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Effect of hemp fiber on UVB-induced epidermal cell proliferation and PCNA expression

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Effect of hemp fiber on UVB-induced epidermal cell proliferation and PCNA expression

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Abstract

Ultraviolet radiation commonly causes serious skin diseases, and skin cell death. The UVB-blocking effect of hemp fabric which known to be a powerful agent against UVB was evaluated using mouse auricle skin. Based on UVB irradiation and the use of different fabrics, four mouse groups were evaluated in this study: two experimental groups, Group 1 (UVB exposed hemp fabric-shield site, EHFS), Group 2 (UVB exposed polyester fabric-shield site, EPFS), and two control groups, Group 3 (UVB exposed non-fabric-shield site, ENFS), and Group 4 (UVB unexposed non-fabric-shield site, UNFS). Except for UNFS all samples were exposed to UVB for 28 h and showed clear histologic changes in epidermis and dermis. After 45 h chronic irradiation, epidermal thickness was doubled in EHFS, roughly tripled in EPFS, and more than quadrupled in ENFS over that of UNFS. Based on the thickness of the altered epidermis, the blocking effect of hemp fabric was 50% higher than that of polyester fabric. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in ENFS and EPFS throughout the hyperplasia of keratinocytes and sebocytes. After 45 h irradiation, the sebocytes of sebaceous glands, observed in sectioned images, increased on average to 14 cells in ENFS, 9 cells in EPFS, and 7 cells in EHFS, as compared to 8 cells in UNFS. In contrast, the cell area of adipose tissue was decreased by half in EHFS, one-fourth in EPFS, and one-tenth in ENFS, and mostly replaced with fibroblasts and other supporting cells. These results suggest that UVB irradiation directly affects epidermal and dermal tissues, and induces abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes and hyperplasia of sebocytes consuming fats in adipose tissue. For skin health, hemp fabric is a better material for protecting the skin against UVB than polyester fabric.

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Background/purpose: Spectrophotometry has become an accepted laboratory-based method for the determination of the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) of fabrics. However, the validity of the UPF determined in the laboratory has been a controversial issue with regard to its significance in the field. To compare UPF values obtained by spectrophotometry, determination of the minimal erythema dose (MED), and biological dosimetry, we conducted laboratory and field-based measurements on various fabric materials. Methods: One cotton, two viscose, and two polyester fabrics were enrolled into the study. Spectrophotometric (SP) testing was performed in accordance with the European standard. In vivo "on skin" (IV) testing on human subjects was performed with and without fabric protection. For determination of MED, a solar-simulator was used. In another part of the study, biological dosimetry (BD) testing was employed for laboratory testing with solar-simulated radiation (laboratory BD testing) as well as field-based measurements with natural sunlight in stationary (stationary BD testing) and "real life" exposure situations (mobile subject BD testing). For field-based measurements one light-weight polyester fabric was selected. Results: The differences of the mean UPF values obtained by the laboratory-based methods were significant (MANOVA; P = 0.05), except for fabric no. 2 (MANOVA; P = 0.097). In 4 of the 5 fabrics tested, UPF values obtained by IV testing were significantly lower than those obtained by SP testing (t-test; P = 0.05). In 3 fabrics, SP testing revealed significantly higher UPF values in comparison to laboratory BD testing (t-test; P = 0.05). The differences of UPF values obtained by the laboratory and field-based measurements employed for the light-weight polyester fabric were significant (ANOVA; P = 0.05). In comparison to SP testing (UPF 3.8), stationary BD testing resulted in significantly lower (UPF 3.5) and mobile subject BD testing in a significantly higher UPF of 4.4 (t-test; P = 0.05). The UPF obtained by mobile subject BD testing differed significantly from the UPF obtained by stationary BD testing (t-test; P = 0.05). Conclusions: Comparison of the presented methods indicates that IV testing generally results in lower UPF values. By contrast BD testing in "real life" exposure situations reveals relatively high UPF values. Although an overestimation of the spectrophotometrically measured UPF has been observed in comparative laboratory testing, UPF values obtained by field-based measurements are in relatively good agreement, or even surpass UPF values obtained by spectrophotometry. It is, therefore, suggested that SP testing provides "safe" UPF values which may be also valid in extreme real exposure situations. Biological UV dosimetry is, however, a promising alternative method for UPF testing: the test is easily performed in realistic exposure situations, the test is relatively inexpensive, and the measurements are valid.
