertification. These findings show the science education problems in West Sumatera need to be follow up for improvement the education quality, especially in science education.
Article
Okuma bireyin bilgi edinmesi ve kendisini çok yönlü olarak geliştirmesi için gerekli en önemli becerilerden biridir. Ancak günümüzde bireyler okuma alışkanlığına sahip değillerdir. Okuma alışkanlığının kazanılmasıyla önce bireysel sonra da toplumsal gelişme sağlanabilir. Okuma alışkanlığının kazandırılmasında en önemli sorumluluk sınıf öğretmenlerine düşmektedir. Buradan hareketle bu çalışmada sınıf öğretmenlerinin öğrencilerine okuma alışkanlığını kazandırırken kullandıkları stratejileri belirlemek amaçlanmıştır. Bu çalışma, nitel araştırma desenlerinden olgubilim yöntemiyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın verileri, 34 sınıf öğretmeninden, yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formları aracılığıyla elde edilmiştir. Görüşme formu, 5 açık uçlu sorudan oluşmaktadır. Verilerin analizinde içerik analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda öğretmenlerin en çok kullandıkları sınıf içi stratejilerin, okuma saati düzenleme, okuma takibi yapma, okunan kitaplarla ilgili etkinlikler düzenleme, sınıf kitaplığı oluşturma, birlikte okuyarak model olma, okuma yarışmaları düzenlenme, iyi okuyucuları ödüllendirme ve kitap okumaya özendirme gibi stratejiler olduğu belirlenmiştir. Öğretmenler sınıf dışı stratejilerden ise en çok, aileyi sürece dâhil etme, okuma ödevleri verme ve takibini yapma, kütüphane ve kitap fuarlarına götürme, yazar söyleşilerine katılım sağlama, okumaya dair tavsiyelerde bulunma, farklı ortamlarda okuma etkinlikleri düzenleme gibi stratejileri kullanmaktadırlar. Öğretmenlerin okuma alışkanlığı kazandırmada velilerden, evde ailece okuma saatlerinin düzenlenmesi, çocukların okuma konusunda desteklenmesi ve velilerin kitap okuyarak çocuklarına model olması gibi beklentilerinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Öğretmenlerin, okul yönetiminden ise kitap temini ile kitap okunacak mekân konusunda katkı bekledikleri bunun yanında okul genelinde okuma yarışmalarının düzenlenmesi, okul kütüphanesinden en çok kitap alıp okuyan öğrencilerin ödüllendirilmesi, okul kütüphanesine seçilecek kitapların belirlenmesi amacıyla kurulların oluşturulması da beklentiler arasında yer almaktadır.
Article
Full-text available
Students educated in the juvenile justice system face acute challenges such as lack of motivation and negative attitudes toward school. Schools in the system are expected to provide rigorous, Common Core-standards-aligned instruction. Humane education—lessons that nurture kindness and empathy towards humans, animals, and the environment—has been shown to motivate students and encourage their pro-social sentiments. This randomized control trial (with constraints) study of 192 12- and 13-year-old students from New Jersey asked students to complete five standards-aligned reading passages with text-based questions. The experimental-group assessments contained humane education themes and the control-group assessments had non-animal related high interest topics. The passages were equated in reading level, word count, etc. Analyses of the results showed that not only did students who received humane education passages do better overall, but also did much better on questions addressing specific Common Core Reading for Information standards. This study can be a starting point for applying and researching the effectiveness of humane education on the juvenile justice population, specifically, because they are expected to learn standards-aligned curricula and are in particular need of academic motivation and pro-social encouragement.
Article
Full-text available
Bireylerin okuryazarlıkları sosyal bir bağlam içerisinde doğar, gelişir ve kendi okuryazar kimliğini oluşturur. Bu okuryazar kimliğin ise günlük yaşama yansımaları olur. Bu durum öğretmenler için daha önemlidir. Çünkü öğretmenler okuryazarlıklarını sınıf içinde kullanır ve bu durum öğrencilerin okuryazarlıkları ve akademik başarıları başta olmak üzere pek çok becerinin gelişimini etkiler. Bu sebeple öğretmenlerin ve öğretmen adaylarının okuryazarlıklarının sosyal bağlamda incelenmesi gerekli görülmektedir. Sınıf öğretmeni adaylarının okuryazar pratiklerinin sosyal bağlamda incelenmesini amaçlayan bu araştırma fenomenolojik bir araştırmadır. Araştırmada veriler yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler, yansıtmacı yazılar ve okuryazarlığı günlük yaşantılarında kullandıklarına yönelik örnek deliller aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler içerik analizi tekniğiyle analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre sınıf öğretmeni adaylarının okuryazar pratiklerini günlük yaşamda kullanmaları beş farklı şekilde gerçekleşmektedir. Bunlar; akademik, dijital platformlar, günlük pratikler, psikolojik ve sosyal etkileşim.
