Article

Issues in Chinese Language Teaching in Australian Schools

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The teaching of Chinese in Australian primary and secondary schools has a history of more than 40 years, but it has only been in the past two decades that it has become widespread. Nonetheless, until the last year, of the six most taught languages in schools, Chinese has had by far the smallest number of students. Several factors contribute to maintaining this situation, key among which are the greater time it takes students to master Chinese compared to other languages; the still underdeveloped pedagogy and resources for making learning Chinese an intellectually stimulating educational experience; and the impossibility of achieving good exam results due to the overwhelming number of students of Chinese background already proficient in the language. The result has been a uniform 95% drop out rate from early on. The factors involved in creating this situation are explained and concrete proposals made for improving the situation which take account of newly created gains and advocate collaborative work between those involved in teaching Chinese as an international language inside and outside China in helping to close the gaps.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Thus, many schools invest affluently in language promotion to satisfy the need and to foster globally competitive citizens. CFL learning has been soaring and ranks top five among foreign languages since 2015 (Orton, 2016). However, the need for CFL teachers cannot be met domestically. ...
... T3 believes authority means "control students' behavior, ", while T1 thinks "it reflects how much are taught.". Their English proficiency is a major concern both for class management and learning instruction (Varghese, 2000;Orton, 2016). T1 and T3 struggle to express themselves comprehensively in giving instructions, while T2 focuses on what to say to manage students effectively. ...
... This is consistent with the theses data [e.g., "My pronunciation mistake caused a lot of misbehavior" (C3); "I was afraid to give instructions" (C5)]. We then conclude that requirement for Australian students to change their "me" according to CFL teacher's attitudes of "respect" is not practical, and that expectation of it may lead to dissatisfaction or even frustration (Mead, 1934;Chen, 2015;Orton, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research in the field of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) education has been increasing in the past decades. However, the number of studies on CFL teacher identity is limited. To bridge the gap, this study employed a qualitative method to explore Chinese CFL teachers’ identity formation and reformation in Australian contexts. A Chinese-Australian language program was studied to examine the challenges, struggles and developments of Chinese CFL teachers who came to Australia to pursue professional growth. Five Master’s theses and three interview participants were included to paint a picture of how Chinese CFL teachers interact internally and externally with a new environment. Guided by Mead’s theory of self and other, we found that Chinese CFL teachers’ identity formation and reformation in Australian classrooms are deeply influenced by their self-identification and their integration with others in the community. Cultural connectedness is a key for organizational attitudes in the relationship of self and other. Chinese CFL teachers were found lacking the wholeness of self in Australian contexts, which led to obstacles in teacher identity construction. Insufficient communication between self and other resulted in their positioning crisis.
... Since the 1970s, the promotion of Asian languages in Australia has been undertaken through government policy, specifically policy commissioned by the Ministry of Education (Orton, 2016b). Mandarin and Japanese have been named priority Asian languages, while Indonesian, Korean and Hindi have been added over time. ...
... One of the major reasons for this limited success is the teacher factor (Moloney & Xu, 2012;Orton, 2011Orton, , 2016b. The Mandarin teacher workforce has aged; many of them are already over 50 years old. ...
... Without proper training in the linguistic structure of the language, they focus on the method of teaching Chinese in the teacher education programme and most of the ongoing professional development and training at the workplace. Those who have been trained in China, who have generally graduated with a qualification in Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Languages (TCSOL), usually have a sound knowledge of the Mandarin language itself, but they lack a base of learning principles to support teaching practices, such as classroom management, teacher-student relations and behaviour management, on the basis of the Australian context (Orton, 2011(Orton, , 2016bOrton & Scrimgeour, 2019). ...
Chapter
The earliest history of Chinese communities in Oceania can be traced back to Australia in the mid-1800s. Recent years has seen rapid growth in the number of Mandarin Chinese speakers as a consequence of the patterns of migration to the Oceania region, particularly Australia and New Zealand. Mandarin Chinese (hereafter Mandarin) has gradually become integrated into formal and informal education in both countries. The governments of Australia and New Zealand consider Mandarin a significant language for their youth because of the economic and cultural ties with the Chinese-speaking world. Employing Kaplan and Baldauf's (Language-in-education policy and planning. In Hinkel E (ed) Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp 1013--1034, 2005) framework in language-in-education planning, this chapter summarises both countries' national education systems and examines the importance of Mandarin in the curricula in Australia and New Zealand. It is apparent that community-level policy has somehow reinforced the introduction of Mandarin in complementary and mainstream education. To promote early Mandarin learning, key educational stakeholders or actors have been involved, and each plays a key role, particularly in mesolevel planning. This chapter concludes with considerations for sustaining policy development for all language learners. It is argued that early language learning should foster intercultural understanding and awareness in order to maintain a long-term interest in learning and develop multilingual repertoires in both countries.
... Chinese teaching and learning, however, is a fragile undertaking across all stages of Australian schooling (Orton 2008). The dropout rate of non-Chinese background school learners is as high as 95% before Year 10, which usually coincides with when the language is no longer mandated (Orton 2016). The crux of limited sustained success in Chinese language learning (CLL) in Australian schools rests on teachers' pedagogic practice (Moloney and Xu 2015). ...
... It appears the representation of knowledge and teaching practices inherent in these textbooks are still implicating traditional Chinese pedagogy, which upholds textbook-based, drilling, and memorisation processes. The failure to use a communicative approach to engaging students and designing meaningful interactive classroom activities has undermined students' interest in the study (Orton 2016). Learning with a traditional Chinese approach, students often simply quit and even those who are keen to learn Chinese also complain that it is boring (Prescott and Orton 2012). ...
... (Katie, Y6, Afghan, SFG, 2018/04/12) Most literature on CLL has pointed out that for foreign Chinese language beginners, the best teachers are not native speakers of Chinese but those who speak the same language as students (e.g. English) (Halliday 2014;Orton 2016). However, Katie's narrative indicated that my physical appearance and pedagogical practice, as strongly classified pedagogy, appeared to form as 'technologies of affect' (Zembylas 2015) that stimulated her learning interest and enthusiasm. ...
Article
Full-text available
Affective engagement, as one facet of the engagement model, takes on the role of activating other aspects to facilitate continued action in partaking in learning activities. Recognising the silences of Bernstein's theoretical oeuvre on the affective aspect in the process of cultural transmission, this paper applies his concepts of classification (structure relations) and framing (interactional practices) to theorise current empirical work on students' affective engagement in a primary school Chinese language learning (CLL) classroom located in a disadvantaged community in Australia. The data reported in this study were obtained from journal entries, focus groups and interviews with classroom teachers. The focus is on exploring the ways in which pedagogic practice can be used to foster certain 'emotional regimes' which can further the engagement of a diverse group of students in Chinese learning. The findings will expand understandings based on theories of affect and inform second language teachers to harness 'technologies of affect' in pedagogical spaces that work productively for disadvantaged students in the classroom.
