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Critical Considerations for Physical Literacy Policy in Public Health, Recreation, Sport, and Education Agencies Critical Considerations for Physical Literacy Policy in Public Health, Recreation, Sport, and Education Agencies

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The International Charter for Physical Education, Physical Activity, and Sport clearly states that vested agencies must participate in creating a strategic vision and identify policy options and priorities that enable the fundamental right for all people to participate in meaningful physical activity across their life course. Physical literacy is a rapidly evolving concept being used in policy making, but it has been limited by pre-existing and sometimes biased interpretations of the construct. The aim of this article is to present a new model of physical literacy policy considerations for key decision makers in the fields of public health, recreation, sport, and education. Internationally debated definitions of physical literacy and the wider construct of literacy were reviewed in order to establish common pillars of physical literacy in an applicable policy model. This model strives to be consistent with international understandings of what " physical literacy " is, and how it can be used to achieve established and developing public health, recreation, sport, and educative goals.
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Critical Considerations for Physical Literacy Policy
in Public Health, Recreation, Sport, and Education
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Dean Dudley, John Cairney, Nalda Wainwright, Dean Kriellaars & Drew
Mitchell
To cite this article: Dean Dudley, John Cairney, Nalda Wainwright, Dean Kriellaars & Drew
Mitchell (2017): Critical Considerations for Physical Literacy Policy in Public Health, Recreation,
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Critical Considerations for Physical Literacy Policy in Public
Health, Recreation, Sport, and Education Agencies
Dean Dudley
a,e
,JohnCairney
b,e
, Nalda Wainwright
c,e
, Dean Kriellaars
d,e
, and Drew Mitchell
e
a
School of Education, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Australia;
b
Department of Family Medicine, McMaster
University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada;
c
School of Sport, Health and Outdoor Education, Wales Institute for
Physical Literacy, University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Carmarthen, United Kingdom;
d
Faculty of Health
Sciences, College of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada;
e
Sport for
Life Society, Physical Literacy Research Group, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
ABSTRACT
The International Charter for Physical Education, Physical Activity, and
Sport clearly states that vested agencies must participate in creating a
strategic vision and identify policy options and prioritiesthat enable the
fundamental right for all people to participate in meaningful physical
activity across their life course. Physical literacy is a rapidly evolving
concept being used in policy making, but it has been limited by pre-
existing and sometimes biased interpretations of the construct. The aim
of this article is to present a new model of physical literacy policy
considerations for key decision makers in the elds of public health,
recreation, sport, and education. Internationally debated denitions of
physical literacy and the wider construct of literacy were reviewed in
order to establish common pillars of physical literacy in an applicable
policy model. This model strives to be consistent with international
understandings of what physical literacyis, and how it can be used
to achieve established and developing public health, recreation, sport,
and educative goals.
KEYWORDS
Health policy; motor
learning; physical activity;
pedagogy; coaching
Introduction
Recent articles published on the concept of physical literacyhave provided a diverse array
of perspectives (Chen & Sun, 2015; McKean, 2013; Tremblay & Lloyd, 2010). While the
concept of physical literacy maintains much currency with public health, education, and
sport agencies, the interpretation of the construct continues to be debated. What is clear at
present is that the concept of physical literacy appears to be capable of providing a clearer
framework for re-conceptualization and re-organization of policy for strategic stakeholders
in health, sport, and education (Almond, 2013; Chen & Sun, 2015).
According to Whitehead (2013a), physical literacy is the disposition to capitalize on the
human embodied capability, wherein the individual has the motivation, condence, physical
competence, knowledge, and understanding to value and take responsibility for maintaining
purposeful physical pursuits/activities throughout the life course. Whiteheads(2013a)
denition has been a typical starting point in our understanding of how the construct of
physical literacy is to be understood by those agencies seeking to envelope it in their policy
CONTACT Dean Dudley dean.dudley@mq.edu.au School of Education, Macquarie University, 1 Macquarie Drive,
North Ryde, 2109 Australia.
QUEST
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2016.1268967
© 2017 National Association for Kinesiology in Higher Education (NAKHE)
direction. It also captures the central thesis of the observed physical literacy model devel-
oped for education and sport purpose expressed by Dudley (2015) and the Physical Literacy
for Educators Position Paperproposed by Physical and Health Education Canada
(Mandigo, Francis, Lodewyk, & Lopez, 2009). However, the Whitehead (2013a)denition,
the conceptual model of physical literacy developed by Dudley (2015), and position paper by
Mandigo and colleagues (2009) do not adequately leverage the wider understandings of
literacy already being adopted into policy considerations within the public health, sport, and
education disciplines. Rather, all three have proliferated the recent physical literacy philo-
sophical platforms of monism and existentialism. In doing so, they have potentially negated
the last 60 years of wider literacy research.
Before we can truly hope to understand the importance of physical literacy for policy
purposes, it is important to rst understand the meaning of the word literacy.Literacy is a
term that most people in society have come to understand as an essential part in an
individuals education and a necessary component to participate in society. In recent
years, though, literacy as a conceptand its propagation into numerous disciplines of
knowledgehas proved to be both complex and disputed, and is continuing to be inter-
preted and demarcated in a variety of ways. According to the United Nations Educational,
Scientic, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; 2006), theories of literacy have evolved
from those focused solely on changes in an individual to more complex views encompassing
the broader social contexts (i.e., the literate society), and even within specic disciplines of
knowledge (e.g., physical literacy, health literacy, computer literacy, nancial literacy) that
embolden and enable literacy activities and practices to occur. As a result of these and other
developments, understandings in the international academic community have expanded
too. This has been an evolution from viewing literacy as a simple process of acquiring basic
skills to using these skills in ways that contribute to socio-economic development, to
developing the capacity for social awareness, and critical reection as a basis for personal
and social change (UNESCO, 2006).
This work is particularly timely given the proliferation of position papers, policies, and
interventions purporting to promote physical literacy. The barriers of adopting a philosophy
to practice implementation of physical literacy have already been identied in the literature
(Sprake & Walker, 2013). Current physical literacy policy across education, health, sport, and
recreation sectors sits against the backdrop of product-driven systems. This in itself is
challenging because measuring the degree to which a multi-faceted disposition has been
developed is demanding. In a political climate xated on data and accountability, it is
foreseeable that promoting physical literacy as the new underpinning concept for policy in
all these sectors will be met with concerns about its practical application.
In order to maximize the impact and secure the future of physical literacy in these sectors, it
is prudent to develop a framework for its practical application (Sprake & Walker, 2013).
Unless a tangible model is developedone which promotes a holistic physical experience
while at the same time providing means of accountabilitythen it seems unlikely that
education, health, sport, or recreation sectors will redene their practices.
Further complicating this issue was that Whitehead (2010) felt it inappropriate to use a
2004 UNESCO denition of literacy in that the description did not accurately sum up her
developmental work in the eld. However, while the denition UNESCO held for literacy in
2004 may not have been appropriate, the oversight may be that the synthesis of 60 years of
2D. DUDLEY ET AL.
research in the literacy eld published in 2006 could provide a unique method of commu-
nicating transparency on the physical literacy construct.
