Technical Report

Call for Papers- Small Business Economics - Reviews, frameworks and Models (1.8 -2015 impact factor, A journal)

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  • University of PR, USA; University of Reading-England; Former Faculty member, Uni of Washington,
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This review systematically examines comparative international entrepreneurship (CIE) research, analyzing 259 articles published in 21 leading journals from 1989 to 2010. We outline the importance of multi-country studies of entrepreneurial activity in enabling the comparison and replication of research and generating meaningful contributions to scholarship, practice, and policy. Our systematic review classifies research findings into four levels—individual, firm, industry, and country—each with respect to characteristics, antecedents, and outcomes of entrepreneurial activities as well as theory and methodology. Taken together, our review highlights the heterogeneous nature of entrepreneurship across countries and its role in explaining outcomes at firm (e.g., financial and export performance) and country (e.g., economic growth) levels as well as antecedents at the country level (e.g., culture). We find the CIE literature is highly fragmented with substantial knowledge gaps related to content, theory, and methodology, for which we outline a detailed future research agenda. Given the atheoretical nature of most published CIE research, we provide specific suggestions to extend the current dominant theoretical perspectives (institutions, culture, resource-based view, transaction cost economics, economic growth, and human capital); consider new lenses from management, international business, and entrepreneurship; and integrate and test multiple theories. From a content perspective, we outline the need to define and cross-reference prior studies of entrepreneurship and prioritize emerging phenomena that are critical to practice, and policy, and offer specific directives for integrated and multi-level studies of characteristics, antecedents, and outcomes. Methodological suggestions include theory-based rationale for the selection of countries, greater attention to data collection and sample selection equivalence, and the solutions to the ecological fallacy problem. We urge scholars to work together and across countries, cooperating with interested agencies and associations to develop new longitudinal, multi-level data sets and introduce dual qualitative/quantitative approaches and new diverse, sophisticated analytical tools.
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Entrepreneurial intention is a rapidly evolving field of research. A growing number of studies use entrepreneurial intention as a powerful theoretical framework. However, a substantial part of this research lacks systematization and categorization, and there seems to be a tendency to start anew with every study. Therefore, there is a need to take stock of current knowledge in this field. In this sense, this paper carries out a review of the literature on entrepreneurial intentions. A total of 409 papers addressing entrepreneurial intention, published between 2004 and 2013 (inclusive), have been analyzed. The purpose and contribution of this paper is to offer a clearer picture of the sub-fields in entrepreneurial intention research, by concentrating on two aspects. Firstly, it reviews recent research by means of a citation analysis to categorize the main areas of specialization currently attracting the attention of the academic community. Secondly, a thematic analysis is carried out to identify the specific themes being researched within each category. Despite the large number of publications and their diversity, the present study identifies five main research areas, plus an additional sixth category for a number of new research papers that cannot be easily classified into the five areas. Within those categories, up to twenty-five different themes are recognized. A number of research gaps are singled out within each of these areas of specialization, in order to induce new ways and perspectives in the entrepreneurial intention field of research that may be fruitful in filling these gaps.
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In this study we draw on the social network and international entrepreneurship literatures to examine the role of structural and relational embeddedness of international networks in firm internationalization. Based on a sample of 169 small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic, we found that firms with chief executive officers who had developed strong and diverse international networks exhibited greater knowledge of foreign markets prior to internationalization. However, contrary to our expectations, no relationship was found between network density and such knowledge. In addition, our findings indicate that foreign market knowledge prior to the first international venture had a positive impact on venture performance.