... Some literature, however, has recognized that ongoing engagement with Chinese literacy should be supported by a re-scoping of the curriculum and innovations in pedagogy. In Australian classrooms, for example, the drop-out rate of non-Chinese background school learners is as high as 95% before Year 10, usually once the language is no longer mandated (Orton, 2016). The crux of limited sustained success in CFL education rests on, amongst all other factors, the pedagogy employed by teachers (Cruickshank & Tsung, 2011;Moloney & Xu, 2015;Orton, 2008). ...
... Given the instrumental role of language in teaching and learning and its function of interpreting other semiotic systems, classroom practice constitutes a principal context for close examination of language in use and discipline-specific discourses. In light of little specific instruction in the method of teaching Chinese in Australian teacher education programs (Orton, 2016), the SFL model of genre provides a valuable tool for organizing ideational, interpersonal and textual resources for meaning. Therefore, teaching and learning as social activities can move in steps with concrete goals in relation to the initiation into language and CFL subject knowledge are concerned. ...
... Developing from a transdisciplinary perspective, this paper employed language as a practical tool for teaching (Turuk, 2008) and implicates two orders of knowledge for CFL teachers: knowledge about the language of the CFL curriculum and discursive ensemble of classification and framing that realizes them; knowledge about the semiotic structures of their own classroom practice. It addresses the lack of specific instruction in the method of teaching Chinese (Orton, 2016) as well as the dearth of empirical research on CFL curriculum genres and macrogenres (Christie, 1995;Martin, 2009), contributing to Chinese learnability and students' retention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Building upon the genre-based research in literacy and English as a Second language (ESL) education developed in Australia in the past three decades, this paper reframes a genre-based approach to teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) in a primary classroom. Grounded in Bernsteinian sociology while also working in transdisciplinary dialogue with systemic functional linguistic perspectives, this approach to genre is illustrated with respect to CFL curriculum genres built in steps through power and control relations as well as phasal shifts in ideational, interper-sonal and textual meanings. The paper identifies four CFL curriculum genres in a particular classroom and instantiates a curriculum genre of Chinese language learning through song that inducted disadvantaged students into the knowledge about language and subject contents. I argue that the reframed genre-based pedagogy, as a pathway to educational and social justice, can help teachers chart their lessons and has important implications for theory and practice.
... ). In addition, as Orton (2016) has pointed out, many native Chinese-speaking teachers of Mandarin are unaware of the difficulties that their foreign students encounter and lack effective strategies to address their difficulties. These are all unavoidable issues that Hanban teachers need to address in their teaching of CSL/ CFL. ...
... Cox, 2014;Oleson & Hora, 2014) have revealed this statement to be somewhat simplistic, the researchers do acknowledge that a teacher's previous experiences as a learner play an influential role in shaping his/her teaching practices. For Mandarin teachers who are native speakers of Chinese, teaching CSL/CFL will be a great challenge because they cannot resort to their first language literacy experience in a second/ foreign language classroom since the educational settings are different (Everson, 2008;Orton, 2016). More importantly, the teaching practices that Chinese teachers are used to or familiar with may not be congruent with the pedagogical approaches in their host countries (Pérez-Milans, 2015;Wang, S. 2007;Wang, X, 2011;Wu, 2017). ...
... One reason for such a lack of concern might be that the phonological, morphological, syntactic and orthographic challenges discussed earlier are mainly challenges for learners of Chinese rather than for teachers, whereas the focus of this study is on teachers' challenges. Another reason might be, as Orton (2016) has pointed out, these teachers are unaware of their students' difficulties. Meanwhile, the question of when to introduce the writing of Chinese characters does not seem to be a concern, which might be explained by the fact that teaching materials are usually designated by CIs or the local schools; therefore, these teachers do not have to be bothered with answering this question or making such a decision. ...
Article
Full-text available
The learning and teaching of Mandarin Chinese as a second or foreign language (CSL/CFL) has been gaining momentum around the world, leading to a shortage of qualified Chinese teachers. Thus more research is needed into the training and professional development of Chinese teachers. This study investigates the challenges and difficulties that native Chinese-speaking teachers of Mandarin have encountered in British schools and the professional development that they desire. A questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection from native Chinese-speaking teachers of Mandarin in Confucius Institutes (Hanban teachers) in the UK. Results show that participants have encountered linguistic, pedagogical and socio-cultural challenges. Major challenges reported by the Hanban teachers include lack of English proficiency and intercultural competence, lack of knowledge about the local education system, and lack of effective pedagogical methods and classroom management skills to work with disruptive students, students with special educational needs, as well as teaching assistants. The study concludes that training and professional development tailored to the local context seems imperative for this group of teachers to facilitate their effective teaching and localisation.
... Chinese, as an additional language, was 'made the exclusive priority of language policy funding' (Lo Bianco and Slaughter 2009, 20) and has been taught in all states and territories in Australia as well as in all educational systems: government, independent, and Catholic (Orton 2016). The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) (2013, 3) recognises Chinese as a critical language for 'young Australians to have access to during their schooling as Australia progresses towards a future of increased trade and engagement with Asia'. ...
... In spite of the policy discourse underpinning 'Asia literacy' and the promising gains of being Chinese-literate, Chinese teaching and learning is a fragile undertaking across all stages of Australian schooling (Singh and Han 2014). The drop-out rate of non-Chinese background school learners is as high as 95% before Year 10, usually once the language is no longer mandated (Orton 2016). In New South Wales (NSW), the retention of additional language learners studying Chinese from primary to the end of secondary school is a major problem (Singh and Han 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Educational research has been witnessing a ‘spatial turn’ and an ‘affective turn’ which have informed studies on pedagogy and foreign/second language acquisition. Drawing on a teacher-researcher ethnographic study, this paper examines the implications of primary students’ affective engagement in the space of Chinese language and culture learning in Australia. In seeking to make a contribution to the field of Children’s Geographies, the study, which used participant observation, journal entry and interview data, examined how a desire to learn is evoked. More specifically, the paper focuses on how affective geographies manifest in pedagogical encounters, with regard to students’ relational experiences with peers and educators. By placing the spotlight on the ways in which affect is integral to pedagogic instruction, we investigate not only how the dynamics within the microgeography of the classroom are imbued with affects but also their powerful potential to alleviate ‘large-scale’ tensions between two nation-states.