This article seeks to achieve three outcomes. Firstly, it traces the progression of these
dierent understandings of being (and becoming) literate and shows how alternatives of
these ideas may be integrated into physical literacy. Secondly, it presents a model that
identies four pillars of policy formulation for health, sport, and education purposes when
examining physical literacy. Considerations for policy are highlighted in relation to each of
the pillars. Finally, this article contends that if public health, recreation, sport, and education
policymakers are to claim that their policies aect the physical literacy of their stakeholders,
there must be a conscious and overt process to ensure all four of these pillars (movement
competencies [MCs], movement contexts, the journey of movement, and power structures
of movement) have been addressed.
Understanding literacy
Scholars have devoted considerable attention to dening literacy since the 1950s, and their
work has had direct implications for approaches to practice and policy pertaining to the
construct (Fransman, 2005). Academics from many disciplines have engaged in a somewhat
never ending debate dening the term literacy.In addition, they debated how it is related to
the broader notions of education theory, knowledge acquisition, and motivations for learning.
Through moderating these debates, and by including the dominant traditions and critiques to
literacy, UNESCO (2006) presented four discrete understandings of literacy that accommo-
dated almost all the theoretical diversity informing understandings of the concept. In doing so,
they provided the rst dialogue of consensus on the issue and provided broad considerations
for its use. The four discrete understandings were: literacyas an autonomous set of skills;
literacyas being applied, practiced, and situated; literacyas a learning process; and
literacyas text (UNESCO, 2006). Briey unpacking each of these understandings is neces-
sary before we can consider their wider policy implications.
According to UNESCO (2006), the most common understanding of literacy is that it is a set
of concrete skills, particularly the cognitive skills of reading and writing, which are indepen-
dent of the context in which they are acquired and the background of the person who acquires
them. Concurrently, the notion of numeracy is usually understood either as a supplement to
the set of skills encompassed by literacy or as a component of literacy itself (Coben et al.,
2003). It is often assumed that an individuals ability to participate in society is largely
dependent upon these autonomous skill sets and failure to do so is the result of poor
schooling. This limited prociencyconception of literacy, which emphasizes equipping a
population with minimum skills, continues to dominate and has been adopted by many
national and international assessment regimes (Coben et al., 2003). With respect to physical
literacy, the last decade has seen unprecedented government intrusion into the practices
within education, health, sport, and recreation bodies. This has often been in the attempt to
raise test scores or health indices rather than an understanding of the physical self across the
whole life course. By default, this intrusion may limit the capacity of physical literacy policies
to deliver interventions that accommodate mastery and progression over time.
This long accepted wisdom of literacy, however important, being limited to an autonomous
set of skills one must acquire to participate actively and eciently in a society has many
limitations. Later researchers have tried to focus on the application of these skills in relevant
QUEST 3
ways. One of the rst organized eorts to do so was through the development of the notion of
functional literacy.Views of functional literacy often assumed literacy could be taught as a
general set of skills, which everyone shouldand can learn in the same way. Hence, literacy was
seen as being independent of social context. Indeed, both the skill- and application-based
conceptualizations of physical literacy treat social factors (context) through a functionalist,
universalist framethe literacy skills required by society for society are natural and essential.
Functionalism is a theoretical perspective in sociology that seeks to understand the function-
ing of society from the perspective of structures that work together to maintain order and
stability. A popular analogy is to compare a society to a cell or the human body. The structures of
both are essential to the survival of the organism. So too are the social structures to society. It is
often criticized for its universalism”—which in this context means structures (e.g., education;
sport, health, and recreation)and are viewed as natural, inevitable, and necessary for a society
to function. Such structures are viewed as historical and therefore common to all societies.
Through this lens, we draw very similar parallels to functional literacyas mentioned earlier.
Such a perspective reduces social context to a marginal position, rendering heterogeneity
rooted in structures of inequality invisible, and treating social processes as though they are
xed and immutable. In other words, these perspectives tend to be overly individualistic and
ignore or signicantly downplay the inuence of social processes on the development of
physical literacy. We have emphasized here social inequality, which itself can be due to many
dierent factors or conditions (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status, social class, age).
Therefore, the second understanding of literacy is that literacy evolves in ways in which are
practiced and vary by social and cultural context (Barton, 1994). This is now a common
discourse among researchers and educationalists. Ethnographic research into literacy prac-
tices in particular settings was particularly instrumental in the development of this approach
(Barton & Hamilton, 1999;Collins,1995; Gee, 1999; Heath, 1993;Street,1998). Rather than
viewing literacy as a strictly technical and autonomous setof skills independent of context, this
approach argued it is also social practice: embedded in social settings. Furthermore, even a
presumably objective skill can be socially situated and interpreted. For example, examine
bowling in cricket. The skill can be viewed objectively (from a technical perspective), but
children who have never been exposed to the game will perform on average more poorly than
children who grew up with the game; in other words, the skill is specic to certain social
conditions (countries/cultures that play the sport).
Scholars like Jean Piaget, John Dewey, and David Kolb may also argue that as an
individual learns, they become increasingly literate. This idea is central to a third approach
of literacy, which views literacy as a dynamic learning process rather than as a product of a
more limited and focused educational intervention. Learning processes associated with
literacy therefore also need to account for the ways in which individual learners construct
knowledge and make sense of their learning experiences. Kolb (1984) even developed an
experiential learning cycle, with concrete experienceas the starting point for learning,
based on critical reection. The implications for these Piagetian-based notions of learning
on policy are that they must perpetuate the learning cycle beyond concrete experience. In
order to do this, policy must emphasize the critical role of experience, but also the
interactions with surrounding and abstract environments.
The nal accepted method of understanding literacy according to UNESCO (2006)isto
look at it in terms of the subject matter (Bhola, 1994), or as described by UNESCO, as text.
In other words, examining the nature of the texts that are produced and consumed by
4D. DUDLEY ET AL.
literate individuals. Texts vary by subject and genre (e.g., textbooks, technical/professional
publications, and ction), by complexity of the language used, and by ideological content
(explicit or hidden). This approach of literacy as text pays particular attention to the analysis
of discrete passages of textreferred to by socio-linguists as discourse.Inuenced by
broader social theories such as those espoused by Michel Foucault, it locates literacy within
wider communicative and socio-political practices that construct, legitimate, and reproduce
existing power structures. It therefore operates as a useful mechanism of literacy under-
standing (Fairclough, 1991; Gee, 1990) because power cannot be divorced from the produc-
tion and consumption of knowledge.
From this diverse body of research, UNESCO was able to derive the following denition of
literacy in 2004. It reads:
The ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using
printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum
of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and
potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. (UNESCO, 2004)
Pillars of physical literacy policy
According to Dudley (2015), physical literacy should be viewed as an umbrella concept that
captures the knowledge, skills, understandings, and values related to taking responsibility for
purposeful physical activity and human movement across the life course, regardless of
physical or psychological constraint. Dudley (2015) proposed that there are four core elements
of physical literacy that can manifest in observable behaviors of any given individual. These
observed physical literacy core elements were (a) MC (which acknowledged movement in
multiple environments including land, water, and air); (b) rules, tactics, and strategies of
movement; (c) motivational and behavioral skills of movement; and (d) personal and social
attributes of movement (See Figure 1); and have particular application for practitioners in
health, sport, and physical education.