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Hypericin from St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) is a photosensitizing agent that may cause a severe photodermatitis when higher amounts of St John's wort are ingested by animals. Although Hypericum extracts are widely used in the treatment of depressive disorders, only a little information on the photosensitizing capacity of St John's wort in humans is available. In the present prospective randomized study we investigated the effect of the Hypericum extract LI 160 on skin sensitivity to ultraviolet B (UVB), ultraviolet A (UVA), visible light (VIS) and solar simulated radiation (SIM). Seventy two volunteers of skin types II and III were included and were divided into six groups, each consisting of 12 volunteers. In the single-dose study the volunteers (n = 48) received 6 or 12 coated tablets (5400 or 10 800 microgram hypericin). In the steady-state study the volunteers (n = 24) received an initial dose of 6 tablets (5400 microgram hypericin), and subsequently 3 x 1 tablets (2700 microgram hypericin) per day for 7 days. Phototesting was performed on the volar forearms prior to medication and 6 h after the last administration of Hypericum extract. The erythema-index and melanin-index were evaluated photometrically using a mexameter. After both single-dose and steady-state administration, no significant influence on the erythema-index or melanin-index could be detected, with the exception of a marginal influence on UVB induced pigmentation (p = 0.0471) in the single-dose study. The results do not provide evidence for a phototoxic potential of the Hypericum extract LI 160 in humans when administered orally in typical clinical doses up to 1800 mg daily. This is in accordance with previous pharmacokinetic studies that found hypericin serum and skin levels after oral ingestion of Hypericum extract always to be lower than the assumed phototoxic hypericin threshold level of 1000 ng/mL.
Article
Although an understanding of the photobiology of the skin has been extensively advanced recently, the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on sebaceous glands is not well known. In this study, we examined the direct effect of UV radiation on cultured sebocytes from hamsters in vitro experimental system. Moreover, we examined whether UV-induced peroxidation of skin surface lipids may affect barrier function of horney layer. We irradiated cultured sebocytes from hamsters, which have similar biological characteristics to the human sebocytes, with UV radiation. Moreover, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was examined after topical application of cholesterol or triglyceride (TG) and UV exposures on the back of hamsters. The number of sebocytes were increased significantly (120-140%) after 4 days as compared with the non-irradiated controls. Lipid production in sebocytes was also increased on day 7 in an irradiation-dependent manner up to 4.1 times of the pre-irradiated level. When UVB was irradiated to TG- or cholesterol-applied skin at the minimum ear-swelling dose, TEWL increased twice or more as compared with UVB irradiation to unapplied sites. When in vitro-irradiated TG, in vitro-irradiated cholesterol, TG-peroxide (TG-OOH), and cholesterol-peroxide (CHO-OOH) were applied to the skin, TEWL increased significantly. These results suggest that UVB may directly activate the functions of the sebaceous gland in vivo to produce increased amounts of sebum, which may undergo peroxidation by UV light and damage the barrier functions of the skin.
Article
Vitamin D3 plays important roles in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the gastrointestinal tract and in the treatment of rickets; in addition, it facilitates the deposition of minerals in bones, thus minimizing the possibility of developing osteomalacia. Sunlight naturally induces vitamin D3 photosynthesis. Such a process is affected by a number of factors such as age, geographical location, skin color, sunscreen application and clothing. It is intended in the present investigation to study in vitro the effect of clothing on the solar photoproduction of vitamin D3. Fifteen different fabric samples were tested for their effect on the efficiency of the in vitro solar conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to vitamin D3. 7-DHC was dissolved in methanol to give a concentration of 2.6 x 10(-4) M. Solutions were exposed to sunlight in quartz containers for predetermined periods either uncovered or covered with the fabric sample under test. Changes in the concentrations of 7-DHC and the photoproducts were monitored by HPLC. Fabrics were graded as the number of threads per square inch (in(2)), and their sunlight attenuation was determined. 7-DHC is transformed to previtamin D3 upon exposure to sunlight, and the amount generated exhibited an almost linear relationship. When fabric-covered samples of 7-DHC were irradiated, photoproducts were also detected and their concentrations depended on the degree of sunlight attenuation imposed by the fabric. Generally, the higher the number of threads per in(2) the more the light attenuation produced. Clothing plays an important role in attenuating sunlight, thus leading to diminished vitamin D3 production to an extent that would require dietary compensation.
