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Nigella sativa seed, a novel beauty care ingredient: A review

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Nigella sativa seed is one of the spices, which is referred by Prophet Mohammed as a herb of blessing, which can cure everything other than death. Therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa seed has been very well studied by many researchers, but its use in cosmetic science is not very well studied. Nigella sativa seed is intensively studied for its chemical composition. It is reported to contains Thymoquinone, Nigellimine-N-oxide, Nigellicine, Nigellidine, Nigellone, Dithymoquinone, Thymohydroquinone, Thymol, Arvacrol, 6-methoxy-coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin, Oxy-coumarin, Alpha-hedrin, Steryl-glucoside, Tannins, Flavinoids, Essential fatty acids, Essential amino acids, Ascorbic acid, Iron and calcium. Presence of these natural actives makes Nigella sativa seed as great medicinal herb. Nigella sativa seed has antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, hair growth promoter, sun protection, anti cancer activity, which make it a novel ingredient for many cosmetic preparations. This review brings the comprehensive compilation of researches on Nigella sativa seed in the area of cosmetics and related fields.
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Sudhir et al., IJPSR, 2016; Vol. 7(8): 3185-3196. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 3185
IJPSR (2016), Vol. 7, Issue 8 (Review Article)
Received on 17 March, 2016; received in revised form, 27 June, 2016; accepted, 11 July, 2016; published 01 August, 2016
NIGELLA SATIVA SEED, A NOVEL BEAUTY CARE INGREDIENT: A REVIEW
S. P. Sudhir *1, V. O. Deshmukh 2 and H. N. Verma1
Department of Life Sciences 1, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Sarkone Life Sciences 2, Dubai, UAE.
ABSTRACT: Nigella sativa seed is one of the spices, which is referred
by Prophet Mohammed as a herb of blessing, which can cure everything
other than death. Therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa seed has been
very well studied by many researchers, but its use in cosmetic science is
not very well studied. Nigella sativa seed is intensively studied for its
chemical composition. It is reported to contains Thymoquinone,
Nigellimine-N-oxide, Nigellicine, Nigellidine, Nigellone,
Dithymoquinone, Thymohydroquinone, Thymol, Arvacrol, 6-methoxy-
coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin, Oxy-coumarin, Alpha-hedrin, Steryl-
glucoside, Tannins, Flavinoids, Essential fatty acids, Essential amino
acids, Ascorbic acid, Iron and calcium. Presence of these natural actives
makes Nigella sativa seed as great medicinal herb. Nigella sativa seed has
antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, hair growth promoter, sun
protection, anti cancer activity, which make it a novel ingredient for
many cosmetic preparations. This review brings the comprehensive
compilation of researches on Nigella sativa seed in the area of cosmetics
and related fields.
INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of human
civilization, humans are known to use cosmetics,
made out of natural materials like herbs, minerals
and animal substances for impressing and attracting
others 1. In modern days, cosmetics have started
turning to be one of the basic needs of human
beings. Modern cosmetic business is almost 400
billion dollars per annum worldwide. Cosmetic
business has gone through series of transformation.
In earlier days, cosmetics used to be crude natural
products in the form of fresh crushed leaves, roots,
seeds and extracts of plant parts.
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DOI:
10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.7(8).3185-96
Article can be accessed online on:
www.ijpsr.com
DOI link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.7 (8).3185-96
After this era, there was a gradual change in
formats of cosmetics, it became more attractive and
convenient to use, but the dependence on
processed, synthetic and chemical based actives has
greatly increased. Daily newer and better actives
are getting invented across the globe, which are
making cosmetics more efficacious. Many such
synthetic chemicals used as actives in cosmetic
products pose health and safety risk on human
health.
As per the International regulations, cosmetic
should be safe with practically no undesirable
effects. Safety of cosmetic preparation is most
important as cosmetics are used for longer period
of time than medicines. Recently, there have been
lots of reports and alerts on serious undesirable
effects of cosmetics 2. The Scientific Committee on
Cosmetic Products and Non food products of
Keywords:
Nigella sativa , Kalongi, Herbal
medicinal ingredients, Cosmetics,
Herbal extracts,
Correspondence to Author:
S. P. Sudhir
Department of Life Sciences,
Jaipur National University, Jaipur,
India.
Email: spsjaipurnationaluniversity@gmail.com
Sudhir et al., IJPSR, 2016; Vol. 7(8): 3185-3196. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 3186
European Commission provides an opinion on
safety of each ingredient under use in cosmetics.