Each of these core elements represented a nested progression from simple to complex
physical, cognitive, and aective learning, but perhaps lack the wider literacy perspective
needed to inuence sport and public health policy formation. Furthermore, the application of
the core elements in this model of observed physical literacy was created with an explicit
practitioner focus. As stated by Dudley (2015), each element serves to assist practitioners in
the design of assessment instruments through an accompanied rubric based on the structure
of observed learning outcomes described by Biggs and Collis (1982).
Proposing pillars of physical literacy (see Figure 2) for policy construction by contrast to the
core elements in observed physical literacy recognizes that while public health, sport, and
education policy may dier in their ontology and epistemology, they readily share a commonality
of purpose.
Literacy, and by default, physical literacy, does not necessarily progress in a strictly linear
fashion. Rather, the focus is on the contribution and consideration paid to each of the literacy
pillars in supporting construct and associated policy of the discipline. The physical literacy
pillars for policy in this model provide relevant structural scaolds in that each pillar becomes a
necessary consideration for policy development. These pillars can be equally applied across
health, recreation, sport, and education disciplines.
QUEST 5
Figure 1. Core elements of physical literacy (Dudley, 2015).
Figure 2. The four pillars of physical literacy policy.
6D. DUDLEY ET AL.
Of further signicance is that this model deconstructs physical literacy, which itself is a
multi-dimensional complex concept, into discrete components which hold overarching
meaning across all sectors. The case for this is that by doing so and by using this framework,
we are providing a common language that reduces complexity of an inherently complex idea
that policymakers are trying to come to grips with. The intention being that a common base
of understanding already built from 60 years of literacy research ensuresat least to some
degreeconsistency across sectors, despite dierences in ontology and epistemology. It is
also envisaged that the pillars-based model in this article would serve as a mechanism to
increase cross-sector communication and collaboration. Both the authors and the sectors
themselves identify that this can only occur if there is consensus on a framework that
identies the necessary considerations.
Pillar 1Movement Competencies (Physical literacy as an autonomous set
of skills)
The role of developing a broad and diverse fundamental movement skill set is well documented
in the literature. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are related to physical activity (Fisher
et al., 2005;Saakslahtietal.,1999; Williams et al., 2008), and these FMS are likewise related to
physical tness (Barnett, Van Beurden, Morgan, Brooks, & Beard, 2008;Haga,2008).
Almond (2013)identied some problems with connecting FMS with physical literacy.
Most signicantly, the list of FMS (being limited to locomotor, stability, and object manip-
ulation) creates a problem because to some practitioners, and by default, policymakers see the
list of FMS can be taught in isolation. This would hardly represent a monist interpretation of
physical literacy. Clearly, this is not what advocates of FMS would expect but it highlights a
potential danger.
However, Dudley (2015)identied that most studies examining the role of FMS and other
autonomous movement skills were limited to able-bodied students, land-based activities, and
the role they play in providing access to popular sport participation. Most attempts to
rationalize these skills into public health, sport, or education resources have met controversy
in the physical literacy context because they fail to capture the broader physical literacy
components of moving for play, enjoyment, or recreation (Almond, 2013). Nonetheless, the
evidence they provide toward understanding what it takes to lead a healthy and active life is
substantial (Lubans, Morgan, Cli, Barnett, & Okely, 2010), though tends to be limited by
measures and dispositions of disabilityrather than ability.
In order to accommodate the robust evidence in this space, all of the traditional compo-
nents of FMS (i.e., locomotor, stability, and object manipulation) were included in this pillar
of physical literacy policy. However, unlike traditional understandings of FMS, Dudley (2015)
and Mandigo and colleagues (2009) also identied the importance of not only land-based, but
water-based and air-based skills (some in desert or arctic environments mayalso includesand,
snow, and ice). In addition to identifying the environment in which the movement skills were
executed, there was also the addition of a new category: object locomotor skills.
According to Dudley (2015), object locomotor skills are those skills that facilitate locomo-
tion when the human body manipulates a secondary source of movement other than the body
itself. More often than not, these skills require the participant to combine a range of traditional
movement skills (i.e., locomotor, stability, manipulative) in order to successfully complete
them. For example, skiing, skating, cycling, paddling, rowing, or wheel chairing would all
QUEST 7
constitute object locomotion. Including all these elements improves the condence for the
inclusion of this pillar in physical literacy policy across public health, recreation, sport, and
education disciplines.
Furthermore, in order to dispel the stigma attached exclusively to the FMS in physical
literacy, the term MC was adopted from the physical literacy literature. This notion is
supported by Whitehead (2010)andDudley(2015) as it reframes the building block of
FMS as a bank of MCs. In other words, the more skills an individual has in their bank, the
more they will be able to respond to a variety of situations in a way that is automatic to the
individual and indicative of the autonomous skillsets set out by UNESCOs(2006) under-
standings of literacy. Much in the same manner in which UNESCO (2006)dened autono-
mous skill sets in literacy, these MCs should be thought of as an individuals vocabulary and
relate the process of becoming uent in such action to the Piagetian notion of assimilation
(i.e., tting new skills in with existing skills) and accommodation (i.e., changing existing skills)
of ones movement schema (Whitehead, 2010).
This line of policy consideration for physical literacy is also particularly important with new
evidence suggesting that early specialization (sometimes driven in FMS literature) in many
movement skills may actually be detrimental to lifelong physical activity participation goals.
An increasing number of studies are showing that an early specialization of movement skills
or sports-specic pathways can lead to increased burnout and dropout from organized
physical activity (Gould, Udry, Tuey, & Loehr, 1996), less enjoyment, and higher rates of
injury (Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2008; Law, Côté, & Ericsson, 2007), social isolation (Wiersma,
2000), physiological imbalances (Baker, 2003; Dalton, 1992), shortened careers (Côté, Lidor, &
Hackfort, 2009), limited range of motor skills (Weirsma, 2000), and even a decreased
participation in physical activities in adulthood (Russell & Limle, 2013).
Physical literacy policy considerations for Pillar 1MCs
The key consideration for public health, recreation, sport, and education policymakers
pertaining to Pillar 1 of this model is that physical literacy accepts and actively promotes
movement skill development. However, physical literacy policy needs to ensure that the
promotion and development of MCs does not occur at the expense of wider lifelong physical
activity pursuits and opportunities. In other words, the development of movement skills, for
youth especially, need to be broad and diverse. Physical literacy policy should actively
discourage the early specialization of sport/activity-specic skills in favor of exposing
youth to movement skills that have the greatest capacity to transferability and cross-activity
participation. Public health, sport, and education agencies should collaborate in the mobi-
lization of knowledge to ensure the development of MCs enables the widest possible
participation outcomes across the lifespan.
