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This paper evaluates the crucial role of Drones in case of natural disasters management from a technical, response and relief humanitarian aid, and institutional implementation. The main objective in this paper is to evaluate how drones in the future can play a crucial role in case of a tsunami, earthquake, flooding, and any natural disaster. We assume that any natural disaster can generate a huge damage on the infrastructure, transportation systems, communications systems access, and basic services. We propose in three areas the uses of drones in case of natural disasters: (i) aerial monitoring and evaluation of the natural disaster damage; (ii) logistic and cargo; (iii) post natural disaster aerial evaluation.
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Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
FULL DOCUMENT COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY DR. MARIO ARTURO RUIZ ESTRADA
How Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAV’s- (or Drones) Can
Help in Case of Natural Disasters Response and
Humanitarian Relief Aid?
Mario Arturo RUIZ ESTRADA,
Social Security Research Centre (SSRC),
Centre for Poverty and Development Studies (CPDS),
Faculty of Economics and Administration (FEA),
University of Malaya (UM),
Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
[E-mail] marioruiz@um.edu.my
Abstract
This paper evaluates the crucial role of unmanned aerial vehicles UAV’s- (or Drone) in the
case of natural disasters response and humanitarian relief aid. The primary objective of this
paper is to evaluate how unmanned aerial vehicles UAV’s- (or Drone) in the present and near
future can play a crucial role to help survivors in the case of a tsunami, earthquake, flooding,
and any natural disaster. We need to assume that in any natural disaster always exist the high
possibility of damage to the infrastructure, transportation systems, telecommunications
systems access, and basic services immediately. We propose in three areas the uses of
unmanned aerial vehicles UAV’s- (or Drone) in the case of natural disasters response and
humanitarian relief aid. There are (i) the aerial monitoring post-natural disaster damage
evaluation, (ii) the natural disaster logistic and cargo delivery, (iii) the post-natural disaster
aerial assessment.
1. A General Review about the Origins of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAV’s-
(or Drone) and Its Applications
The construction of the first unmanned aerial vehicle UAV- (or Drone) was developed in the
War World I (WWI) in 1918 with the creation of small planes under the concept of cruise
missiles (self-flying aerial torpedo) to attack enemies in short distances. The two creators of
the first UAV is Orville Wright and Charles Kettering (electrical engineer). The self-flying
aerial torpedo (or Kettering Bug) was a wooden biplane (530 pounds that including a massive
bomb of 180 pounds) able to flying a ratio of 75 Miles away. This incredible machine the
operator was focused on programming the wind speed, direction, distance to fix the engine
revolutions of the Kettering bug that can crash into a fixed target. In fact, the Drone’s
technology in WWI is more oriented to attack strategic points without return. According to
Smithsonian museum the first experimental UAVs, which are technically defined by their
capability to return successfully after a mission, were developed in the late 1950s, but the
American military began designing and developing unmanned aircraft during the first World
War (Smithsonian, 2013). Therefore, in the War World II (WWII) the American Air Force
starts to use small and conventional planes by using radio remote controls from England to spy
on the Germany Nazi territories in Europe to monitoring the Nazi troops moves on land and
sea around France, Belgium, and Holland. Later, in the 60s and 70s starts formally the
Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
FULL DOCUMENT COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY DR. MARIO ARTURO RUIZ ESTRADA
construction of UAV’s by the American Air Force engineers with necessary electric systems
to manage medium range flaying’s without pilots to observe enemies’ moves. Another
limitation in this time, none exist great radio remote controls to cover vast distances to receive
a mobile communication control reception is limited in this period.
The significant improvement of UAV’s development was between the 1980s and
1990s. The uses of advanced and sophisticated computers, digital cameras with a high
resolution, advanced electronic controlling systems, extensive coverage remote radio control
reception systems, and light materials such as plastic and carbon fibers to build large and light
UAV’s, together with advanced GPS and monitoring remote systems. Finally, from 2000 to
2017 the advanced UAVs systems demand is growing geometrically in quality and quantity.
The application of UAV’s is movsing from military to a private use by consumers around the
world. The large variety of UAVs is according to its size, power, and applications.
