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Generationsübergreifend benutzen wir mit spielerischer Leichtigkeit die allgegenwärtigen und verfügbaren Inhalte und Angebote des Internets und bedienen uns hierbei der smarten mobilen Endgeräte wie Smartphones oder Tablet Computer. Am eindrücklichsten sind die Veränderungen unseres Alltags in der Beobachtung unserer heranwachsenden Generation zu erkennen. Zweijährige verstehen nicht, warum ein Computer eine Tastatur hat, da der Touchscreen für sie eine erlebte Lebensrealität darstellt. Im letzten Jahrhundert war für Kinder der Telefonhörer als notwendiges Instrument zum Telefonieren reale Lebenswirklichkeit, diesen kennen heutige Kinder und Jugendliche kaum noch, da vorwiegend Menschen sowohl mobil als auch stationär tragbare Telefone benutzen.

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We estimated the world’s technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information, tracking 60 analog and digital technologies during the period from 1986 to 2007. In 2007, humankind was able to store 2.9 × 1020 optimally compressed bytes, communicate almost 2 × 1021 bytes, and carry out 6.4 × 1018 instructions per second on general-purpose computers. General-purpose computing capacity grew at an annual rate of 58%. The world’s capacity for bidirectional telecommunication grew at 28% per year, closely followed by the increase in globally stored information (23%). Humankind’s capacity for unidirectional information diffusion through broadcasting channels has experienced comparatively modest annual growth (6%). Telecommunication has been dominated by digital technologies since 1990 (99.9% in digital format in 2007), and the majority of our technological memory has been in digital format since the early 2000s (94% digital in 2007).
'The author has successfully accomplished the task he set himself for this text: to provide a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to the economics of innovation. It actually exceeds this remit since it engages the reader in a much broader appreciation of the process and contextual structures of innovation... this book is a welcome and valuable addition to the field for students and teachers alike who are fascinated by this increasingly important field of research...'.
Specialized elements of hardware and software, connected by wires, radio waves and infrared, will be so ubiquitous that no one will notice their presence.
A fundamental change is taking place in the nature and application of technology in business, a change with profound and far-reaching implications for companies of every size and shape. A multimillion dollar research program conducted by the DMR Group, Inc., studied more than 4,500 organizations in North America, Europe, and the Far East to investigate the nature and impact of changes in technology. The synthesis and analysis of this information indicate that information technology is going through its first paradigm shift. Driven by the demands of the competitive business environment and profound changes in the nature of computers, the information age is evolving into a second era. Computing platforms in most organizations today are not able to deliver the goods for corporate rebirth. It is only through open network computing that the open networked client/server enterprise can be achieved. In nontechnical language this book shows managers and professionals how to take immediate action for the short-term benefits of the new technology while positioning their organizations for long-term growth and transformation. Forty-five figures illustrate the discussion. (SLD)
Almost 30 years ago, researchers began a systematic study of innovation by end users and user firms. At that time, the phenomenon was generally regarded as a minor oddity. Today, it is clear that user-centered innovation is a very powerful and general phenomenon. It is rapidly growing due to continuing advances in computing and communication technologies. It is becoming both an important rival to and an important feedstock for manufacturer-centered innovation in many fields. In this article, I provide an overview of what the international research community now understands about user-centered innovation. Die wissenschaftliche Forschung zu Nutzerinnovationen begann vor etwa 30 Jahren. Whrend das Phnomen anfangs noch als eher unbedeutende Kuriositt abgetan wurde, steht seine allgemeine Bedeutung heute ausser Frage. Bedingt durch Fortschritte in IT und Kommunikationstechnologien stellen Nutzerinnovationen in verschiedenen Feldern eine zunehmende Konkurrenz bzw. eine wertvolle Ergnzung fr herstellerseitige Innovationsaktivitten dar. In diesem Artikel wird eine bersicht ber den Stand der Forschung gegeben.
