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Borysiak J., Mizgajski A., 2016: Cultural services provided by urban allotment garden ecosystems. Ekonomia i Środowisko, 4(59), s. 292-306

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Borysiak J., Mizgajski A., 2016: Cultural services provided by urban allotment garden ecosystems. Ekonomia i Środowisko, 4(59), s. 292-306

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EKON OMI A I Ś RODOWIS KO • 4 (59) • 2016
KULTUROWEŚWIADCZENIAEKOSYSTEMOWEMIEJSKICHOGRODÓW
DZIAŁKOWYCH
STRESZCZENIE:Zidentykowano64kulturoweświadczeniaekosystemowedlamiejskichogrodówdziałkowych,na
podstawiewłasnychstudiówterenowychiliteraturyprzedmiotu.Wpasowanojew ramyklasykacjiCICESv.4.3.
Reprezentująnajniższypoziomtejklasykacji–typklasy.Należądojednejsekcji(kulturowych),dwóch działów,
trzech grup i ośmiu klas. Wszystkie zestawiono w tabeli i przedyskutowano w świetle najnowszych publikacji
naukowych.
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE: ekologia miasta, ekosystem miasta, ogród działkowy, świadczenia ekosystemów, zielona
infrastruktura
Prof.Janina Borysiak, PhDProf.AndrzejMizgajski,PhD–Adam Mickiewicz
University in Poznań, Poland
Correspondenceaddress:
DepartmentofIntegratedGeography
B.Krygowskiego10,61–680Poznań
e-mail:janina.borysiak@amu.edu.pl,andrzej.mizgajski@amu.edu.pl
CULTURAL SERVICES PROVIDED BY URBAN
ALLOTMENT GARDEN ECOSYSTEMS
Janina BORYSIAKAndrzej MIZGAJSKI
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016 General environmental and social problems 293
Introduction
Among the quality of life factors in cities, the availability of the green
infrastructure and possibility of the passive or active using it are of growing

 

biotic structure are cultivated plants1
urban home gardens. The common features of these two types are green sites


(CES). This results, amongst other things, from their location outside the per-
manent residents of users. J. Breuste2
that indicated their intra-urban locations and the tradition of usage for grow-
ing fruits and vegetables. Recently, several papers use ecosystem services

J. Langemeyer et al.3 gave an overview of the services offered by allotment
gardens in Europe. A. Speak et al.4 discussed the differences between the ser-

et al.5

          
social-ecological system is the monograph by S. Bell et al.6 It presents results
of the multidisciplinary research carried out in the framework of the COST
-
1 Floral biodiversity of allotment gardens and its con-
tribution to urban green infrastructure
2 J. Breuste, Allotment gardens as part of urban green infrastructure: Actual trends and
perspectives in Central EuropeUrban Biodi-
versity and Design
3 Ecosystem services from urban
gardensUrban allotment gardens
in Europe
4 Allotment gardens and parks: Provision of ecosystem
services with an emphasis on biodiversity

5     Ecosystem ser-
vices provided by urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain: Insights for policy and planning,

6   Urban allotment gardens in Europe,
London and New York 2016, p. 384.
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016General environmental and social problems294
lenges and Lessons Learned. Polish experience in this area can be particu-
larly valuable as this is a country with the highest number of allotments sites
in Europe in relation to population7.

           
been growing recently.
         

-
parability of diverse studies. The aim of this paper is to present the set of CES


Cultural benets of UAG ecosystems as an object of research
    8,
cultural ecosystem services signify the psychosocial aspects of people-nature
interactions. R. Russell et al.9 reported that CES represent ‘intangible dimen-
sions of the links between people and ecosystems that are psychological, philo-
sophical, social, and spiritual and are at the very core of human preferences
and values    
v.4.310
K.M.A. Chan et al.11         
through cultural services but also through provisioning services. D. La Rosa
et al.12CES are directly experienced and appreciated by peo-
ple through ecosystems, thus, unlike other services  
3,4,5,6 use various approaches to the clas-
             -
7 B. Wycichowska, -
kowego
8 The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiver-
sity Synthesis, Washington 2005.
9 R. Russell, A.D. Guerry, P. Balvanera et al., Humans and nature: how knowing and expe-
riencing nature affect well-being

10 R. Haines-Young, M. Potschin,     
services. CICES v.4.3 
11 Rethinking ecosystem services to better address
and navigate cultural values
12 Indicators of cultural ecosystem services for urban
planning: A review
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016 General environmental and social problems 295
graphic monograph13 is particular valuable. It takes into account the main
CES included into three groups of interactions between the person and the
allotment garden, namely, physical, intellectual and spiritual ones. R. Shel-
ton14 presented motives that guided him in the arrangement of the plot in a
personal account. A.E. van den Berg and M.H.G. Custers15 indicated the impor-
tance of gardening for alleviating stress. M. Ferres and T.G. Townshend16 have
         
