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Effect of Cycling 20 Minutes of Blood Sugar Levels in Male Students of Senior High School 9 Tangerang 2015

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Blood sugar levels is very important as an indicator of measurement associated with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes that occurs during adolescence in Indonesia has increased, so it is important to maintain health condition to controlling blood sugar levels in the body since adolescence. Aerobic physical activity such as cycling can regulate and control blood sugar levels because it makes glucose as the body's main energy source. This study aims to determine the effect of cycling for 20 minutes on blood sugar levels in male students of senior high school 9 Tangerang. This study design was quasi-experimental one group pre-test and post-test. The sample were 21 respondents selected by purposive sampling. Intervention was given by cycling for 20 minutes at speed approximately 25km/h. 2 hours before intervention was given, all respondents have breakfast together with the same menu. Measurement of blood sugar levels done before and after intervention. The results showed that cycling for 20 minutes affect changes in blood sugar levels significantly (p=0.000). The average reduction in blood sugar levels after the intervention is 25.0 mg / dl. Cycling for 20 minutes if done regularly can help keep blood sugar levels in the normal rate.
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Effect of Cycling 20 Minutes of Blood Sugar Levels in Male Students of Senior High School 9
Tangerang 2015
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2017 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 180 012260
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Effect of Cycling 20 Minutes of Blood Sugar Levels in Male
Students of Senior High School 9 Tangerang 2015
E H Azhar1*, A S Sutopo2
1Postgraduate Program of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia
2Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
*dan18azhar@yahoo.com
Abstract. Blood sugar levels is very important as an indicator of measurement associated
with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes that occurs during adolescence in Indonesia has
increased, so it is important to maintain health condition to controlling blood sugar levels
in the body since adolescence. Aerobic physical activity such as cycling can regulate and
control blood sugar levels because it makes glucose as the body's main energy source. This study
aims to determine the effect of cycling for 20 minutes on blood sugar levels in male students of
senior high school 9 Tangerang. This study design was quasi-experimental one group pre-test and
post-test. The sample were 21 respondents selected by purposive sampling. Intervention was given
by cycling for 20 minutes at speed approximately 25km/h. 2 hours before intervention was given,
all respondents have breakfast together with the same menu. Measurement of blood sugar levels
done before and after intervention. The results showed that cycling for 20 minutes affect changes
in blood sugar levels significantly (p=0.000). The average reduction in blood sugar levels after the
intervention is 25.0 mg / dl. Cycling for 20 minutes if done regularly can help keep blood sugar
levels in the normal rate.
1. Introduction
Diabetes is referred to as the silent killer and there is a call as mother of disease because it can attack
other organs, like the heart, kidneys, nerves, blood vessels, eyes, and cause death. According to WHO,
diabetes is responsible for six deaths that occurred within 1 minute, and 20 deaths. In Indonesia,
according to Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) the prevalence of DM in 2013 (2.1%) increase compared
to 2007 (1.1%). Increased prevalence of diabetes also occurs in adolescence so it is important to know the
health condition of the body as a teenager as checks blood sugar levels in the body.
Many of the school children especially the middle level on claim to have never checking blood
sugar levels and also very minimal knowledge about the prevention of diabetes at an early age
because diabetes can happen to anyone. Plus dense academic activities to make students complained and
claimed saturated. They have assumed the burden of thinking become unbalanced with physical activity
they do. A series of intensive academic activity makes them difficult to set the time of their sport in the
midst of the routine, when they know exercise is good for maintaining fitness and health. Extracurricular
activities that are not really interest to the students. The students prefer to focus on their academic
demand at school because of the many exercises and homework given by the teacher at the school makes
the students and the students are reluctant to add to their activities in the organization extracurricular
1
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An intensive activity makes them difficult to set the time of their sport in the midst of the routine,
when they know exercise is good for maintaining fitness and health. Cycling is a physical activity
(exercise) that require energy in practice. To produce energy, our bodies need food. If the lack of
physical activity such as exercise, the extra energy in the body will be stored as glycogen and fat so
that the potential of causing obesity to be at risk for various diseases. Having regard to the facts and
issues described earlier, it is necessary to experimental studies to determine the effect of cycling on
blood sugar levels in male students - male high school 9 Tangerang.
2. Discussion
2.1. Blood Glucose
Blood is a fluid that flows in the vascular system found in humans and animals [1]. Blood is a vehicle
or medium for transportation of nutrients throughout the body. Function in the blood transports
oxygen, nutrients and waste products of metabolism from the heart throughout the body and back
again to the heart [2].
All types of carbohydrates are consumed by humans both types of complex carbohydrates (rice,
potatoes, bread, and cassava dBs) and also the simple carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, and fructose)
will be converted into glucose in the body. Glucose thus formed can then be stored as energy reserves
as glycogen in the liver and muscles and can be stored in the blood or it can also be brought into the
cells of the body that need [3]. See Table 1.
Table 1. Blood glucose levels in some circumstances and time.
Time / Situation Blood Glucose level (mg/dl)
Wake up 70-100
Before lunch 70-110
2 hour after eat 110-140
Source: Neil F. Gordon. Diabetes: Exercise Your Complete Guide. Canada, Human Kinetics
Publishers. 1993), h.35.