Recently certain chemical ingredients like hair
dyes3, preservatives 4, 5 and fragrance ingredients 6
are restricted and banned by the Scientific
Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non food
products (SCCP) basis the reported toxic
,carcinogenic, allergenic effects. With increased
consumer awareness, now consumers are moving
towards more natural, no or less chemical based
cosmetics.
The reason for this is the effective, soft and
perceived no undesirable effect nature of
natural/herbal cosmetics. Cosmetics with
natural/herbal actives from particular geographies
like Azadirachta indica (Neem) from India,
Argania spinosa (Argan) seed Oil from Morocco,
Olea europaea (Olive) seed oil from Spain are
quite popular. These geographical origin claims
have also got their place in marketing of cosmetics.
This is because natural ingredients of particular
origin showed better efficacy value as compared to
ingredient of same species originating from other
geographies. This may be due to suitable enriching
environment for these herbs in a particular
geography. Relation between geographical origin
of natural ingredients with their composition and
efficacy could be another very interesting subject
of study. Natural products of cosmetic values are
present in bark, leaf, flower, root, fruit and seed
hence they can be used in raw crushed forms as
paste, juices and powder. In many cases extracts
and oils of plant parts are found to be very
effective. Many herbs are reported to be very
effective in healing scars, improving skin
complexion, perfuming of body, cleansing and
miniaturisation of skin etc.
Cosmetics can be broadly classified as rinse off and
leave on cosmetics. Rinse off products are
shampoo, conditioners, soaps, hand wash, etc.
while leave on cosmetics are hair cream, hair
lotion, hair oil, hair gel, mascara, lipstick, lip gel,
nail polish, deodorant, body spray. Toothpaste,
mouth wash, intimate wash are also considered as
cosmetics.
There is a surge in use of herbs in cosmetics like
herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soap,
herbal shampoo, and many more. Cosmetics with
herbal connotation are perceived as safe as
compared to cosmetic made out of processed and
synthetic chemical material 1. Following is the list
of herbal ingredients used in cosmetics.
TABLE 1: HERBAL INGREDIENTS IN COSMETICS 7
Botanical Name and
Part Used
Common Name
Form
Acacia concinna pods
Shikakai
Powder
Acorus calamus rhizome
Sweet Flag
Powder/Paste
Allium sativum bulbs
Garlic
Powder/ Paste
Alpinia galanga rhizome
Galanga
Powder/Paste
Avena sativa fruit
Oat
Powder / Paste
Azadirachta indica leaves
Neem
Powder / Paste
Balsamodendron myrrha gum
Myrrh
Powder/Paste
Calendula officinalis flowers
Marigold
Paste
Cedrus deodara wood
Deodar
Powder/Paste
Centella asiatica plant
Gotu Kola
Powder/Paste
Cichorium intybus seed
Chicory
Powder/Paste
Citrus aurantium peel
Orange
Paste
Citrus lemon peel
Lemon
Powder
Coriandrum sativum seed
Coriander
Powder
Crocus sativus stigma
Saffron
Liquid
Curcuma longa rhizome
Turmeric
Powder/Paste
Curcuma zedoaria rhizome
Zedoary
Powder/Paste
Daucus carota seed
Carrot
Oil
Eclipta alba plant
Bhringraj
Powder/Paste
Glycyrrhiza glabra root
Liquorice
Powder/Paste
Hedychium spicatum rhizome
Kapurkachir
Oil
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 3187
Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers
China rose
Paste
Iris florentina root
Orris
Powder
Lawsonia alba leaves
Heena
Powder/Paste
Matricaria chamomilla flowers
Chamomile
Powder/Paste
Moringa oleifera seed
Benjamin
Oil
Prunus serotina bark
Wild cherry bark
Powder
Pterocarpus santalinus bark
Red sandal wood
Powder/Paste
Rubia cordifolia root
Manjistha
Powder/Paste
Santalum album wood
Sandal Wood
Powder/Paste
Sapindus trifoliatus fruit cortex
Soap wort
Powder
If we review the above list, we can easily notice
that there are many plants which are commonly
used as spices and foods also used as cosmetic
ingredients. Plants like Citrus aurantium (Orange)
peel, Citrus lemon (Lemon) peel, Coriandrum
sativum (Coriander) seed, Crocus sativus (Saffron)
stigma, Curcuma longa (Turmeric) rhizome are
extensively used in beauty products 8, 1. Nigella
sativa seed is one amongst the favorite spice in
Middle East, Asia and Europe.
Its utility as medicinal herb is very well known, but
its potential as cosmetic ingredient is still little
known. In this article, we are attempting to review
the use of Nigella sativa seed for various cosmetic
applications, so that cosmetics scientists can use
Nigella sativa seed as an active ingredient for
developing new cosmetic products, which are
efficacious and safe.