Pillar 2Movement Contexts (Physical literacy is situated, practiced, and
applied in context)
Dudley (2015) stated that movement requires a conscious interaction with others and the
environment in which that movement occurs. Malina (1988) stated that this occurs because
modern humans have lived in an environment in which physical activity and their associated
motor skills are central to their survivalespecially in the context of physical competition
8D. DUDLEY ET AL.
with other animals (including humans). The context of the physically active lifestyle in human
populations has changed remarkably since the industrial revolution. While many of the motor
skills humans developed through practice were important determinants of success and
survival in preindustrial societies, the role of physical activity is dierent in industrial and
post-industrial societies. The combined eects of the transition to a sedentary lifestyle and
attendant dietary changes have resulted in an epidemic of non-communicable diseases in
post-industrial societies. This has been a driving impetus for the last 30 years of health
research in many developed economies (Bouchard, Blair, & Haskell, 2012).
Eime, Young, Harvey, and Payne (2013) identied many scholars and political leaders
that advocate the social benets from participation in physical activity. The context in
which this physical activity occurs, however, needs to be carefully examined before these
claims can be substantiated as part of a disciplines physical literacy policy. The rhetoric
associating physical activity and sport participation with social character is rooted in
politics of sport and education, but not necessarily empirically justied (Bredemeier &
Shields, 2006; Hellison, 1983,2003). On the contrary, there is a large body of evidence
suggesting a darksocial side to participation in sport, which includes the inappropriate
consumption of alcohol and other social risk-taking behaviors (Kwan, Bobko, Faulkner,
Donnelly, & Cairney, 2014).
Challenging individuals to nd physically active solutions in contextually relevant situa-
tions is a central feature of any tenable understanding of physical literacy (Dudley, 2015).
Bunker and Thorpe (1982) saw the need to address a growing dissatisfaction with a limited
focus on movement skills in sport and physical education. Synthesizing the intention of
Bunker and Thorpes(1982) pedagogy in the wider physical literacy construct, the applied
and situated context of physical activities are largely governed by an individuals capacity to
understand rules, tactics, and strategy of any given physical activity. To provide clarity around
these concepts, one can dene rules as the means to an end, and to achieve the end by other
means is not participating in the activity (Grehaigne, Richard, & Grin, 2005). Tactics are all
the operations voluntarily executed during the activity by the participant to adapt to the
immediate requirements of an ever-changing opposition, their spontaneous actions, or those
organized through a predetermined strategy (Grehaigne et al., 2005). Strategy diers from
tactics in that it refers to all plans, principles of play/participation, and action guidelines
decided upon before an activity. Strategy is associated withmore elaborate cognitive processes
because the decisions made are based on reection and research without time constraints.
Tactics, on the other hand, tend to operate under strong time constraints (Grehaigne et al.,
2005). Dudley (2015) contended that accepting an individuals ability to understand rules,
tactics, and strategies is an important progression requirement in an individuals physical
literacy journey. However, these contexts also need to be placed with an individuals capacity
to build their MCs and to challenge power structures associated with participation. This
makes the learning of movement in applied and situated settings critical.
Physical literacy policy considerations for Pillar 2Movement Contexts
Each public health, sport, and education agency must consider both the environmental
and social confounders conducive to promoting a physically active lifestyle to their target
populations while ensuring MCs can be learned in such settings. If this does not occur, it
is likely the relationship between the principals (those who dene policy) and those
QUEST 9
expected to enact policy within agencies will almost certainly be limited by individual
agency bias and protectionism.
Public health, sport, recreation, and education agencies can ensure that the rules pertain-
ing to participation are equitable and inclusive, that the tactical understandings needed to be
successful are taught and encouraged, and that people are given the tools and time to reect
on the strategies one must employ to continue to grow and enrich their physical activity
experiences.
Furthermore, physical literacy policy pertaining to movement contexts should seek not
only to serve their own interests, but also work closely with other agencies to ensure a
transfer across contexts can be promoted. This might be addressed through identifying and
promoting common rules and strategies across like activities.
Policymakers across all three disciplines should also seek to host and promote dialogue
across their respective elds to ensure that tactics and strategies being applied to one move-
ment context may also promote movement in others. For this to occur, agencies may begin
examining their natural dispositions for targeting physical literacy to certain contextual
environments. For example, public health agencies heavily invested in the built environments
may wish to consider the social contexts that education institutions vest in orthe cultural ones
pursued by sport agencies. In any case, rule, tactical, and strategic intellectual investment
should extend beyond natural disposition.
Pillar 3The Journey of Movement (Physical literacy process)
Whitehead (2010) argues that physical literacy is best seen as a journey; a journey unique to
each individual. Taplin (2013) also contended that life-history is one method that can be used
to record physical literacy journeys and can play a role in charting, or mapping, the progress
an individual makes on their physical literacy journey. For this reason, the third pillar is
supported in knowing that MCs and context (Pillars 1 and 2) are those movements that allow
humans to engage in meaningful physical activity within their physiological capability and
within the constraints of their environment and interaction with others. This pillar therefore
inherently recognizes that most people throughout their life course will be inhibited in some
way through injury, incapacity, social circumstance (i.e., changes in family and peer
dynamics), or environmental inuence (i.e., weather, climate or built environment con-
straints) to perform certain human movements.
According to Whitehead (2013b), an individual can be seen to travel through life stages
that are helpful in understanding physical literacy as a journey. These stages are (1) pre-
school years, (2) primary/elementary school years, (3) secondary school years, (4) adult
years, and (5) older adult years.
During the pre-school years, the foundation for the development of physical literacy
should be supported and encouraged by all those in contact with the child. This is a critical
stage during which young children should be given every opportunity to be physically active.
Reviews of psychological experimentation show that deprivation of movement at this age
can have serious long-term eects on progress across many aspects of child development
(Bronfenbrenner, 1979; Skuse, 1984a,1984b).
During the primary/elementary school years, the essentials of physical literacy need to
be further developed and soundly established (Whitehead, 2013b). Settings that are
needed to support this signicant stage of development include the school, the home,
10 D. DUDLEY ET AL.
sporting clubs, recreational facilities, and wider physically active supportive commu-
nities/built environments.
In the adolescent years (secondary school years), it is essential that the previous considera-
tions are further nurtured and enhanced while concurrently devolving more responsibility to
individuals to devise and evaluate their own movement challenges (Whitehead, 2013b). Some
critical discussions need to begin about the importance of physical activity to lifelong health
and well-being. This notion is supported by Nutbeams(2000) contention of developing
critical health literacy during adolescence. It is essential to ensure that young people realize
the benets of an active lifestyle as well as to nurture their motivation, condence, and
competence in relation to physical activities they pursue (Whitehead, 2013b). It is important
to note that the physical activity at the age of 9 to 18 (primary and secondary school phases)
signicantly predict adult physical activity participation (Telama et al., 2005). Persistent
physical activity at a young age considerably increases the probability of being active in
adulthood. For this reason, education, sport, and health programs inuencing physical activity
among young people should be given all possible support in eorts to develop and implement
eective physical activity programs. What is telling about the Telama and colleagues (2005)
21-year longitudinal study is that the authors recommend the
Level of activity in adulthood did not depend on the type of physical activity at a young age. It seems
that intensive participation in general in physical activity and sports, and continuous participation at
school age in particular, are more important than participation in specic sports. (p. 271)
If the fundamentals of physical literacy have been established and nurtured in these earlier
stages, individualsshould engage in physical activity as a regular aspect of their lifestyles during
adulthood (Whitehead, 2013b). With the removal of compulsory schooling and its associated
human and physical infrastructures, we need individuals by this life phase to appreciate the
intrinsic value of physical activity, as well as its contribution to health and well-being.
