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Coming home to the arts: theatre with military veterans and families

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Purpose A significant number of military veterans and family members are living with post-traumatic stress, unmet mental health needs and isolation. There is growing interest in the potential of theatre and the expressive arts as a positive intervention with this population. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Coming Home programme which aims to create opportunities for military veterans and families to develop an ongoing engagement with the arts and through that engagement to access new ways of regulating and expressing complex emotions. Design/methodology/approach This case study shares reflections from Re-Live’s current theatre programme, Coming Home. The programme methodology uses reflective writing, theatre and choral singing to develop participants wellbeing and reduce isolation. Findings Initial feedback suggests that this programme has significant potential as a way of reconnecting veterans and families with their community and improving their wellbeing. The emotional release of group singing and performing together has been powerful. Participants report that the Coming Home programme is connecting them with parts of themselves they thought had gone forever: humour, spontaneity, fun – and having a positive impact on their wellbeing. Originality/value This case study contributes to the literature from the exciting and emerging field of the use of the creative arts with military veterans and families.
Coming Home to the Arts, Journal of Public Mental Health, Special Edition Veterans Health 2017
Link to Journal http://bit.ly/2mdYqwX
Abstract
Purpose A significant number of military veterans and family members are living with post-traumatic
stress, unmet mental health needs and isolation. There is growing interest in the potential of theatre
and the expressive arts as a positive intervention with this population. This case study introduces the
Coming Home programme which aims to create opportunities for military veterans and families to
develop an ongoing engagement with the arts and through that engagement to access new ways of
regulating and expressing complex emotions.
Methodology This case study shares reflections from Re-Live’s current 12 month theatre
programme, Coming Home. The programme methodology uses reflective writing, theatre and choral
singing to develop participants wellbeing and reduce isolation.
Findings Initial feedback suggests that this programme has significant potential as a way of
reconnecting veterans and families with their community and improving their wellbeing. The
emotional release of group singing and performing together has been powerful. Participants report
that the Coming Home programme is connecting them with parts of themselves they thought had
gone forever: humour, spontaneity, fun - and having a positive impact on their wellbeing.
Value This case study contributes to the literature from the exciting and emerging field of the use of
the creative arts with military veterans and families.
Coming Home to the Arts: Theatre with military veterans and families
Background and Purpose
A man enters, crosses the stage slowly. He carries a holdall, stops, places it on the floor, looks
around him and sits on a chair. Slowly the space fills as five more veterans enter, each
carrying a bag or suitcase. No words are spoken. The emotions are palpable; loss, fear,
anticipation. One man hesitates as he puts his key in the door, changes his mind and rings
the bell instead. Another puts his head in his hands. The scene ends with each man sitting
alone on a chair, looking into the distance.
This was the opening scene of a performance from the first stage of Re-Live’s Coming Home
programme with military veterans and families. A group of eight veterans and five family members
worked with Re-Live practitioners and guest practitioner, Andy Watson, Artistic Director of Geese
Theatre Company, exploring experiences of coming home. Despite significant differences in age and
military experience, themes emerging were similar. The youngest veteran in the group described his
recent experience: I stood on the tarmac as I was leaving Afghanistan and I thought to myself “How
do you come home from this?” while another veteran took us back thirty years, to coming home
from the Falklands War to a young family, feeling like “a shell of man…alien… with no words to
describe the things I’ve seen, heard, done”
There is a long history of returning soldiers using the arts to communicate the horrors of their
experience. The Iraq and Afghanistan wars have seen a new wave of literature, film and theatre
emerging as combatants, families, artists and writers strive to make sense of the impact of war and
post-traumatic stress. There is growing interest, in the clinical world, in how the arts can contribute
to recovery from traumatic experiences. Trauma expert, Bessel van der Kolk dedicates a chapter of
his new book, The Body Keeps the Score” (2014), to theatre with veterans and civilians who have
been traumatised. In many parts of the world, theatre practitioners are working alongside clinicians,
developing ways to help people release, reflect on and reshape traumatic experiences.
The Coming Home programme aims to create opportunities for veterans and families to develop an
ongoing engagement with the arts and through that engagement, to access new ways of regulating
and expressing complex emotions.
Methodology and Findings
A man sits, restless, flicking through TV channels. He gets up, splashes his face in water at
the sink, looks in the mirror and shouts at his reflection “Come on!” Slowly he is joined by the
other veterans who voice the thoughts in his head as he stares at his reflection in the mirror.