Nigella sativa Plant:
Occurrence:
Nigella sativa plant is an annual herbaceous plant
of family Ranunculaceae, it is abundantly grown in
the Middle east, Eastern Europe, Western Asia.
Synonyms:
English: Fennel flower Black cumins, Love-in-a-
mist., nutmeg flower, Roman coriander
Arabic: Habatut Barakah Shooneez, Habba Sauda,
Habb al-barka
Sankrit: Krishana Jiraka, Upakunchika
German: Schwarzkümmel
Chinese: Pei hei zhong cao
French: Cheveux de Vénus, Nigelle
Hindi: Kalonji.
Marathi: Kalonji Jire
Persian Name: Siah Dana
Punjabi Name: Kalvanji
Urdu Name: Kalonji
All though above are common synonyms referred,
there is a lot of confusion about the name of
Nigella sativa seed. In many regions like Central
Asia and Northern India, seed is called black
cumin, black caraway and black onion seed but
there is no botanical relation between Nigella
sativa seed and seed of any of these kind. Many
time these resembling seed forms part of
commercially available stock and used as
adulterants.
Morphology:
Nigella sativa herb grows to 2025 cm tall, with
finely divided, linear leaves. Leaves are divided
into linear segments 2 to 3 cm long. Leaves are
opposite in pairs on either side of the stem. Upper
leaves are long as compared to lower leaves, they
are petiolate and flowers grow terminally on its
branches. The flowers are colored pale blue and
white, with 5 to 10 petals and are quite delicate.
The fruit is a large inflated capsule composed of
three to seven united follicles. Seeds are black,
triangular in shape, 2 to 3 mm long. Fruit has
pungent odor when crushed, contains good amount
of fixed and essential oil.
Till date there are 21 different species of black seed
reported 9. But Nigella sativa is the most studied
species, followed by Nigella damascene and
Nigella arvensis. Identification of various species
of black seed is quite difficult and hence use of
DNA bar coding has been proposed to
differentiating various species and varieties.
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 3188
FIG. 1 : FLOWERS OF NIGELLA SATIVA 10
FIG. 2: FRUIT OF NIGELLA SATIVA 11
FIG.3 : BROKEN FRUIT WITH NIGELLA SATIVA SEED 12
FIG. 4 : SEED OF NIGELLA SATIVA
Cultivation and collection:
Nigella sativa plant is an annual herb cultivated
mostly during the winter season. It is cultivated on
heavy and light soil. Period of sowing is October to
November and harvesting is April to May. Its yield
is approximately 300kg/acre to 400 kg/acre.
Seeds are sown in upper soil as germination, get
delayed if sown deep inside. It does not need
frequent irrigation. The crop is harvested when the
fruit/capsule turn yellowish. After harvesting and
proper drying, it can be threshed by trampling with
a tractor or proper thresher. After threshing, the
seeds are properly stored in bags or containers 13.
Chemical composition:
Nigella sativa seed is extensively studied herbal
medicine by many researchers. They have reported
the discovery of many active principles like
Thymoquinone, Nigellimine-N-oxide, Nigellicine,
Nigellidine, Nigellone, Dithymoquinone,
Thymohydroquinone, Thymol, Arvacrol, 6-
methoxy-coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin, Oxy-
coumarin, Alpha-hedrin, Steryl-glucoside, Tannins,
Flavinoids, Essential fatty acids, Essential amino
acids, Ascorbic acid, Iron and calcium 14, 15, 16, 17, 18.
Rich contents of natural products provide profound
therapeutic value to Nigella sativa seeds and its
derivative. In many studies, Nigella sativa seeds
has proved to be anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-
histaminic, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant,
immune stimulant, anti-hypertensive, anti-
asthmatic, hypoglycemic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral,
anti-fungal and anti-parasitic 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,19.
Nigella sativa seed found to be contents variety of
chemicals 20, these chemicals are significantly
therapeutic in nature.
- 32-40% of fixed oil (consists of unsaturated
fatty acids like Linoleic, Linolenic,
Arachidonic, Eicosadienoic, Oleic acid,
Almitoleic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic and
Myristic acid, Beta-sitosterol, Cycloartenol,
Cycloeucalenol, Sterol esters and Sterol
glucosides).
- 0.4-0.45% of volatile oils (Consists of
Nigellone, Thymoquinone, Thymo
hydroquinone, Dithymoquinone, Thymol,
Carvacrol, α & β-pinene, d-limonene, d-
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citronellol, p-cymene and 2-(2-
methoxypropyl)-5-methyl-1,4-benzenediol).