This paper proposes a large list of UAV’s applications such as military, commercial,
natural disasters, health, construction, private uses, education, research, entertainment, sports,
national security, logistic, firefighter, agriculture, geology, astronomy, meteorology, and
environment. Additionally, we need to know the difference that exists between RC Planes,
Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and Large UAV (LUAV) respectively. This
research will remark the difference that exists between RC Airplanes, Quadcopters (see Figure
2), Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) (see Figure 4), and LUAV (See Figure 3) is very clear and
easy to distinguish. The RC planes are any prototype that tries to represent a large real plane
on a small scale. The Quadcopter is a mix of a formal aerial transportation with different
applications and uses. Quadcopter shows a conventional aerial transportation system with
various applications together with its precise instrumentation of flying. However, the Smart-
Platforms (SP) is based on the same concept of Quadcopters but with larger and stronger
electric engines together with large and stable structures to flying more long distances to carry
heavy cargo for a different type of missions. Finally, we have the Large Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle (LUAV) is a large aircraft with massive proportions, larger engines with high power,
together with sophisticated software and hardware systems to flying long distances. The
LUAV’s never request any pilot to fly, and the LUAV’s work based on a controller with
experience that he/she can control the LUAV’s with using by high or short wave reception
remote controls systems or advanced computer systems. At the same time, we need to classified
and differentiated RC Planes, Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s. The
main difference depends on the take-off/landing style systems: vertical or horizontal), altitude
levels, radio remote control reception systems, GPS systems, camera systems, different
materials, energy supplier systems (battery or gasoline), mechanical or electric engines, and
endurance respectively.
Usually, the take-off/landing horizontal style systems can be observed mainly in Quadcopters
(three rotors, four rotors classic-, five rotors, six rotors, eight rotors, eighteen rotors) and
Smart-Platforms (SP). The pros of take-off/landing horizontal style systems can be landing
anywhere and anytime, but the cons of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems show many
limitations to flying long distance compare to the take-off/landing horizontal forms systems
such as the case of Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s. At the same time, the cons of the take-
Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
FULL DOCUMENT COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY DR. MARIO ARTURO RUIZ ESTRADA
off/landing horizontal style systems present many difficulties too, especially in the departure
and arrival process. The pros of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems can fly more long
distances. In the case of the aerial video filming and photography by the take-off/landing,
horizontal style systems can take better videos and photos according to the altitude, angle,
stability and coverage. For the take-off/landing, vertical style systems cannot take pictures and
videos for its limitation of the angle, stability, and coverage.
According to this research also Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s can
be classified by size and weight: Nano-Size, Mini-Size, Medium size, Large size and Giant
size. This research paper focuses on the application of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms
(SP) (Ruiz Estrada, 2017) and LUAV’s, and UAV Robots. This research would like to clarify
that a Smart-Platform (SP) is the mix of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems and the
take-off/landing vertical style systems together. The primary objective of any Smart-Platform
(SP) is to offer an alternative system of aviation support with different applications. In our case,
we suggest two requests for the Smart-Platform (SP) such as a firefighter Smart Platform and
the natural disasters cargo express smart platform that can supply essential items to the
survivors in any case of natural disaster: water, food, medicines, lights, communication systems
(radios). We need to build an individual infrastructure deposits to keep a primary storage (e.g.
food, water, and medicines) that we can supply anytime and anywhere to survivors in different
places simultaneously. At the same time, any Quadcopter, Drone, Smart-Platforms (SP) and
LUAV’s requests the construction of unique platforms that can facilitate the departure and
landing faster and safely in case of a natural disaster or national security issue (War or
Terrorism). These Drones or platforms will be called Droneports or Smart-Platforms that can
facilitate the uses of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s efficiently.
Hence, any Quadcopter, Drone, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s request the uses of
Droneports or Smart-Platforms to generate an efficient and systematic logistic coordination
computing system and excellent facilities in the maintenance of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-
Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s activities in any case of a vast and destructive and massive natural
disaster. The Droneports or Smart-Platform request five basic requirements. These five
elements are 1. kept large storage deposits, 2. efficient electricity plants, and faster charger
systems, 3. large stock of parts and accessories), the strategic geographical location according
to the high population density, 4. the design of particular routes for flying Quadcopters, 5.
Drones and Smart-Platforms (SP) anytime and anywhere. Another important issue is to
including in the uses of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s is necessary
to design different prototypes according to the natural disaster event. The creation of the
various types of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s for each type of
natural disaster event according to its departure and landing facilities, design and equipment to
help survivors in the critical time. The adaptability of the Quadcopter, Drone, Smart-Platforms
(SP) and LUAV’s for any case of natural disasters emergencies. In fact, the advantages to using
the Quadcopter, Drone, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s is according to its adaptability and
efficiency in case of a massive natural disasters devastation. The principal objective is to give
enough support to download a basic cargo with storages just at time in the post-natural disaster
critical timing through release small containers and let the same Smart-Platform (SP) can return
to its Droneports or Smart-Platform to return for bring more shipment as soon as possible again.
Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
FULL DOCUMENT COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY DR. MARIO ARTURO RUIZ ESTRADA
This research proposes that a Quadcopter, Drone, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s has three
core missions in any natural disasters event: (i) the aerial monitoring post-natural disaster
damage evaluation; (ii) the natural disaster logistic and cargo delivery; (iii) the post-natural
disaster aerial assessment. Firstly, the aerial monitoring post-natural disaster damage
evaluation by using Quadcopters can help us to evaluate the real situation and magnitude of
the damage in any natural disaster.
Secondly, the natural disaster logistic and cargo delivery role of Smart-Platforms (SP) is to
bring essential items such as water, food, lights, radios with massive coverage, medicines, and
communication systems as primary internet connectivity systems.
Thirdly, it is the post-natural disaster aerial evaluation to evaluate the final human and
infrastructure damage after of any natural disaster event.
These three core missions of the Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s can
give us a precise natural disasters response and relief humanitarian aid framework in case of
natural disasters shortly. Finally, the uses of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and
LUAV’s request pilots with appropriate training and abilities to manage to fly this new type of
technology and also the survivor's force to learn how to manage discharge all items from the
Drone or Smart-Platform (SP) or LUAV’s. In the closed future, we can observe that the
Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s are moving to transform itself into
UAV’s robots that can help in the informal interaction between survivors and suppliers. Also,
the UAV's robots are going to facilitate the easy and fast distribution of essential stores in more
short time and more rapid to help survivors. Especially in the critical post-natural disaster
event through the use of advanced computer systems with using artificial intelligence, large
antennas coverage, sophisticated GPS systems, more detail mapping systems, and unusually
large delivery systems anytime and anywhere without pilots or operators.
[INSERT FIGURE 1]
2. How to Evaluate Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart-Platforms (SP) Efficiency in
Case of Natural Disasters?
Firstly, this particular section of this paper introduces the technical part to evaluate two large
issues in the evaluation of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s in a case
of natural disasters response and humanitarian relief aid. : (i) the Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-
Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s (SP) technical analysis and evaluation of natural catastrophes
response and humanitarian relief aid; (ii) different type of missions for Quadcopters, Drones
Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s of the various natural disasters response and humanitarian
relief aid.
2.a. The Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s Technical Analysis
and Evaluation for Natural Disasters Response and Relief Humanitarian Aid
Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
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In the Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart-Platforms (SP) technical evaluation for natural disasters
response and relief humanitarian aid. We have to evaluate nine main factors to find the best
Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart-Platforms (SP). These factors are firstly the Quadcopters,
Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s design involve size (space) and capacity (weight)
support by the uses of light materials in saving battery energy and generate a better performance
in the electric engines. Second is the batteries power plays a crucial to flying long distances, in
many cases the Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s companies are
considering the uses of solar energy to keep a larger range of flying of Quadcopters, Drones,
Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s respectively. Additionally, the charging systems for
batteries can also help to reduce time to keep active Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms
(SP) and LUAV’s that constantly can supply water, medicines, food, lamps,
telecommunication systems (radios long and short band) to the survivors in different
geographical areas at the same time; (3) Another important issue need to be mentioned it is
about the electric engines size and power to generate more speed and carry heavy weights for
long distances without any problem to a great damaged places by a natural disaster urgently;
(4) One more issue need to be considered is the antenna coverage and GPS systems to keep a
large reception to have a better location with effective positioning systems and precision for
departure or landing to the main base (Droneports or Smart-Platform) to get more storages and
the charging of batteries faster or in case to replace a damaged part such as a propeller, motor
or ESC; (5) Basically the excellent performance of any Quadcopter, Drone, Smart-Platforms
(SP) and LUAV’s depends on the pilots experience to keep a flying with precision and
efficiency for the aerial monitoring post-natural disasters impact and the cargo delivery; (6)
The geographical location of Droneports or Smart Platforms (KM2) plays an important role to
generate the perfect coordination of flying of Quadcopters, Drones and Smart-Platforms (SP)
in the area affected by any natural disasters; (7) Find suitable and resistant electronic speed
control (ESC) is critical because we need to keep a good connection between the batteries and
electric engines always, but specially in the propulsion system of the Quadcopter, Drone Smart-
Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s; (8) The propellers design and material quality is vital to generate
a better propulsion and stability in the air for the Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP)
and LUAV’s; (9) Finally, the camera system is another important issue to take in consideration
for better videos and photos with high quality and resolution respectively. At the same time,
the location of the Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s in the air and its
landing process with high accuracy to generate more efficiency and effectiveness.
