ArticlePDF Available

Clinical efficacy of nutraceutical diet for cats with clinical signs of cutaneus adverse food reaction (CAFR)

Abstract and Figures

Food allergies and food intolerances are clinically difficult to discriminate. Most often, along with cutaneous adverse food reactions or CAFR, they are classified as adverse food reactions, whose causes are numerous, including toxic compounds. Eighteen indoor-housed domestic cats with evident clinical symptoms related to CAFR (drooling, back and neck intense itching, neck eczema, chronic conjunctivitis and stomatitis) involving skin lesions were studied. Cytological evaluations of ear, skin and gingival swabs revealed an increased turnover of keratinocytes while the oxytetracycline ELISA determination showed an unexpected high amount of oxytetracycline in all cats at the first visit. All cats were then randomly assigned to receive a standard (SD group) or a nutraceutical diet (ND group) for 60 days. In the ND group a significant reduction of the mean serum concentration of oxytetracycline, pruritus intensity and skin lesion severity (** Although a direct correlation between oxytetracycline presence within cat sera and CAFR-related symptoms has never been described, this study highlights the benefit of a specific nutraceutical diet supplementation in improving clinical symptoms and skin lesions in cats with CARF.
Content may be subject to copyright.
DOI 10.1515/pjvs-2017-0032
Original article
Clinical efficacy of nutraceutical diet
for cats with clinical signs of cutaneus adverse
food reaction (CAFR)
F. Mazzeranghi
1*
, C. Zanotti
1*
, A. Di Cerbo
2
, J.P. Verstegen
3
, R. Cocco
4
,
G. Guidetti
5
, S. Canello
6
1
Ambulatorio Veterinario Fiamma Mazzeranghi
Traversa I di via Rudiano 9/e, 25032 Chiari, Brescia, Italy
2
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Dental School,
University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3
University of Madison Wisconsin, Madison, Department of Veterinary Medicine, WI 53706, USA
4
Department of Pathology and Veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
5
SANYpet S.p.a., Research and Development Department, Via Austria 3, 35023 Bagnoli di Sopra, Padua, Italy
6
Forza10 USA Corp., Research and Development Department, Orlando,
6450 Kingspointe Pkwy Orlando Fl 32819, USA
Abstract
Food allergies and food intolerances are clinically difficult to discriminate. Most often, along with
cutaneous adverse food reactions or CAFR, they are classified as adverse food reactions, whose
causes are numerous, including toxic compounds.
Eighteen indoor-housed domestic cats with evident clinical symptoms related to CAFR (drooling,
back and neck intense itching, neck eczema, chronic conjunctivitis and stomatitis) involving skin
lesions were studied. Cytological evaluations of ear, skin and gingival swabs revealed an increased
turnover of keratinocytes while the oxytetracycline ELISA determination showed an unexpected high
amount of oxytetracycline in all cats at the first visit. All cats were then randomly assigned to receive
a standard (SD group) or a nutraceutical diet (ND group) for 60 days.
In the ND group a significant reduction of the mean serum concentration of oxytetracycline,
pruritus intensity and skin lesion severity (**p<0.01, ***p<0.001, and ***p<0.001, respectively) was
observed after 60 days, and associated with a significant improvement in the clinical picture.
Although a direct correlation between oxytetracycline presence within cat sera and CAFR-re-
lated symptoms has never been described, this study highlights the benefit of a specific nutraceutical
diet supplementation in improving clinical symptoms and skin lesions in cats with CARF.
Key words:cutaneous adverse food reactions, oxytetracycline, cat
Correspondence to: A. Di Cerbo, e-mail: Alessandro811@hotmail.it, tel.: +39 392 373 13 18
* These authors contributed equally
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017), 269–276
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/2/17 11:27 AM
Introduction
Food allergy refers to a clinical syndrome caused
by an acute or chronic immunological reaction fol-
lowing food ingestion, while food intolerance is
a non-immunological abnormal physiological re-
sponse towards some specific foods or food additives.
Due to their often-difficult differentiation, these
phenomena are generally included in the generic
non-specific adverse food reaction syndrome, which
can also involve the cutaneous system and are most
often referred to as cutaneous adverse food reactions
or CAFR. Although there is a lack of well-
-documented cases of skin-related food intolerance
in dogs and cats, dermatological signs seem to be
frequent. However, these can often be confused with
pyoderma, pruritic exudative dermatoses or “hot
spots” (Roudebush et al. 2000, Verlinden et al.
2006).
A typical clinical feature of CAFR in cats is the
onset of non-seasonal head and neck pruritus, which
mayoccurinanimalsfrom3monthsto11yearswith
irregular occurrence depending on many factors, in-
cluding the diet administered to the animals (White
and Sequoia, 1989, Carlotti et al., 1990). Other clini-
cal signs of CAFR include eosinophilic granuloma
complex lesions, miliary dermatitis and symmetrical
alopecia as a consequence of excessive grooming
(Guagumre, 1993).
A recent paper from Mueller et al. (2016) re-
viewed and suggested some food allergens as mostly
contributing to CAFR in cats, e.g. beef, fish and
chicken (Mueller et al. 2016). The large variety of
protein sources led the authors to assume that these
numerous different types of food could act as car-
riers of similar compounds, including antibiotics
and hormones, which might in fact represent the
real cause for the onset of dermatological symptoms
in those animals particularly sensitive. The potential
role of pharmacologically active substances, in par-
ticular tetracyclines and their metabolites present in
meats and meat-based foods (Chi et al. 2014) was
proposed and subsequently discussed.
Due to the lack of clinical evidence concerning
the efficacy of pet food to treat CAFR in cats, we
aimed to ascertain the role of a specific, commercial-
ly available nutraceutical diet in relieving the symp-
toms of CAFR such as drooling, back and neck in-
tense itch, neck eczema, chronic conjunctivitis and
stomatitis in 18 indoor-housed cats. We also attem-
pted to correlate the concentration of oxytetracycline
in the sera of the animals with the onset and disap-
pearance of the aforementioned symptoms.
The nutraceutical diet proposed in this study
consisted of a mixed formula of fish hydrolysed pro-
teins (from wild caught anchovies free of oxytet-
racycline), rice carbohydrates, Aloe vera, Arctium
lappa, Malva sylvestris, Ribes nigrum, Allium sativum
and Omega3/6 fatty acids (1:3 ratio).
Some literature reports have already evidenced
the effectiveness of Aloe vera gel and Aloe vera/olive
oil combination cream in relieving scabietic and
chronic pruritic skin lesions, respectively (Oyelami et
al.2009,Panahietal.2012).However,accordingto
a recent paper from Sidgwick et al. (2015), there is
still limited clinical evidence of the efficacy of Aloe
vera, as well as vitamin E and D, to support its effi-
cacy in completely restoring skin scarring (Sidgwick
et al. 2015). Itch relief has been also observed for
Arctium lappa but in the form of herbal moisturising
cream (Lee et al. 2013). We demonstrated, for the
first time, the effectiveness of a nutraceutical diet
with Aloe vera, Arctium lappa, Malva sylvestris, Ribes
nigrum, Allium sativum and Omega3/6 fatty acids in
canine models suffering from atopic dermatitis and
chronic otitis externa (Di Cerbo et al. 2014b, Di
Cerbo et al. 2016a). We also recently reported the
anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effect of
Aloe vera alone (Guidetti et al. 2016) and in combi-
nation with other botanicals (Cortese et al. 2015, De-
stefanis et al. 2016).