... Though the past decade has indeed seen a sudden surge of Chinese-language programs in New Zealand and Australia for the first time in history, to date, Chinese remains a medium-sized language program in the muchanticipated "Chinese century" (Lo Bianco, 2011: xxiii). According to Orton (2016b), the dropout rate in Chinese programs has been alarmingly high, leaving Chinese as the smallest of the foreign-language programs in Australia. In New Zealand, Wang (2021b) found that although Chinese was fast-growing, it is still far less popular than French, Spanish, and Japanese. ...
... According to The Australia-China Relations Institute, of the 4000 students studying Chinese at high schools nationally, only 380 did not come from a Chinese-heritage background (SBS, 2019). This disproportionate number of enrolled students with and without a Chinese background has been a concerning issue noted by many educational specialists and scholars (Orton, 2016b) and has also been picked up by the media and politicians as an equity problem (Weinmann et al., 2021). Chris Bowen, a Member of Parliament, quoted from an educated estimate that there were only 130 Australians proficient in Mandarin but of non-Chinese heritage (ABC, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter provides macro-level insights into the key issues and challenges in the development of Chinese-language education in two English-speaking countries in the Asia-Pacific region. With the massive demographic shifts since the 1990s, residents of Chinese heritage have become one of the largest and fastest-growing non-Indigenous ethnic groups in New Zealand and Australia. Within the first two decades of the twenty-first century, China has grown rapidly into the largest Asia-Pacific economy and the largest trade partner for the two Anglophone countries in the region. Due to China’s increasing economic influence, the Australian and New Zealand governments have repeatedly identified Chinese as key for building regional strategic cooperation and one of the most important languages for school students to learn. Despite increases in population and potential impacts in the region, Chinese remains a medium-sized program in most educational institutions in the two oceanic countries. Informed by the notion of the transdisciplinary framework, this chapter discusses the macro-level factors that promote or impede the development of Chinese-language programs in the two countries. It concludes that Chinese-language learning will continue to be a side story to larger ideological and geopolitical interests that have shaped Anglocentric views of language learning. Future research should take a decolonial perspective to transform Chinese-language education in the Asia Pacific.
... Multiple factors contribute to the high drop-out rate. Orton (2016b) and Scrimgeour (2014) argued that a significant contributing factor was related to the pedagogical weakness of L2 Chinese teachers; as most L2 Chinese teachers embraced the traditional Confucian educational perceptions, their unsuccessful adaptation to Western pedagogy has created the problem mentioned above. The debates have circulated about the effectiveness of classroom teaching and L2 Chinese teachers in particular. ...
... It is widely accepted that L2 Chinese teachers continue to be influenced by the Confucian traditional culture if they speak Chinese as their first language (L1) (Lee, 2000;Orton, 2016b). The Confucian tradition emphasises that learning is a serious commitment for which students are expected to sacrifice other pursuits, such as having fun (Hu, 2002). ...
Article
In most Anglophone countries, the lack of engagement in the second language (L2) classroom has been recognised as one of the greatest challenges for L2 teachers, but there have not been many studies addressing teachers' beliefs about the issue. This study uses Q methodology to explore teachers' beliefs about engagement strategies held by teachers who teach Chinese as an L2 in Australian secondary schools. Twenty-five teachers with diverse backgrounds were recruited in this study, and they were asked to complete a Q-sort containing 48 statements related to engagement strategies. In the process, we identified four recurring clusters of beliefs as follows: orthodox subject-centred, progressive student-centred, nurturing effort-promoting and authoritative competition-encouraging. All teachers realise that following the structure of a given textbook closely and teaching to the test are not suitable approaches in Australia. However, they show different opinions about emphasising students’ efforts, creating a fun learning environment and empowering students as partners in their learning. Implications for L2 Chinese teaching and teacher professional development in the Anglophone context are provided in this study.
... Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) programs still face many challenges, such as a relatively low enrolment compared with other commonly taught foreign languages 1 ; and a high dropout rate (95%) from compulsory to elective years of study (Orton 2008;Orton et al. 2012). The problems have complex causes, ranging from the difficulty of the language itself to political, economic, and social impacts (Chen 2016;Orton 2016). However, the fundamental problem confronting CFL teachers is pedagogical. ...
... However, the fundamental problem confronting CFL teachers is pedagogical. Some language educators attribute it to either teachers' incompetence in motivating students and organising effective language teaching alongside underdeveloped pedagogical resources or considerable mismatches between Chinese native-speaker (NS) teachers' traditional education concepts and Western education culture (Moloney and Xu 2015;Orton 2016). As previous studies mainly focused on Chinese NS teachers, the current study included Chinese non-native speakers (NNS) to paint a more holistic picture of CFL teachers' pedagogical beliefs in order to contribute to the theoretical and pedagogical development of intercultural foreign language teaching and teacher education. ...
Article
Full-text available
How to effectively integrate culture into second language teaching has long been of concern in foreign language education. Despite advances in theory and practice for intercultural language teaching, there has been little research to investigate factors influencing teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and perceptions. This study addresses this gap by examining teachers’ perceptions of effective strategies that foster students’ intercultural competence in the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language and factors influencing their beliefs. Twenty-nine school and university teachers in Australia completed a survey and a focus group interview. Quantitative analyses revealed that teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the strategies varied despite an overall positive attitude towards the teaching of culture. Their beliefs were significantly influenced by their years of teaching experience, educational setting, and native language, but not by gender, age group and educational backgrounds. Qualitative analyses attribute the inconsistency in teacher perceptions to teachers’ disparate conceptualisations of culture, teaching experiences, and educational contexts associated with different curricular and pedagogical requirements and learner characteristics. The findings reinforce the necessity for providing teachers with professional training, along with pedagogical guidance and resources in order to facilitate their intercultural language teaching practices.
... Currently, there is a very high attrition rate for students learning Chinese across a range of largely English-speaking countries. This includes the USA (Zhang 2010); the UK (Li and Zhu 2013;Zhang and Li 2010) and Australia (Orton 2016). These high attrition rates are indicators of an array of problems, including 'program development, curriculum approaches, teacher training, teaching materials development, pedagogical resources, and integrating with other language teachers' (Chen et al. 2010, p. xvii). ...