Additionally, we propose to have a particular table to evaluate these nine technical factors that
can affect the Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s performance in case
of any natural disasters response and humanitarian relief aid more efficiently. This table is
entitled “The Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s Technical Check
Evaluation Table (QDSPLTCE-Table).” The QDSPLTCE-Table is based on the uses of a
binary system (1 or 0) to facilitate the evaluation of each variable in analysis, in the analysis of
the nine variables depend directly on nine different parameters were established for each
variable respectively. If our variable had located in our setting was created before, then we
have a result equal to 1 (excellent performance) and vice versa (see Table 1). Additionally, this
table is going to help build a new indicator to evaluate the final technical performance of any
Quadcopter, Drone, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s. This new index is called
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"Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s Technical Performance in Case of
Natural Disasters response and RC, aid (Ψ).” (See Expression 1) This indicator can be used by
any natural disasters agencies, governments, and NGO’s to evaluate the type of Quadcopters,
Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s technical performance (Ruiz Estrada, 2011).
Ψ = ∑ Total Results from QDSPLTCE-Table / 9 (total variables in analysis) (1)
If Ψ = [0,1] then Ψ = 0 ˄ Ψ ≤ 1
The results of the Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s Technical
Performance in Case of Natural Disasters response and humanitarian relief aid (Ψ) is evaluated
in four levels of efficiency: Level-1: 0-0.25 (Out of performance)
Level-2: 0.26-0.50 (Poor Performance)
Level-3: 0.51-0.75 (Good Performance)
Level-1 0.76-1 (High Performance)
[INSERT TABLE 1]
The next step, we need to evaluate a large number of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms
(SP) and LUAV’s performance to help in case of a massive natural disasters response and
humanitarian relief aid based on the final results Ψ from Table 1. We assume that a great
Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP) and LUAV’s Technical Performance in Case of
Natural Disasters response and humanitarian relief aid (Ψ) can give better coverage to help in
any natural disasters response and humanitarian relief aid. The primary objective is to bring
heavyweight cargo to long distances without any problem (see Figure 1). Therefore, the
efficiency of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s uses in natural
disasters response and humanitarian relief aid depend directly on the technological advances
(software and hardware) and the number of pilots able to flying Drones or Smart Platforms
(SP) anytime and anywhere. The experience of pilots for Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-
Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s need to start from a young age, according to few research papers,
the ability and skill start from an early age to maneuver and control a different type of
Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s in any situation or emergency.
[INSERT FIGURE 2]
2.b. Type of missions for Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s in
Case of Natural Disasters
In the evaluation of Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Platforms (SP) in the case of natural
disasters, we have to consider three type of mission stages:
Mission Stage-1 is named the aerial monitoring post-natural disasters damage magnitude
evaluation. The Mission Stage-1 focus on the uses of Quadcopters with high-quality resolution
cameras in real time. The primary objective of mission stage-1is to evaluate the infrastructure
devastation preliminarily after of any natural disaster quickly. However, we estimate a
significant number of drones according to QDSPLTCE-Table and Ψ in the large market of
Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Platforms can respond in this particular type of mission.
According to this research after an exhausted evaluation of Quadcopter by Quadcopter. We
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find five Quadcopters branches in order can be used in case of Mission Stage-1: (i) Phantom 4
Advanced (Ψ = 0.91); (ii) Mavic Pro (Ψ = 0.90); (iii) DJI Inspire 2 (Ψ = 0.88); (iv) H920 PLUS
Yuneec (Ψ = 0.85); (v) Parrot BEBOP 2 FPV (Ψ = 0.80) (see Figure 3). These five quadcopters
show a high performance according to its (Ψ) standards. These five type of Quadcopters can
fit perfectly for any mission for observation in any post-natural disasters evaluation. These five
Quadcopters can fly a perimeter of 7 kilometers without any problem during an average of 25-
30 minutes in the air with an average maximum speed of 60 Km/Hr with an average altitude of
3500 Mts. The evaluation of Quadcopters for this particular type of mission depends highly on
the altitude, battery duration, and camera quality.