Article
Full-text available
The increasingly intense industrial era competition needs to be balanced with the ability to process and utilize various sources of information. One of the efforts that needs to be done to obtain this information is indeed through reading. However, the data shows that the interest in reading especially students in Indonesia is still very low. Many factors affect. One of them is the technology that makes students distracted by using various media only for entertainment and social media. Based on this, the purpose of this study is to analyze the things that affect reading interest. The method used is a meta-analysis research by reviewing 15 articles in national journals that were updated starting in 2018, 2019, and 2020. The research results showed that there were 3 things that influenced reading interest. They are literacy, technology, and library infrastructure. Reading literacy is an important factor in fostering interest in reading while library technology and infrastructure are supporting media in motivating readers. The presence of technology is utilized in supporting readers through a variety of familiar media such as smartphones. The use of the internet is positively directed as an effort to improve reading. The completeness of facilities and infrastructure such as the library is also a major factor so that the reader becomes comfortable and interested in reading.
Article
Full-text available
I f learning to read effectively is a journey toward ever-increasing ability to comprehend texts, then teachers are the tour guides, ensuring that students stay on course, pausing to make sure they appreciate the landscape of understanding, and encouraging the occasional diversion down an inviting and interesting cul-de-sac or byway. The evidence for this role is impressive. In one study, some teachers of first-grade students in a high-poverty school district got 80% of their students to grade level in reading comprehension by the end of the year, while others in the same school district got only 20% of their students to grade level (Tivnan & Hemphill, 2005). In another study, Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, and Rodriguez (2003) found that second through fifth graders showed dramatically differ-ent rates of growth in reading comprehension over the course of the school year, depending on their teacher and the specific practices in which he or she engaged. Teachers can even overcome disadvantages in reading comprehension that students bring to school. For exam-ple, Snow, Barnes, Chandler, Goodman, and Hemphill (1991) found that students whose home environments were poor with respect to promoting reading comprehension development nonetheless made adequate progress in reading comprehension if they had strong teach-ers of reading comprehension for two consecutive years. If otherwise similar students had a strong comprehension teacher for only one year, only 25% made adequate progress, and none of the students who experienced two years of poor comprehension instruction overcame the effects of poor support for reading comprehension development at home. In sum, teachers matter, especially for complex cognitive tasks like reading for understanding.
Article
Full-text available
The socioemotional factors, which influence students' trajectories on their pathways to reading success, are often overlooked in literacy screenings and reading instruction. This article outlines the connections between personality factors, in particular resilient personalities, and early literacy success. It also offers teachers a series of six principles and supporting practices to facilitate socioemotional development situated in a second-grade classroom with high-quality reading instruction.
Article
Full-text available
We tested the relationship among sources of interest, perceived interest, and text recall. Sources of interest referred to factors (e.g., ease of comprehension) that evoke feelings of interest in a text. Perceived interest referred to the feeling of interest itself. A factor analysis revealed six different sources of interest. Of these, ease of comprehension and vividness explained 45% of the variance in perceived interest. In turn, perceived interest explained 18% of the variance in text recall; however, only ease of comprehension was related to recall once perceived interest was controlled statistically. Results suggested that different sources of interest affect perceived interest, which in turn, affects recall. Implications for text design and future research were discussed.