17 described

3 Similar research was conducted
in Barcelona6. Several papers concern the role of gardening activities in an
18,19,20,21,22.
Study procedure
 
          
-
cations addressed to a wide audience.
13          

14 R. Shelton, Allotted time, two blokes, one shed, no idea, Robin Shelton 2006, p. 372.
15 A.E. van den Berg, M.H.G. Custers, Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective
restoration from stress
16 M. Ferres, T.G. Townshend, 
societies in Newcastle
no. 47, p. 47.
17 J. Breuste, M. Artmann, Allotment garden contribute to urban ecosystem service: Case
study Salzburg, Austria        

18 N. Dunnett, M. Qasim, , “Hort

19 C. Milligan, A. Gatrell, A. Bingley, ‘Cultivating health: therapeutic landscapes and older
people in northern England       
1793.
20 J.L. Hawkins, K.J. Thirlaway, K. Backx et al., Allotment gardening and other leisure
activities for stress reduction and healthy ageing

21 S.A. Park, K.S. Lee, K.C. Son, Determining exercise intensities of gardening tasks as
a physical activity using metabolic equivalents in older adults

22 B. Kabiri, L. Balilan, The analysis of the Iranian garden-therapy process based on the
perceptual ecologic theory
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016General environmental and social problems296
The presented work follows the research on biodiversity (J. Borysiak et
al.1) and study on ecosystem services (A. Speak et al.5

110 allotment garden users with the help of the researchers. Some questions
concerned gardeners opinion to the importance of CES. The results of dis-
   
          
-
-
system Services CICES v.4.3.
Cultural benets of UAGs ecosystems
Sixty four cultural ecosystem services on the most detailed level ‘class

       
-

         

            
          

 
numerous: place of gaining and providing knowledge on the nature and allot-

       
comprise respectively 10 and 9 class types.
-


Discussion of results

interactions between the allotment garden holder and the used ecosystem.
Mostly activities performed at the plot are treated as the source of recreation:
-
cessing fruits or vegetables, mowing, raking, sowing and planting, watering,
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016 General environmental and social problems 297


physical and spiritual renewal. Hawkins et al.20 found that allotment garden-

only performed indoor activities. Similarly, A.E. van den Berg and M.H.G.
Custers15 reported that passive relaxation releases the stress more slowly
-
dens are highly appreciated by people18. Fifty percent of allotmenteers in

to relax23.
         24.
J.N. Davis et al.25-
terol synthesis and body mass. Regular gardening is effective in improving
diabetes care26. J. Langemeyer et al.3 quoted the results of study by A. Taylor
-
tact with nature. J.L. Hawkins et al.20 and S.A. Park et al.21 concluded that gar-
dening is an excellent motivation to undertake physical activities by older
adults. C. Milligan et al.19-
ing on the quality of life and emotional well-being of older people is greater
when these activities are performed in allotments than in home gardens.
-
22
   -
  -

an increased demand for healthcare services27. Such a demographic change
exposes the role of allotmenteering for older adults as a way to actively spend
time.
23 J.H. Breuste, M. Artmann, ,
Urban allotment gardens in Europe,

24 Activation of the elderly with
dementia syndrome,
25 LA Sprouts: A gardening, nutrition, and cooking
intervention for Latino youth improves diet and reduces obesity, “Journal of the Ameri-

26 D.L. Armstrong, A community diabetes education and gardening project to improve
diabetes care in a Northwest American Indian tribe

27          , in:
,

EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016General environmental and social problems298

a social contacts are stronger in Polish than in Austrian AGs23. For example

     






gardening from other gardeners, but they used published information more
often23-
teering requires continuous learning. S. Barthel et al.28 found that the allot-
ment gardens function as communities-of-practice. Knowledge in allotment
gardens are retained and transmitted by imitation of practices, oral commu-
nication and collective rituals and habits.
Conclusions
-


for people resulting from processes and functions of allotment gardens. Con-

type of urban ecosystem has been implemented.

of studies from different cities with various social-ecological conditions. One
can see the presented approach as a reference point for other inventories of
cultural services provided by various types of urban ecosystems.
28 S. Barthel, C. Folke, J. Colding, Social-ecological memory in urban gardens-Retaining
the capacity for management of ecosystem services  

EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016 General environmental and social problems 299
Table 1. Culturalservicesprovidedbyurbanallotmentgardenecosystems
Section Division Group Class Class type
Cultural
services
Physicaland
intellectual
interactions
Physicaland
experiential
interactions
Physicalexperience
ofthenatureofan
allotmentgardenin
situ
Physicalexperienceof:13,14;andauthors’recognition
1.naturalrhythmsofnatureandtheirmanifestations
intheconditionofcultivatedplantsandspontaneous
vegetation
2.climatechangeanditsconsequencesvisibleinthe
habitsofplantcultivation
3.developmentalbiologyofcultivatedplantsand
spontaneousfloraspecies
4.biodiversityoffaunaandflora
5.developmentalbiologyofoppressiveweeds
6.developmentalbiologyofcultivationpestsandthe
damagecaused
7.tasteandnutritionalvaluesofcultivatedfruitsand
vegetables
Usingthenatureof
anallotmentgarden
forrecreation:physi-
calandmental,
individualandcollec-
tion,intensiveand
relaxation
Recreationby:13,15,23,29
,
30
,
31
;andauthors’recognition
8.physicalactivityduringgardening:digging,watering,
weedingetc.
9.physicalactivityduring:competitions,dances,games,
festivalsetc.
10.relaxationwhile:contemplatingnature,walkingetc.
Intellectual
interactions
Allotmentgardens
asanobjectof
scienticresearch
Scienticsubjectsinpublica-
tions:1,28,30,31,32
,
33
,
34
,
35
,
36
,
37
,
38
,
39
11.biologyandautecologyoffloraandfaunaspecies
29   Recreational use and health functions of allotments gardens in the Katowice conurbation,

30 
2013.
31 -


32 Winter avifauna of Lublin – species composition, distribution and numbers,

33 E. Andersson, S. Barthel, K. Ahrné, Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the generation of
ecosystem services
34 E. Domene, D. Sauri, Urbanization and class-produced natures: Vegetable gardens in the Barcelona
Metropolitan Region
35 , Cadmium, lead, zinc and copper contents in selected vege-
tables and fruit from garden allotments of the South-Western Poland, “Polish Journal of Food and

36 A.E. van den Berg, M. van Winsum-Westra, Manicured, romantic, or wild? The relation between need
for structure and preferences for garden styles,

37     Allotment gardening and
health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment,

38 R.S. Matos, D.S. Batista, Urban agriculture: the allotment garden as structures of urban sustainability,

39 B.B. Lin, S.M. Philpott, S. Jha, The future of urban agriculture and biodiversity-ecosystem services: Chal-
lenges and next steps,
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016General environmental and social problems300
Section Division Group Class Class type
12.biodiversityoffaunaandflora
13.invasiveplantandanimalspecies
14.agrodiversityasageneticresourceofcultivation
plants
15.physicochemicalpropertiesofsoils,fertilizationand
yieldsofcultivations
16.ghtingweedsincultivations
17.protectionofcultivationsagainstpests
18.architectureofplots
19.positioninurbangreeninfrastructureandspatial
planning
20.theinfluenceonthestateofhumanhealth
21.importanceforeducation
22.roleinsocialcohesion
23.historiography
24.culturalheritage
Gainingandprovid-
ingknowledgeon
thenatureofallot-
mentgardensand
allotmentgardening
Scopeofeducation:14,15;andauthors’recognition
25.biodiversityoffaunaandflora
26.functioningofthenaturalenvironment
27.conditionsofplantcultivation
28.methodsandskillsofplantcultivation
29.techniquesofghtingweedsandanimalpests
30.designplantcompositionaccordingtothenature
ofthehabitat
Allotmentgardening
heritage:ofmateri-
als,ideals,customs
andsocialbehav-
iours
Heritageofallotmentgardening:30,40
,4
1
,42,
43
,
44
,
45
,
46
,
47
;and
authors’recognition
31.acomplexoffamilyallotmentgardens,asahistori-
cally-shapedtypeofurbanagriculturelandscapeand
urbangreeninfrastructure
32.long-termdevelopmentoftheallotmentsnetwork
whichconstitutesapartofthehistoricalurbanlayout
33.anearly100-year-oldallotmenteeringtradition–
apartofthecity›shistoricalidentityanditstradition
34.heritageofnaturalbiosphereresources
40 C. DeSilvey, Cultivated histories in a Scottish allotment garden, 

41 A. Rubino, The allotment gardens of the Ile de France: a tool for social development, “Journal of Medi-

42 A. Smrekar, Allotment keeping in Ljubljana,
43 A. Pawlikowska-Piechotka, , Gdynia 2010.
44 L. Acton, 

45 M. Lorbek, M. Martinsen, Allotment Garden Dwellings: Exploring Tradition and Legal Framework,

46 The loss of land devoted to allotment gardening: The context of the contrasting
pressures of urban planning, public and private interests in Prague, Czechia,