Materials and Methods
Eighteen client-owned indoor-housed neutered
cats of different breeds (mean age ±SEM, 6.55
±0.95 year and mean weight ±SEM, 4.01 ±0.14 Kg;
55.6% males, 44.4% females) with evident clinical
symptoms related to CAFR (drooling, back and neck
intense itch, neck eczema, chronic conjunctivitis and
stomatitis) were evaluated.
The animals were randomly divided and assigned
to receive either the nutraceutical diet (ND group,
n = 9) or a standard diet (SD group, n = 9) once
a day for 60 days, following the manufacturer’s rec-
ommendations.
In addition, 6 out of 18 cats that showed a critical
clinical picture with extended lesions were preven-
tively pharmacologically treated with a single subcu-
taneous injection of an antimicrobial (CONVENIA,
Zoetis Belgium SA, Belgium) and a corticosteroid
(DEXADRESON FORTE, MSD Animal Health srl,
Milan, Italy) before being equally allocated to the
2groups.
270 F. Mazzeranghi et al.
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/2/17 11:27 AM
The diets
Both nutraceutical and control diet fulfilled the
recommendations for crude protein (31%), crude oils
and fats (15%), crude ash (7.7%), moisture (8%) and
a Metabolized Energy (ME) of 3.620 kcal/kg (or 15.2
MJ/kg), according to the Nutritional Guidelines for
complete and complementary pet food for cats and
dogs. Moreover, the diets were in the form of kibbles
industrially produced with the same amount of vit-
amins (A, and E), trace elements (Choline chloride,
Zinc sulphate monohydrate, and Cupric chelate
glycine hydrate) and amino acids (DL-methionine)
(Table 1).
Table 1. Vitamins, essential fatty acids, trace elements and
amino acids amount per kg of complete food in ND and SD
diet.
Essential fatty acids Amount per kg of diet
Omega6 39 g/kg
Omega3 13 g/kg
Vitamins
Vitamin A 28000 UI/kg
Vitamin E 120 mg/kg
Trace elements
Choline chloride 1000 mg/kg
Zinc sulphate monohydrate 75 mg/kg
Cupric chelate glycine hydrate 15 mg/kg
Amino acids
DL-methionine 1000 mg/kg
In addition, the ND was characterized by the pres-
ence of cold-pressed tablets composed by 60-80% of
fish and vegetable hydrolyzed protein, 20-40% of min-
erals used as glidants and nutraceutical substances:
Aloe vera, Arctium lappa, Malva sylvestris, Ribes nig-
rum, Allium sativum (Table 2).
Table 2. Nutraceutical substances amount per kg of com-
plete food in ND diet.
Nutraceutical substances Amount per kg
of complete food
Aloe vera 112 mg/kg
Arctium lappa 150 mg/kg
Malva sylvestris 52 mg/kg
Ribes nigrum 90 mg/kg
Allium sativum 241 mg/kg
Clinical evaluation
Cats received veterinary inspections before inter-
vention, after 20 days, and at the end of the interven-
tion after 60 days.
The work was performed in compliance with na-
tional and international regulations (Italian regulation
D.L.vo 116/1992 and European Union regulation
86/609/EC) for procedures and animal care. The rec-
ommendations of the ARRIVE in animal research
were also considered (Kilkenny et al. 2012).
Before diet study initiation and at the end of the
60-day period, 4 mL of blood were drawn from each
cat and analyzed using a tetracycline specific ELISA
kit for pets (Cat. # DE – 100430, Genemed Synthesis,
Inc., San Antonio, USA).
At the first inspection before the study initiation,
a gingival, ear and dermal swab was done for each cat,
rolled over a microscope slide and allowed to dry be-
fore staining with Diff-Quik stain (Mercedes Medical,
Sarasota, FL, USA) (Jackson et al. 2013).
A picture of each cat before, after 20 days and
after 60 days dietary intervention was acquired to
evaluate and characterize the skin and the lesion type.
Lesion evaluation
The severity and the extent of each lesion was
scored using a numerical rating scale with five degrees
of severity (0 = none, 1 = very mild, 2 = mild,
3 = moderate, 4 = severe) and were assessed before
and at the end of the study (Steffan et al. 2012).
Pruritus evaluation
To assess the pruritus severity a five-point numeri-
cal VAS scale was used throughout the study based on
cat behavior (0 = the cat was comfortable, grooming
like any normal cat; 1 = the cat was grooming, but the
pruritus was tolerable and the cat remained calm;
2 = the cat was grooming, but it was generally toler-
able; 3 = the cat was grooming quite often, the cat
was uncomfortable, nervous or often agitated; 4 = the
cat was uncomfortable, grooming all the time) (Stef-
fan et al. 2012).
Statistical analysis
Data were analysed using GraphPad Prism 6 sof-
tware (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA).
All data are presented as means ±standard error of
the mean. Differences in serum oxytetracycline
Clinical efficacy of nutraceutical diet for cats... 271
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/2/17 11:27 AM
Fig. 1. Microscopic image of (A, B) gingival swab with giant intermediate squamous epithelial cells with pink-colored abundant
cytoplasm where oral bacterial strains can adhere; (C) ear swab with a papyrus-like enrolled elongated lanceolate corneocyte;
(D) dermal swab with squamous epithelial cells with pyknotic nucleus (arrows) and a papyrus-like enrolled elongated lanceolate
corneocyte.
concentration, skin lesion severity and pruritus inten-
sity before and at the end of the evaluation period
were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance
(ANOVA) followed by Sidak’s multiple comparisons
test. A *p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results
Cytological evaluations revealed a massive pres-
ence of corneocytes in all of the skin and ear swabs of
cats (Fig. 1C,D). The presence of a high number of
keratinocytes with a nucleus and the almost complete
lack of neutrophils in all cats indicates that the lesions
derived from an exfoliative process, due to an in-
creased epithelial turnover, rather than an inflamma-
tory condition (Fig. 1A,B) generally associated with
a large number of inflammatory cells. No inflamma-
tory cells, such as granulocytes and neutrophils, were
observed with the exception of one cat in the ND
group.
In the ND group a significant decrease in tet-
racycline serum concentration was observed from in-
itial values of 108.30 ±2.88 ng/ml to 88.78 ±4.37
ng/ml after 60 days of treatment. No significant dif-
ferences were observed in the SD group (Fig 2A,
**p<0.01). As concerns the pruritus intensity, the
score significantly decreased from a baseline value of
3.33 ±0.23 to 1.66 ±0.16 in the ND group. No signifi-
cant differences were observed in the SD group
(Fig. 2B, ***p<0.001).
Skin lesion severity of the ND group also signifi-
cantly decreased after 60 days of evaluation, with re-
spect to the baseline; the score decreased from a base-
line value of 3.44 ±0.17 to 1.44 ±0.17. No significant
differences were observed in the SD group (Fig. 2C,
***p<0.001).
All cats belonging to the ND group improved
their dermatological status already after 20 days diet
supplementation; however, their clinical picture, in-
cluding skin lesions and pruritus intensity, significant-
ly improved toward the end of the study (Fig. 3).