Article
Full-text available
THIS STUDY describes changes in literacy engagement during 1 year of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI), a new approach to teaching reading, writing, and science. Literacy engagement was defined as the integration of intrinsic motivations, cognitive strategies, and conceptual learning from text. To promote literacy engagement in classrooms, our team designed and implemented CORI in two third- and two fifth-grade classrooms in two schools. One hundred and forty students participated in an integrated reading/language arts-science program, which emphasized real-world science observations, student self-direction, strategy instruction, collaborative learning, self-expression, and coherence of literacy learning experiences. Trade books replaced basals and science textbooks. According to 1-week performance assessments in the fall and spring, students gained in the following higher order strategies: searching multiple texts, representing knowledge, transferring concepts, comprehending informational text, and interpreting narrative. Children's intrinsic motivations for literacy correlated with cognitive strategies at .8 for Grade 5 and .7 for Grade 3. All students who increased in intrinsic motivation also increased in their use of higher order strategies. A sizeable proportion (50%) of students who were stable or decreased in intrinsic motivation failed to progress in higher order strategies. These findings were discussed in terms of a conceptual framework that embraces motivational, strategic, and conceptual aspects of literacy engagement.
Article
Full-text available
Many struggling readers in middle school are disengaged from reading. In addition to low achievement, these students can have low motivation for reading. Many factors contribute to disengagement in middle school. Reading instruction is often disconnected from content, making reading tedious. Textbooks are formidable, and students are expected to respond to text with formal criticism or outlining rather than personal reactions. Middle school often shows an increase teacher control and a curtailment of student freedom, as compared to elementary school. Finally, students are too often removed from the social support of teachers and are expected to compete rather than cooperate with each other in reading. To provide support for engaged reading, middle school teachers can use six classroom practices: they can (1) construct rich knowledge goals as the basis of reading instruction, (2) use real-world interactions to connect reading to student experiences, (3) afford students an abundance of interesting books and materials, (4) provide some choice among material to read, (5) give direct instruction for important reading strategies, and (6) encourage collaboration in many aspects of learning. Using these practices creates a context for engagement in literacy learning.
Article
Full-text available
EADING HAS cognitive consequences that extend beyond its immediate task of lifting meaning from a particular passage. Furthermore, these consequences are reciprocal and exponential in nature. Accumulated over time—spiraling either upward or downward— they carry profound implications for the development of a wide range of cognitive capabilities. Concern about the reciprocal influences of reading achievement has been elucidated through discussions of so-called "Matthew effects" in academic achieve- ment (Stanovich, 1986;Walberg & Tsai, 1983).The term "Matthew effects" is taken from the Biblical passage that describes a rich-get-richer and poor-get-poorer phenomenon.Applying this concept to reading, we see that very early in the reading process poor readers, who experience greater difficulty in breaking the spelling-to-sound code, begin to be exposed to much less text than their more skilled peers (Allington, 1984; Biemiller, 1977-1978). Further exacerbating the prob- lem is the fact that less-skilled readers often find them- selves in materials that are too difficult for them (Allington, 1977, 1983, 1984; Gambrell,Wilson, & Gantt, 1981). The combination of deficient decoding skills, lack of practice, and difficult materials results in unre- warding early reading experiences that lead to less in- volvement in reading-related activities. Lack of expo- sure and practice on the part of the less-skilled reader delays the development of automaticity and speed at the word recognition level. Slow, capacity-draining word recognition processes require cognitive re- sources that should be allocated to comprehension. Thus, reading for meaning is hindered; unrewarding reading experiences multiply; and practice is avoided or merely tolerated without real cognitive involve- ment. The disparity in the reading experiences of children of varying skill may have many other consequences for
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the National Reading Research Center (NRRC), a federally funded center that intends to carry out research to discover what promotes readers' engagement in literacy activities, foster their critical thinking and strategic learning, and prepare them to meet the challenges of a technological age. The paper describes the mission of the NRRC, perceived needs in reading research, the people in the NRRC, research programs in the NRRC (embracing instruction, learning, assessment, and professional development), planned collaborations and activities, and forthcoming products and publications. The paper concludes that the NRRC research agenda incorporates the goals and problems identified in the America 2000 plan. Twenty-four references, a list of the members of the NRRC national advisory board, and a list of the 41 research projects at NRRC are attached. (RS)
Article
Full-text available
The processes of change in children's reading motivation have not been widely studied. We investigated whether situated interest for a specific book may lead to longer‐term intrinsic motivation for general reading. Two schools with 120 grade 3 students filled out reading logs identifying their reasons for reading their favorite books twice. In addition, students completed general motivation and comprehension measures as a pre‐assessment and as a post‐assessment. Students who increased in their level of situated interest in an information book over time increased in their general reading motivation from September to December. Also, students who decreased in their level of situated extrinsic motivation for reading a narrative book decreased in general extrinsic motivation. It appeared that children's changes in situated motivation predicted their changes in general reading motivation, within an instructional context that supports engagement and motivation in reading.