- 16-19.9% of protein consists of amino acids
like Arginine, Glutamic acid, Leucine,
Lysine, Methionine, Tyrosine, Proline and
Threonine
- Carbohydrates (33.9%) Fiber (5.5 %), Water
(6 %)
- Alkaloids like Nigellicine, Nigellidine,
Nigellimine-N-oxide.
- Coumarins consists of 6-methoxy-coumarin,
7-hydroxy-coumarin, 7-oxy-coumarin.
- Saponins consists of Alpha-Hedrin, Steryl-
glucosides, Acetyl-steryl-glucoside.
- Minerals like Calcium, phosphorous,
potassium, sodium and iron.
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF KEY ACTIVES REPORTED IN NIGELLA SATIVA OIL 21
FIG.5 :THYMOQUINONE
FIG. 6 : THYMOL
FIG.7: THYMOHYDROQUINONE
FIG. 8 : NIGELLICINE
FIG. 9 : NIGELLIMINE
FIG. 10 : DITHYMOQUINONE
FIG.11 : NIGELLAMINE
FIG. 12 : NIGELLIDONE-4-SULPHATE
FIG.13 : ALPHA HEDERIN
FIG. 14 : p-CYMENE
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Toxicological profile:
In various studies, Nigella sativa seed and its
constituents are found to be quite safe.
In a study Nigella sativa seed oil was given orally
to mice for 90 days to check chronic toxicity. It is
observed that there are no changes in key hepatic
enzyme levels like alanine-aminotranferase,
aspartate-aminotransferase, and gammaglutamyl-
transferase. Histological study showed that there
was no change observed in the tissues of heart,
liver, kidneys and pancreas. LD50 values of Nigella
sativa oil were observed to be 26.2-31.6 and 1.86-
2.26 respectively when administered in single dose
orally and intraperitoneally in mice. This key
hepatic enzyme stability and organ integrity
directly demonstrate low toxicity with wide margin
of safety of therapeutic dosage of Nigella sativa oil
21. In another toxicological study after intra-
peritoneal injection and oral ingestion showed
LD50 for Thymoquinone to be 104.7 mg/kg (89.7
to 104.7) and 870.9 mg/kg (647.1-109.8)
respectively. LD50 in rats was found to be 57.5
mg/kg (45.6-69.4) and 794.3 mg/kg (469.8-1
118.8) after intra-peritoneal injection and oral
ingestion respectively. It shows that the LD50
values reported for Nigella sativa seed Oil and
actives like Thymoquinone after intra-peritoneal
injection and oral administration are 10-15 times
and 100-150 times greater than doses of
Thymoquinone reported for its anti-oxidant, anti-
inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects.
In a study, acute and chronic toxicity of Nigella
sativa actives (Seed Oil and Thymoquinone) were
studied on laboratory animals, where practically no
or non significant toxicity was observed , hence
Nigella sativa seed and its derivative can be
considered as safe, particularly when given orally
22, 23, 24, 25 .
Cosmoceutical Potential:
Nigella sativa seed has been referred as „Habba Al
Sauda‟ or „Habba Al Barakah‟ in Arabic literatures.
Abu Huraira narrated that Prophet Muhammad said
“Use the black seed, which is a healing for all
diseases except As-Sam(Death)” 26.
Above belief triggered lots of studies on Nigella
sativa seed in the area of therapeutics.
Its medicinal properties provide Nigella sativa seed
the status of best candidate as medicinal and
cosmetic ingredient.
Antibacterial:
In a clinical study to check the antibacterial
property of Nigella sativa seed extract, 40
neonates infected with pustules staphylococcal skin
infections were treated with Nigella sativa seed
extract (33%) and it was found that Nigella sativa
seed extract is as effective as standard drug
Mupirocin 27.
In few studies Nigella sativa seed was found to be
more effective on Gram +ve bacteria than Gram
ve bacteria 28 - 30.
Antibacterial property of Nigella sativa seed is due
to the presence of actives like Thymoquinone,
Thymohydroquinone and Thymol. It is observed
that these actives showed considerable antibacterial
activity against Gram +ve bacteria as compared to
Gram ve bacteria species. Only one out of 13
strains of S.epidermidis tested for inhibition was
observed to be not sensitive to Nigella sativa seed
Oil.
Nigella sativa seed oil was found to be effective
against 17 strains out of 18 strain of coagulase
negative Staphylococci which to be resistant to a
number of antibiotics. Importantly Nigella sativa
seed oil could inhibit Streptococcus pyogenes,
which was resistant strain to Erythromycin. Nigella
sativa seed oil was also found active against
multidrug resistant strains of Streptococcus aureus
and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 29.
Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis are
responsible for human dental caries and bad breath
odor. In a study where two Nigella sativa extracts
were evaluated for in-vitro antibacterial activity
against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus
mitis using agar well diffusion method, it is
observed that ethanolic extract showed highest
zone of inhibition (12.7mm and 10.4mm) against
Streptcocus mutans and Streptococus mitis
respectively, while the inhibition zone of ether
extract was found to be 6.3mm and 5.1mm against
Streptcocus mutans & Streptococus mitis
respectively 30.
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In a study where antibacterial activity of aqueous
infusions and aqueous decoctions of three seed like
kalonji (Nigella sativa, Ranunculaceae), cumin
(Cuminum cyminum, Umbelliferae) and poppy seed
(Papaver somniferum, Papaveraceae) were
investigated against 188 oral bacterial isolates
belonging to 11 different genera of Gram +ve and
Gram -ve microorganisms using disc diffusion
method. Decoction of cumin showed highest
antibacterial potential, with inhibition of 73% of
the tested microorganisms, followed by aqueous
decoctions of Nigella sativa seed with inhibition of
51% of the tested microorganisms and poppy seed
was found to be inhibiting only 14.4% of tested
microorganism 31.
Imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jauziyah in his book
Medicine of the Prophet mentioned the use of black
seed for improving oral health when used with
vinegar 32.
Robert W. Lebling and Donna Pepperdine MH in a
book „Natural Remedies of Arabia‟ mentioned the
use of Nigella sativa seed powder decoction as
gargle for control of toothache, tonsil and larynx
pain 33.
Antifungal:
Diethyl ether extract of Nigella sativa seed
observed to be effective against Candida albicans
34. In animal study, growths of Candida yeasts in
several organs were inhibited by the ether extract of
Nigella sativa 35. In vitro study showed that
Thymoquinone can inhibit the growth of
Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani, this activity
was comparable to amphotericin-B 36. Growth
Inhibitory activity of Thymoquinone was reported
to be more efficient than Amphotericin-B and
Griseofulvin against Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in
vitro. There was 100% inhibition of the growth of
S. brevicaulis with Thymoquinone 1 mg/ml, while
Amphotericin-B 1 mg/ml inhibited only 70%
growth 30. The ether extract of Nigella sativa was
found to inhibit dermatophytes isolated from
sheepskin infection 37.
In a study Fluconazole susceptible and resistant
Candida albicans infections in mice were treated
with various doses of Fluconazole (0, 5, 10, 20 and
40mg/kg), free Thymoquinone (TQ) and Liposomal
TQ (0, 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg) for 40 days. Free
Thymoquinone showed its activity against both
Fluconazole susceptible and resistant Candida
albicans, but Liposomal TQ was showed best
antifungal activity, which had imparted 100% and
90% survival of mice infected with Fluconazole
susceptible and resistant Candida albicans
respectively 38.
Hair loss:
Robert W. Lebling and Donna Pepperdine MH 21 in
the book Natural Remedies of Arabia mentioned
the use of Nigella sativa seed powder along with
Arugula juice, Olive oil, Vinegar in Saudi Arabia
for hair fall control 33.
Telogen effluvium is a condition where thinning or
shedding of hair occurs due to early entry of hair in
the telogen phase. In the study Nigella sativa seed,
which has Thymoquinone (TQ) as a primary active
and has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects
by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators, such as
cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin D2 was used. 20
patients affected by Telogen effluvium were
selected for the double-blind, placebo-controlled
and randomized study. 10 of these patients were
treated with a lotion containing 0.5% Nigella
sativa, daily for three months, while the other ten
patients were treated with placebo daily for three
months. Assessment of improvement was done
using video dermatoscopic analysis (Trichoscan
Dermoscopy Fotofinder®) and examination by
three independent dermatologists, before treatment
(T0), after three months of treatment (T3) and at
the six months follow-up (T6).
Significant improvement in 70% patients treated
with Nigella Sativa was observed. A Significant
increment of hair density and hair thickness was
seen in Videodermatoscopic analysis in patients
treated with Nigella sativa. It was also observed
that Nigella sativa reduced the inflammation in the
majority of patients affected by Telogen
effluvium39.
In a clinical study where hair oil containing Kala
Jera oil (Nigella sativa), Narkal oil (Cocos
nucifera), Amloki (Emblica officinalis), Henna
(Lawsonia alba), Durba Ghas ( Cynodon dactylon),
Mathi (Trigonella foenumgraecum) was studied for
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its hair fall control activity in 90 patient. It was
found that hair falls reduced to 76%, 72%, 67%,
59%, 32%, 0% on 15 days, 30 days, 45 days, 60
days, 75days and 90days by using this experimental
herbal hair oil over purified coconut oil 40.