47 The idea of allotment gardens and the role of spatial and urban plan-
ning, Urban allotment gardens in Europe, London

EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016 General environmental and social problems 301
Section Division Group Class Class type
35.multi-generationknowledgeaboutbiodiversityofthe
floraandfaunaandthefunctioningofthenaturalenvi-
ronment
36.heritageofthecultivationmethodsofvegetables,
fruitsandornamentalplantsdevelopedbyseveral
generations,andalsotheheritageofrituals
37.refugeforgeneplantresources–ancientcultivars
of:fruittrees,shrubsandvegetables
38.asymbolofsocialcohesion
39.genius lociinmemoriesandreminiscencesofevents
40.chroniclesofUAGsestates
41.ahalloffameofdistinguishedactivistsintheUAGs
sector
42.recordingthehistoryofUAGsinlegalacts
Culture-formingrole
ofallotmentgarden-
ing
Culture-forminginteractions:14,andauthors’recognition
43.developmentoftheartofallotmentgardening
44.developmentofculinaryculture–creationof
recipesforfoodprocessingkeepingvisual,flavour
andnutritiouscharacteristicsoffruitsandvegetables
fromtheallotmentgarden
45.organisingallotmentgardenswithanartisticstyle
increasingtheaestheticsoftheurbanlandscape
Enhancingand
buildingfamilyties
andrelationswith
societybasedon
interactionswiththe
natureoftheallot-
mentgarden
Activityforsocialintegration:19,21,48
;andauthors’recognition
46.commongardenmanagementandgardening
47.mutualeducationintheartofallotmentgardening
48.sharingknowledgeaboutbiodiversityoftheflora
andfaunaandthefunctioningofthenature
49.jointrecreation
50.participationinfamilyceremoniesandceremonies
forthelocalcommunity
51.economicassistanceintheformofdonatingfruits
andvegetables
52.makingUAGsavailableforthelocalcommunity
53.organisationofharvestexhibitions(vegetables,
fruits,ornamentalplants),gardeningcourses,artistic
workshops,lecturesonhealthylifestyle
54.organisationofpublicspaceforrecreationwith
specialattentionpaidtotheyoungestgenerationand
theelderly
55.conductingtheso-calledgreenschoolsforformal
educationentities
48  Senior citizens and their leisure activity: understanding leisure behaviour of
elderly people in Poland,
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016General environmental and social problems302
Section Division Group Class Class type
Spiritualand
symbolic
interactions
Spiritual
interactions
Spiritualstates
relatedtoallotment
gardening
Expressionofspiritualstates:14,18,20;andauthors’recognition
56.biophilia–positive,emotionalreactionstoallot-
mentgardennature
57.cheerfulnessresultingfromphysicalwell-being,
psychologicalwell-beingandsocialwell-being
58.satisfactionfromsuccessinlifeintheemotional
andafliativedimension,strengtheningfamilyrela-
tionsandestablishingsocialrelationswithother
people
59.nofearofsocialexclusion–forelderlypeople,
long-termunemployedpeople,poorpeople,single
mothersetc.
60.satisfactionfromself-fullment:fulllingone›s
dreams,achievementoftheassumedgoal,fullling
ambitions,doinghobby,fullyusedfreetime,healthy
lifestyle,intellectualandspiritualdevelopment
61.asenseoffoodsecurityresultingfromthepro-
ductionofcheapandhealthyfoodprocessedon
one’sown
62.reflectiononperiodicity,changeandtransienceof
life
63.responsibilityforcontinuationofallotmentgar-
deningtraditionsandkeepingallotmentgardensin
greeninfrastructureofthecity
64.acceptanceofUAGsestatemanagementboard
initiativesthatmeettheneedsofthelocalcommu-
nity
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016 General environmental and social problems 303
Table 2. Signicancesofculturalbenetsfromurbanallotmentgardensbasedonopinionsfrom
aquestionnaireinterviewwithallotmentgardeners
% (from 110
respondents)
Average
value a)
KNOWLEDGEOFBIODIVERSITYINALLOTMENTGARDENS
–recognitionofthemajorityofweedsandpestswithoutknowingnamesofplantandanimal 94
–plantsandanimalsknownbytheirnamesandtaxonomy 8
GAININGKNOWLEDGEABOUTPLANTCULTIVATION
–fromone’sownexperience 42
–fromanoldermemberofthefamily,allotmentuser 28
–obtaininginformationfromanotherallotmentuserfromthesameUAGSestateorfrom
outside/onlyfromthesameUAGsestate
72/66
–fromscienticandpopularsciencearticles 24
–consultationswithaspecialistfromUAGsestatemanagementboard 4
–seldom/onaregularbasis 32/68
SOCIALCOHESION
–exchangingplantmaterialwithneighbours 94
–neighbourlyhelpingardeningwork 26
–familymeetingsattheallotments 87
–participationinmeetingsattheallotmentswithsocietyoutsidetheUAGsestate 2
IMPORTANCEOFTHEALLOTMENTGARDENFORITSUSER
–physicalwell-beingbenets 99 1.5
–psychologicalwell-beingbenets 95 1.8
–socialwell-beingbenets 97 1.3
a)0–notimportant,1–important,2–highlyimportant
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016General environmental and social problems304
The contribution of the authors in the article