When glucose is not immediately needed for energy, the extra glucose that goes continuously into
the cells will be stored as glycogen or converted into fat [4]. Especially glucose stored as glycogen
until the cells have as much ability to store glycogen [1].When the glycogen storage cells (mainly liver
and muscle cells) approaching saturation glycogen, additional glucose is converted into fat in the liver
cells and fat cells and stored as fat in fat cells [5].
At the time of exercise, muscle calorie purposes initially filled with glycogenolysis in muscles and
increased glucose uptake. Plasma glucose initially rise due to increased liver glycogenolysis but could
go down because of heavy exercise and long [6].
2.2. Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a disease due to a disturbance (hyperglycemia) and found glucose in the urine
(glycosuria). This occurs carbohydrate metabolism characterized by high blood glucose levels because
of the disruption of insulin production [7]. Can also be caused by the disruption of activity / sensitivity
to insulin (insulin resistance). Diabetes is defined as a fasting blood sugar level is higher than 125
milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl) after going through repeated measurements [5].
For someone who is at risk of diabetes, lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical activity (at
least 150 minutes per week) and the restriction of fat intake recommended by the American Diabetes
Association to decrease the incidence of diabetes [8].
2
1st Annual Applied Science and Engineering Conference IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 180 (2017) 012260 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012260
Here is the effect of increased physical activity in diabetics [9]:
Physical activity directly improve muscle sensitivity to insulin, so the glucose more easily
deposited in the muscle rather than be left to rise in the bloodstream.
Physical activity can help lose weight, and particularly more useful for maintaining weight
gained due to changes in the composition of the food.
Program the prevention and treatment of diabetes is most successfully incorporate increased
physical activity of moderate intensity in everyday life.
According Chaveau and Kaufman, exercise in diabetes can lead to increased use of glucose by the
muscles active, thus directly exercise can cause a decrease in blood glucose [10].
2.3. Cycling
Cycling is synonymous with physical activity or exercise that can be done by all people. Physical
activity includes activities that involve body movement. Therefore, cycling can stimulate the heart
rate in accordance with the target we want. Cycling is synonymous with physical activity or exercise
that can be done by all people. Physical activity includes activities that involve body movement.
Therefore, cycling can stimulate the heart rate in accordance with the target we want. Cycling is a
great way to practice for 20 to 30 minutes a day, 3 to 5 days each week in order to obtain good health
and fitness [10].
The human body was designed to move. Research shows that regular exercise for 30 minutes a day
provides many benefits, although 30 minutes is divided into two or three different sessions. If you are
aged over 40 years, are overweight or have never exercised regularly in a long period of time, it is
important for you to consult with your doctor first before starting any exercise program cycling.
Cycling can burn calories quickly. If you live within 8km from office is by riding a bicycle, at least
you've been exercising for 20 minutes. If you live close to the office, you can pedal a bicycle twice a
week and burn about 3,000 extra calories in the body, about half a kilogram in a month [10].
3. Method
This study aims to determine how much employment effects of cycling for 20 minutes against the
blood sugar levels in male students of class XI Senior High School 9 Tangerang, the study was
conducted in Senior High School 9 Tangerang, Jl. H. Jali 9 Village Kunciran Pinang Jaya sub district,
Tangerang City on January 31, 2015.This research using the "experiment" to study design using the
One Group "Pre-Test And Post-Test Design" (pretest-posttest group design). In this study, which will
be the population is 106 male students of class XI Senior High School 9 Tangerang.
This study design was quasi-experimental one group pre-test and post-test. In this study, the
population is 106 male students of class XI Senior High School 9 Tangerang. The sample were 21
respondents selected by purposive sampling with the criteria : Willing to do research, births in 1997-
1998, physical and mental health (medical certificate), Having weigh between 49-51 kg, blood sugar
levels two hours after eating between 110-140 mg / dl.
Data collected by taking blood, in this study the data was taken by measuring the sugar levels in the
blood. Blood sugar is taken before and after the intervention. Its intervention was cycled for 20
minutes with average speed - approximately 25 km / h and a distance of approximately 8 km. Data
analysis used unvariat and bivariate data processed by the data processing computer software.
3
1st Annual Applied Science and Engineering Conference IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 180 (2017) 012260 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012260
4. Result
Table 2. Blood sugar level before and after intervention
Number of
Respondents
Blood Sugar
Levels After
Intervention
p value
Mean of
Different
(MD)
1
87.0
2
103.0
3
102.0
4
87.0
5
92.0
6
94.0
7
109.0
8
90.0
9
97.0
10
106.0
11
109.0
0,000
25,0
12
104.0
13
111.0
14
105.0
15
102.0
16
95.0
17
106.0
18
83.0
19
92.0
20
97.0
21
98.0
The results o n ta b l e 2 showed that cycling for 20 minutes affect changes in blood sugar levels
significantly (p=0.000). The average reduction in blood sugar levels after the intervention is 25.0
mg / dl. Cycling for 20 minutes if done regularly can help keep blood sugar levels in the normal rate.