Article
Ultraviolet (UV) lamps used in commercial sunbeds are usually defined as UVA sources. Although it is well accepted that sunbed exposure significantly increases melanin pigmentation, its capacity to induce epidermal thickening is discussed controversially. The aim of this study was to assess non-invasively the effects of repeated sunbed exposures on epidermal thickness, cell size, and pigmentation by means of confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) in vivo. Eight volunteers had sunbed exposures six times in a 3-week period (cumulative dose: 126 J/cm(2) UVA). During irradiation, a small site (2 cm x 2 cm) on the lateral aspect of the inner forearm was covered with a UV-opaque sheet (non-exposed site). CLSM was performed with the Vivascope (Lucid, Henrietta, NY, USA) 24 h after the last UVA exposure on non-exposed sites and UVA-exposed sites that were on the medial aspect of the inner forearm at a distance of 2 cm to the non-exposed measurement site. The following parameters were assessed: thickness of the horny layer (DSC), minimal thickness of the epidermis (E(min)), minimal thickness of the viable epidermis (VE(min)), cell size of the granular layer (A(gran)), and the epidermal melanin content (MI). Additionally, colorimetric measurements have been carried out on non-exposed and UVA-exposed sites. DSC of the UVA-exposed skin was significantly higher than the one of non-exposed sites (mean+/-SD: 15+/-2.9 microm vs. 12.8+/-3 microm). Although E(min) was significantly higher in UVA-exposed sites (mean+/-SD: 40.4+/-3.6 microm vs. 39+/-2.9 microm), a slight but not statistically significant (P>0.05) decrease of VE(min) was observed (25.5+/-2.1 microm vs. 26.2+/-2.4 microm). The median of cell size of the granular layer (A(gran)) significantly (P=0.008) differed between non-exposed (752.1 microm(2)) and UVA-exposed sites (600 microm(2)). MI was significantly (P=0.014) higher for the UVA-exposed skin (1.12 vs. 1.34). Accordingly, colorimetry revealed significantly (P< 0.01) lower skin brightness for UVA-exposed sites (L*=60.2+/-4.3) as compared with non-exposed sites (L*=63.4+/-3.9). Sunbed exposures seem to induce photoadaptation not only by skin pigmentation but also by epidermal thickening that is predominantly due to an increase in thickness of the horny layer. Moreover, our data indicate that UVA radiation has an influence on the cell size of the granular layer. CLSM is a promising tool for photobiological studies in vivo.
Article
Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US dollars 650 million a year, and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US dollars 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression.
Article
Exposure of skin to excessive ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation causes epidermal hyperproliferation that leads to epidermal hyperplasia, however, it is not yet clear exactly how these responses progress. We attempted to clarify the response patterns involved with epidermal hyperproliferation following UVB radiation. UVB was irradiated at 2 minimal erythema doses (MED) to human back skin and epidermal morphologic changes were evaluated using in vivo confocal laser microscopy. Skin biopsy specimens were collected from exposed and from non-exposed regions, and were subjected to histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. The in vivo confocal laser microscopic analysis showed that UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia was prominent at the epidermal rete ridges. Further, 3 days after UVB exposure, numerous Ki67-positive epidermal cells were observed in the epidermal rete ridges, but not in the epidermis at the top of the dermal papilla. These results suggest that cells highly responsive to UVB exist in the epidermal rete ridges and that their hyperproliferation leads to elongation of the epidermal rete ridges. In contrast, the number of keratin 10-positive basal cells, known as transitional cells, was increased throughout the epidermis, suggesting that an upward migration of keratinocytes from the epidermal basal layer occurred regardless of their location. However, diffusion of melanin to the suprabasal layers was markedly observed in epidermal regions above the dermal papillae, suggesting the occurrence of strong upper cell movement at this position. Based on our results, we conclude that differences in keratinocyte responses to UVB radiation exist in cells located in the undulating epidermal basal layer.
Article
This study evaluated the effects of synthetic benzylamide compound I (2,6-dimethoxy-N-phenylbenzamide) on the ultraviolet B (UV B)-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin. UV B-induced hyperpigmentation was elicited on brownish guinea pig skin according to the method reported by Hideya et al. [Arch Dermatol Res 290 (1998) 375] with minor modifications. A lightening effect was observed following the topical application of compound I on UV-stimulated hyperpigmentation. The skin returned to its original color after treatment with compound I. Fontana-Masson staining indicated that melanin level in the hyperpigmented area was significantly decreased in the compound I-treated animals. However, the number of melanocytes were not changed in the compound I-treated groups using the S-100 stain, which is an immunohistochemical method. In vitro experiments using the cultured melanoma cells showed a 31.7% inhibition of melanin production by compound I at 100 microM. In addition, this compound had no effect on the tyrosinase enzyme function. However, it exhibited a catalyzing effect on the dopachrome transformation into 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, the pigment-lightening effects of the compound I may due to the dopachrome tautomerase stimulation.
Article
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic inflammatory skin disease, which occurs primarily in childhood. Recently, narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy has been used to treat AD, but the mechanism involved is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether UVB irradiation influences AD in the NC/Nga mouse. The mice were separated into three groups: control, AD-control (immunized with mite antigens), and AD+UVB-irradiated (immunized with mite antigens and UVB irradiation) groups. The mice in the irradiation group were exposed to 1 kJ/m(2)/day twice a week from 6 to 12 weeks of age. Animals in the control and AD-control groups were shaved, but not irradiated. In the AD+UVB-irradiated group, the atopy score, ear thickness, and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) were increased in comparison with the AD-control group. On day 40, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-10 in the spleen lymphocytes were significantly increased compared with the AD-control group, resulting in a marked decrease of the interferon (IFN)-gamma/IL-4 ratio compared with the AD-control group. In addition, the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and NO(x) production by peritoneal macrophages were significantly elevated. These results indicate that UVB irradiation promotes the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.