Literature
Acton L.,          


 , “Acta

Andersson E., Barthel S., Ahrné K., Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the
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Armstrong D.L., A community diabetes education and gardening project to improve
diabetes care in a Northwest American Indian tribe
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Barthel S., Folke C., Colding J., Social-ecological memory in urban gardens-Retaining
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
Urban allotment gardens in Europe,
London and New York 2016
Winter avifauna of Lublin – species composition, distribution and numbers,

Floral biodiversity of allotment gardens and its con-
tribution to urban green infrastructure
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
Breuste J.H., Artmann M., -
triaUrban allotment gardens
in Europe, London and New York 2016
 Ecosystem ser-
vices provided by urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain: Insights for policy and plan-
ning
Rethinking ecosystem services to better address
and navigate cultural values
LA Sprouts: A gardening, nutrition, and cooking
intervention for Latino youth improves diet and reduces obesity, “Journal of the
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
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The idea of allotment gardens and the role of spatial
and urban planning    Urban
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
Recreational use and health functions of allotments gardens in the Katowice
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Cadmium, lead, zinc and copper contents in
selected vegetables and fruit from garden allotments of the South-Western Poland,

Activation of the elderly with
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
Kabiri B., Balilan L., The analysis of the Iranian garden-therapy process based on the
perceptual ecologic theory
         , in:
   Koncepcja kierunków rozwoju przestrzennego metropolii

Indicators of cultural ecosystem services for urban
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Ecosystem services from urban
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
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Framework
Matos R.S., Batista D.S., Urban agriculture: the allotment garden as structures of urban
sustainability      
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people in northern England
1793
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physical activity using metabolic equivalents in older adults

Pawlikowska-Piechotka A., , Gdynia 2010
EKONOMIA I ŚRODOWISKO 4 (59) • 2016General environmental and social problems306
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
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
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Senior citizens and their leisure activity: understanding leisure
behaviour of elderly people in Poland

Allotment gardens and parks: Provision of ecosystem
services with an emphasis on biodiversity

The loss of land devoted to allotment gardening: The context of
the contrasting pressures of urban planning, public and private interests in Prague,
Czechia

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
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiver-
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        Allotment
gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their
neighbors without an allotment
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between need for structure and preferences for garden styles