Skin infections:
Robert W. Lebling and Donna Pepperdine MH in
the book Natural Remedies of Arabia mentioned
the use of Nigella sativa seed powder and honey
mix for acne treatment and clear facial 33.
Imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jauziyah in his book
Medicine of the Prophet mentioned the use of black
seed burnt mixed with waxes along with henna or
its oil for treatment of skin ulcers. It is also
mentioned that Nigella sativa seed, when mixed
with vinegar had been in use for dandruff and
ailments like leprosy and black pigmentation 32.
Vitiligo is one of the autoimmune skin diseases
which destroy the melanocytes of the skin,
resulting white patches on the skin. A study was
conducted, where the efficacy of Nigella sativa
seed and fish oil were tested against vitiligo lesions
of the patients. The study medications with Nigella
sativa seed oil were applied two times a day by
patients on their lesions. The improvement in
lesions was checked by the Vitiligo Area Scoring
Index (VASI). Application of Nigella sativa seed
oil proved to be useful as the mean score of VASI
decreased from 4.98 to 3.75 in patients, while
VASI decreased from 4.98 to 4.62 in the case of
those using topical fish oil. Nigella sativa seed oil
found to be more efficient regarding percent
improvement observed in the area of head, neck,
upper extremities. There was no adverse effect
reported by the patients. Nigella sativa seed oil
seed was found more efficient in comparison to the
fish oil 41.
Antipsoriatic activity of ethanolic extract of Nigella
sativa seed was evaluated by using mouse tail
model and in vitro antipsoriatic activity by SRB
Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines.
The experimental ethanolic extract of Nigella
sativa seed created a quite significant epidermal
differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis
(71.36+/-2.64) when compared to the negative
control (17.30+/-4.09%). This effect can be
compared with tazarotene (0.1%) gel (the standard
positive control), which showed a (90.03+/-
2.00%) degree of orthokeratosis. The ethanolic
extract of Nigella sativa seed found to have better
antiproliferant activity with IC50 239 μg/ml, when
compared with Asiaticoside with IC50 value of
20.13μg/ml 42.
Nigella sativa seed and its oil are found to be very
effective in promoting wound healing in farm
animals 43. In animal testing, staphylococcal skin
infection in mice was treated with Nigella sativa
seed and its oil, found to enhance healing by
reducing total and absolute differential WBC
counts, bacterial expansion and tissue impairment,
local infection and inflammation 44.
In a clinical study, where Nigella sativa oil lotion
10% was applied for two months, mean lesion
count of papules and pustules was found to be
reduced significantly.
In the test group, the response to treatment was
graded as good in 58%, moderate in 35% and no
response in 7%. The satisfaction of patients with
treatment was found to be full in 67%, partial in
28%, and no satisfaction in 5%. While in the
control group, the lesions showed no significant
reduction after two months and the response to
treatment was good in 8%, moderate in 34%, and
no response in 58%. The satisfaction of patients
with treatment in this group was full in 8%, partial
in 24%, and no satisfaction in 68%. During the
study, there were no side effects reported in the
group treated with Nigella sativa oil lotion 10%.
The researcher attributed the results to the
antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-
inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa oil 45.
The molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory
and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone had
been studied. When pretreatment of female HR-1
hairless mouse skin was done with thymoquinone,
it attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
(TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2). Thymoquinone diminished nuclear
translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear
factor-kappa-B (NF-jB) via the blockade of
phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of
IjBa in TPA-treated mouse skin. Thymoquinone
Sudhir et al., IJPSR, 2016; Vol. 7(8): 3185-3196. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 3193
also attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-
N-terminal kinase, and p38mitogen-activated
protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-
regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application
of thymoquinone-induced the expression of
hemeoxygenase - 1, NAD(P)H - quinone oxido
reductase - 1, glutathione S - transferase and
glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin 46.
In vivo and ex vivo study where emulsion of
seedcake extracts of Nigella sativa have been
evaluated using a pH meter, corneometer,
tewameter, methyl nicotinate model of micro-
inflammation in human skin and tape stripping of
the stratum corneum found to reduce skin irritation
and improved the skin hydration and epidermal
barrier function as compared with placebo. The
basis which the researchers suggested the potential
use of an emulsion of seedcake extracts of Nigella
sativa in anti-aging, moisturizing cosmetics 47.