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the influence of an excessively challenging reading task on middle school students’ motivation, attributions for failure, and persistence. In particular, the authors considered the possibility that relative topic interest might function as a buffer against the negative outcomes of excessive challenge. Students ranging from 10 to 14 years of age read a passage that was well beyond their current reading ability under 2 matched experimental conditions: high relative topic interest and low relative topic interest. Higher relative interest in the story topic buffered some of the negative influences of excessive challenge, sustaining interest/enjoyment of the task, and was related to fewer attributions for difficulty to any cause and persistence with the task.
Article
Full-text available
The authors explored different aspects of children's reading motivation and how children's motivation related to the amount and breadth of their reading. The reading motives assessed included self-efficacy, intrinsic–extrinsic motivation and goals, and social aspects. Fourth- and 5th-grade children ( N = 105) completed a new reading motivation questionnaire twice during a school year. Children's reading amount and breadth were measured using diaries and questionnaires. Children's reading motivation was found to be multidimensional. Their motivation predicted children's reading amount and breadth even when previous amount and breadth were controlled. An intrinsic motivation composite predicted amount and breadth of reading more strongly than did an extrinsic motivation composite. Some aspects of girls' reading motivation were more positive than boys'. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The present work examined the influence of topic interest on the strength of différent components of text representation and long-term retention according to the model of text processing by van Dijk and Kintsch (1983). A Series of relevant personality characteristics were assessed to control for alternative explanations of interest effect. A total of 286 8th, 9th, and 10th grade students was assigned to either a high topic interest or a low topic interest group. The participants had to read tow différent texts (two weeks). Immediately afterwards, various process variables were assessed: Finally, participants weren given a recognition and verification tests, designed to assess the strength of the verbatim, propositional, and situational text representation. One Week after reading, students completed a recall rneasure: The interindividual finding with respect to the components of the representation of text revealed that the verbatim and the prepositional representation were not very predictable. The intraindividual analyses were more successful. The results were more consistent and interpretable with respect to the recall of text. It was shown quite clearly that the effects of interest are not only short-term. Most importantly, it could be shown that topic interest is related to text recall independently of other significant predictors.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores three ways to increase situational interest in the classroom. Situational interest is defined as temporary interest that arises spontaneously due to environmental factors such as task instructions or an engaging text. We review the history of interest research and summarize recent empirical work. We describe three ways to increase interest based on offering meaningful choices to students, selecting well-organized texts that promote interest, and providing the background knowledge needed to fully understand a topic. We conclude with six specific suggestions for increasing situational interest in the classroom.
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to explore different strategies for coping with boredom. A questionnaire was developed targeting two dimensions of coping, namely approach versus avoidance oriented coping and cognitive versus behavioral oriented coping. First, based on the responses of 976 students (51% female) from grades 5 to 10, the structure of the coping with boredom scales was verified by confirmatory factor analysis. In a second step, 3 different boredom-coping groups were identified by latent profile analysis. These three groups were named Reappraisers, Criticizers, and Evaders. Third, differences between these groups concerning their frequency of experiencing boredom, their academic achievement, and other emotional, motivational, and cognitive aspects of academic achievement situations were analyzed. Relative to the other 2 groups, Reappraisers preferred cognitive-approach strategies, were less frequently bored, and experienced the most positive pattern of emotional, motivational, and cognitive outcomes. Finally, methodological and educational implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Survey methods were employed to learn more about teachers’ attitudes toward graphic novels and how graphic novels are used in their classrooms. Questions explored participants’ attitudes and actual classroom use. The survey research sought to determine if teachers are open to using graphic novels and the extent of their willingness to do so. Though teachers report willingness to use graphic novels and other graphica, they are limited in their attempts to do so by lack of instructional models, lack of graphic novels in the classroom, and their own level of comfort with the genre.