Wycichowska B.,       

... AGs provide ecosystem services (Breuste and Artmann, 2015;Borysiak and Mizgajski, 2016) and are an important element of the green infrastructure (Breuste, 2010), which in areas with high urban pressure is becoming particularly important. The comparison of AGs in the two regions shows that they differ in the approach and creation of environmentally friendly development and elements of AG's infrastructure. ...
... On the basis of their spatial-functional analysis of the organisation of individual plots in AGs located in Poznań, Borysiak et al. (2016) distinguished four types of usage: vegetable cultivated, vegetable cultivated-ornamental, ornamental, abandoned with their corresponding plant characteristics. Their study indicates even more diversified ways of using and managing plots, which translates into a greater number of their types. ...
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This article aims to analyse the development and use of allotment gardens (AGs) and plots in Westphalia and Lippe (Germany) and Wielkopolska (Poland) to assess what functions are feasible in their current stage, thus, contributing to an ongoing discussion on the role of AGs in contemporary urban space. The analysis considered ecosystem services, green infrastructure and urban agriculture. Characteristic features of AGs were identified by means of a survey of plot-holders, in-depth interviews with representatives of allotment associations, and exploratory walks. The management and use of AGs differs in both regions in terms of accessibility, common areas, impact on the landscape and plots development. AGs in Westphalia and Lippe are accessible and developed in a way which meets needs of external users. They fit harmoniously into the surrounding landscape. However, AGs in Wielkopolska are not as accessible, prioritise internal users, and do not always blend in with their surroundings. In Westphalia and Lippe, in addition to recreational and edible plant-growing plots, there are also educational and integration ones, while in Wielkopolska main categories of plots were more numerous and varied; from recreational with a predominance of ornamental plants to fully-cultivated. However, the considerable freedom that Polish plot-holders enjoy gives rise to the gradual marginalisation of edible-plant growing.
... Comparable results were found by Egerer et al. (2018). Furthermore, nice AG's provide a positive visual impact (Fig. 21.2) and enjoy people (Borysiak & Mizgajski, 2016). Working people recover from work stress (Young & Hofman, 2020). ...
... Comparable results were found by Egerer et al. (2018). Furthermore, nice AG's provide a positive visual impact (Fig. 21.2) and enjoy people (Borysiak & Mizgajski, 2016). Working people recover from work stress (Young & Hofman, 2020). ...
... Comparable results were found by Egerer et al. (2018). Furthermore, nice AG's provide a positive visual impact (Fig. 21.2) and enjoy people (Borysiak & Mizgajski, 2016). Working people recover from work stress (Young & Hofman, 2020). ...
Chapter
Significance Statement The Peruvian Upwelling ecosystem is highly productive. El Niño variability affects species abundance and distribution, and thus marine activities. Climate change is modifying El Niño patterns, compromising the strategies of marine organisms and human activities to cope with its variability. We focus on three marine social-ecological systems to identify weaknesses and leverage points for adaptation and resilience. We find that (1) the Peruvian artisanal fishery and aquaculture sectors urgently need an institutional framework for adaptation to future environmental changes; (2) bottom-up adaptation strategies require institutional support, tailored to socio-ecological specificities; and (3) additional research on socio-ecological tipping points and their effects for human-nature interactions and societal repercussions is necessary. These finding may be useful in other systems undergoing similar challenges.
... Comparable results were found by Egerer et al. (2018). Furthermore, nice AG's provide a positive visual impact (Fig. 21.2) and enjoy people (Borysiak & Mizgajski, 2016). Working people recover from work stress (Young & Hofman, 2020). ...
Chapter
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Significance Statement A Multi-Use Platform can integrate different maritime activities into a single sea area. We propose an analytical framework to investigate the socio-ecological benefits and impacts of potential Multi-Use Platforms designs in the Mediterranean and North Sea. The framework uses a marine ecosystem services matrix that has the aim to facilitate knowledge sharing on the ecosystem goods and services a Multi-Use Platform can potentially support and interact with. The results highlight that Multi-Use Platforms provide multiple opportunities for energy generation, food provisioning (e.g. recreational fishing, extractive aquaculture) and cultural services (e.g. coastal recreation, diving, research and monitoring). Further research suggests application of quantitative socio-ecological analysis techniques to measure potential synergies and trade-offs among the multiple activities of the platform.
... Comparable results were found by Egerer et al. (2018). Furthermore, nice AG's provide a positive visual impact (Fig. 21.2) and enjoy people (Borysiak & Mizgajski, 2016). Working people recover from work stress (Young & Hofman, 2020). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Significance Statement In a rapidly urbanizing world, urban wilderness areas offer unique opportunities to connect with raw nature. After examining social demand for urban wilderness in one of the fastest growing cities in the United States, we found that high levels of naturalness positively influence visitors’ use and perception of natural areas. Age and youth experiences with nature were the most significant, positive correlates with perception of wildlife. Regardless of race/ethnicity, income, and education, visitors recognized the importance of wildlife in urban wilderness. Overall, this study found that social demand for urban wilderness is a multi-dimensional balance between natural amenities and cultural conveniences. This knowledge is useful to city planners to properly plan and protect the natural areas within urban environments.
... Comparable results were found by Egerer et al. (2018). Furthermore, nice AG's provide a positive visual impact (Fig. 21.2) and enjoy people (Borysiak & Mizgajski, 2016). Working people recover from work stress (Young & Hofman, 2020). ...
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Full-text available