272 F. Mazzeranghi et al.
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/2/17 11:27 AM
Oxytetracycline
SD group
ND group
**
150
100
50
0
***
4
3
2
1
0
Pruritus
SD group
ND group
Skin lesions
SD group
ND group
***
4
3
2
1
0
Pre-treatment
Post-treatment
Pre-treatment
Post-treatment
Pre-treatment
Post-treatment
[ng/ml]
Score
Score
A
B
C
Fig 2. Graphical representation of (a) oxytetracycline serum
concentration (b) pruritus intensity, and (c) skin lesions se-
verity, before and after 60 days of SD or ND supplementa-
tion, a significant decrease of each parameter was observed
in ND group (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001 and ***p<0.001, respect-
ively).
Discussion
Results evidenced the effectiveness of the ND,
free of oxytetracycline, in restoring the normal dermal
physiological homeostasis in cats with evident clinical
symptoms related to CAFR (drooling, back and neck
intense itch, neck eczema, chronic conjunctivitis and
stomatitis). In the present study, all cats presented
lesions characterised by exfoliative dermatitis. Ex-
foliative dermatitis is characterized by a generalized
severe squamation and can be caused by pharmacol-
ogical agents and food allergies (Scott, 1988, Miller
et al. 2013).
Normal epidermal turnover is approximately of 22
days (Baker et al. 1973). It has been demonstrated
that turnover time significantly decreases to 15 days
after dermal stress, i.e. hair cut (Baker et al. 1974) and
surgically-induced wounds, where epidermal mitotic
activity results increased (Miller et al. 2013). A turn-
over time decrease to 7 days has been also observed in
Cocker Spaniels and Irish Setters affected by sebor-
rheic skin (Baker and Maibach 1987).
In the present study, treatment with the neu-
traceutical oxytetracyline-free diet was associated with
a significant improvement in the skin conditions
prealably observed in the animals. As already demon-
strated, a 6 to 8 week restrictive elimination trial is
needed to allow the diagnosis of CAFR in 90% of the
animals confirming our diagnostic working hypothesis
(Olivry et al. 2015). This dramatic improvement may
be related to the decrease in serum concentration of
oxytetracycline discussed below or with the use of the
specific neutraceutical diet administered (or both).
This certainly requires further investigation.
We recently identified a specific compound, oxy-
tetracycline, as the possible underlying cause of most
inflammatory pathologies both in vitro (Odore et al.
2015, Di Cerbo et al. 2016b, Guidetti et al. 2016,
Gallo et al. 2017) and in vivo (Di Cerbo et al. 2014a,
Di Cerbo et al. 2014b, Di Cerbo et al. 2015, Di Cerbo
et al. 2016a, Di Cerbo et al. 2017). To the best of our
knowledge there is no clinical evidence of the effec-
tiveness of other commercially available pet diets able
to simultaneously exert an anti-inflammatory and
re-epithelializating activity.
Although the overall recovery of CAFR symptoms
can be mainly ascribed to the combined activity of hy-
drolyzed proteins, omega fatty acids 3/6 and botanicals
present within the nutraceutical diet, we speculate that
oxytetracycline may play a role in the cause of the
CAFR clinical signs observed in the animals included
in this study. Indeed, at initiation of the evaluation, all
18 animals had a significant blood concentration of
oxytetracycline, which significantly decreased once fed
the oxytetracycline-free neutraceutical diet.
Oxytetracycline belongs to the class of tetracyc-
lines which are the most widely and legally used anti-
biotics in intesive farming, e.g. poultry (Palmieri et al.
2014, Odore et al. 2015), livestock (Kimera et al.
2015) and aquaculture (Chuah et al. 2016), due to
their low cost and efficacy (Chopra and Roberts,
2001). Unfortunately oxytetracycline has also a high
affinity for calcium-rich tissues such as bone and teeth
Clinical efficacy of nutraceutical diet for cats... 273
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/2/17 11:27 AM
Fig. 3. Dermatological improvements of cats belonging to ND group before (A-C-E) and after (B-D-F) 60 days of diet supple-
mentation.
274 F. Mazzeranghi et al.
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/2/17 11:27 AM
(Milch et al. 1957) and can remain fixed for extended
periods in treated animals even respecting withdrawal
times (Odore et al. 2015). Moreover, pet food produc-
tion relies on meal (mainly poultry) by-products
(Maine et al. 2015) in which an important percentage
of bone meal (20-30%) is present. This mix very often
drags behind oxytetracycline residues that are present
in commercially available diets (canned, semi-moist
and dry) and can accumulate within the pet’s body.
Recently, the toxicity of milled bone from chickens
treated with oxytetracycline at 20%, according to law
standards, compared to bone specimen from untreated
animals was demonstrated (Odore et al. 2015).
These observations allow us to speculate about the
potential toxicity of poultry derivatives which are oxy-
tetracycline loaded and chronically consumed by com-
panion animals, and pave the way for a new concept of
food sensitization associated with the presence of oxy-
tetracycline contaminants acting as the main enhancers
of inflammatory processes, which typically characterize
skin and gastrointesinal diseases.
Although the Food and Drug Administration
(Headquarters 2012) and World Health Organization
(Agency 2014) have recently established maximum
residue limits in foods, antibiotic residues in foods may
still be present (Graham et al., 2014) thus explaining
the persistence of dermatological manifestations in our
cohort of cats. This is particularly true as international
regulations do not impose an antibiotic concentration
evaluation in bones and fat, making pet food including
these residues potentially dangerous (Communities
1996).
This work deserves further evaluations however in-
troduces already a worning statement concerning the
presence of toxic antibiotics in food. They may indeed
underlie or contribute to the etiopathogenesis of cer-
tain disorders or syndromes, usually ascribed to other
causes or confused with allergic or intolerance syn-
dromes or idiosyncrasies.
Taken together these data partially suggest a causa-
tive relation between some toxic compound including
oxytetracycline residues and the impressive number of
clinical cases, daily observed in our pet population.
Their increased frequency over the last 20 years may
eventually be related, with other causative toxic factors,
to the continuous and overall increase in the consump-
tion of packaged meat and meat by-products used for
petfood production including snacks, treats, chews and
biscuits. This hypothesis requires further research and
evaluation.
Acknowledgments
None of Authors has financial or personal rela-
tionships with other people or organizations and data
interpretation was totally free from specific interests
and the study has not been conditioned by any bias
that could affect the results. This research was per-
formed in collaboration with some scientists from the
Division of Research and Development, Sanypet SpA,
Padova, Italy (as indicated in the Author’s affiliation)
according to scientific and ethical principles of the
scientific community.
References
Baker BB, Maibach HI (1987) Epidermal Cell Renewal In
Seborrheic Skin Of Dogs. Am J Vet Res 48:726-728.
Baker BB, Maibach HI, Park RD (1974) Epidermal Cell
Renewal In Dogs After Clipping Of The Hair. Am J Vet
Res 35: 445-446.
Baker BB, Maibach HI, Park RD, McFarland LZ, O’Brien
TR (1973) Epidermal Cell Renewal In The Dog. Am
J Vet Res 34: 93-94.
Carlotti DN, Remy I, Prost C (1990) Food Allergy In Dogs
And Cats. A Review And Report Of 43 Cases. Vet Der-
matol 1: 55-62.
Chi Z, Liu R, You H, Ma S, Cui H, Zhang Q (2014) Probing
The In Vitro Cytotoxicity Of The Veterinary Drug Oxy-
tetracycline. Plos One 9: E102334.
Chopra I, Roberts M (2001) Tetracycline Antibiotics: Mode
Of Action, Applications, Molecular Biology, And Epi-
demiology Of Bacterial Resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol
Rev 65: 232-60; Second Page, Table Of Contents.