Several men articulate thoughts of suicide and question their ability to live with this mental
pain. The scene culminates with one veteran, Chris, asking:
Care? Does anybody care? Do you?
In the performance, he delivered his question directly to the audience with such naked grief that one
audience member later said she had to stop herself from jumping up and shouting “Yes, I do!”
Chris is a veteran in his early 40’s, living with chronic mental illness, self-medicating with prescription
drugs and alcohol. Chris avoids veterans events and services, and dreads the question “Where did
you serve?” For him, this question is a trigger for shame and confusion, for Chris’s military trauma is
not a result of bombs exploding on a battlefield. His trauma stems from relentless bullying and
“beasting” in the army barracks, coming on top of a traumatic and troubled childhood. In a
workshop, he re-enacted the moment he was “kicked out of the barracks” onto a London street, a
long way from home, carrying only a black bin bag. He portrayed the scene silently, his body and
facial expressions telling the story for which he does not have words.
Chris first engaged with our creative work in 2012. In a recent interview about the Coming Home
programme, he said:
This is bringing out a part of me which was locked away, which I thought was gone, before I
started my military training. It’s taking me back to when I was younger….back to my roots.
It’s the first time I’ve felt good about myself in a long time”.
Family stories
Most participants are, like Chris, from Welsh working class families where several generations of
men joined the military, and many had fathers and grandfathers who fought in the World Wars.
Lesley, who is in her seventies now, has been reflecting on her childhood and the impact of her
father’s World War Two experiences on her family:
Every time my father came back my mother would say: I don’t think I can do this anymore.
But she could. And she did, somehow. I was a nervous child. I worried all the time, about my
sisters, my mother, about which one of us he was going to hurt. I found out years later he’d
been in Burma and Japan, a prisoner of war. Like us all. (extract from Lesley’s script)
Through reflective writing, storytelling and improvisation, a tapestry of family stories is emerging,
which was recently shared with an invited audience. Though these stories contain suffering and
trauma, there is also a strong message of redemption and forgiveness. Participants have been
working with objects which link to significant events in their past. For Lesley, an object of great
significance was her father’s army coat; a symbol of both comfort and distress
When my father’s home we sleep under his army coat. It’s the warmest thing in the house,
the one thing the war and the army gave us that didn’t hurt. Four sisters sleep under that
coat, hiding from the war inside my father. We lie in bed, pretending to be asleep, waiting for
him to come home from the pub.
When he goes away again he takes his army coat with him.
At the end of the performance, Lesley picked up the army coat which she had earlier placed
symbolically on the floor onstage, held it in her arms and said
We looked after my father in the end. I loved him in the end. You can forgive and you can
love. At some point you’ve got to let go. You can’t move on if you keep looking back.
For many of the veterans involved, the possibility of letting go of the past is not yet within their
reach. Van der Kolk talks of veterans whofelt fully alive only when they were revisiting their
traumatic past” (2014: p18). Some of the veterans in the Coming Home group seem compelled to
return to the familiarity of the old, painful stories. As this work develops, one of the challenges will
be about letting go of the past; finding new stories to tell, and new memories to create together.
Conclusion
"I've spent the 16 years since I left the military trying to be small, trying to hide away. Here, I'm
starting to feel like I can let it out. Let go" (Veteran)
Alongside the theatre work, the Coming Home Choir is being piloted, where members of the local
community sing with veterans and family members. Initial feedback suggests this has real potential
as a way of reconnecting veterans and families with their community. The emotional release of
group singing and creating something beautiful together has been powerful; in the words of one
participant, Terry, “This is unlocking a part of my soul that I thought had gone forever”.
The arts can rebuild and restore. The Coming Home programme is connecting people, as Terry says,
with those parts of themselves they thought had gone forever: humour, spontaneity, fun. It is
building trust, co-operation and compassion too, not least for the self. Perhaps above all, it is
allowing people to play. At its best moments the rehearsal room has not been full of nervous,
wounded soldiers and their families, it has been full of human beings playing together and letting go.