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The aim of this paper is double. Firstly, it contributes to identifying the specific role of national culture as a variable that helps explain the level of economic development and reinforces the effect of entrepreneurship on the income level. Secondly, a deeper understanding of these relations in the case of the European Union is sought. In this study, data from two different sources have been used. The Schwartz Value Survey measures seven cultural orientations that are then grouped into three bipolar dimensions (embeddedness vs. autonomy, hierarchy vs. egalitarianism and mastery vs. harmony). The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides information regarding entrepreneurial activity. Using linear regression analysis, cultural and entrepreneurial variables are able to classify countries according to their development level, explaining over 60 % of the variance in Gross Domestic Product per capita. The role of culture is complex, with geographical elements being significantly relevant. In the case of Europe, some common elements conform what could be called “a European culture”: autonomy and egalitarianism clearly predominate over embeddedness and hierarchy, while harmony tends to prevail over mastery. Nevertheless, four well-defined groups of countries within the European Union emerge. Central and Northern Europe is closer to this European stereotypical culture, while English-speaking countries, Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean area exhibit their own differentiating elements each. These differences also exist with regard to entrepreneurial activity (overall Total Entrepreneurial Activity, necessity and opportunity-driven activity). Each of the four regional entrepreneurial cultures is characterized by a different entrepreneurial dynamics that may be plausibly explained by culture and income.
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During the last decade emerging market firms (EMFs) have increasingly attracted scholarly attention. Yet, the conclusions concerning the nature and the theoretical foundations of EMFs’ international expansion vary greatly thus calling for a critical assessment of the existing theorizing in this field. We examine publications on the internationalization of EMFs in fourteen top international management (IM) journals in the period of 2000–2010 and use the inductive approach and the qualitative content analysis methodology. Our analysis shows that the published research can be classified into two groups: macro- and micro-level studies. The former predominantly employ macro-level institutional factors to examine the overall patterns of EMFs’ international expansion, while the latter build on a wider range of approaches, including the resource-based view, network and strategy perspectives to investigate various aspects of EMFs’ internationalization. The paper identifies a number of theoretical inconsistencies in the existing research that arguably cause ambiguity in findings and suggests future research directions to address these inconsistencies. By doing so the analysis contributes to the central debate in literature concerning whether conventional theories suffice to explain the EMFs’ internationalization or new theoretical approaches are needed. The analysis illustrates that the research on EMFs’ internationalization can be improved through refined application of a broader range of methodologies such as longitudinal and mixed-method studies. The geographic focus of studies needs to be widened as well. Currently it is clearly biased towards China, while other emerging markets remain under-researched.
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This manuscript offers a theory regarding two distinct avenues to new venture internationalization: a direct path described in much of the extant literature and an intermediated one in which new ventures and multinational firms create symbiotic relationships in order to expand internationally. The term “born local”, as opposed to “born global”, describes how new ventures are created from knowledge spillovers and other resources in a geographically bounded environment. The theory suggests that the greater the number of value chain activities and the greater the number of countries involved, the more likely that the new venture will pursue the intermediated mode of internationalization. We suggest that new ventures frequently specialize and use existing MNEs as conduits for international expansion; however the greater the perceived ex-post costs of protecting intellectual property, transaction costs, and extraction costs related to hold-up, agency, and monopoly rents, the more likely the new venture will pursue a direct mode of internationalization.
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In this article, the authors analyze the field of international entrepreneurship (IE), which is in desperate need of further theory development. They study the field of IE since its inception by offering a comprehensive review of 179 articles on IE published in 16 journals over 14 years, covering the academic disciplines of strategic management, international business, entrepreneurship, and technology and innovation management. From a systematic content analysis of this literature, the authors develop an organizing framework to analyze the field’s current status. On the basis of this analysis, the authors can identify theoretical inconsistencies, conflicting predictions, and knowledge gaps that all forestall the further development of IE research. They then develop directions for future research that can help to overcome these obstacles and promote future theory development.
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The intention of this paper is to review the literature linking ownership and location strategies to economic geography and theories of globalisation and to explore new areas of research. This paper examines globalisation in terms of conflicts between markets and economic management, and suggests that the differential pace of globalisation across markets presents a number of challenges to policy makers in local, national and regional governments, and in international institutions. In examining the changing location and ownership strategies of MNEs, it shows that the increasingly sophisticated decision making of managers in MNEs is slicing the activities of firms more finely and in finding optimum locations for each closely defined activity, they are deepening the international division of labour. Ownership strategies, too, are becoming increasingly complex, leading to a control matrix that runs from wholly owned units via FDI through market relationships such as subcontracting, including joint ventures as options on subsequent decisions in a dynamic pattern. The input of lessons from economic geography is thus becoming more important in understanding the key developments in international business. The consequences of the globalisation of production and consumption represent political challenges, and reaction against these changes has led to a questioning of the effects of global capitalism as well as to its moral basis. These four issues are closely intertwined and present a formidable research agenda to which the international business research community is uniquely fitted to respond.