[INSERT FIGURE 3]
Two countries are pioneers in using quadcopters in the case of natural disasters are referring to
large earthquakes and tsunamis in China and Japan respectively. In China, Quadcopters have
already proven their value in evaluating the damage of earthquakes such as the case of the 2008
Sichuan earthquake (69,000 killed and 18,000 missing people). The uses if Quadcopters by the
Chinese government and rescue agencies were able to detect and evaluate the highways,
buildings, schools, hospitals, electric plants, bridges and tunnels conditions, and other
population-dense locations (Ruiz Estrada, Ndoma, and Park, 2016). In another hand, Japan the
uses of Quadcopters in the earthquake and Tsunami in the year 2011 was to evaluate the
damage to the nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi (Ruiz Estrada, Yap, Park, 2014). Finally,
the case of the massive earthquake in Nepal in the year 2015 and again Quadcopters probe its
effectiveness to evaluate the damages and reconstruction of Nepal based on aerial video and
photos in different places (Ruiz Estrada, Koutronas, Sapkota, 2016).
The Mission Stage-2 focus on the channels of distribution or logistic of light cargo by Smart
Platforms (SP) systems can help in the critical post-natural disaster period. This research finds
five key issues to supply stores in any natural disaster by using Smart-Platforms (SP) such as
water in light packing, food in light packing, essential medicine, and equipment, lamps or neon
lights, and radios to connect communication in areas were affected by any natural disaster.
Basically, Smart Platforms (SP) for Mission Stage-2 are in the experimental stage based on
prototypes such as the Airbus Group and Local Motors ZELATOR-28 (Ψ = 0.95), LUV (Ψ =
0.70), the APSARA Glider Drone = 0.75), Incredible Heavy Lift Quadcopter = 0.65),
Mantarraya Negra Smart-Platform (SP) @ Firefighter Version 5 (Ψ = 0.65), Mantarraya Negra
Smart-Platform (SP) Version 8 P-6 = 0.60), Mantarraya Negra Smart Platform Version 7
and 8 = 0.55) (see Figure 4). These five Smart Platforms (SP) shows different levels of
performance because all these Smart Platforms are in progress and experimental stage.
[INSERT FIGURE 4]
However, these five Smart Platforms (SP) prototypes show different shapes and levels of cargo.
The biggest problem that Drones for Mission Stage-2 is to find reliable electric engines or
gasoline engines to keep in the air longer time this type of Smart Platforms (SP) and carry
heavy cargo on top for long distances. According to this research, we need to find the perfect
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balance of light and durable materials to build this particular type of Smart Platforms (SP).
Additionally, we need to find suitable engines to save energy with powerful batteries to
facilitate long flying hours and the easy way to charging or carry provisions. At the same time,
this Smart Platforms (SP) requests a camera with high resolution, together with a large antenna
coverage with a GPS system with high precision for landing and return to the Droneports or
Smart Platforms to get suppliers again and again.
The Mission Stage-3 focus on the post-aerial evaluation of any natural disasters. This particular
type of mission suggests that each natural disaster requests different treatment and type of
Quadcopters, Drones, Smart-Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s for a different kind of natural
disasters such as a Tsunami, earthquake, flooding, landslide, etc…Each natural disasters
demand to build different structures and shapes, together with various powerful engines and
batteries. The crucial future of Quadcopter, Drones, Smart Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s aid for
natural disasters is to find the perfect balance between the software (programming and
networks) and the hardware (structures, battery power and engines) to build efficient and
effective uses of Quadcopter, Drones, Smart Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s to help in case of
any natural disasters event anytime and anywhere.
3. Conclusion
This paper concludes that the effectiveness of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart Platforms (SP), and
LUAV’s in the case of natural disasters highly depend on the perfect balance between the
technology development of software and hardware together. Additionally, the professional
training for future pilots (human capital) to generate efficient and effective missions in different
stages. The primary three mission of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart Platforms (SP), and LUAV's
looks at First, the aerial monitoring post-natural disasters impact. Second, the channels of
distribution or logistic, light cargo, and Third, the fast suppliers' for Quadcopters, Drones,
Smart Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s systems; (iii) the post-aerial evaluation of any natural
disasters. Therefore, for any mission, it depends on the fast development of new materials,
powerful engines (electric or mechanical), powerful batteries or energy sources for electric or
mechanical engines (electricity, gasoline, solar), and powerful antennas with its GPS systems
respectively. This paper remarks that Quadcopter, Drones, Smart Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s
are going to play a crucial role in our days and future to release any humanitarian aid in any
natural disasters event, national security, and social conflict (War).