... The limited capabilities of teachers of learners of Chinese and their professional education are major problems (Orton 2016). On the one hand, native speakers of Chinese have little idea of how to teach Englishspeaking school students how to learn and use Chinese in their everyday lives. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Localising the teaching/learning of Chinese is being made by the globalisation of China. The growing capacity of China in knowledge production warrants teaching school students to use Chinese as a local language. This chapter presents several practical ideas that are worth testing and elaborating in these changing educational circumstances: globalising the connections between Chinese and non-Chinese peoples, sponsoring Chinese language learning, folding Chinese into students’ daily sociolinguistic activities in English, and putting Chinese into action and knowledge. With the Sinofication of universities throughout those countries where English is the main language, such practical ideas feed into much-needed learning transformations. These learning transformations would see cohorts of multilingual higher degree researchers investigating the possibilities of translanguaging practices through post-monolingual education. This is especially significant for a world in which Zhōng Wén (中文, Chinese) is one of the major sources of innovative knowledge production.
... Among the countries that have officially adopted Chinese as a school subject are Australia (Orton 2016), New Zealand (D. Wang 2021), and Thailand (Manomaiviboon 2004). The emergence of Chinese complementary schools, as well as the establishment of Chinese cultural and educational institutes, have all contributed to the promotion of Chinese as a global language in the UK (Hua and We 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
While Chinese has been taught as a school subject outside of China for decades, there is little research on how Chinese subjects are taught in secondary schools outside of China’s mainland with regard to the use of active learning and the impact of professional development events on teachers’ professional growth in classroom Chinese teaching. This article explored Thai Chinese teachers’ use of active learning methods at public and private secondary schools in the south of Thailand. It also examined the impact of a government-administered Chinese teaching seminar on their professional development. A sequential mixed-methods explanatory design was employed, involving focus group interviews and pre- and post-tests. The phenomenological approach with thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data from the focus group interviews, while the Wilcoxon test was run to compare the pre- and post-test data. Findings revealed the application of active learning with discussion and role-playing activities involving audio-visual materials. The pedagogy of Thai Chinese secondary schools has shifted from knowledge transmission through lectures to knowledge generation and transformation via dynamic learning activities. After attending the seminar, teachers’ comprehension of active learning methods increased considerably (Z = 3.740, p < 0.001). However, teachers expressed concerns over the lack of innovative teaching techniques for teaching Chinese characters and the problems encountered by both students and teachers during the teaching and learning process. This study recommends that Hanban and the Thai Ministry of Education plan their seminars and workshops in a way that allows Thai Chinese instructors to continuously address their students’ and their own deficiencies while they are engaged in active learning activities, and it calls for additional research on the use of active CFL methods in secondary schools outside of China.
... The implementation of activities was to motivate and connect with students emotionally, to engage their participation in class and to scaffold their learning to reduce their cognitive load. The research findings discussed above are in discord with early scholars' perceptions of CAL in Australia as incorporating teacher-centred methods implemented by teachers with a limited knowledge of their learners and teaching resources (Moloney 2013;Moloney and Xu 2015;Orton 2015Orton , 2016Wang et al. 2013). The participants in this research, whilst fulfilling a teaching assignment as teacher trainees in local schools, were concurrently studying in an Australian university's post-graduate degreean innovative teacher-researcher education programme. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research offers a post-structuralist multilingual lens to examine translanguaging practice in Chinese as an Additional Language (CAL) teaching and learning. It investigates a cohort of bilingual Chinese teachers who had been trained in a teacher-researcher education programme in an Australian university. This research asks how the Chinese teachers utilised their own and their students’ bilingual repertoires to assist the learning of Chinese in Australian schools. The participant teachers’ theses were collected, and the evidentiary chapters reporting on their classroom teaching were analysed. Informed by the initial results, a follow-up stimulated recall interview was conducted. This research found that the teachers’ translanguaging practices were identified in the form of theirs and their students’ lingual and non-lingual capitals, and these practices showed a strong pedagogical purpose, particularly in motivating and engaging learners. The teachers’ translanguaging practices contributed to CAL pedagogy across three dimensions: teachers’ classroom instruction, teaching and learning resources, and learning activity design. These practices have demonstrated an impact on the students’ engagement, the enrichment of teaching content and improvement in dynamic teaching processes. This research is expected to provide insights into the future development of translanguaging curriculum and pedagogy in CAL education.
... In Australia, over 90% of teachers of Chinese are native Chinese speakers and received tertiary education in Chinese institutions (Orton, 2016). Teaching in Australian schools, it could be argued these educators are in a process of transition-shifting from beliefs align with principles of the Confucian educational legacy to new pedagogical identities and practices that fit into Australian educational schema (Moloney & Xu, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The global forces shaping international education requires us to explore how transnational pre-service teachers navigate new and unfamiliar education contexts. Within studies of transnational pre-service teacher education, the voice of the Chinese diaspora remains largely on the periphery. This article aims to redress this paucity by applying Foucault's fourfold ethical framework to demonstrate how one Chinese teacher's reflexivity can contribute to the construction of an 'ethical self' in Australia. Data were drawn from a teacher-researcher's journal entries and analytic memos documenting self-reflective practices in the course of both teaching and research. The article seeks to adumbrate the ways in which reflexivity-as an ongoing and dynamic process-can work as an intercultural space for developing professionalism and enhancing quality in practitioner research. This work is important if we are to re-imagine teacher education as part of a wider social justice agenda through respecting the experiences and voices of 'others.' Integral to the analysis is promoting the two-way flow of cultural knowledge, particularly those from the Asian diaspora whose voices are often denied in relation to the global dynamics of knowledge production.
... The Government supports the technology use in CFL teaching and learning in schools. Nonetheless, the CFL teachers seem not to teach Chinese with technology actively in the tech-rich environment (Navarre, 2019;Orton, 2016aOrton, , 2016bOrton, , 2017. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the barriers to technology adoption in CFL teaching. ...
Article
Full-text available
This case study examines the barriers to technology integration into teaching Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in Australian secondary schools. Previous research on technology integration predominantly focused on higher education and English as a second language. This study extends the field by exploring barriers in secondary schools and targeting Chinse instruction. It identified three layers of barriers: The tool (technology), The user (teacher and student), and The tool supporter (school). This study highlights the students as technology users and as significant factors behind the teacher’s technology consideration. Among the identified barriers, most notably were limited and blocked access to technology, a lack of time for class preparation and technology learning, a lack of technology knowledge, a lack of professional development, and students’ distracting behaviours. Suggestions were made accordingly to improve tech-integrated Chinese teaching in Australian secondary schools.