In older age, physical literacy needs to be sustained within the context of changes in the
physical potential of the individual (Whitehead, 2013b). With a thorough understanding of
the value of physical activity and a lifetime of positive experiences from it, the older
individual should be capable of embracing a physically active life up to their physical,
emotional, and social capacity.
Physical literacy policy considerations for Pillar 3The Journey of Movement
For policymakers in education, sport, recreation, and health disciplines, addressing the
journey of movement should consider how movement is pursued throughout ones life.
Policymakers can accomplish much by ensuring that opportunities for physical activity
participation are exible, diverse, and available at dierent times and in dierent places.
This particular pillar ensures that physical literacy crosses sectorspromoting movement
beyond traditional institutional settings and throughout life.
During this journey, policymakers need to ensure that individuals are given the opportu-
nities to acquire a vast array of MCs beyond the structured understandings of any one
institution. People also need to be equipped with not only the competencies they require
now, but the capacity to innovate and adapt their movement needs to future movement
settings. Finally, addressing the journey of movement pillar requires policymakers to collec-
tively recognize that physical literacy contributes to a persons complete development. It
QUEST 11
therefore needs to actively support each persons capacity to live with others. Essentially,
physical literacy policy needs to be seen to reject notions of the duality of mind and body.
Pillar 4Power Structures of Movement
The roles that education, recreation, sport, and public health agencies play in determining the
physicality of an individual have long been a course of inquiry for poststructuralist scholars,
and are therefore worthy of exploration into our understanding of physical literacylargely
because they deal in contexts that are organized intertextually. In other words, practitioners/
coaches/teachers and clients/athletes/students draw on their other movement experiences and
on their previous backgrounds in relation to discourses around physical activity participation.
These, in turn, intersect with social practices, which determine cultural notions of femininity
and masculinity, age relations, ethnicity, etc.
Beyond the strong physiological and psychological benets aorded by living a physical active
lifestyle (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015), the education, sport, and health
agencies in many countries have observed considerable growth in the number of programs that
use movement and physical activity as a tool to address a variety of social issues as well (Institute
of Medicine, 2013). For many poststructuralist scholars, the role physical activity plays in this
space is a contested ideal. This contention is often aorded to the power and interests of each
agency and can therefore create both overt and covert determinations of cultural norms.
By far the most marginalized population in terms of these power structures are women
(United Nations, 2007). Globally, boys are more likely than girls to attend school, and
women make up two thirds of the worlds least educated adults. These disparities have
important health consequences: not least of which, those associated with sedentary living,
physical inactivity, and non-communicable disease.
Gender norms pertaining to physical activity are an important starting consideration in
physical literacy policy because they are often intimately connected with other power relations
related to class, ethnicity, sexuality, nationality, religion, and other social divisions. Given
these are all socially constructed and reinforced phenomena, they can be dicult to change.
Women frequently represent the population in nearly every society whereby participation in
sport or physical activity is either regulated or suppressed in some way. Unfortunately, gender
norms are by no means xed as they tend to evolve over time, vary substantially from place to
place, and are subject to change based on context (Narasaiah, 2008;Yekani,2011).
Article 10 of The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women(CEDAW; (United Nations Human Rights, 1979) called on parties to take all
appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women, and to ensure equal
opportunities for active participation in sport and physical activity. Investment in quality
physical activity opportunities, particularly for girls, generates immediate, intergenerational
return across all dimensions of sustainable development (United Nations International
ChildrensFund,2013). This should extend to all potential opportunities within sport, health,
and education agencies to stimulate physical activity participation.
The inter-relationship between gender, education, health, and physical activity participa-
tion (Merchant, Grin, & Charnock, 2007) demonstrates the need for all policymakers in
these disciplines to address gender equity as a central part of their eorts to attain a physical
literacy agenda. Specically, acknowledging the underlying power structures of movement
and taking measure to have them mediated and addressed.
12 D. DUDLEY ET AL.
The second most pressing power structure to be addressed under Pillar 4 of this model
concerns persons with disabilities. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With
Disabilities(CRPD; United Nations, 2006) expected parties to ensure that individuals with
disabilities have equal access to participation in play, recreation, physical education, and sport.
Consistent with this charter and the broad philosophical interpretations of physical literacy,
The Declaration of Berlin(UNESCO, 2013) resolved that paradigm shifts in policy con-
cerning persons with disabilities from a decit-orientated approach to a strength-based one
should occur. By health, education, and sport agencies actively promoting and empowering
persons with disabilities to participate in sport and physical activity, they can present a
powerful opportunity to promote respect as it is inspirational to see an individual surmount
the physical and psychological barriers to participation. In 2001, the World Health
Organization (WHO) shifted the focus of determinants of disability and health to support
this approach by engaging with the broader biopsychosocial understanding of function (rather
than disease classication; WHO, 2001).
Furthermore, access to sport and physical activity opportunities are not only of direct
benet to individuals with disabilities, but also helps to raise their standing in the commu-
nity through their equal participation in activities valued by society (UNESCO, 2015a,
2015b). Indeed, educational human and physical infrastructure (through teachers, physical
education, and participatory sport curricula) opens a gateway to full civic participation that
should go some way to mediate interaction with health and sport agencies.
The third most pressing priority for Pillar 4 is recognizing that sport and recreational
pursuits are commonplace for the perpetuation of a national or cultural identity (Pons,
Laroche, Nyeck, & Perreault, 2001; Stodolska & Alexandris, 2004). For this reason, margin-
alized populations such as indigenous peoples, members of minority ethno-cultural groups,
asylum seekers and refugees, homeless people, and those living in poverty need to be
considered in public health, education, and sport physical literacy policy. It has long been
recognized that physical activity and sport can be used as a vehicle to promote the social
inclusion of marginalized populations, and to contribute toward better understanding among
communities, including post-conict regions.
Physical activity participation enables marginalized populations and the host community/
agency to interact in a positive way, thus furthering integration and inter-cultural dialogue.
Moreover, physical activity, sport, and recreation should play an important role in reducing
social tensions and conicts at the community and national level by addressing the sources of
this exclusion and providing an alternative entry point into the social and economic life of
communities. At the most rudimentary level, well-designed physical literacy policies should
promote the core values of physical activity and sport such as self-discipline, respect, fair play,
teamwork,and adherence to mutually agreed upon rules. This, in turn, should help individuals
build the values and communication skills necessary to prevent and resolve conict in their
own lives.
Physical literacy policy considerations for Pillar 4The Power Structures of
Movement
To achieve physical literacy philosophical objectives, education, sport, and public health
agencies must include speciceorts to transform inequitable gender structures so that girls
and women, as well as boys, men, and those who identify with both/neither genders, can
QUEST 13
benet equitably. This is by far the most pressing priority of Pillar 4. Addressing the gender
equity issue in physical literacy policy should have the largest initial impact on improving
the quality and reach of all three sectors in this regard. All three sectors should also prioritize
how their physical literacy policies facilitate those with disabilities or from marginalized
populations to overcome both the overt and covert power structures that exist within and
between their sectors in terms of physical activity participation.