Chuah LO, Effarizah ME, Goni AM, Rusul G (2016) Anti-
biotic Application And Emergence Of Multiple Anti-
biotic Resistance (MAR) In Global Catfish Aquaculture.
Curr Environ Health Rep 3: 118-127.
Cortese L, Annunziatella M, Palatucci AT, Lanzilli S,
Rubino V, Di Cerbo A, Centenaro S, Guidetti G, Canello
S, Terrazzano G (2015) An Immune-Modulating Diet
Increases The Regulatory T Cells And Reduces T Helper
1 Inflammatory Response In Leishmaniosis Affected
Dogs Treated With Standard Therapy. BMC Vet Res
11: 295.
Destefanis S, Giretto D, Muscolo MC, Di Cerbo A, Guidetti
G, Canello S, Giovazzino A, Centenaro S, Terrazzano
G(2016) Clinical Evaluation Of A Nutraceutical Diet As
An Adjuvant To Pharmacological Treatment In Dogs Af-
fected By Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca. BMC Vet Res
12: 214.
Di Cerbo A, Canello S, Guidetti G, Laurino C, Palmieri
B(2014)a. Unusual Antibiotic Presence In Gym Trained
Subjects With Food Intolerance; A Case Report. Nutr
Hosp 30: 395-398.
Di Cerbo A, Centenaro S, Beribe F, Laus F, Cerquetella M,
Spaterna A, Guidetti G, Canello S, Terrazzano
G(2016)a. Clinical Evaluation Of An Antiinflammatory
And Antioxidant Diet Effect In 30 Dogs Affected By
Chronic Otitis Externa: Preliminary Results. Vet Res
Commun 40: 29-38.
Di Cerbo A, Palatucci AT, Rubino V, Centenaro S, Giovaz-
zino A, Fraccaroli E, Cortese L, Ruggiero G, Guidetti G,
Canello S, Terrazzano G (2016)b. Toxicological Implica-
tions And Inflammatory Response In Human Lym-
Clinical efficacy of nutraceutical diet for cats... 275
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/2/17 11:27 AM
phocytes Challenged With Oxytetracycline. J Biochem
Mol Toxicol 30: 170-177.
Di Cerbo A, Palmieri B, Chiavolelli F, Guidetti G, Canello
S(2014)b. Functional Foods In Pets And Humans. In-
tern J Appl Res Vet Med 12: 192-199.
Di Cerbo A, Pezzuto F, Canello S, Guidetti G, Palmieri
B(2015). Therapeutic Effectiveness Of A Dietary
Supplement For Management Of Halitosis In Dogs. J Vis
Exp E52717.
Di Cerbo A, Sechi S, Canello S, Guidetti G, Fiore F,
Cocco R (2017). Behavioral Disturbances: An Innovative
Approach to Monitor the Modulatory Effects of a Nut-
raceutical Diet. J Vis Exp 119: 54878.
Graham F, Paradis L, Begin P, Paradis J, Babin Y, Des
Roches A (2014). Risk Of Allergic Reaction And Sensi-
tization To Antibiotics In Foods. Ann Allergy Asthma
Immunol 113: 329-330.
Guagumre E (1993). Food Intolerance In Cats With
Cutaneous Manifestations. PMCAC 28: 451-460.
Guidetti G, Di Cerbo A, Giovazzino A, Rubino V, Palatucci
AT, Centenaro S, Fraccaroli E, Cortese L, Bonomo MG,
Ruggiero G, Canello S, Terrazzano G (2016). In Vitro
Effects Of Some Botanicals With Anti-Inflammatory
And Antitoxic Activity. J Immunol Res 2016: 5457010.
Food and Agriculture Organization Headquarters (2012).
Maximum Residue Limits For Veterinary Drugs In
Foods. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 35th Session.
Ftp://Ftp.Fao.Org/Codex/Weblinks/MRL2E2012.Pdf.
Gallo A, Landi R, Rubino V, Di Cerbo A, Giovazzino A,
Palatucci AT, Centenaro S, Guidetti G, Canello S, Cor-
tese L, Ruggiero G, Alessandrini A, Terrazzano
G(2017). Oxytetracycline induces DNA damage and epi-
genetic changes: a possible risk for human and animal
health? Peer J 5: e3236.
Jackson DE, Selting KA, Spoor MS, Henry CJ, Wiedmeyer
CE (2013). Evaluation Of Fixation Time Using
Diff-Quik For Staining Of Canine Mast Cell Tumor As-
pirates. Vet Clin Pathol 42: 99-102.
Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman
DG (2012). Improving Bioscience Research Reporting:
The ARRIVE Guidelines For Reporting Animal Re-
search. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 20: 256-260.
Kimera ZI, Mdegela RH, Mhaiki CJ, Karimuribo ED,
Mabiki F, Nonga HE, Mwesongo J (2015). Determina-
tion Of Oxytetracycline Residues In Cattle Meat Mar-
keted In The Kilosa District, Tanzania. Onderstepoort
J Vet Res 82: 911.
Lee DH, Seo ES, Hong JT, Lee GT, You YK, Lee KK, Jo
GW, Kim NK (2013). The Efficacy And Safety Of A Pro-
posed Herbal Moisturising Cream For Dry Skin And Itch
Relief: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Control-
led Trial-Study Protocol. BMC Complement Altern Med
13: 330.
Maine IR, Atterbury R, Chang KC (2015). Investigation
Into The Animal Species Contents Of Popular Wet Pet
Foods. Acta Vet Scand 57: 7.
Milch RA, Rall DP, Tobie JE (1957). Bone Localization Of
The Tetracyclines. J Natl Cancer Inst 19: 87-93.
Miller WH, Griffin CE, Campbell KL (2013). Muller And
Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology, Elsevier Health
Sciences. pp 938.
Mueller RS, Olivry T, Prelaud P (2016). Critically Appraised
Topic On Adverse Food Reactions Of Companion Ani-
mals (2): Common Food Allergen Sources In Dogs And
Cats. BMC Vet Res 12: 9.
Odore R, De Marco M, Gasco L, Rotolo L, Meucci V,
Palatucci AT, Rubino V, Ruggiero G, Canello S,
Guidetti G, Centenaro S, Quarantelli A, Terrazzano G,
Schiavone A (2015). Cytotoxic Effects Of Oxytetracyc-
line Residues In The Bones Of Broiler Chickens Follow-
ing Therapeutic Oral Administration Of A Water Formu-
lation. Poult Sci 94: 1979-1985.
Olivry T, Mueller RS, Prelaud P (2015). Critically Appraised
Topic On Adverse Food Reactions Of Companion Ani-
mals (1): Duration Of Elimination Diets. BMC Vet Res,
11: 225.
Oyelami OA, Onayemi A, Oyedeji OA, Adeyemi LA (2009).
Preliminary Study Of Effectiveness Of Aloe Vera In Sca-
bies Treatment. Phytother Res 23: 1482-1484.
Palmieri B, Di Cerbo A, Laurino C (2014). Antibiotic Treat-
ments In Zootechnology And Effects Induced On The
Food Chain Of Domestic Species And, Comparatively,
The Human Specie. Nutr Hosp 29: 1427-1433.
Panahi Y, Davoudi SM, Sahebkar A, Beiraghdar F, Dadjo Y,
Feizi I, Amirchoopani G, Zamani A (2012). Efficacy Of
Aloe Vera/Olive Oil Cream Versus Betamethasone
Cream For Chronic Skin Lesions Following Sulfur Mus-
tard Exposure: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical
Trial. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 31: 95-103.