... Mandarin is a tonal language, having four tones with the change of tone resulting in a difference in meaning. In Mandarin, the pronunciation of a character is represented by the pinyin system, which is the Romanisation of the Chinese The slow rate of progress in Mandarin learning also leads to a decline in learner's motivation (CILT, 2007;Du & Kirkebaek, 2012;Orton, 2016 Dörnyei and Ottó (1998, p.65) define motivation in language learning as 'the dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor processes whereby initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritised, operationalised and (successfully or unsuccessfully) acted out'. Motivation is regarded to be the impetus to continue the language learning process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mandarin is a fast-growing language in England in the last decade. Although the development of the language is still at its initial stage, the establishment as one of the mainstream foreign languages promotes the learning of Mandarin, in particular in secondary schools. This paper is part of a wider research project about motivational strategies in Mandarin classrooms in England and presents the education policy in England since the 1990s, including changes of foreign language policies in the last three decades. It aims to provide a concrete foundation for the discussion of how the language policies have an impact on the development of teaching Mandarin Chinese in England. It also addresses the challenges of teaching Mandarin Chinese in the context of foreign language classrooms. Lastly, it concludes with suggestions for the future development of Mandarin Chinese in the next decade in England.
... The notion that Chinese was a 'difficult' subject has emerged in previous research (Cruickshank et al. 2020;McDonald 2013;Orton 2016;Scrimgeour 2014), and was also apparent in this study. Based on this practitioner inquiry, however, we suggest that 'difficult' knowledge can be pedagogically oriented and has its place in CFL education, which provided openings to engage the cohort of students in learning 'exotic' and 'intimidating' Chinese. ...
Article
Full-text available
The teaching and learning of Chinese remains a fragile undertaking across all stages of Australian schooling. This paper reports on a practitioner inquiry into pedagogic practices and student engagement with disadvantaged primary school students in a Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) classroom in Sydney, Australia. Drawing upon studies of affect as well as the Fair Go Project’s theoretical framework concerning student engagement, the research explores how ‘difficult’ Chinese knowledge and pedagogies of discomfort disrupt social norms and practices. The engagement of students is conceptualised as an interplay of highly affective, highly cognitive and highly operative learning experiences. In this paper, we argue that ‘discomforting’ emotions evoked by curricular and pedagogic approaches can influence significant change and foster curiosity for CFL education. The paper concludes with a consideration of peda-gogic implications for foreign language education and possibilities for future research.
... Furthermore, the inability of current CFL practices to engage learners has been identified as a key factor in decreasing enrolment at the advanced levels (Orton, 2008;Zhang & Gong, 2014). One factor contributing to this problem is a lack of innovative and accessible CFL instructional materials (Chen, 2016;Orton, 2016b). The present study examines how current CFL instructional practices might be modified to increase learner investment in the learning process and improve retention of new language. ...
Article
This study investigates the effect of personal investment in the form of learner-generated content (LGC) on the lexical recall of beginning-level learners of Chinese. The study employed a 2 × 2 repeated-measures design with content at two levels-teacher-generated content or TGC, and learner-generated content or LGC-and time at two levels (immediate, delayed). Quantitative results were triangulated with qualitative thematic analyses of follow-up interviews. The study was conducted at an Australian university and aimed to identify a way of modifying current intentional vocabulary learning activities to increase learner investment in the learning process and improve retention. Participants completed two versions of a picture description activity that was commonly used to introduce and practice new vocabulary in the program. The first version (TGC) was based on a picture that Chinese teachers chose to illustrate ten words learners did not know and that were pedagogic targets. The second (LGC) was based on pictures that learners selected as being personally meaningful and that illustrated ten words that they did not know in Chinese but wanted to learn. Findings revealed significant differences in recall for LGC words over TGC words on both immediate and delayed post-tests, and a significant interaction between content and time, demonstrating a faster rate of decay in memory for TGC words than LGC words. Follow-up interviews indicated that LGC words were more meaningful to learners in terms of relevance, interest, emotional value and associations with world knowledge. Results are discussed in terms of how LGC vocabulary activities might be used in second language (L2) courses.
... Meanwhile, researchers call for more empirical research on improving Chinese language teachers' pedagogy (Liao, Yuan, & Zhang, 2017;Lu, Zheng, & Lin, 2019) especially in preservice teacher education , and coping with the challenge of inadequate teaching materials (Wang & Du, 2016) especially for teaching Chinese character (Yang, 2019). In the Australian context, regarding the high attrition in secondary school Chinese language courses, researchers called for innovative pedagogy and resources for Chinese language teaching (Moloney & Xu, 2015;Orton, 2016). ...
Article
Recent literature emphasizes the importance of viewing teachers as agents in knowledge-building practice. This study aimed to develop preservice language teachers’ epistemic agency in creating their language teaching resources through a double stimulation design using video-based learning modules. The study was conducted in a secondary language teacher education program in an Australian university. The first phase of the design presented a problem in language teaching, such as how to create resources for teaching Chinese characters, as the first stimulus. The second stimuli included a short video-clip containing an experienced teachers’ teaching demonstration as a resolution to the problem, group discussions, and discussion worksheets, which supported the participants to develop their own resolution to the problem in their lesson plans for teaching Chinese. The data included an initial survey results, audio-recorded group discussions, discussion worksheets, and assignment analysis. Based on the conflict of motives revealed in the initial survey, the dialogic analysis of the group discussion and content analysis of the assignment revealed the development of their epistemic agency in forming and transforming the object of learning. The findings revealed that the double stimulation design and collaborative discussions enhanced preservice teachers’ epistemic agency in creating new ideas and language teaching resources.
... In other regions of the world, by contrast, Chinese language instruction at the elementary and secondary level are just beginning to emerge. For example, Orton (2016) discussed issues in Chinese language teaching in Australian schools; Zhang and Li (2010) researched the situation in the United Kingdom, and Zhang and Wang (2018) considered the challenges of Chinese language education in an Irish context. Therefore, despite its challenges, Chinese immersion in North America serves as a unique example of a minority language thriving in a pre-collegiate setting and an understanding of research on this population can contribute to the larger, international discourse on immersion education in a minority language context (e.g., Ó Duibhir, 2018). ...
Article
With the promise of achieving bilingualism, biliteracy, and cultural pluralism, Chinese immersion programs for students from kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) in North America, especially the US, have been proliferating in the past two decades. Research on this rapidly growing population of non-native Chinese learners is also growing. This research synthesis focuses on 35 selected studies published in recent years on Chinese immersion in both Chinese and English language journals and books. The review found that researchers are exploring a wide range of issues with respect to language and literacy development in Chinese immersion programs, including academic achievement in English, language and literacy acquisition in Chinese, instructional strategies and classroom interaction, as well as learners’ language use and its sociolinguistic variations. These studies reflect a growing interest in and demand for learning more about the lesser-researched Chinese foreign language (CFL) learner population, and this review concludes with suggestions for future research on Chinese immersion based on its curricular features as well as specific considerations for conducting research with young, emergent bilingual and biliterate learners.