Article
The profiles and performance of three 11-year-old students are detailed as the basis for discussing the practical implications of inserting contexts of well-developed and less-developed individual interest into expository text and mathematical word problems. First, the theoretical framework informing the study of individual interest is overviewed — where individual interest refers to the relatively enduring predisposition of a person to re-engage particular classes of objects, events, or ideas, and includes two inter-related components: stored knowledge and stored value. Following this, the cases of three students who vary in both ability and individual interest for working in the domains of reading and mathematics are described. Discussion centers on the potential of well-developed interest to provide students with a scaffold for working with assigned tasks. Inserted contexts for which students have a well-developed interest appear to enable students to focus on meaning in tasks and provide a basis for focusing students on task demands. These contexts can also mask difficulties or feel more difficult to students than passages or problems with contexts for which they have less-developed interest. The implications and importance of teacher support as students work with contexts of well-developed individual interest are described.
Article
Interviews with 12 dyslexics, including a Nobel laureate, a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and other professionals in fields requiring reading, reveal all developed basic fluency 3 to 4 years later than peers, but still acquired Stage 5 skills through avid reading about a topic of passionate interest.
Article
We know that students who enjoy reading are likely to choose to read more often than students who do not enjoy reading. We also know that the more students read the better readers they become. The bottom line is that reading proficiency has been linked to a better and more productive academic, social, and civic life. We really don't need to be convinced that reading is a good thing for our students. The larger question is how do we help out students develop the reading habit? Recent research suggests three promising practices for supporting and nurturing the reading habit: design reading instruction based on principles of motivation, make reading relevant to the real world, and provide reading texts and tasks that are high-interest and moderately challenging.
Article
In this article, we discuss the contribution of observational methods to understanding the processes involved in triggering interest and establishing engagement. We begin by reviewing the literatures on interest and engagement, noting their similarities, differences, and the utility to each of better understanding the triggering process. We then provide background information about observational methods and a case illustration of their use in a post hoc analysis of observation records collected during an out-of-school biology workshop. In conclusion, we consider the advantages and limitations of observational methods. We suggest that they can offer unique insight into the triggering process. In the post hoc analysis, this includes information about multiple, co-occurring triggers for interest and variation in responses to triggers based on learner characteristics. It is acknowledged that observational methods are not sufficient, but they are necessary; they provide essential detail, especially for understanding the triggering process.
Article
Gretchen Schwarz offers a rationale, based on the need for current students to learn multiple literacies, for the use of graphic novels in the high school English class. She highlights several titles, suggests possible classroom strategies, and discusses some of the obstacles teachers may face in adding graphic novels to their curriculum.
Article
Building on and extending existing research, this article proposes a 4-phase model of interest development. The model describes 4 phases in the development and deepening of learner interest: triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, emerging (less-developed) individual interest, and well-developed individual interest. Affective as well as cognitive factors are considered. Educational implications of the proposed model are identified.
Article
Using multiple measures, this two-part investigation examined what text characteristics readers considered interesting and uninteresting, the relationships among these text characteristics, and how interest affected recall in two different expository texts on a high-interest topic-dinosaurs. Based on think-alouds and postreading verbal reports of college students in the first experiment, five text characteristics were most associated with interest: (a) information that Nas important, new, and valued; (b) information that was unexpected; (c) connections readers made between the text and their prior knowledge or experience; (d) imagery and descriptive language; and (e) authors' connections (e.g., comparisons and analogies). Characteristics that made the texts uninteresting involved problems related to comprehension-specifically, lack of adequate explanation and background information, difficult vocabulary, and lack of coherence. In addition, lack of credibility interfered with the value of the new information and theories presented in the texts. In the second experiment, rating results indicated that interest and importance were highly correlated. In recall, a statistically significant interaction was found between interest and importance, with information rated as both interesting and important recalled best. Results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and empirical literature on interest, with implications for curriculum development and research.
Article
Theories of interest and motivation give little specific advice to teachers regarding curriculum decisions about how to attract interest in classroom activities. Although educators should keep in mind the fact that attempts to enhance interest can be irrelevant to learning, and may even undermine learning, promoting interest can enhance learning if applied appropriately; therefore, educators could benefit from understanding factors that predict and enhance interest. In this article, I discuss individual and situational factors that influence interest. The individual factors are belongingness (which includes cultural value, identification, and social support), emotions, competence, utility-goal relevance, and background knowledge (which includes a hole in the schema). The situational factors are hands-on, discrepancy, novelty, food, social interaction (which includes visible author), modeling, games and puzzles, content, biophilia, fantasy, humor, and narrative. To the degree that teachers integrate these factors into their instruction, their students are likely to experience increased interest and learning.