In randomized controlled double-blinded clinical
trial, new cases of hand eczema in 18-60 years of
age in three therapeutic groups (Nigella sativa,
Betamethasone and Eucerin) were asked to apply
medications twice a day and for 4-week period,
which resulted in changes in severity and improved
life quality, this was assessed at the interval of 0th
day, 14th and 28th days of the study by Hand
Eczema Severity index (HECSI) and Dermatology
Life Quality Index (DLQI) respectively. Nigella
sativa and Betamethasone showed significantly
more rapid improvement in cases of hand eczema
as compared with Eucerin (P = 0.003 and P = 0.012
respectively). Nigella sativa and Betamethasone
ointments caused significant decreases in DLQI
scores compared with Eucerin (P < 0.0001 and P =
0.007 respectively). There was no significant
difference observed in mean DLQI and HECSI of
the Nigella sativa and Betamethasone groups over
time (P = 0.38 and P = 0.99 respectively), which
showed that Nigella sativa might have the same
efficacy as Betamethasone in the improvement of
life quality and decreasing the severity of hand
eczema 48.
Sun Protection:
In a study, cream with 0.5% Nigella sativa oil was
tested for in vitro sun protection factor. It was
observed that the formulation with 0.5% Nigella
sativa oil is having SPF value of 1.05 with ultra
boot star rating of 2. Rating of 2 is considered as
having a real sunscreen activity 49.
Antioxidant Properties:
Antioxidant property of foods, herbal and dietary
supplements play a critical role in prevention of
degenerative diseases mainly cancers,
cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The
concentration of polyphenolic compounds is
directly proportional to an antioxidant property of
foods, herbal and dietary supplements.
In a study where essential oil of Nigella sativa seed
was tested for a possible antioxidant activity using
two TLC screening methods, showed that
Thymoquinone, Carvacrol, t-anethole and 4-
terpineol demonstrated respectable radical
scavenging property. These four constituents and
the essential oil possessed variable antioxidant
activity when tested in the diphenyl picrylhydrazyl
assay for a non-specific hydrogen atom or electron
donating activity. They were also effective as
hydroxyl radical scavenging agents in the assay for
non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in liposomes and
the deoxyribose degradation assay 50.
Preservative Property:
Due to the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa
seed, it was evaluated for its natural preservative
property where Jordanian Nigella sativa seed was
used as a preservative for safe storage of date
pastes. In experiments, the post-processing
development of contaminating microorganisms
present in stored date pastes was controlled
adequately with 100, 200, and 400 ppm of
Jordanian Nigella sativa. Amongst this
concentration 400 ppm was found to be preserving
sensory quality attributes of dates, paste regarding
color, flavor, texture and taste during four months
of storage at room temperature. This was
comparable with 400 ppm of sodium benzoate as
preservatives 51.
The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3%) and
oil (0.3% and 1%) were studied on some food
poisoning, pathogenic bacteria and total bacterial
count (CFU/g) in soft white cheese (prepared from
raw ewe's milk and laboratory pasteurized ewe's
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 3194
milk). The soft white cheese was inoculated with
Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and
Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106
CFU/ml. Cheese samples were checked for the
bacterial count at 0th, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage
at refrigerator temp.
Results showed that there was significant decrease
(P<0.05) in the total bacterial count,
Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and
Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated
with Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil
(0.3% and 1%) with pronounced concentration
dependent inhibition. In contrast, to control cheese
samples which exerted significant increase in
bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106,
2.22×106 and 2.885×106 CFU/g for the Total
bacterial count, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella
melitensis and Escherichia coli respectively at the
6th day of storage at refrigerator temperature.
Nigella sativa seed oil (0.3% and 1%) was
significantly more efficient (P<0.05) as an
antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3%)
respectively 52.
CONCLUSION: Although Nigella sativa seed is
one of the most studied medicinal ingredients, it's
potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still not very
well explored, we hope this review would provide
extensive insight towards the use of Nigella sativa
in beauty preparations.
Looking at the rich composition of Nigella sativa
seed, it is perceived that various extract and paste
of Nigella sativa seed could act as novel
ingredients in hair, skin and oral care cosmetics.
Nigella sativa could be the best candidate for
treating various fungal and bacterial infections like
dandruff, acne, pimples and other skin conditions.
Its antioxidant properties make Nigella sativa oil as
a best antiaging ingredient. Antiaging products are
high in demand. Regarding its antimicrobial
properties against many pathogenic bacteria, yeast
and mold indicate that it can be used in handwash,
soaps, shampoo, skin clarifying cream. In fact, till
date USFDA has not approved any hair growth
promoter, but looking at the impact Nigella sativa
Oil on Telogen Effluvium, Nigella sativa oil can
act as the best candidate for natural hair growth
promoter.