Roudebush P, Guilford WG, Shanley KJ (2000). Adverse
Reactions To Food. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remil-
lard RL, Roudebush P. (Ed.) Small Animal Clinical Nu-
trition.Missouri: Mark Morris Institute. pp 1192.
Scott DW (1988). Exfoliative Dermatoses In A Dog And
A Cat Resembling Large Plaque Parapsoriasis In Hu-
mans. Companion Animal Practice 2: 22-29.
Sidgwick GP, McGeorge D, Bayat A (2015). A Comprehen-
sive Evidence-Based Review On The Role Of Topicals
And Dressings In The Management Of Skin Scarring.
Arch Dermatol Res 307: 461-477.
Steffan J, Olivry T, Forster SL, Seewald W (2012). Respon-
siveness And Validity Of The SCORFAD, An Extent
And Severity Scale For Feline Hypersensitivity Dermati-
tis. Vet Dermatol 23: 410-E77.
The Commission of the European Communities (1996)
Amending Annexes I And III To Council Regulation
(EEC) No 2377/90 Laying Down A Community Pro-
cedure For The Establishment Of Maximum Residue
Limits Of Veterinary Medicinal Products In Foodstuffs
Of Animal Origin. Official Journal Of The European
Communities.
US Environmental Protection Agency AGENCY, U. E. P.
(2014). Food And Drugs. PART 556 Tolerances For
Residues Of New Animal Drugs In Food. Subpart B-Spe-
cific Tolerances For Residues Of New Animal Drugs.
Electronic Code Of Federal Regulations (Ecfr).
Http://Www.Ecfr.Gov/.
Verlinden A, Hesta M, Millet S, Janssens GP (2006). Food
Allergy In Dogs And Cats: A Review. Crit Rev Food Sci
Nutr 46: 259-273.
White SD, Sequoia D (1989). Food Hypersensitivity
In Cats: 14 Cases (1982-1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc
194: 692-695.
276 F. Mazzeranghi et al.
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/2/17 11:27 AM
... Real infertility is difficult to diagnose in veterinary clinical practice and therefore most bitches are classified as generally subfertile or hypofertile subjects [32]. The present clinical evaluation was based on standardized protocols used in canine reproduction and its aim was to evaluate the effect of a specific nutraceutical diet on the reproductive performance of 36 bitches presenting evident reproductive disturbances and possibly correlate them with serum concentration of a contaminant, oxytetracycline (OTC), frequently detected in pet food [33][34][35][36]. We previously observed the usefulness of a nutraceutical diet enriched with Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, L-carnitine, zinc, beta-carotene, vitamin E, folic acid, and an omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 4:1 in improving motility percentage, semen volume and concentration, and total number of sperm per ejaculation in 28 male dogs suffering from infertility associated with hypospermia [37]. ...
... Moreover, literature reports evidenced an increased excretion of conjugated estrogens in the feces of men and women treated with several antibiotics, including OTC, thus reducing the hormone concentrations in circulation. Therefore, besides a decreased hydrolysis of estrogen conjugates by β-glucuronidase, we hypothesized that the alteration of reproductive functions of bitches might also be due to a state of chronic inflammation caused by the presence of harmful substances and contaminants (including OTC) within the body, introduced by routine commercial pet food consumption [33][34][35]38]. ...
... A similar trend was also observed for OTC serum concentration. We hypothesized that the alteration of reproductive functions, both in males and bitches, may be due to a state of chronic inflammation caused by the presence of harmful substances and contaminants (including OTC) within the body, which can be introduced by ordinary commercial pet food consumption [33][34][35]37]. Moreover, several studies showed the effects of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfa drugs, penicillins, aminoglycosides, and nitrofurans) and also heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury) on the reproductive system, inducing estrous cycle disruption, impaired embryo implantation, impendent follicular development, breast and endometrial cancer, endometriosis, spontaneous abortions, sperm motility, and viability reduction [41][42][43][44][45][46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the raising of food-related disturbances in animals and the recent findings concerning the toxicity of oxytetracycline presence within pet food we compared the effectiveness of two commercially available diets on 36 bitches suffering from reproductive disturbances. We run a randomized clinical evaluation over a 90-day period. Bitches were randomly assigned to receive a control (CD) or a nutraceutical diet (ND) and were assessed for the presence of OTC within their sera before and at the end of the study. 16 out of 18 bitches went on heat within an average of 35.5 ± 3.1 days, and 15 of them became pregnant. In the CD group, 12 out of 18 bitches went on heat within an average of 54.1 ± 3.2 days, and 10 of them became pregnant. A significant decrease in mean OTC serum concentration was observed in bitches belonging to CD and ND group (**P < 0.01). The overall amelioration, in particular in the ND group, provides new insights for future studies involving the modification of diet in order to restore the normal physiology of the bitches suffering from reproductive disturbances.
... In light of recent in vivo acquisitions, it might be reasonable to hypothesize a possible link between the occurrence of a high rate of resistance to tetracycline in humans and pets and the occurrence of tetracyclines in their sera [37][38][39][40]. Moreover, several reports demonstrated that even respecting withdrawal times in intensive farming, a huge amount of oxytetracycline could be recovered in the bone of the animals, in particular chickens [41], and then transferred to the pet food chain, which employs a chicken bone percentage ranging from 20% to 30% for kibble production [38,[42][43][44]. ...
... In light of recent in vivo acquisitions, it might be reasonable to hypothesize a possible link between the occurrence of a high rate of resistance to tetracycline in humans and pets and the occurrence of tetracyclines in their sera [37][38][39][40]. Moreover, several reports demonstrated that even respecting withdrawal times in intensive farming, a huge amount of oxytetracycline could be recovered in the bone of the animals, in particular chickens [41], and then transferred to the pet food chain, which employs a chicken bone percentage ranging from 20% to 30% for kibble production [38,[42][43][44]. Thus, the chronic intake of such food might account for the presence of tetracyclines' resistance in pets but also in humans, where the presence of chicken bone residues has been observed in Vienna sausages (data not shown). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We investigated the virulence factors, genes, antibiotic resistance patterns, and genotypes (VRE and ESBL/AmpC) production in Enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from fecal samples of humans, dogs, and cats. Methods: A total of 100 fecal samples from 50 humans, 25 dogs, and 25 cats were used in the study. MICs of nine antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance (VRE and ESBL/AmpC) and virulence genes both in Enterococcus species, such as cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylM), aggregation substance (agg), gelatinase (gelE), enterococcal surface protein (esp), cell wall adhesins (efaAfs and efaAfm), and in Enterobacteriaceae, such as cytolysin (hemolysin) and gelatinase production (afa, cdt, cnf1, hlyA, iutA, papC, sfa). Results: Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species in humans and cats, whereas Enterococcus faecalis was the species isolated in the remaining samples. A total of 200 Enterobacteriaceae strains were also detected, mainly from humans, and Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated species in all types of samples. In the Enterococcus spp, the highest percentages of resistance for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were detected in cat isolates (41.6%, 52.8%, 38.9%, 23.6%, 62.5%, 20.8%, and 23.6% respectively), and in E. coli, a higher rate of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime emerged in cat and dog samples, if compared with humans (75.4% and 66.0%, 80.0% and 71.4%, and 32.0% and 27.2%, respectively). Regarding the total number of enterococci, 5% and 3.4% of the strains were vancomycin and teicoplanin resistant, and the vancomycin resistance (van A) gene has been detected in all samples by PCR amplification. All the Enterobacteriaceae strains were confirmed as ESBL producers by PCR and sequencing, and the most frequent ESBL genes in E.coli strains from humans and pet samples were blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that one or more virulence factors were present in both genera, underlining again the ability of pet strains to act as pathogens.