Article
Students’ achievement task values, goal orientations, and interest are motivation-related constructs which concern students’ purposes and reasons for doing achievement activities. The authors review the extant research on these constructs and describe and compare many of the most frequently used measures of these constructs. They also discuss their development during childhood and adolescence. They review the research on the relations of these constructs to achievement outcomes, and their relations to each other both contiguously and over time. Suggestions for future research include testing theoretically derived predictions about how students’ achievement values, goal orientations, and interest together predict various achievement outcomes; and examining how their relations with one another become established and change over time.
Article
Although recent research indicates that children have better comprehension when they read material on topics which are highly interesting to them, the cause of this interest effect is unclear. The issue is whether or not the apparent impact of topic interest on reading comprehension is in reality a result of the fact that people tend to have more prior knowledge about topics in which they are especially interested. The purpose of this study was to separate the effects of prior knowledge and topic interest on reading comprehension. Subjects were 41 high-achieving seventh- and eighth-grade students who completed a 10-item interest inventory and took a 100-item prior knowledge test. Based on these measures, each subject read passages and took multiple-choice comprehension tests for which they had various combinations of high and low prior knowledge and topic interest. There were significant main effects for both prior knowledge and topic interest, p
Article
Shares the author's vision of literacy engagement. Offers a portrait of an engaged fifth-grade literacy learner and then discusses what engagement in literacy is, why it is important, how classroom contexts foster literacy engagement, and how teachers can build engaging classroom contexts. (SR)
Article
This report of an intepretive case study, conducted in a 5th/6th grade whole language classroom, provides (1) insights about students' thoughts, feelings, and actions when not initially motivated for literacy tasks, and (2) ways in which some of those students were able to become intrinsically interested. Students participated as co-researchers and reported their subjective experiences in three different motivational situations. Students in Situation I were initially not motivated but became so by combining empowering ways of thinking (e.g., searching for worthwhileness or self-regulating attention) with the completion of an activity. Students in Situation II lacked motivation throughout the particular activities but managed to complete the activity. That group focused on external purpose, and did not use metacognitive strategies. Their primary desire was to "get it over with." Students in Situation III lacked motivation, used avoidance strategies, and/or felt paralyzed, and did not complete the tasks.
Article
Attempted to tackle a hurdle that continues to plague the research on interest: the lack of an adequate theoretical model. In particular, the tenability of a hypothetical construct of interest as it applies to the secondary mathematics classroom was proposed and empirically assessed. Building on previous theoretical work, the study used qualitative and quantitative methodologies to first develop a model and then assess its construct validity. The results indicate that it is useful to distinguish between personal and situational interest. Furthermore, the results indicate that the structure of situational interest is multifaceted, clarifying 5 subfacets of situational interest in the high school mathematics classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study examined the capacity of 2 different theoretical models of motivation to explain why an externally provided rationale often supports students' motivation, engagement, and learning during relatively uninteresting learning activities. One hundred thirty-six undergraduates (108 women, 28 men) worked on an uninteresting 20-min lesson after either receiving or not receiving a rationale. Participants who received the rationale showed greater identified regulation, interest-enhancing strategies, behavioral engagement, and conceptual learning. Structural equation modeling was used to test 3 alternative explanatory models to understand why the rationale produced these benefits--an identified regulation model based on self-determination theory, an interest regulation model based on interest-enhancing strategies research, and an additive model that integrated both models. The data fit all 3 models; however, only the model that included rationale-enhanced identified regulation uniquely fostered students' engagement and hence their learning. Findings highlight the role that externally provided rationales can play in helping students generate the autonomous motivation they need to engage constructively in and learn from uninteresting, but personally important, lessons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Self-regulated learning is often described as a function of students' motivation, cognitive strat-egy use, and metacognition. The purpose of this article is to emphasize regulation of motivation as another important aspect of self-regulated learning. To achieve this goal, a specific concep-tual understanding of regulation of motivation is proposed and used to clarify theoretical dis-tinctions between this process and motivation, metacognition, and volition. In addition, the di-verse nature of this regulatory activity is established by reviewing evidence showing students' use of several specific strategies for the regulation of motivation. The importance of this process is highlighted by discussing links between these regulatory strategies and indicators of students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement. Finally, a guide for additional research re-lated to the theoretical definition, measurement, development and instruction of strategies for regulating motivation is identified. Models of self-regulated learning emphasize that students are more effective when they take a purposeful role in their own learning (Pintrich, 2000; Schunk, 2001; Zimmerman, 2000). Research in this area has emphasized that self-regu-lated learners are autonomous, reflective, and efficient learners who have the cognitive and metacognitive abilities as well as the motivational beliefs and attitudes needed to understand, monitor, and direct their own learning (see Boekaerts, Pintrich, & Zeidner, 2000; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1994). The focus of this article is on the regu-lation of motivation, an essential but less investigated as-pect of self-regulated learning.