Conclusion
Physical literacy is still far from having the empirical weight to be substantiated as best
practice in reduction of non-communicable disease or the promotion of physical activity
participation. A recent systematic review conducted by Edwards, Bryant, Keegan, Morgan,
and Jones (2016) noted that the concept of physical literacy was stimulating research most
heavily in physical education, sport participation, and promotion of physical activity.
However, the current literature was only oering dierent representations of the construct.
As is the purpose of this article, they recommended researchers focus on clearly articulating
the denitions, philosophical assumptions, and expected outcomes prior to evaluating the
eectiveness of this emerging concept (Edwards et al., 2016).
Furthermore, understandings and policy pertaining to physical literacy will no doubt
shift over the coming years as the construct gains increasing traction within our educa-
tion, recreation, sport, and public health disciplines. This article goes some way to
recognize the growing international awareness of the social contexts in which physical
literacy is being encouraged, acquired, developed, and sustained, and hence makes a
signicant contribution to the physical literacy literature.
In many countries, interdisciplinary policy making has been attempted, but too infre-
quently realized. There have been some notable achievements, in both advanced and
developing countries, and there is abundant public policy literature advocating interdisci-
plinary collaboration (Holmes, 2011). Genuine engagement in the co-production of policy
requires major shifts in the culture and operations of health, sport, recreation, and
education agencies. It demands new skills of public servants as enablers, negotiators,
and collaborators. It demands of stakeholder agencies an orientation to the public good,
a willingness to actively engage with each other, and the capabilities needed to participate
and deliberate on each of these four pillars. This is by no means an easy featespecially if
citizens are disengaged or certain groups within the population are marginalized. Most
especially, eective engagement by each of these agencies requires political support for the
genuine devolution of power and decision making to interdisciplinary panels of these
stakeholders with whom they engage. Ministers and agency executives have a major
leadership responsibility to play here.
As physical literacy becomes an integral part of the vernacular associated with sport,
recreation, education, and health agencies, then the notion of physically literate societies
will become increasingly pertinent. These physically literate societies must be more than
education, recreation, sport, and health agencies oering access to physical activity. Each
of these agencies should seek to clearly articulate in their policy statements how each of
the four pillars of physical literacy are being addressed. In doing so, they will be well
positioned to provide an environment of diverse, rich, and prejudice-free physical activity
participation opportunities across the lifespan.
14 D. DUDLEY ET AL.
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QUEST 17
... (2020) recommended a collaboration between researchers, children's center staff and parents to design and implement future physical programs. A four-pillar conceptual model was constructed to portray physical literacy policy considerations for key decision-making in the fields of public health, recreation, sport, and education (Dudley et al., 2017). These four pillars included themes such as movement competencies, movement contexts, the journey of movement, and power structures of movement, which provide a structural scaffold for the understanding of physical literacy (Dudley et al., 2017). ...
... A four-pillar conceptual model was constructed to portray physical literacy policy considerations for key decision-making in the fields of public health, recreation, sport, and education (Dudley et al., 2017). These four pillars included themes such as movement competencies, movement contexts, the journey of movement, and power structures of movement, which provide a structural scaffold for the understanding of physical literacy (Dudley et al., 2017). The concept of developing "physically literate societies" was established in Dudley et al. (2017), in which they discussed the importance of genuine engagement in the co-production of policies, cultural shifts in health, sport, recreation, and education agencies, as well as effective engagement of stakeholder agencies are required to progress these four pillars of physical literacy. ...
... These four pillars included themes such as movement competencies, movement contexts, the journey of movement, and power structures of movement, which provide a structural scaffold for the understanding of physical literacy (Dudley et al., 2017). The concept of developing "physically literate societies" was established in Dudley et al. (2017), in which they discussed the importance of genuine engagement in the co-production of policies, cultural shifts in health, sport, recreation, and education agencies, as well as effective engagement of stakeholder agencies are required to progress these four pillars of physical literacy. Although this review is able to recommend further provision and education for those in the community and early childhood sector, the full significance of community capacity-building is not known at this stage. ...
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This review explored the impact of physical literacy programs designed to engage two- to five-year-old preschool children. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) was used. Six EBSCO host databases were searched for the period 2011 to April 2021 using the search terms “physical literacy,” “early childhood,” and “impact.” Articles were excluded if physical literacy was not the focal intervention. The final data set consisted of seven-peer reviewed articles meeting the eligibility criteria and quality assessment for this review. Three themes were created using Braun and Clark’s (2006) approach to thematic analysis: Holistic benefits of physical literacy, Barriers to physical literacy and Education begins at home. Early childhood physical literacy programs provide holistic benefits for children; however, further research is needed in an Australian context. Families and community members working in the early childhood sector could benefit from further education and training to improve physical literacy awareness.
... Thus, technology has opened the door to various methods of communication and learning. Preferred by the younger generations, these methods that have evolved in recent years can majorly affect face-to-face communication, if they are used in a fair and disciplined way [6][7][8][9][10]. ...
... Comparative interaction and strategy were followed as the expert clubs while directing the information. Conversation starter games were led, and preparation on the reason for the review was given prior to managing the surveys (Dudley, 2017). Meeting with Dempo Sports club youth players (n = 18) was held before their preparation period while with the Salgaocar Football Club players (n = 21) and the Sporting Club de Goa players (n = 19), the meetings were held after their preparation periods [27][28][29]. ...
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This paper investigates the predictable proof that has been amassed on the obligations and advantages of genuine readiness and game (PES) in schools for the two youngsters and for schooling systems. Research affirmation is introduced similar to adolescents’ improvement in different spaces: physical, lifestyle, loaded with feeling, social, and mental. The review suggests that PES might conceivably commit to headway in all of these spaces. It is suggested that PES might potentially commit to the progression of young people’s vital improvement capacities and genuine abilities, which are principal heralds of help in later lifestyle and wearing proactive assignments. They similarly, when appropriately presented, can maintain the improvement of intuitive capacities and social approaches to acting, certainty, and proschool viewpoints and, in explicit circumstances, academic and mental development. The review in like manner centers around that a significant portion of these advantages will be influenced by the chance of organised endeavours among understudies and their teachers, guardians, and guides who work with them; the impacts will most likely be influenced by the chance of organised endeavours among understudies and their teachers, guardians, and guides who work with them. Settings that emphasise positive interactions, as evidenced by satisfaction, collection, and everyone’s responsibility, and that are supervised by submitted and organised instructors and mentors, as well as strong and informed gatekeepers, have a significant impact on the personality of these proactive tasks and the likelihood of obtaining the expected benefits of investment.
... A origem do conceito de literacia física (LF) remonta ao século XIX [17], no entanto, foi apenas no inicio do século XXI que se assistiu à sua rápida disseminação entre profissionais e académicos [17,18], suportando-se nas discussões geradas pelos trabalhos de doutoramento de Margaret Whitehead [19] que pela primeira vez ofereciam suporte teórico e filosófico ao conceito [2,20]. Atualmente, a LF é reconhecida como central nas agendas da educação física de qualidade [21][22][23], desporto [22,24] e de saúde pública [25,26], informando a mudança de políticas e práticas que valorizem e promovam a concretização de objetivos de desenvolvimento sustentável [27] como a criação de parcerias comunitárias entre sectores [28] para promoção do acesso equitativo e de qualidade a oportunidades de educação [29] e de desenvolvimento da saúde ao longo da vida [25,30]. ...