... For this reason, the admitted dosage of antibiotic administration and allowed maximal residual limits are regulated by stringent guidelines [9,10]. However, tetracyclines, in particular oxytetracycline (OTC), which can accumulate in the bone tissue of farmed animals, are not included in the target samples imposed by the European Community [9] though they can be present in mechanically separated meat (e.g., sausages, Vienna sausages) [11] as well as in dry pet food [12][13][14]. ...
... In fact, according to the European Food Safety Authorityʹs opinion, calcium content is considered the only appropriate chemical parameter to discriminate between mechanically and nonmechanically separated meat products [11,15]. Thus, long-lasting consumption of such food might be related to some reported cases of adverse food reactions observed in humans [16,17] and pets [12,13,18]. Moreover, several in vitro reports evidenced the toxicity [14,[19][20][21], proinflammatory [19,22], and genotoxic [23] activity of bone powder derived from chicken treated with OTC according to withdrawal times but also of OTC in its liquid form as per generally used in zootechny. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Tetracyclines' use in intensive animal farming has raised some concerns regarding the biosafety for humans. Increasing evidences have revealed the presence of these drugs in processed animal by-products, such as bone, throughout the food chain. A potential off-target of tetracyclines is the bacterial-like mitochondrial translational machinery, thereby causing proteostatic alterations in mitochondrial DNA-encoded components of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods: The Seahorse methodology, confocal microscopy imaging of mitochondrial potential and reactive oxygen species, and q-RT-PCR analysis of the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy were carried out on human lymphoblast derived K562 cell line challenged with bone powder derived from chicken treated with or without oxytetracycline and pure oxytetracycline. Results: A complex dose-dependent profile was attained with a low dosage of bone powder extracts causing a metabolic adaptation hallmarked by stimulation of the mitochondrial respiration and enhanced expression of mitochondriogenic factors in particular in cells challenged with oxytetracycline-free bone extract. Conversely, a higher dosage of bone powder extracts, regardless of their source, caused a progressive inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, ultimately leading to cell death. No significant effects of the pure oxytetracycline were observed. Conclusion: Bone powder, regardless of chicken treatment, contains and releases factors/chemicals responsible for the observed effects on energy metabolism. Quantitative differential effects appear to depend on biochemical alterations in the bone matrix caused by antibiotics rather than antibiotics themselves.
... Blood fatty acid composition could be used as a biomarker of dietary intake and could be an important parameter to understand the relationship between diet, metabolism, and some diseases. Some fatty acids (FA), such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), have a potential role in the prevention of several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and inflammation [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. A positive correlation between the total content of dietary PUFA in the diet and the relative amount of PUFA in the blood lipid fraction has been documented in humans [9,10] and animals [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish (FH) and chicken (CH) diets and the combination of these with a supplementation with antioxidant compounds (FH-AOX and CH-AOX, respectively), on biochemical parameters and blood fatty acid (FA) profile. For this purpose, 27 dogs were allocated to four groups and fed with the experimental diets for six months. Blood samples were taken before starting the experimental period and at the end of the trial. Dietary treatment effects were assessed by ANOVA test. The antioxidant supplement increased glucose values, independently of the type of meat. Triglycerides and urea were significantly higher in FH compared to CH diet. As regard blood FA profile, the antioxidant supplementation significantly increased the linoleic acid content. Polyunsaturated FA n-3 were higher in FH than CH, but a greater increase was recorded in the two groups with the addition of antioxidant. On the contrary, arachidonic acid was found lower in the two groups fed the antioxidant compounds. In conclusion, FH led to a better FA profile than CH diet. In addition, the use of antioxidant supplement was able to improve the FA profile independently on the basal diet.
... Microbial contamination represents a daily challenge for food industry: workbenches, packaging machinery, food containers, tanks and utensils for milk or dairy products, hooks for meat and meat products and deboning equipments are only some of the inert surfaces that become the ideal environment for microbial growth, proliferation and even biofilm formation (Meshref, Moselhy, and Hassan 2015;Stahl et al. 2017;Bower, McGuire, and Daeschel 1996;Saini et al. 2012;Finket al. 2017;Mafu et al. 2011;Galie et al. 2018). As a consequence, food quality and safety are strongly influenced with a direct implication in consumer's health (Holah and Kearney 1992;Holah et al. 1993;Di Cerbo et al. 2014;Palmieri, Di Cerbo, and Laurino 2014;Di Cerbo et al. 2015;Iseppi et al. 2020;Ciribe et al. 2018;Mazzeranghi et al. 2017;Gallo et al. 2017;Di Cerbo et al. 2017;Sechi et al. 2017;Destefanis et al. 2016;Guidetti et al. 2016;. Therefore, food industry materials' surface gains a pivotal role in the interaction with bacteria; the modulation of its chemical and physical properties can become crucial for achieving the goals of safety, spoilage prevention as well as reduction of the use of corrosive and toxic sanitizing treatments (Lappin-Scott and Costerton 1989;Ludensky 2003;Guerra et al. 2005;Brooks and Flint 2008;Romanova, Favrin, and Griffiths 2002;Sinde and Carballo 2000;Taormina and Beuchat 2002;Labbé and García 2001;Devine and Dikeman 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
It is shown that electron tunneling through a potential barrier that separates two colloidal quantum dots of germanium leads to the splitting of electron states localized over spherical interfaces (a quantum dot – a silicon matrix). The dependence of the splitting values of the electron levels on the parameters of the nanosystem (the radius a of germanium quantum dot, as well as the distance D between the surfaces of the quantum dots) is obtained. It is shown that, the splitting of electron levels in the quantum dot chain of germanium causes the appearance of a zone of localized electron states, which is located in the bandgap of silicon matrix. It is found that the motion of a charge-transport exciton along a chain of germanium quantum dots of germanium causes an increase in photoconductivity in the nanosystem.
... Microbial contamination represents a daily challenge for food industry: workbenches, packaging machinery, food containers, tanks and utensils for milk or dairy products, hooks for meat and meat products and deboning equipments are only some of the inert surfaces that become the ideal environment for microbial growth, proliferation and even biofilm formation (Meshref, Moselhy, and Hassan 2015;Stahl et al. 2017;Bower, McGuire, and Daeschel 1996;Saini et al. 2012;Finket al. 2017;Mafu et al. 2011;Galie et al. 2018). As a consequence, food quality and safety are strongly influenced with a direct implication in consumer's health (Holah and Kearney 1992;Holah et al. 1993;Di Cerbo et al. 2014;Palmieri, Di Cerbo, and Laurino 2014;Di Cerbo et al. 2015;Iseppi et al. 2020;Ciribe et al. 2018;Mazzeranghi et al. 2017;Gallo et al. 2017;Di Cerbo et al. 2017;Sechi et al. 2017;Destefanis et al. 2016;Guidetti et al. 2016;. Therefore, food industry materials' surface gains a pivotal role in the interaction with bacteria; the modulation of its chemical and physical properties can become crucial for achieving the goals of safety, spoilage prevention as well as reduction of the use of corrosive and toxic sanitizing treatments (Lappin-Scott and Costerton 1989;Ludensky 2003;Guerra et al. 2005;Brooks and Flint 2008;Romanova, Favrin, and Griffiths 2002;Sinde and Carballo 2000;Taormina and Beuchat 2002;Labbé and García 2001;Devine and Dikeman 2014). ...