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Table 1
The Quadcopter, Drones, Smart Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s Technical Check Evaluation
Table (QDSPLTCE-Table)
Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
FULL DOCUMENT COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY DR. MARIO ARTURO RUIZ ESTRADA
Source: Author
Figure 1
The Quadcopters, Drones, Smart Platforms (SP), and LUAV’s Technical Performance in
Case of Natural Disasters (Ψ) vs. Kg(weight)/Km(distance)
Ψ
Kg(weight)/Km(distance)
Source: Author
Figure 2
LUAV’s
Variable Parameters Drone-1 Drone-2 ….. Drone-n
Drone design Light =1 or Heavy =0
Batteries Power Long duration = 1 or Low duration = 0
The Electric Engines Size and Power High power = 1 or Low power = 0
The Antenna Coverage and GPS Systems
Large reception = 1 or Short reception = 0
Pilots Experience Long hours =1 or Few hours experience = 0
Droneports Location Short diatences = 1 or Long distances = 0
ESC Systems High ressitance =1 or Low resistance = 0
Propellers Design Light and aerodynamic shape =1 or Heavy and anti-aerodynamic shape = 0
Camera System High Resolution = 1 or Low Resolution =0
Total (Y*) ∑Vt/9 ∑Vt/9 ∑Vt/9 ∑Vt/9
Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
FULL DOCUMENT COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY DR. MARIO ARTURO RUIZ ESTRADA
Source: Popular Sciences @ https://www.pinterest.com/eraucase/unmanned-aircraft-systems/
Figure 3
Quadcopters
Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
FULL DOCUMENT COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY DR. MARIO ARTURO RUIZ ESTRADA
Phantom 4 Advanced Mavic Pro
DJI Inspire 2 H920 PLUS Yuneec
Parrot BEBOP 2 FPV
Source: Phantom 4 Advanced @ http://www.dji.com/phantom-4-adv
Mavic Pro @ http://www.dji.com/mavic
DJI Inspire 2 @ https://www.dji.com/inspire-2
H920 PLUS Yuneec @ https://www.yuneec.com/en_GB/camera-drones/tornado-h920-plus/overview.html
Parrot BEBOP 2 FPV @ https://www.parrot.com/us/drones/parrot-bebop-2-fpV
Figure 4 Smart Platforms (SP)
1. Airbus Group and Local Motors ZELATOR-28 2. LUV
Full Copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada
FULL DOCUMENT COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY DR. MARIO ARTURO RUIZ ESTRADA
3.Incredible Heavy Lift Quadcopter (HLQ) 4. Mantarraya Negra Smart-Platform (SP)@ Firefighter Version 5
5.Mantarraya Negra Smart-Platform (SP) V.8 P-6 6. APSARA Glider Drone
7. Mantarraya Negra Smart Platform V.7 8.Mantarraya Negra Smart Platform V.8
Source: 1. Airbus Group and Local Motors ZELATOR-28 @ http://www.airbusgroup.com/int/en/news-media/commercial-drones.html
2. LUV @ https://launchforth.io/medvedev28/zelator-28/ 3. Incredible Heavy Lift Quadcopter (HLQ) @ http://www.incrediblehlq.com/
4. Mantarraya Negra Smart-Platform (SP) @ Firefighter Version
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314831809_Firefighter_Smart_Platform_Version_35_Industrial_Prototype_In_Progress_R_Pictori
al_Technical_Report. 5. Mantarraya Negra Smart-Platform (SP) UAV.8 P-6 @
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312892496_Mantarraya_Negra_Smart_Platform_UAV_V8p-
6_Main_Structure_Industrial_Prototype_R_2017_Mario_Arturo_Ruiz_Estrada. 6. APSARA Glider Drone @
https://www.wired.com/2017/02/brilliant-drone-thatll-deliver-medicine-rot-away/. 7. Mantarraya Negra Smart-Platform Version 7 @
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286186352_Mantarraya_Negra_Smart_Platform_Version_7_PICTORIAL_TECHNICAL_REPO
RT_2010_-_2020 8. Mantarraya Negra Smart-Platform Version 8 @
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310952951_Mantarraya_Negra_Smart_Platform_UAV_Cargo_V8_Experimental
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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