... Languages taught in schools in English-speaking countries are often European or Asian languages. In Australia, Japanese, Italian, French, Indonesian, German and Chinese constitute 93% of enrolment numbers (Orton 2016). In both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK), Spanish, French and German dominate (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages 2011; Long and Bolton 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Here, a moral case is presented as to why sign languages such as Auslan should be made compulsory in general school curricula. Firstly, there are significant benefits that accrue to individuals from learning sign language. Secondly, sign language education is a matter of justice; the normalisation of sign language education and use would particularly benefit marginalised groups, such as those living with a communication disability. Finally, the integration of sign languages into the curricula would enable the flourishing of Deaf culture and go some way to resolving the tensions that have arisen from the promotion of oralist education facilitated by technologies such as cochlear implants. There are important reasons to further pursue policy proposals regarding the prioritisation of sign language in school curricula.
... It would also explain why foreign language education tends to hold a less prominent position in school curricula in English-dominant countries, such as in the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom, whether as a result of language policies or local beliefs that discourage acquiring foreign languages that do not demonstrably promise socioeconomic advantage (cf. Horner & Weber, 2018;Orton, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper revisits the tension in sociolinguistics between the linguistic capital associated with languages of socioeconomic mobility, and the cultural and identity value of local languages. With Malaysia as a case study, the paper shows that although this economy-versus-culture tension may be a go-to ideological paradigm in sociolinguistics for exploring and analyzing ideologies and beliefs vis-à-vis- language acquisition and language policy, it may not necessarily feature as saliently in grassroots perspectives. A series of group interviews was held with Malaysian youths who have experienced their government’s policy backflips on whether mathematics and science are taught in English (or in Bahasa Malaysia or in another medium-of-instruction) in primary and secondary schools. By asking these youths to reflect on their experiences, policy, and what language they would prefer for mathematics and science, the research reveals perspectives that more often fell outside the critical economy-versus-culture ideological continuum. Instead, the youths were sooner concerned with monolingual education facilitating expedited learning, with cognitive ease, and with fostering consistent a policy approach. The findings caution against assuming that economy-versus-culture is a key interest in the community regarding language policy, and encourage us to apply alternate, non-critical theoretical lenses to understand a broader range of bottom-up concerns.
... In the Australian curriculum, focus is on understanding and communicating, while the use of English is phased out as the students advance (ibid.). In the year 2015/2016, 172,000 students were learning CFL in Australian schools (Orton, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
China's booming economy is indeed one of the main reasons for the popularity of learning Chinese as a foreign language (henceforth CFL). With this growing interest in CFL, Ireland is likely to be behind global trends as Chinese is not yet included as a State-examined subject at any level in the Irish schooling system. Chinese language teaching (henceforth CLT) began to develop significantly in formal UK schooling during 2004-2005 (Zhang & Li, 2010), whereas the earliest occurrence of CLT seen in the Irish education system was in 2006-2007 when two Confucius Institutes were set up in Ireland. During this time, Mandarin Chinese was also introduced first as a subject and later as a degree in some higher education institutions in Ireland. The current study reviews the past and present of CLT in Ireland at second and tertiary level. This information, together with survey data collected among approximately 3,700 students learning CFL in Irish schools as a subject not examined by the State, provides recommendations for a future State-examined CFL course to be introduced to Irish secondary schools. These recommendations include items such as contact hours, tasks, and content to be implemented in the classroom. Further recommendations are also supplied in relation to the bridging of secondary and tertiary-level CLT. These recommendations come in light of former Irish Minister for Education Richard Bruton's announcement that Chinese will be taught on the State-examined school curriculum as part of the Languages Connect strategy plan.
... However, it is necessary to discuss and resolve issues with the Short Course in Chinese to ensure a good foundation for TCFL in Senior Cycle. Moreover, based on the experience of developing Chinese language education in other English speaking countries, such as the UK (Tinsley & Board, 2014;Zhang & Li, 2010) and Australia (Bianco, 2007;Orton, 2016), the number of students who would take Chinese Leaving Certificate is presumably small in the early stages, and examinees consist largely of learners who study Chinese as a heritage language in comparison with Irish learners. ...
Article
There has been a massive growth in trade and communication between Ireland and China in the past decade. Under such influence, Irish third level institutions have established Chinese or Chinese-related degree programmes, and post-primary schools have been offering Chinese courses as Transition Year1 modules. However, the continuous development of Chinese language education in Ireland also faces many challenges. Though the Junior Cycle Short Course2 in Chinese has been designed and published for three years now, there are still very few schools offering this course for a variety of educational and sociocultural reasons. In higher education, Chinese programmes are showing decreasing enrolment, and learners were found to suffer from demotivation issues. This paper briefly reviews the development of Chinese language education in Ireland in the past decade. It aims to suggest means of addressing some existing issues from three general perspectives regarding the course syllabi and materials, the Chinese teachers and the relevant research in an Irish context.
... While the Victorian education system and its end-of-school certification is a very specific context, it is not dissimilar to many systems providing for a high school diploma, and similar issues are found in many other places (Orton, 2010). The six states and two territories of Australia all have different (but broadly compatible) education systems. ...
Article
This study looks at the Chinese-learning experiences of six classroom learners who continued to the end of secondary school in Victoria, Australia, through in-depth interviews. Various systemic deterrents to continued Chinese language study are identified by the participants, including: (1) the schooling journey, including transition between primary and high school and disruption from uninterested students in compulsory classes; (2) the curriculum and the learning demands dictated by the form of assessment; (3) the risk of poor assessment results prejudicing post-school study options, in particular because the cohort includes large numbers of home speaker learners. In Victoria, Australia, a large part of what schools provide is dictated by the metasystem of education and the assessments at which it aims. Thus the structural deterrents to Chinese classroom learner continuation identified are within the power of government agencies to change, in order to enable more of these students to continue.
... Whether it is the teaching stage of Chinese schools in the past 100 years or the teaching stage of non-Chinese schools more than 100 years ago, the teaching objectives are basically the same. Therefore, the theoretical construction of the Chinese teaching discipline should be carried out around the core issue of upholding the characteristics of national culture and cultivating the ethnic linguistic and cultural qualities of ethnic offspring (Orton, 2016). The theoretical system and methodology system of the Chinese teaching discipline is constructed to solve the core problem of the objective existence of Chinese teaching. ...