Conference Paper
Ethernet is a branching broadcast communication system for carrying digital data packets among locally distributed computing stations. The packet transport mechanism provided by Ethernet has been used to build systems which can be viewed as either local computer networks or loosely coupled multiprocessors. An Ethernet's shared communication facility, its Ether, is a passive broadcast medium with no central control. Coordination of access to the Ether for packet broadcasts is distributed among the contending transmitting stations using controlled statistical arbitration. Switching of packets to their destinations on the Ether is distributed among the receiving stations using packet address recognition. Design principles and implementation are described based on experience .with an operating Ethernet of1 00 nodes along a kilometer of coaxial cable. A model for estimating performance under heavy loads and a packet protocol for error-controlled communication are included for completeness.
Zusammenfassung Der Beitrag diskutiert die Vision, die informationstechnischen Grundlagen und Herausforderungen sowie die Anwendungsmöglichkeiten eines ,,Internet der Dinge“. Ferner wird auf informatikbezogene Aspekte wie RFID und die Realisierung von IP-Stacks und Webservern für smarte Alltagsgegenstände eingegangen. In einem Ausblick werden auch einige gesellschaftliche und politische Fragen angesprochen, die mit einem Internet der Dinge auf uns zukommen.
Remember outsourcing? Sending jobs to India and China is so 2003. The new pool of cheap labor: everyday people using their spare cycles to create content, solve problems, even do corporate R
A rapidly growing area of economic research investigates the top of the income distribution using data from income tax records. This volume brings together studies of top incomes for twelve countries from around the world, including China, India, Japan, Argentina and Indonesia. Together with the first volume, published in 2007, the studies cover twenty two countries. They have a long time span, the earliest data relating to 1875 (for Norway), allowing recent developments to be placed in historical perspective. The volume describes in detail the source data and the methods employed. It will be an invaluable reference source for researchers in the field. Individual country chapters deal with the specific nature of the data for each of the countries, and describe the long-term evolution of top income shares. In the countries as a whole, dramatic changes have taken place at the top of the income distribution. Over the first part of the century, top income shares fell markedly. This largely took the form of a reduction in capital incomes. The different authors examine the impact of the First and Second World Wars, contrasting countries that were and were not engaged. They consider the impact of depressions and banking crises, and pay particular attention to the impact of progressive taxation. In the last 30 years, the shares of top incomes have increased markedly in the US and other Anglo-Saxon countries, reflecting the increased dispersion of earnings. The volume includes statistics on the much-discussed top pay and bonuses, providing a global perspective that discusses important differences between countries such as the lesser increase in Continental Europe. This book, together with volume 1, documents this interesting development and explores the underlying causes. The findings are brought together in a final summary chapter by Atkinson, Piketty and Saez. (présentation éditeur)
While conventional farming systems face serious problems of sustainability, organic agriculture is seen as a more environmentally friendly system as it favours renewable resources, recycles nutrients, uses the environment’s own systems for controlling pests and diseases, sustains ecosystems, protects soils, and reduces pollution. At the same time organic farming promotes animal welfare, the use of natural foodstuffs, product diversity and the avoidance of waste, among other practices. However, the future of organic agriculture will depend on its economic viability and on the determination shown by governments to protect these practices. This paper performs panel regressions with a sample of Catalan farms (Spain) to test the influence of organic farming on farm output, costs and incomes. It analyses the cost structures of both types of farming and comments on their social and environmental performance.
The future of integrated electronics is the future of electronics itself. Integrated circuits will lead to such wonders as home computers, automatic controls for automobiles, and personal portable communications equipment. But the biggest potential lies in the production of large systems. In telephone communications, integrated circuits in digital filters will separate channels on multiplex equipment. Integrated circuits will also switch telephone circuits and perform data processing. In addition, the improved reliability made possible by integrated circuits will allow the construction of larger processing units. Machines similar to those in existence today will be built at lower costs and with faster turnaround.
How social media influences business
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