Article
This paper offers a review of published conceptual and empirical studies indexed in the main academic search databases, covering literature on the internationalization of small and medium-sized firms. We analyzed a total of 554 papers covering the period between 1977 and 2014, and found the following general trends: empirical research focuses mainly on Europe and is characterized by a diversity that identifies 74 different topics. This study provides academics and practitioners with a clear perspective on future directions of SME internationalization and contributes to our understanding of the relevant research to date. Copyright © 2016 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Le présent article propose un tour d'horizon des études empiriques et conceptuelles sur l'internationalisation des petites et moyennes entreprises répertoriées dans les principales bases de données de recherches scientifiques. L'analyse de 554 articles publiés entre 1977 et 2014 met en évidence les tendances suivantes : les études empiriques portent surtout sur l'Europe et couvrent soixante-quatorze sujets différents. L'étude propose aux chercheurs et aux praticiens des pistes claires pour les recherches futures sur l'internationalisation des PME en même temps qu'elle permet de mieux cerner les recherches pertinentes existantes. Copyright © 2016 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Purpose – Globalization means integrating the economy and consumer market with the rest of the world, which involves the removal of restrictions on imports and foreign investment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of globalization on international marketing from the point of multinational firms, in the context of an emerging consumer market – India. Design/methodology/approach – This is a general review-based study with some secondary data analysis. The author introduces new measures for industry analysis. Findings – It was found that Indian market has opened up substantially and there are many foreign players in most sectors. Imports growth rate has gone up substantially during post-World Trade Organization period. The author provides insights based on sector-wise analysis. Originality/value – The most important contribution of this paper is the introduction of two measures for carrying out industry analysis by integrating economics, marketing and strategy a Success-probability Index (SPI); and an Opportunity-Threat Matrix (OTM). The author puts forward generalized theoretical propositions for further research, which can be tested in an emerging market/industry context
Article
China and India implemented the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements, removing restrictions with the intent to increase international trade and foreign investment. This article aims to examine whether this objective was achieved by analyzing trends in exports and imports, and determining Granger Causality among FDI, exports, and imports during the pre- and post-WTO periods. Our results show that India’s imports have more than dou- bled throughout the post-WTO period, indicating substantial WTO effectiveness in India, while the WTO’s effect in China is mixed and not that significant. Further, four theoretical propositions have been posited to encourage further research.
Article
China and India implemented the World Trade Organization 5 (WTO) agreements, removing restrictions with the intent to increase international trade and foreign investment. This article aims to examine whether this objective was achieved by analyzing trends in exports and imports, and determining Granger Causality among FDI, exports, and imports during the pre- and post-WTO 10 periods. Our results show that India’s imports have more than dou- bled throughout the post-WTO period, indicating substantial WTO effectiveness in India, while the WTO’s effect in China is mixed and not that significant. Further, four theoretical propositions have been posited to encourage further research. 15
Article
Introduction. The paper at hand examines the influence of Cognitive Style (CS) and International Experience (IE) on International Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy (IESE) and International Entrepreneurial Intention (IEI) as well as the role of Academic Education (AE) in this context. Method. Based on a survey that was conducted among 111 students the hypotheses were verified by means of various structural equation models. Results. The results showed that IE significantly influences IEI whereas the influence of CS on IEI is significant in none of the models. IESE is neither influenced by IE nor by CS. Discussion. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Both Cognitive Styles (CS), analytical as well as intuitive, have to be promoted in Academic Education; (2) Further research is need in measuring Cognitive Style (CS); (3) Existing IE acquired in Academic Education can make an important contribution to overcome obstacles in the formation of IEIs; (4) In contrary to Ajzen (1985) experience can be more than a background factor in contexts like international entrepreneurship.