Article
As the world’s second largest economy, China occupies a pivotal position on the international stage, which makes Chinese a very commercial language today. Language is closely related to philosophy in cognitive science. Philosophical thoughts in different periods directly influence the development of language research. The experiential philosophy developed on the basis of the criticism of the traditional philosophical view, insisting that language is formed under the influence of human experience and cognition. The language is studied according to the principle of “reality-cognition-language”, so the experience philosophy has also become the philosophical foundation of cognitive linguistics. Based on the theory of cognitive linguistic philosophy, this paper takes the Chinese teaching in middle schools in Myanmar as the research object, investigates the Chinese teaching situation in Myanmar middle schools, and analyzes the specific situation of Chinese language development in middle schools. Furthermore, it sums up the problems in the development of overseas Chinese teaching and gives some feasible suggestions. At the same time, it is also hoped that the problems in Chinese teaching management, Chinese teaching implementation, and classroom management will be improved, thus promoting the further professionalization and scientificization of overseas Chinese teaching.
Article
Despite the growth of research in learning and teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL), no scoping review of research published in international, anglophone journals has been published so far. A total of 289 journal articles published in 95 journals were identified and used to provide a bibliometric mapping of research in CFL over three decades. Data from the sampled articles reveals a great diversity of focus in CFL research that has been conducted in more than 24 countries. The included articles also reflect an upsurge in research intensity across several key areas of focus, some of which are related to the distinctive linguistic features of the Chinese language. We also report on the research methods employed by the studies in our sample and the characteristics of their participants. Our mapping of the field identifies gaps in the existing literature which may subsequently inform any focused or comprehensive reviews. We conclude by setting out some implications for future CFL research, both in terms of substantive areas of focus and methodological approaches.
Chapter
This chapter examines the 中文 (Zhōngwén/Chinese) teachers’ linguistic resourcing practices in their classes in Australia since linguistic resources play an important part in a language class. Through critical examination of data, a tension between monolingual and multilingual mindsets in choosing resources for Chinese education in Australian contexts has been revealed. Thus, for Australian students’ benefits, it proposes that Chinese teachers could start with generating teaching/learning content from students’ daily authentic activities, which enlightened a direction for Chinese curriculum construction in the Australian context and beyond.KeywordsParadoxResourcesMonolingual mindsetMultilingual consciousnessMultimodal resourcesCritical thinking
Article
Full-text available
The growth of the Chinese language in African countries and African students' consequent flocking into Chinese higher education are both emergent phenomena. This partly explains the lack of empirical research on this body of student migrants and their Chinese language learning. This paper applies Watkins' theorisation on pedagogic affect to explore pedagogic practices and students' learning experiences in a vocational college in Southeast China. Through a participant observation stance, journal entry and interview data reveal that the teacher's pedagogy generated and heightened affects, which skilfully aroused students' desire to learn but also the capacity to do so. By engaging with the 'affective turn' in second language acquisition studies, I argue that the affective link developed through pedagogic relationships and the bonds fostered in language learning have powerful potential to contribute to the delivery of language skills and resolve cultural adaptation issues in a positive atmosphere.
Book
Full-text available
This book explores and analyses Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) pedagogic practices and learning experiences within a cohort of low socio-economic status students within an Australian primary classroom. It demonstrates that, in spite of policy and educational discourses underpinning ‘Asian literacies’, Chinese teaching and learning is a fragile undertaking in Australian schooling. The politicisation of CFL education, especially in the post COVID-19 era, has exacerbated public stereotypes concerning racism and multiculturalism in Australia today. Drawing upon Bernstein’s theorisation and engagement framework, Wen Xu sketches out CFL education as a democratic space where power and control relations can be deliberately operated to reinforce engaging learning experiences. She suggests that pedagogic interventions in the name of social justice have the potential to make consequential differences in disadvantaged students’ life trajectories, and CFL education can be envisioned as an avenue towards socioeconomic mobility instead of being criticised as a platform opposing to liberal ideas. In turn, she provides insights into teaching younger age CFL learners in the global context, in terms of the structuring of pedagogy and curriculum. Wen Xu’s research will be of interest to students and scholars in sociology of education, student engagement, pedagogy and curriculum, CFL education and languages education, as well as pre-service teachers and practitioners who teach Chinese as a Foreign Language.
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years, decolonisation has regained its vitality as a powerful theoretical perspective. Its emphasis lies in taking an epistemological approach to dismantling the coloniality of Western knowledge and confronting the epistemic inequality with alternative models for knowledge production. The decolonisation theoretical perspective takes a critical position on the hegemony of the English language that eliminates the diversity of world languages, which thereby causes calamitous consequences of a language learning crisis in Anglophone countries. Viewing this issue from a decolonial perspective is essential to understanding these deep-rooted problems in Western societies. Due to its successful experience in revitalising indigenous language and knowledge, Aotearoa New Zealand serves as an ideal model for many Western countries undergoing the decolonisa-tion process. Thanks to the constant struggle between the Māori and their colonising counterparts, te reo Māori and mātauranga Māori have survived to become integral parts of New Zealand's education system and the national identity of New Zealanders. As a result, translanguaging practices stand out as a distinctive feature of language use in New Zealand. Through reviewing the unique features of language politics in New Zealand and the recent development of Chinese language education, this paper finds that the country's decolonial efforts have important implications for the future of the teaching and research of Chinese as an additional language, and Chinese as a heritage language for linguistic and cultural maintenance in New Zealand.
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses key topics of Chinese as an Additional Language (CAL) education and classroom pedagogical practices. It reports on a three-years ethnographic study within Australian schools to discuss dialogic pedagogical practices and students’ aspirations. Based on Freire’s conceptualisation of conscientização and banking education, the purpose of this paper is therefore to unpack a journey to voices, courage and hope of a cohort of socially, linguistically and economically disadvantaged students in Western Sydney, one of the most culturally diverse regions in the country. Their experiences, responses, dreams and understanding of CAL education in multicultural Australia were thus captured. Our data shows that critical CAL education might point to some avenues for the educational equity agenda. By arguing that emancipatory and critical practices could enhance students to achieve consciousness and collective self-transformation, we aim to make a contribution to the literature on CAL and languages education, which all too often isolate from broader issues in educational theory. The paper also adds to the limited research that engages with CAL classroom data. Our critical approach to CAL education illuminates the intersections between language and social inclusion. Considering the worldwide growing upheaval and skepticism around CAL education, we call for writing inclusive languages education and related pedagogical practices into the social inclusion agenda in Australia and internationally, for the teaching and learning of all additional languages.