Significance Statement The structure of the city and related composition and configuration of green infrastructure (GI) translate into supply and distribution of ecosystem services (ES). Therefore, we aimed to recognize the social perception of ES at the background of the spatial structure (from the dense centre to the rural-like suburbs) based on a case study of Poznań city in Poland. The findings revealed that although distribution and types of GI vary among main urban zones, inhabitants appreciate the cultural ES of GI regardless of its type or location. They expressed the demand for enhancement of recreational ES and the importance of accessibility to the green spaces. The study also emphasised the complex trade-offs between cultural and regulating ES highlighting the role of ES-oriented planning.
... W obrębie ekosystemów miejskich prowadzono międzynarodowe badania porównawcze dotyczące ogrodów działkowych i parków (Speak i in. 2015, Borysiak, Mizgajski 2016, Borysiak i in. 2017, 2020, zajmowano się także szatą roślinną zlewni rzecznych w terenach zurbanizowanych Poznania (Borysiak i in. ...
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Artykuł przedstawia wkład Zakładu Geografii Kompleksowej UAM w rozwijanie ram metodycznych i zastosowań praktycznych w obrębie koncepcji systemu społeczno-ekologicznego. Prace koncentrują się na kilku polach badawczych. Są to: świadczenia ekosystemowe jako korzyści, które otrzymuje człowiek dzięki funkcjonowaniu ekosystemów; elementy zielonej infrastruktury ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem rolnictwa miejskiego oraz bioróżnorodności i jej odniesień do uwarunkowań przyrodniczych oraz wywołanych działalnością człowieka; rozwiązania oparte na przyrodzie, związane z wykorzystaniem potencjału cech i procesów przyrodniczych w zagospodarowaniu przestrzennym. Realizowane badania i projekty służą integrowaniu sfery naukowej i praktycznej, a jednocześnie podkreślają nieodzowność całościowego widzenia układu społeczno-gospodarczego i przyrodniczego.
... Interviewees from the City Hall and stakeholders indicated that this system is still valued today for its multifunctional benefits. They also highlight that Poznań boasts a substantial number of allotments that are well-used and valued by residents (Borysiak, Mizgajski, 2016;Speak et al., 2015). ...
Article
To advance the science and practice of implementing nature-based solutions in cities, it is important to examine the obstacles and provide means to overcome them. This paper presents a conceptual framework of policy needs for analysing the science of nature-based solutions’ implementation and connect it to the practice of their implementation that advances the literature by connecting well-researched gaps to a more innovative action-oriented policy development approach that we argue is required for embedding scaled-up nature-based solutions. We conceptualise and ground the policy needs framework of skills, knowledge and partnerships theoretically in current literature of NBS policy and planning and empirically in three European case study cities: Genk in Belgium, Glasgow in UK and Poznan in Poland. The cross-case study analysis points to the knowledge needs of systems’ thinking and solutions-oriented thinking as paramount for implementing nature-based solutions. Our analysis further points to the skills’ needs of negotiation and collaboration for administrative silo bridging and for forging multi-sectoral partnerships essential for planning, and co-managing NBS. We conclude with three ways forward to addressing the policy needs for implementation: first, cities can invest in tailored and targeted capacity building programs, second, institutional spaces need to be established that allow for collaborative learning through and for partnerships and third, cities need to chart governance innovations that promote evidence-based policy for nature-based solutions’ design and implementation.
Chapter
Significance Statement Allotment gardens (AG) are valuable elements of communities that provide substantial ecosystem services. An AG as a type of community garden is a plot of land made available for individual, non-commercial gardening or growing food plants. Beside the provision of urban ecosystem services, AG’s deliver an ecological potential to habitat connectivity in the urban realm as well a substantial contribution to human health. The role of AG’s in the frame of urban ecosystems is manifold and multifunctional. Beside their purpose for food production and recreation, AG’s offer crucial benefits for public health and wellbeing, social inclusion, environment, and as cultural archive. Their intrinsic purpose is connectivity, for habitats, people, ecosystem services and circular flux management. The contribution is based on a literature review supported by a field survey that was performed in the period 2017–2020 in Ecuador, Germany, Sweden, Uganda, and Vietnam.
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Allotment gardens are a key feature of the urban landscape, providing numerous benefits beyond those of food production. These include ecosystem services such as local climate modification, pollination, and providing a pleasant location for socialising. The biodiversity of flora underpins many of these ecosystem services. The aims of this study are to assess the spontaneous vascular flora of urban allotment gardens and derive estimates of the species richness and diversity. In doing so, the specific position of allotment gardens within urban green infrastructure will be revealed and the role of allotment users in shaping local biodiversity determined. 358 species of spontaneous flora were recorded in 11 representative allotment garden estates (total area 150 ha) in Poznań, Poland. Fourteen biodiversity features were taken into account. The investigated areas exhibited high plant species richness, high diversity, low synanthropisation level, and contained valuable geobotanical elements, including plants of key importance for the European Community. For these reasons, allotment gardens should be considered as biodiversity hotspots for native species within urban green infrastructure. Based on an analysis of the spatial and functional organization of 110 individual plots, four types of usage, and corresponding plant diversity have been distinguished. The composition of the flora depends mostly on spatial and functional organization of allotment gardens and, to a much lesser extent, on the habitat conditions, which on individual plots varied very little. The high species richness and diversity in allotment gardens has important consequences for urban planning.