Poster
Introduction: physical literacy (PL) can be described as the motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge and understanding to value and take responsibility for engaging in physical activities (PA) for life [1,2]. PL is the holistic learning that occurs through movement and physical activity and integrates physical, psychological, social and cognitive capabilities [3]. It is developed in relation to individuals and their context. This poster aims to review the problem that may justify and enhance the study of the development of PL through blue physical activities (BPA). Development: blue spaces, understood as outdoor environments – natural or built predominantly constituted by water, offer opportunities for adhering to PA behaviors [4]. BPA allow the improvement of adaptive capacities [5], overall physical fitness, general health levels, the adoption of active citizenship behaviors and the reduction of antisocial behaviors [6,7]. A case study developed in Portugal reveals that BFA framed in physical education (PE) and school sports (SS) settings generate physical, mental, educational and social benefits in children and young people [8]. However, particularly in public education, Portuguese PE has not had the active role that the SS has recently assumed in equitable aquatic education of children and young people. The geographical and cultural background of Portugal, along with the Portuguese adolescent low levels of PA [9,10], the increased incidence of premature drowning deaths on the Portuguese population over 15 years of age [11] and the current threats to the sustainability of blue spaces and their biodiversity [12] , lead us to the necessary reflection on how to develop PL through BPA can promote citizenship actions in the different areas of intervention/problems listed and lead to improved health and quality of life. Conclusion: Aquatic environments are a neglected context in PL development research. This hinders the design of holistic aquatic education programs informed by scientific evidence [13,14] and capable of supporting the development of citizens willing to take responsibility for their participation in eclectic, intense and significant PA throughout life; promoting individual and collective safety in the aquatic environments and intervene in the preservation and sustainability of blue spaces. Considering the geography, culture, economic and social value that blue spaces have for Portugal, schools should be recognized as a privileged context through which we can educate for meaningful and safe interaction with aquatic environments [15,16]. Keywords: physical literacy, aquatic education, active citizenship, physical education, school sports.
... Access to multiple environments and type of environment play important roles in levels of PA participation (Sallis et al. 2016;Dudley et al. 2017). During the early months of the pandemic, most government restrictions and guidelines enforced shelter-in-place orders, accompanied by the closure of many spaces where children typically move. ...
Preprint
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Matched pre-during pandemic comparison (160 children) revealed a substantial reduction in physical activity ( p < 0.001, r rb =0.83), environmental participation ( p = 0.046, r rb =0.16), movement valuation ( p < 0.001, r rb =0.61), and parent perceptions of children’s physical literacy ( p < 0.001, r rb =0.56,). Examining physical activity trajectories, higher pre-pandemic physical literacy protected children from pandemic related activity decline. Emerging from the pandemic, interventions should address children’s eroded belief in movement, and consider physical literacy levels of children in individualizing movement opportunities for restoration of activity levels.
... Keegan et al., 2013). The notion of establishing 'physically literate societies' (Dudley et al., 2017) is also emphasised. ...
Article
This paper explores how various ideological positions or ‘cosmoses’ associated with physical literacy (PL) have come to be and, in doing so, extends scholarship by examining and presenting PL as a multiplicity of physical literacies. Drawing on Stengers’ notion of ‘cosmopolitics’ and Venturini's ‘cartography of controversies’ method, 167 scholarly articles and 23 non-scholarly texts were analysed to observe and describe how PL has been framed over time as a result of dynamic political factors. Findings reveal that three ‘waves’ of PL cosmoses have unfolded over time (PL as health-promoting physical activity, PL as motor competence and PL as phenomenological embodiment). Whilst all three seek to promote engagement in physical activity and have loose ties to ‘health’, each PL cosmos is bound by different objectives, actors and obligations and is orientated towards solving a different problem. Rather than continued confusion and controversy, we propose that PL be understood as a multiverse wherein the three different PL cosmoses are held apart as physical literacies that play co-existing roles based on the problem that each cosmos is trying to solve. While understanding PL as a multiverse is not a solution to the controversy and uncertainty surrounding PL, it provides those who are interested in or tasked with enacting PL an opportunity to become aware of and understand what the different PL cosmoses or physical literacies constitute and thus make possible (or not) on the basis of their ontological differences.
Article
Physical education discourse has increasingly discussed the importance of physical literacy, but this discourse has not been fully incorporated into physical education programs around the world. Together with the emphasis from the Future Education 2030 Physical Education Development Report, the inclusion of physical literacy should be upheld. Hence, how the physical education pedagogy is applied to achieve physical literacy effectively should be discussed. Using a scoping review, the current study aimed to investigate the pedagogical approaches adopted in enhancing students’ physical literacy and its association with physical literacy. The review (N = 21) has summarized the definition of physical literacy, mainly defined by the International Physical Literacy Association and Whitehead (2007). It has also captured various pedagogical approaches, including Teaching Games for Understanding, Non-linear Pedagogy, Integrated Approach going beyond physical education lessons, and other student-centered methods. The results indicated that Non-linear Pedagogy showed a better effect on students’ physical literacy compared to Linear Pedagogy and Performance-based Pedagogy. It is highly recommended that a student-centered with autonomy-supportive pedagogical approach was considered as the most effective form of pedagogy for promoting and enhancing children's physical literacy. In addition, the curriculum and assessment of physical education must also be reviewed in order to align and expand the role of pedagogy in delivering physical literacy. Moreover, more evidence-based research utilizing lesson observation and randomized control trials should be conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of different pedagogies, thereby raising the level of awareness and utilization of pedagogy in classrooms.
Thesis
The concept of physical literacy (PL) has a long history, but since Margaret Whitehead’s (1993) (re)conceptualisation, it has become increasingly prominent across the contexts of education (predominantly Health and/ Physical Education), sport, and public health, particularly in countries such as Canada, the United States, England, Wales, Australia and New Zealand. As the interest in, and adoption of, PL has steadily increased across different countries and contexts, so has the number of definitions and interpretations of PL. The inconsistencies surrounding the inevitable variations of PL as a concept has led to confusion within both scholarly and non-scholarly literature. The overall purpose of this thesis was to systematically and rigorously examine how the concept and meaning of PL has been conceptualised, assembled, and ontologically represented over both time and context, to make sense and raise awareness of the ontological differences across the different versions of PL, with implication for theory, research, and practice. This thesis draws on a unique theoretical and methodological approach to meet the research aims. Chapter 4 draws upon Rodgers’ (2000) evolutionary concept analysis method to analyse the conceptualisation of PL as it has appeared within the scholarly literature over time. Chapters 5 and 6 utilise the first four lenses of Venturini’s (2010, 2012) cartography of controversies method, an applied version of Actor-Network Theory, to analyse how PL has been assembled, by whom, and in the name of what on “the web” (i.e. Google) and “scholarly” web (i.e. peer-reviewed, scholarly literature) respectively. Chapter 7 draws upon the fifth and final lens of Venturini’s (2010, 2012) cartography of controversies method to explore how various ideological positions or “cosmoses” associated with PL have come to be, and what they constitute and are capable of. The extent to which PL is capable of becoming productively deployed and understood as multiple, co-existing ontologies is also explored. Findings reveal that there is no consensus in terms of how PL is conceptualised, assembled, or ontologically represented. Striving for a consensus understanding for PL was consequently considered a largely unproductive endeavour. Rather than attempt to present a single, universal, or “correct” version of PL, this thesis offers two alternative ways of understanding PL: (i) the PL ladder of abstraction, and (ii) a multiverse of physical literacies. While these approaches are not a solution to the PL controversy, they offer support to those who are interested in or tasked with enacting, or indeed critiquing PL. These alternative ways of understanding PL enable awareness and understanding of what the different versions of PL constitute and make possible (or not) based on the attributes found at each level of abstraction and/or the problem that each is orientated towards solving. An awareness and empirical understanding of PL’s multiplicity should compel users of PL to (i) reflect on and question their positionality within the PL actor-network(s), and (ii) no longer be able to confuse or conflate the different versions of PL. As a result, PL should be able to be understood, utilised, and critiqued in theory, research and practice with greater congruence, confidence, and clarity.