Article
The high dropout rate of students studying Chinese is a concern for educators in teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL). However, very limited studies have been undertaken to investigate the impact of the important part of CFL learning ‘Hanzi’ in the successful teaching and learning of CFL. This paper therefore investigated the rationale and significance of Hanzi’ instruction and the need to integrate Hanzi instruction into teaching of CFL from the very beginning of teaching CFL. Readers will find this paper useful in understanding the importance of Hanzi instruction in teaching CFL, and how to construct a contemporary, international curriculum that can adequately address the fundamental concerns of the teaching and learning of CFL. This paper can be used to initiate a research agenda and inform an initiative thinking for curriculum development, to be used as a signpost to set up a conceptual framework on international curriculum development of CFL.
Article
Chinese is now the second most commonly spoken language in Australia. There is a growing interest in learning Chinese in local schools. However, it is reported that the principally English-speaking learners in Australia have great difficulties and challenges in learning Chinese. The high dropout rate in Chinese courses demonstrates this. This paper presents a case study conducted in a local public school in New South Wales. The purpose of this study is to explore and employ the local students’ daily recurring sociolinguistic activities, performed in English at school, for creating suitable learning content. In this way, a localised Chinese curriculum is constructed in the Australian educational environment. The case study shows that the local students’ translanguaging aptitudes between English and Chinese are developing and becoming influential, as they have engaged in learning Chinese in the form of a local practice – playing chess, which is a typical instance of their daily recurring sociolinguistic activities in school. Therefore, in the process of such contextualised learning practices, not only can Chinese be made learnable for them, but also the specific vocabulary learnt can be the basis for their wider learning of Chinese in the future.
Article
The Isolated Elements and Variability Effects of Cognitive Load Theory were used to alter the element interactivity of Chinese characters when instructing novice learners (72 overseas students at a Chinese university) in writing characters using worked examples‐practice procedures. A group of characters with more than eight strokes was disassembled into three individual components. Students were required to trace examples and practice writing of either similar sequences of isolated components followed by integrated components of full characters (Isolated – Integrated sequences); variable sequences of isolated followed by integrated components (Variability – Integrated sequences); or conventional Integrated – Integrated sequences of full characters. It was hypothesized that the fully integrated stroke‐movements form of example‐ practice sequences would result in less learning due to a greater cognitive load. The results demonstrated that the participants in both the Isolated‐Integrated and Variable‐Integrated groups performed significantly better than the Integrated‐Integrated group with the Variable‐Integrated group outperforming the Isolated‐Integrated group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Thesis
Full-text available
Beliefs of teachers of Chinese in Australian schools: how teacher perceptions of culture in language teaching impact their interculturality and their teaching of Chinese.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research and data from learner corpora show that Chinese language learners have a hard time differentiating kǒngpà (恐怕) and pà (怕). However, there has been little research analyzing the differences between the two words. Therefore, this study aims to distinguish kǒngpà and pà when both words denote worry toward a probable event. Adopting the corpus-based analysis approach, the researchers explain the semantic and pragmatic differences between kǒngpà and pà . Based on the research findings, the researchers propose discovery-oriented activities and drill practice to guide students to use the two words correctly. The researchers further argue that research findings from corpora data should be included in textbooks and integrated into Chinese language instruction.
Article
This study investigates the co-teaching practices implemented in Chinese language teaching in middle schools and high schools in a school district in the Midwestern United States. With the overarching question of how co-teaching with a native speaker teacher and a language expert teacher enhances the teaching and learning process of Chinese, this study examines co-teachers’ past experiences, their roles and experiences in the co-taught Chinese classes, and their perceptions of student learning and of partner teachers’ experiences, as well as students’ motivational perceptions and classroom engagement. A mixed-methods approach is used. Results suggest that some of the challenges in the co-teaching program are due to insufficient previous co-teaching experience, Chinese co-teachers’ unfamiliarity with the U.S. classroom, and lack of clarity regarding the co-teachers’ responsibilities. The co-teaching approach used in this program is “one teach, one assist.”
Chapter
Key terms related to Chinese language, including Putonghua, Hanyu, Zhongwen, Pinyin and Hanzi, which often cause confusion to language learners open this chapter. A review of teaching Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) within China follows, where the teaching pedagogy models teaching English as a second/foreign language. A review of TCFL in the Western context identifies teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and the knowledge of their learners as sometimes problematic. Coupled with this is a prevailing attitude of schools’ and students’ that Chinese language programmes should provide only a “fun” taste of the language. Through an analysis of the current literature, this chapter proposes the argument that Duiwai Hanyu Jiaoxue is reaching a Cul de Sac and needs innovation, both theoretically and methodologically.
Article
Chinese is now a global language because of the global flow of Chinese people throughout the world. This development provides an important intellectual basis for engaging in the transnational exchange of Chinese theoretical knowledge. The argument developed here is that learning from international (and migrant) research students from China is a way to internationalise Australian research education programs. Rancière’s concept of ‘ignorance of inequality’ informs the pedagogies of intellectual equality reported here by providing an interruption to the prevailing sense and sensibilities of research education. Chinese doctoral students’ analysis of Australian research policy verifies the presumption that they are capable of scholarly argumentation using Chinese theoretical tools.随着中国人口在全世界的流动,汉语已经成为一门世界语言,这给在全世界范围内应用中国的理论知识提供了智力基础。本文提出,通过向来自中国的国际(以及移民)研究生们学习,澳洲可以促进其高等教育的国际化。借鉴Rancière (1991) 关于教育不平等的理论,本文提出了一个新的概念:生成平等教育法,该方法被用来质疑西方研究生教育中的一些惯例。来自中国的博士研究生们对于澳洲政府关于学术研究政策的批判分析证明,他们有能力应用中国的理论知识进行学术研究。
Book
Full-text available
[Full access at: http://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007&context=aer]
Good learners of Chinese-Profiles of secondary school students
  • C Prescott
  • J Orton
Prescott, C., and J. Orton. 2012. Good learners of Chinese-Profiles of secondary school students. Melbourne, Australia: Chinese Teacher Training Centre, The University of Melbourne. NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2016
The current state of Japanese language education in Australian schools
  • A De Kretser
  • R Spence-Brown
De Kretser, A., and R. Spence-Brown. 2010. The current state of Japanese language education in Australian schools. Canberra, Australia: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations.
The current state of Chinese language education in Australian Schools
  • J Orton
Orton, J. 2010. The current state of Chinese language education in Australian Schools, 3rd ed. Melbourne, Australia: The University of Melbourne, republished by Asia Ed. Foundation (Original edition published in 2008).
Building Chinese language capacity in Australian Schools. Sydney: University of Technology
  • J Orton
Orton, J. 2016. Building Chinese language capacity in Australian Schools. Sydney: University of Technology.