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Full-text available
At the end of 19th century, the removal of city walls and introduction of mass transport in European cities provided the opportunity to expand cities in green suburban areas. Colonies of small houses with garden plots and allotment gardens developed during this era thus represent a new type of settlement, where green infrastructure (gardens) and allotment dwellings are closely intertwined. The gardens in these settlements were originally based on the notion of subsistence economy, providing food and emergency accommodation in periods of crisis. This paper examines the evolution of allotments and particularly allotment dwellings in Germany and Austria by matching the actual practices of gardeners with the formation of and changes in the legal framework. The legislation and zoning regulations, which were predominantly established after the fact, reveal an ongoing process of negotiation between informal practices and planning authorities.
Book
Full-text available
Although urban allotment gardening dates back to the nineteenth century, it has recently undergone a renaissance of interest and popularity. This is the result of greater concern over urban greenspace, food security and quality of life. This book presents a comprehensive, research-based overview of the various features, benefits and values associated with urban allotment gardening in Europe. The book is based on a European COST Action project, which brings together researchers and practitioners from all over Europe for the first detailed exploration of the subject on a continent-wide scale. It assesses the policy, planning and design aspects, as well as the social and ecological benefits of urban allotment gardening. Through an examination of the wide range of different traditions and practices across Europe, it brings together the most recent research to discuss the latest evolutions of urban allotment gardening and to help raise awareness and fill knowledge gaps. The book provides a multidisciplinary perspective, including insights from horticulture and soil science, ecology, sociology, urban geography, landscape, planning and design. The themes are underpinned by case studies from a number of European countries which supply a wide range of examples to illustrate different key issues.
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Full-text available
Prague, the capital of Czechia, has a long history of allotment gardening, however, since 1989 allotment gardens are diminishing at a considerable rate. Allotments are being transformed into recreation sites, permanent residences, or used for the construction of residential projects, transportation infrastructure or commercial facilities. Often, they simply turn into vacant land. This paper critically assesses the decline of allotment gardens in Prague. The analysis is based on an extensive field survey. Land use changes of allotment gardens in Prague were monitored during three time periods and the main reasons and motives that have led to a diminution of gardening as a sustainable productive and recreational function during the nineties and the first decade of the new millennium are presented (construction of second homes, transformation to residential dwelling, destruction). The need for a much broader community and civic movement involvement in the planning decision-making processes is viewed as crucial to secure the continuity of the allotment gardens within the city. A successful case of negotiation with local government and further conversion of one of Prague´s threatened allotment garden colonies into public access garden is then presented as a suitable solution to the problems with allotment gardens´ extinction.
Chapter
http://planowanie.metropoliapoznan.home.pl/planowanie/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/08_ksi%C4%85zka_KKRPMP_pasaz_2016.pdf
Chapter
From here starts the conscious notion that the landscape is a recent conquest in the western culture, being considered as such from the moment Man inscribes it in a determined culture and epoch. Intrinsic to the concept of landscape come the concept of multifunctionality to which the concepts and the practices of production, leisure and protection have always been associated. However, this dimension and multifunctional look are lost with the modern movement where, the sectoral zoning does not allow the coexistence of several roles thus appearing the vague concept of green space, that stretches throughout the entire city homogeneously, amorphous and residually. This chapter is centered on the theme of urban agriculture, namely its definition, identification and characterization, emphasizing three of its typologies based on relevance and inclusion in the objectives of this study. They are: the urban allotment garden, the continuous productive landscapes and the urban field. In this context, we leaned over its relevance and the need in the contemporary city when facing the current social-economical crisis and the estimated urban growth in a near future. The benefits that can be brought and the obstacles that can occur are presented, either at a food and nutritional safety level, either at a health and local development level, or even at a social-cultural and urban environmental management level. The politics that regulate urban agriculture in its social, economical and ecological dimensions are addressed, and how it has influenced its practice, as well as the economical issues associated. We considered fundamental the study of agriculture throughout history and its evolution in the city, its relationship with the countryside, as well as the possibility of its integration in the interstitial urban spaces and, consequently the relevance of its contextualization, in the landscape urbanism, something that it is not the happening today. Ribeiro Telles, that in Portugal has always been a fervent supporter of the existence of the urban allotment gardens, says that the new city farmers bring an intelligent message, in a spontaneous and naïve way and, without dogmas nor impositions, show the evidence of the possible, achieved without political support or public demonstrations. The new energy and wisdom sap, that the urban context brings, is the result of not only remembering rural values, but also of recognizing and feeling the urban needs. The suburban allotment gardens are not ways of socializing that are contradictory and opposite to the urban lifestyle, instead they are paradigms of the needs that no longer justify themselves in the urban space.