Chapter
One of the main concerns of the food industry is surface microbial contamination. Most used food-contact materials are stainless-steel and, to a lesser extent, aluminum. Unfortunately, both materials are only bacteriostatic, and their surfaces are not bactericidal. This phenomenon is due to morphological and chemical reasons with a consequent effect on consumers’ health and industry costs. In this sense, the lack of effective, reliable, permanent, non-toxic, non-corrosive, and eco-sustainable sanitizing agents has driven the research to new technological approaches to counteract bacterial contamination in the food industry. In this chapter we summarized the latest commercially available strategies, which have been proposed to reduce/replace the use of toxic and polluting sanitizing agents in the food industry such as iodine, biguanide, quaternary ammonium compounds, peracetic acid, and sodium hypochlorite and, at the same time, allow a long-lasting effect against bacterial contamination.
... By the years nutraceuticals gained importance in recent times in view of the increasing demand for improving production performance in poultry birds and restriction or ban on use of antibiotics in feed supplements (Dhama et al., 2014a(Dhama et al., , 2014bDi Cerbo et al., 2018;Filazi and Yurdakok-Dikmen, 2019;Landoni and Albarellos, 2015;Mazzeranghi et al., 2017;Yadav et al., 2016). Nutraceuticals should provide all the necessary elements that support the health and productivity (Helal et al., 2019;Yadav and Jha, 2019) and improved bioavailability and feed utilization efficiency enable better outcomes (Diaz-Sanchez et al., 2015;Yadav and Jha, 2019). ...
Article
Antibiotics use in poultry as a growth promoter leads to the propagation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and incorporation of drug residues in foods; therefore, it has been restricted in different countries. There is a global trend to limit the use of antibiotics in the animal products. Prevention of the antibiotics use in the poultry diets led to the reduction in the growth performance. Consequently, there is a high demand for natural substances that lead to the same growth enhancement and beneficially affect poultry health. These constituents play essential roles in regulating the normal physiological functions of animals including the protection from infectious ailments. Nutraceuticals administration resulted beneficial in both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Being the natural components of diet, they are compatible with it and do not pose risks associated with antibiotics or other drugs. Nutraceuticals are categorized as commercial additives obtained from natural products as an alternative feed supplement for the improvement of animal welfare. This group includes enzymes, synbiotics, phytobiotics, organic acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the present review, the summary of various bioactive ingredients that act as nutraceuticals and their mode of action in growth promotion and elevation of the immune system has been presented.
... Due to the variability of the underlying causes, management of canine dermatological conditions requires a complex approach, usually combining different forms of interventions, such as allergen avoidance and/or specific immunotherapy, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy [9,10]. Alongside these traditional pharmacological therapies, in the last few years, nonpharmacological approaches have been put forward in the hope of reducing clinical signs of certain skin disorders, especially canine atopic dermatitis [11][12][13]; these have included the use of different natural agents and/or complementary feeds ( Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutritional supplements, also known as complementary feeds, are products administered with the aim of furnishing health benefits, regardless of nutritional needs. They have been used since ancient times in veterinary dermatology, and a number of studies have focused on investigating the health benefits of some ingredients found in commercially available complementary feed for dogs. The aim of this paper is to review the literature available on the use of nutritional supplementation for the management of canine skin diseases, critically appraising the clinical efficacy of such interventions and summarizing the current state of knowledge. This review highlights how these feeds can be considered useful in the management of dermatological disorders and outlines their beneficial effects in the prevention of dietary deficiencies and treatment of diseases, alone, or in addition to conventional pharmacological therapy. In recent years, nutritional supplements have found increasing potential application in veterinary medicine, and the scientific proofs of their beneficial effects are described in this review.
Article
Antibiotics have been widely used in the poultry sector to improve production performance, but this has resulted in consumer health concerns. Growing demand for organic products has prompted scientists to develop new methods and materials in the poultry industry. These include the use of medicinal plants or beneficial microorganisms. If properly and legitimately selected and exploited, the future for probiotics and prebiotics appears to be very strong for the poultry industry. Organic or natural feed addi�tives have been found to be more effective than many of the antibiotic growth promoters in reducing the load of harmful gastro�intestinal pathogens. The use of probiotics in a daily supplementa�tion regimen has become a popular routine method in the commercial poultry industry. One of the most important microor�ganisms used since ancient times are yeast and its derivatives. Yeasts play a key role in many complex ecosystems and engage in parasitic, symbiotic, and antagonistic relationships with other microbes. Yeast contains biologically essential proteins, vitamin B-complex, mannan oligosaccharide, B-D-Glucan, vital trace miner�als, carotenoids, and numerous unexplained growth-promoting substances. The combination of these nutritional metabolites increases poultry health by balancing the immune system while boosting gut health and nutrient digestibility. Due to prohibitions on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in many countries, these yeast-based products are replacing additives in chicken feed since they have certain health and nutritional benefits. In several studies, incorporating yeast into diets improved nutrient utilisation and boosted egg weight and egg production in layer chickens. In this review, we will discuss the uses of yeast in laying hen nutrition as an alternative way for organ
Article
Full-text available
Background. Oxytetracycline (OTC), which is largely employed in zootechnical and veterinary practices to ensure wellness of farmed animals, is partially absorbed within the gastrointestinal tract depositing in several tissues. Therefore, the potential OTC toxicity is relevant when considering the putative risk derived by the entry and accumulation of such drug in human and pet food chain supply. Despite scientific literature highlights several OTC-dependent toxic effects on human and animal health, the molecular mechanisms of such toxicity are still poorly understood. Methods. Here, we evaluated DNA damages and epigenetic alterations by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, chromatin immuno-precipitation and Western blot analysis. Results. We observed that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressedDNAdamage features (activation ofATMand p53, phosphorylation ofH2AX and modifications of histone H3 methylation of lysine K4 in the chromatin) after the in vitro exposure to OTC. These changes are linked to a robust inflammatory response indicated by an increased expression of Interferon (IFN)-g and type 1 superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Discussion. Our data reveal an unexpected biological in vitro activity of OTC able to modify DNA and chromatin in cultured human PBMC. In this regard, OTC presence in foods of animal origin could represent a potential risk for both the human and animal health.