References
[1] Ganong W F 2002 Buku ajar fisiologi kedokteran. Edisi 20 515-518
[2] Giri W 2012 Fisiologi dan Olahraga Graha Ilmu Surakarta
[3] Irawan M A 2007 Metabolisme energi tubuh dan olahraga Sport Science Brief [serial online]
[4] Guyton Arthur C and Hall Jhon E 2006 Buku Ajar Fisiologi Kedokteran
[5] Soegondo S, Soewondo P and Subekti I 2009 Penatalaksanaan diabetes melitus terpadu. FKUI.
Jakarta.
[6] Rendi A P 2013 Hidup Manis dengan Diabetes Jakarta: Media Pressindo
[7] David M N and Linda M D 2005 Menaklukkan Diabetes Jakarta: PT.Bhuana Ilmu
Populer
[8] Ibnu khalis 2011 Bikemania Jakarta: Flashbooks
[9] Pan X R, Li G W, Hu Y H, Wang J X, Yang W Y, An Z X and Jiang X G 1997 Effects of diet
and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance The Da Qing
4
1st Annual Applied Science and Engineering Conference IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 180 (2017) 012260 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012260
IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes care 20(4) 537-544
[10] Gary Glover B S W 2012 Working with Mandatory and Negotiable Aspects of Personal Codes:
Implications of the Narratives of Rural Men for Social Work Practice (Doctoral dissertation,
Carleton University Ottawa).
5
1st Annual Applied Science and Engineering Conference IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 180 (2017) 012260 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012260
... Cycling for 20 minutes if done regularly can help keep blood sugar levels in the normal rate. [4] But showed some irelevan result with Rohankar, et.al that stated that walking and yoga Exercise are more significant as compared to the swimming and cycling Exercise and lead to develop proper glucose control [9]. ...
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Full-text available
Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have a high risk of developing NIDDM. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diet and exercise interventions in those with IGT may delay the development of NIDDM, i.e., reduce the incidence of NIDDM, and thereby reduce the overall incidence of diabetic complications, such as cardiovascular, renal, and retinal disease, and the excess mortality attributable to these complications. In 1986, 110,660 men and women from 33 health care clinics in the city of Da Qing, China, were screened for IGT and NIDDM. Of these individuals, 577 were classified (using World Health Organization criteria) as having IGT. Subjects were randomized by clinic into a clinical trial, either to a control group or to one of three active treatment groups: diet only, exercise only, or diet plus exercise. Follow-up evaluation examinations were conducted at 2-year intervals over a 6-year period to identify subjects who developed NIDDM. Cox's proportional hazard analysis was used to determine if the incidence of NIDDM varied by treatment assignment. The cumulative incidence of diabetes at 6 years was 67.7% (95% CI, 59.8-75.2) in the control group compared with 43.8% (95% CI, 35.5-52.3) in the diet group, 41.1% (95% CI, 33.4-49.4) in the exercise group, and 46.0% (95% CI, 37.3-54.7) in the diet-plus-exercise group (P < 0.05). When analyzed by clinic, each of the active intervention groups differed significantly from the control clinics (P < 0.05). The relative decrease in rate of development of diabetes in the active treatment groups was similar when subjects were stratified as lean or overweight (BMI < or > or = 25 kg/m2). In a proportional hazards analysis adjusted for differences in baseline BMI and fasting glucose, the diet, exercise, and diet-plus-exercise interventions were associated with 31% (P < 0.03), 46% (P < 0.0005), and 42% (P < 0.005) reductions in risk of developing diabetes, respectively. Diet and/or exercise interventions led to a significant decrease in the incidence of diabetes over a 6-year period among those with IGT.
  • Guyton Arthur
  • Hall Jhon
Guyton Arthur C and Hall Jhon E 2006 Buku Ajar Fisiologi Kedokteran
  • A Rendi
Rendi A P 2013 Hidup Manis dengan Diabetes Jakarta: Media Pressindo
Working with Mandatory and Negotiable Aspects of Personal Codes: Implications of the Narratives of Rural Men for Social Work Practice (Doctoral dissertation
  • Gary Glover
Gary Glover B S W 2012 Working with Mandatory and Negotiable Aspects of Personal Codes: Implications of the Narratives of Rural Men for Social Work Practice (Doctoral dissertation, Carleton University Ottawa).
Buku ajar fisiologi kedokteran
  • W Ganong
Ganong W F 2002 Buku ajar fisiologi kedokteran. Edisi 20 515-518
Fisiologi dan Olahraga Graha Ilmu Surakarta
  • W Giri
Giri W 2012 Fisiologi dan Olahraga Graha Ilmu Surakarta
Metabolisme energi tubuh dan olahraga Sport Science Brief
  • M Irawan
Irawan M A 2007 Metabolisme energi tubuh dan olahraga Sport Science Brief [serial online]
Penatalaksanaan diabetes melitus terpadu
  • S Soegondo
  • P Soewondo
  • I Subekti
Soegondo S, Soewondo P and Subekti I 2009 Penatalaksanaan diabetes melitus terpadu. FKUI. Jakarta.