Looking at active like Thymoquinone, which also
provide sun protection, Nigella sativa oil can be
developed as Sun protective active.
Its strong actions against cariogenic bacteria like
Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and
Candid albicans make Nigella sativa seed oil as
best natural ingredients for mouthwash and
toothpaste. Nigella sativa seed has enriched
phenolic compound contents, which makes it
perfect remedies against oral infections.
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Sudhir SP, Deshmukh VO and Verma HN: Nigella Sativa Seed, a Novel Beauty Care Ingredient: A Review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2016;
7(8): 3185-96.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.7(8).3185-96.
... Curry leaves are flourished with antioxidants which moisturize the scalp, remove dead hair follicles; the beta-carotene and protein content, in curry leaves worked as instrument in preventing hair loss and thinning of hair. Black cumin seed oil could assist to seal the moisture in individual hair shafts because it's rich in fatty amino acids, high amount of antioxidant and has been worked as hair growth promoter [16,17]. A combination of coconut oil and black seed oil was efficient enough in encouraging hair growth [16]. ...
... Black cumin seed oil could assist to seal the moisture in individual hair shafts because it's rich in fatty amino acids, high amount of antioxidant and has been worked as hair growth promoter [16,17]. A combination of coconut oil and black seed oil was efficient enough in encouraging hair growth [16]. ...
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Objective: The birth of cosmetics forms an incessant narrative throughout the past of man as they developed. The present study aimed to formulate polyherbal hair oil using various efficient herbs. Methods: Hair oil formulation of Cocos nucifera (oil), Ricinus communis (oil), Brassica juncea (oil), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Seeds), Murraya koenigii (Leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Flowers), Nigella sativa (seeds), and Cinnamomum camphora in the form of polyherbal oil using boiling method. These ingredients are rich in various phytochemicals, vitamins, proteins, antioxidants, and so many other constituents which are important for the growth and rejuvenation of the hair cycle. Evaluation of hair oil carries out by various parameters such as sensitivity test, acid value, saponification value, phytochemical screening, pH, specific gravity, viscosity, and irritation test. Results: All the values of evaluation are within the acceptable limit. As compared to market formulations, this herbal oil having minimal or zero adverse effects. Conclusion: It is concluded that formulated hair oil boost hair growth, decrease hair fall, dandruff, gray hair, and gives lustrous and shiny hairs.
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The concept of nutraceutical foods has emerged as a result of several research intercessions. Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, a member of the Ranunculaceae family has widespread abundance across the globe especially in Eastern Europe and West Asia. Out of plants of medicinal importance, it has one of the richest histories since it has been used in the form of medicine having herbal origin by several civilizations. The composition of black cumin seed depends on several factors primarily geographic distribution, harvesting time and agronomic patterns adopted as well. The seeds have been reported to exert positive and beneficial effects on lowering serum lipid profile, triglycerides level and enhancing high-density lipoprotein levels. The significance of this seed is also attributed to thymoquinone which is present to a level of 25% in the seed oil. Black cumin is comprising mainly of proteins, carbohydrates, oil in addition to crude fibre and minerals. Iron, phosphorus, and calcium have been reported to be at high levels while calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese have been reported in lower amounts. Studies have supported the inclusion of black cumin and its bioac-tive components daily for the overall improvement of health. Nigella sativa seed has been one of the most important antidiabetic plants highly recommended by traditional practitioners. Crude and purified components of Nigella sativa seeds have been known to impart manifold pharmacological effects including antihypertensive,
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Herbal cosmetic also known as "natural cosmetics". With the beginning of the civilization, mankind had the magnetic dip towards impressing others with their looks. At the time, there were no fancy fairness creams or any cosmetic surgeries.1 The only thing they had was the knowledge of nature, compiled in the ayurveda. With the science of ayurveda, several herbs and floras were used to make ayurvedic cosmetics that really worked. Ayurvedic cosmetics not only beautified the skin but acted as the shield against any kind of external affects for the body.2 Ayurvedic cosmetics also known as the herbal cosmetics have the same estimable assets in the modern era as well. There is a wide gamut of the herbal cosmetics that are manufactured and commonly used for daily purposes. Herbal cosmetics like herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soaps, herbal shampoo, and many more are highly acclaimed by the masses. The best thing of the herbal cosmetics is that it is purely made by the herbs and shrubs.2 The natural content in the herbs does not have any side effects on the human body; instead enrich the body with nutrients and other useful minerals. Herbal cosmetics are comprised of floras like ashwagandha, sandal (chandan), saffron (kesar) and many more that is augmented with healthy nutrient sand all the other necessary components.