References:
Van der Kolk, B.A. (2014) The Body Keeps the Score. New York, Viking Penguin
... There are arts-based theatre programmes for members of the armed forces community across Canada, the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK). Most of these programmes aim to act as trauma therapy, particularly for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Ali & Wolfert, 2016;Ali et al., 2018;Belliveau, 2017;Belliveau et al., 2019;Belliveau & Nichols, 2017;O'Connor, 2017). ...
... Also, working with the Drive project, Bravo 22 company, is the Royal British Legion's Recovery Through Art programme, and has, over the last eight years, produced plays that recount the real life experiences of military veterans from the UK (Royal British Legion, 2014a). Re-Live is another UK based organisation that has worked with military veterans (O'Connor, 2015(O'Connor, , 2017. ...
... (James) An individual's sense of purpose in programme participation was also found through using their own experiential narrative to educate on life within the military, as well as educating the audience around their own experiences of physical and mental health issues experienced during, and after, their time in the military. These findings align themselves with the results of other theatre programmes designed for military veterans in motivations to participate in theatre programmes to educate others (Belliveau, 2017;Belliveau et al., 2019;Belliveau & Nichols, 2017;O'Connor, 2017). Belliveau and Nichols (2017) specifically examined the impact of the Contact! ...
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Background In many countries, performing arts and theatre practices are being employed with Armed Forces Communities. However, very little evidence exists outlining the psychosocial benefits of this practice. Therefore, this study aims to explore the perceived impact of theatre-based programmes on psychosocial well-being, and social connections, of U.K. Military Veterans. Methods This qualitative study carried out semi-structured interviews with six military veterans who had participated in at least one theatre-based programme. Results Four themes were generated from this study; providing a purpose, therapeutic storytelling, social connection, and the impact of the programme ending. Conclusions This study provided unique insight into the benefits of theatre-based programmes on the psychosocial well-being of U.K. military veterans. The programmes were perceived as being beneficial for future employment opportunities, but the ending of these programmes was difficult for some and must be considered alongside provision.
... Drama therapy is another modality that has been positively implemented with trauma survivors by assisting individuals in safely working through revenge fantasies while supporting reflection and self regulation (Haen & Weber, 2009). Creative arts in form of a theater program was shown to increase the wellbeing, specifically humor and spontaneity, in veterans with post traumatic stress (O'Connor, 2017). ...
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Full-text available
1.1 Introduktion Reviewet præsenterer en opdateret systematisk gennemgang af den internationale litteratur inden for kultur og sundhedsfeltet (Arts and Health). Formålet med denne gennemgang er at dokumentere undersøgelser, der kan understøtte og informere om værdien af kunst- og kultur tiltag i social- og sundhedssektoren. 1.2 Baggrund Der findes ikke, til dato, en evidensbase for kultur og sundhed i en dansk kontekst. I et forsøg på at samle viden, der antageligt kan bidrage til nogle af de samfundsmæssige udfordringer i social- og sundhedssektoren, undersøger dette review den eksisterende litteratur inden for kultur og sundhedsfeltet. Reviewet har ikke til hensigt at være den endelige evidensbase for kunst- og kulturinterventioner til sundhedsfremme, men at være relevant for Nordjysk Center for Kultur og Sundhed ved Aalborg Universitet (NOCKS – et samarbejde mellem Region Nordjylland, Aalborg Kommune, Aalborg Universitetshospital og Aalborg Universitet) med særlig henblik på at udvikle fagspecifik viden, kompetencer og tværfaglige samarbejder mellem aktørerne i feltet samt at belyse sammenhænge mellem kultur og sundhed. 1.3 Metode Reviewet undersøger vigtige kunst- og kulturinterventioner, der kan bidrage til:  kliniske effekter til gavn for patienter med forskellige sygdomme og diagnoser  forbedring af mental sundhed og øget trivsel blandt diverse borgergrupper  udvikling af faglige kompetencer blandt sundhedsfagligt personale  positiv virkning på og i social- og sundhedsmiljøer  effektivisering af indsatser og interventioner  kendskab til skandinavisksproget litteratur om kultur og sundhed En systematisk gennemgang af den internationale litteratur om Kultur og Sundhed Følgende databaser blev brugt til søgningen:  Cochrane Library  Primo  Ebscohost  ProQuest  Web of Science,  CINAHL  PsycInfo  PubMed  Design & Applied Arts Index http://www.musikterapi.aau.dk/digitalAssets/290/290869_review_anita_25maj_finalversion_1.pdf
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