Article
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Objectives The aim of this scoping review was to review existing self-reported instruments measuring different elements of domains of PL.Method We reviewed Education Research Complete, Cochrane, Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Studies were coded using a thematic framework, which was based on the three domains of PL. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) age groups between 18 and 60 years; (2) meta-analyses, reviews or quantitative studies focusing on the measurement of at least one of the three domains of PL and (3) instrument that was self-reported. We finalised search on 1 August 2021Results In total, 67 articles were identified as studies describing instruments reflecting the three domains of PL. Following full-text reading, 21 articles that met our inclusion criteria were included. Several instruments of relevance to PL are available for assessing motivation, confidence and the physical domain. However, few instruments exist that measure elements of the cognitive domain.Conclusion This review showed that a range of existing and validated instruments exists, covering two out of the three domains of PL, namely affective and physical domains. However, for the knowledge domain no valid measurement tools could be found. This scoping review has identified gaps in the research (namely the cognitive domain) and also a gap in the research as no measures that consider the inter-relatedness of the three domains (holistic nature of the concept).
Article
The PLAYself is a commonly utilized tool to assess physical literacy in child and adolescent populations. Currently, there are no measurement tools designed to examine physical literacy among adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the psychometric properties of PLAYself subsections in a sample of young adults. Two hundred forty-five young adults (ages 18–25) from the United States completed the PLAYself questionnaire. Multiple principal component analyses using promax rotation were utilized to assess the current factor structure of the PLAYself subsections. Each subsection was analyzed independently to explore individual summary components. PLAYself subsections were assessed for reliability using Cronbach's α, inter-item correlations, and item-total correlations. A multi-factor structure was identified for each PLAYself subsection. A 2-factor structure was identified for the Environment subsection accounting for 55.2% of the variance. A 2-factor structure was identified for the Physical Literacy Self-Description subsection accounting for 57.1% of the variance. A 3-factor structure was identified for the Relative Ranking of Literacies subsection accounting for 70.3% of the variance. The Environment, Physical Literacy Self-Description, and Relative Ranking of Literacies subsections demonstrated poor ( α = 0.577), good ( α = 0.89), and acceptable ( α = 0.79) internal consistencies, respectively. The Physical Literacy Self-Description subsection demonstrated the best psychometric properties in our sample, and thus may be an appropriate tool to assess physical literacy in a young adult population until additional measurement tools are developed.
Article
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O Projeto EuPEO irá servir de estrutura à plataforma do futuro Observatório Europeu de Educação Física (EuPEO), colmatando as lacunas que existem entre: orientações; os conceitos aplicados para a monitorização e a avaliação; a articulação entre os setores do des-porto, saúde e educação; e entre diferentes conjuntos de indicadores de qualidade da educação física escolar. A sua missão é a de promover, por toda a Europa, uma Educação Física, um Desporto Escolar e outras formas de Atividade Física Escolar de qualidade dentro das políti-cas europeias para o desporto, do quadro referência da UNESCO para uma educação física de qualidade e das recomendações do grupo de peritos europeus para a Health -Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA).
Article
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Background The concept of physical literacy has stimulated increased research attention in recent years—being deployed in physical education, sport participation, and the promotion of physical activity. Independent research groups currently operationalize the construct differently. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a systematic review of the physical literacy construct, as reflected in contemporary research literature. Methods Five databases were searched using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria were English language, peer reviewed, published by March 2016, and seeking to conceptualize physical literacy. Articles that met these criteria were analyzed in relation to three core areas: properties/attributes, philosophical foundations and theoretical associations with other constructs. A total of 50 published articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed qualitatively using inductive thematic analysis. Results The thematic analysis addressed the three core areas. Under definitions, core attributes that define physical literacy were identified, as well as areas of conflict between different approaches currently being adopted. One relatively clear philosophical approach was prominent in approximately half of the papers, based on a monist/holistic ontology and phenomenological epistemology. Finally, the analysis identified a number of theoretical associations, including health, physical activity and academic performance. Conclusions Current literature contains different representations of the physical literacy construct. The costs and benefits of adopting an exclusive approach versus pluralism are considered. Recommendations for both researchers and practitioners focus on identifying and clearly articulating the definitions, philosophical assumptions and expected outcomes prior to evaluating the effectiveness of this emerging concept.
Article
This review explores questions of power, epistemology, cultural form, and historical process, as they are raised by and developed in studies of literacy. It begins by reviewing arguments for universalist vs situated accounts of literacy and literacies. Having discussed universalist claims and evidence, and having shown that they cannot withstand criticism, the review develops generalizations about the implications of plural literacies. It explores the relationship among modern state formation, educational systems, and official vs popular literacies, by drawingo n poststructuralist argumentsa bout the role of writing in social formations and on recent historical and ethnographic research on literacy. It analyzes the role of literacies in the formation of class, gender, and racial-ethnic identities, by focusing on the role of education in class stratification, the debate about public vs private in gender dynamics, and the volatile relations between oppressed nationalities and official literacies.
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The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of physical activity (PA) during a single weekend to ascertain possible relationships between PA and anthropometry, fundamental motor skills, and CHD risk factors among 105 normal male and female children, aged 3-4 years. The children played, when awake, on the average for 14 hr, 16 min indoors and for 5 hr, 12 min outdoors of which low activity playing accounted about 4 hr. Notable gender differences were observed in the intensity of PA but not in fundamental motor skills and CHD risk factors. The results suggest that physical activity is weakly related to fundamental motor skills and CHD risk factors at an early age. The association between PA and body size was modified by gender (p = .024): The girls who played indoors a lot were heavier than the others, and the boys who played much more outdoors were heavier in relation to other boys. The associations between PA and motor skills as well as PA and CHD risk factors were also highly gender-dependent: The boys benefited from interacting with parents, while the girls benefited from independence. The most influential factors seemed to be the amount of playing outdoors, the amount of high level play activities, as well as interaction with parents.