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND:Canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (cKCS) is an inflammatory eye condition related to a deficiency in the tear aqueous fraction. Etiopathogenesis of such disease is substantially multifactorial, combining the individual genetic background with environmental factors that contribute to the process of immunological tolerance disruption and, as a consequence, to the emergence of autoimmunity disease. In this occurrence, it is of relevance the role of the physiological immune-dysregulation that results in immune-mediated processes at the basis of cKCS. Current therapies for this ocular disease rely on immunosuppressive treatments. Clinical response to treatment frequently varies from poor to good, depending on the clinical-pathological status of eyes at diagnosis and on individual response to therapy. In the light of the variability of clinical response to therapies, we evaluated the use of an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant nutraceutical diet with potential immune-modulating activity as a therapeutical adjuvant in cKCS pharmacological treatment. Such combination was administered to a cohort of dogs affected by cKCS in which the only immunosuppressive treatment resulted poorly responsive or ineffective in controlling the ocular symptoms. RESULTS: Fifty dogs of different breeds affected by immune-mediated cKCS were equally distributed and randomly assigned to receive either a standard diet (control, n = 25) or the nutraceutical diet (treatment group, n = 25) both combined with standard immunosuppressive therapy over a 60 days period. An overall significant improvement of all clinical parameters (tear production, conjunctival inflammation, corneal keratinization, corneal pigment density and mucus discharge) and the lack of food-related adverse reactions were observed in the treatment group (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the association of traditional immune-suppressive therapy with the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties of the nutraceutical diet resulted in a significant amelioration of clinical signs and symptoms in cKCS. The beneficial effects, likely due to the presence of supplemented nutraceuticals in the diet, appeared to specifically reduce the immune-mediated ocular symptoms in those cKCS-affected dogs that were poorly responsive or unresponsive to classical immunosuppressive drugs. These data suggest that metabolic changes could affect the immune response orchestration in a model of immune-mediated ocular disease, as represented by cKCS.
Article
Full-text available
Several extrinsic factors, like drugs and chemicals, can foster autoimmunity. Tetracyclines, in particular oxytetracycline (OTC), appear to correlate with the emergence of immune-mediated diseases. Accumulation of OTC, the elective drug for gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious disease treatment in broiler chickens, was reported in chicken edible tissues and could represent a potential risk for pets and humans that could assume this antibiotic as residue in meat or in meat-derived byproducts. We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of a pool of thirteen botanicals as a part of a nutraceutical diet, with proven immunomodulatory activity . In addition, we evaluated the effect of such botanicals in contrasting the in vitro proinflammatory toxicity of OTC. Our results showed a significant reduction in interferon- (INF-) γ production by human and canine lymphocytes in presence of botanicals ( p ⁎ < 0.05 ). Increased INF- γ production, dependent on 24-hour OTC-incubation of T lymphocytes, was significantly reduced by the coincubation with Haematococcus pluvialis , with Glycine max , and with the mix of all botanicals ( p ⁎ < 0.05 ). In conclusion, the use of these botanicals was shown to be able to contrast OTC-toxicity and could represent a new approach for the development of functional foods useful to enhance the standard pharmacological treatment in infections as well as in preventing or reducing the emergence of inflammatory diseases.
Article
Full-text available
In dogs, diets are often used to modulate behavioral disturbances related to chronic anxiety and stress caused by intense and restless activity. However, the traditional ways to monitor behavioral changes in dogs are complicated and not efficient. In the current clinical evaluation, a new, simple monitoring system was used to assess the effectiveness of a specific diet in positively modulating the intense and restless activity of 24 dogs of different ages and breeds. This protocol describes how to easily and rapidly evaluate improvement in a set of symptoms related to generalized anxiety by using a specific sensor, a mobile phone app, a wireless router, and a computer. The results showed that dogs treated with specific diets showed significant improvement in the times spent active and at rest after 10 days (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). These dogs also showed an overall significant improvement in clinical and behavioral symptoms. A specific sensor, along with its related hardware, was demonstrated to successfully monitor behavioral changes relating to movement in dogs.
Article
Full-text available
Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.
Article
Full-text available
To diagnose cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats, dietary restriction-provocation trials are performed. Knowing the most common offending food allergens for these species would help determining the order of food challenges to optimize the time to diagnosis. The search for, and review and analysis of the best evidence available as of January 16, 2015 suggests that the most likely food allergens contributing to canine CAFRs are beef, dairy products, chicken, and wheat. The most common food allergens in cats are beef, fish and chicken. In dogs and cats, after a period of dietary restriction leading to the complete remission of clinical signs, food challenges to diagnose CAFR should begin with beef and dairy products, the most commonly recognized food allergens in these two species.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this evaluation study was to assess the possible role of a specific nutraceutical diet in relieving main clinical symptoms of chronic bilateral otitis externa (occlusion of ear canal, erythema, discharge quantity, and odor) in 30 adult dogs. Thirty dogs of different breeds (mean age ± SEM; 6.03 ± 0.15 years and mean weight ± SEM; 32.01 ± 1.17 Kg; 53.3 % males, 46.6 % females) with evident chronic clinical otitis symptoms were equally divided and randomly assigned to receive either the nutraceutical diet (ND group) or a standard diet (SD group) over a period of 90 days. In all cases a topical pharmacological treatment was given. The nutraceutical diet, also endowed with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, significantly decreased the mean score intensity of all symptoms after 90 days of intervention (P < 0.0001) with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis infection which was only slightly reduced. Our investigation is one of the few evidence-based results where a commercial nutraceutical diet has been proven effective, in combination with drugs, in relieving otitis externa-related symptoms. This study opens new insights into otitis externa clinical management providing evidence of efficacy of a combined therapy with drugs and a specific nutraceutical diet.
Article
Full-text available
Background Clinical appearance and evolution of Canine Leishmaniosis (CL) are the consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and the genetic and immunological backgrounds. We investigated the effect of an immune-modulating diet in CL. Dogs were treated with anti- Leishmania pharmacological therapy combined with standard diet (SD Group) or with the immune-modulating diet (IMMD Group). CD3+ CD4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD3+ CD4+ IFN-γ + T helper 1 (Th1) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results All sick dogs showed low platelet number at diagnosis (T0). A platelet increase was observed after six months (T6) SD Group, with still remaining in the normal range at twelve months (T12). IMMD Group showed an increase in platelet number becoming similar to healthy dogs at T6 and T12. An increase of CD4/CD8 ratio was revealed in SD Group after three months (T3), while at T6 and at T12 the values resembled to T0. The increase in CD4/CD8 ratio at T3 was maintained at T6 and T12 in IMMD Group. A reduction in the percentage of Treg of all sick dogs was observed at T0. A recovery of Treg percentage was observed only at T3 in SD Group, while this effect disappeared at T6 and T12. In contrast, Treg percentage became similar to healthy animals in IMDD Group at T3, T6 and T12. Sick dogs showed an increase of Th1 cells at T0 as compared with healthy dogs. We observed the occurrence of a decrease of Th1 cells from T3 to T12 in SD Group, although a trend of increase was observed at T6 and T12. At variance, IMMD Group dogs showed a progressive decrease of Th1 cells, whose levels became similar to healthy controls at T6 and T12. Conclusion The immune-modulating diet appears to regulate the immune response in CL during the standard pharmacological treatment. The presence of nutraceuticals in the diet correlates with the decrease of Th1 cells and with the increase of Treg in sick dogs. Therefore, the administration of the specific dietary supplement improved the clinical response to the standard treatment in a model of CL.
Article
Full-text available
Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.
Article
Full-text available
Antibiotics are widely used in zoo technical and veterinary practices as feed supplementation to ensure wellness of farmed animals and livestock. Several evidences have been suggesting both the toxic role for tetracyclines, particularly for oxytetracycline (OTC). This potential toxicity appears of great relevance for human nutrition and for domestic animals. This study aimed to extend the evaluation of such toxicity. The biologic impact of the drug was assessed by evaluating the proinflammatory effect of OTC and their bone residues on cytokine secretion by in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Our results showed that both OTC and OTC-bone residues significantly induced the T lymphocyte and non-T cell secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ, as cytokine involved in inflammatory responses in humans as well as in animals. These results may suggest a possible implication for new potential human and animal health risks depending on the entry of tetracyclines in the food-processing chain.