Article
It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test. Students' half-year grades (GPA) were assessed six months later. As expected, motivational regulation strategies were not directly related to GPA but showed positive effects on students' effort management which in turn predicted students' GPA. Intelligence and effort management were equally strong direct predictors of GPA. Also as expected, more intelligent students benefitted more from using some, but not all, motivational regulation strategies in terms of increased effort management. Implications of these findings regarding the effectiveness of motivational regulation strategies are discussed.
Article
This paper reviews theoretical and empirical research on situational interest. A distinction is made between situational and personal interest. The former is spontaneous and context-specific, whereas the latter is enduring and context-general. We summarize historical perspectives and recent empirical findings on situational interest. Five emergent themes are identified that focus on relationships among situational interest, information processing, and affective engagement. We also discuss important topics for future research.
Article
After a brief historical overview of how interest and its role in learning had been conceptualized, the focus of the paper shifts to the specific relationship between interest and reading. The issues considered are the effect of interest on readers' comprehension and learning, the variables that determine readers' interests, and the specific processes such as attention that may mediate the effect of interest on learning. It is suggested that to allow researchers a better understanding of the mediating variables, dynamic measures of interest are needed in addition to the more traditional self-reports and questionnaires. In the final section of the paper the author discusses the importance of utilizing students' interest in classrooms.
Article
This study investigates the relation between students' tendency to self-regulate their level of motivation and other aspects of their self-regulated learning and achievement. Ninth- and tenth-grade students (N = 88) responded to survey items designed to assess five motivational regulation strategies identified in previous research. An exploratory factor analyses of these items revealed distinct, internally consistent scales reflecting the strategies of Self-Consequating, Environmental Control, Performance Self-Talk, Mastery Self-Talk, and Interest Enhancement. Self-report measures of effort, use of six cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies, and teacher-reported grades were also collected. Findings revealed mean level differences in students' reported use of the motivational strategies. In addition, results from a series of multivariate regressions indicated that students' use of motivational regulation strategies could be used to predict their use of learning strategies, effort, and classroom performance. As a whole, findings support the belief that motivational self-regulation should be integrated more completely into current models of volition and self-regulated learning.
Article
Sansone, Weir, Harpster, and Morgan (1992) found that individuals intentionally regulated their interest in an activity when they had both the need (the task was boring) and a reason to exert the effort (an ostensible health benefit). The present study examined Hardiness and Conscientiousness as moderators of this self-regulatory process when individuals had the option of quitting in addition to the options of persisting and of engaging in interest-enhancing strategies. Undergraduates performed a boring copying activity under instructions to stop when they felt they could evaluate the task. Half were told that their evaluations would help researchers develop good jobs for others (Benefit). Results indicated high hardy individuals copied more letters when they were provided the additional Benefit information, and this effect was mediated through their attempt to make the task more interesting. High conscientious individuals persisted longer than individuals lower in conscientiousness independently of the benefit manipulation or strategy use. Implications of individual differences in self-regulation of motivation are discussed.
Autonomy, competence, and social relatedness in task interest within project-based education
  • Minnaert
Best ever literacy survival tips: 72 lessons you can't teach without
  • L.D. Oczkus
Interest, learning, and motivation
  • Schiefele
Handbook of reading research
  • J.T. Guthrie
  • A. Wigfield
Course-specific interest and extrinsic motivation as predictors of specific learning strategies and course grades
  • U Schiefele
  • K P Wild
  • A Krapp
Handbook of research on reading comprehension
  • S.E. Springer
  • J.A. Dole
  • D.J. Hacker