Article
This paper provides insights and evidence related to the process and intensity of internationalization of firms in the Information Technology (IT) sector, which is the driving force of high economic growth in the Indian sub-continent during the last two decades. Research objectives were set as (i) to examine the existence of born global firms in the IT sector, (ii) to identify the process of internationalization adopted by firms in the IT industry, (iii) to measure the intensity of internationalization of IT firms. The paper is based on data collected from annual financial reports of firms listed in the CNX IT Index of National Stock Exchange of India. Two clusters were extracted using hierarchical clustering method followed by k-means clustering to analyze the characteristics of the variables. We find that the firms in both clusters are true global firms with 66 and 85% of their income from foreign markets with a very high level of international intensity. Though the findings provide some evidence for the gradual internationalization of Indian IT firms; the empirical results indicate that firm age has no impact on internationalization. The results from our study also show that firms, especially in certain industries such as IT, do have access to information that reduces the risk aversion.
Article
Entrepreneurial intention is a rapidly evolving field of research, with a growing number of studies using entrepreneurial intention as a powerful theoretical framework. Some authors, however, are now calling for scholars to rethink the future of research on entrepreneurial intentions. This paper addresses this issue and, on the basis of a number of knowledge gaps in the literature, proposes future directions for research.
Article
Globalization and the emergence of internationally active small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are key worldwide trends. The author investigates the interrelationships of entrepreneurial orientation, marketing strategy, tactics, and firm performance among SMEs affected by globalization. The author offers empirical findings and conclusions on the critical roles of entrepreneurship and marketing to assist SME managers.
Article
This paper investigates why some companies export a larger percentage of their total sales than others, although they operate in the same industry. A variety of interesting but fragmented findings on specific determinants of export intensity is integrated into a coherent model. This is tested empirically, using a sample of British mechanical engineering companies.
Article
Internationalisation has been widely explored due to its importance in both organisational and regional development. Nevertheless, so far, no complete and well-supported theory of cross-border entrepreneurial behaviour exists. Recently, some studies indicate that important findings and shifts in international entrepreneurship research can occur by applying a cognitive perspective. This paper proposes a conceptual model for exploring the cognitive dimension of the early internationalisation of ventures, relying on the intentional patterns of this behaviour as well as on its antecedents and determinants. The proposed model may also serve as a bridge to link the past theoretical approaches that have usually been viewed as contradictory.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the similarities and differences in the internationalization of SMEs and MNEs and the specific factors affecting them. Design/methodology/approach - The relevant literature was reviewed particularly in the context of the major theories of internationalization. Findings - The positive and negative aspects of each theoretical approach to internationalization are present to form the basis of a new model of international entrepreneurship. Research limitations/implications - The newly developed conceptual model has not been empirically tested. Originality/value - A redeveloped theoretical integrative conceptual model of international entrepreneurship is proposed based on four internationalization properties (mode, market, product, and time), internationalization performance, and key antecedents and consequences of the internationalization process.
Article
This article uses Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to build an entrepreneurial intention questionnaire (EIQ) and analyzes its psychometric properties. The entrepreneurial intention model is then tested on a 519-individual sample from two rather diverse countries: Spain and Taiwan. EIQ and structural equation techniques have been used to try to overcome previous research limitations. The role of culture in explaining motivational perceptions has been specifically considered. Results indicate EIQ properties are satisfactory and strong support for the model is found. Relevant insights are derived about how cultural values modify the way individuals in each society perceive entrepreneurship.
Article
While International Entrepreneurship has attracted scholars’ attention during the last two decades, the impact cognitive aspects exert has been studied on cursory level only. The purpose of this paper was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to the very field of International Entrepreneurship in order to examine whether this theory contributes to clarify what influences Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SME) decision-makers’ intention—an important cognitive antecedent to behavior—to play an active part in internationalization. In particular, it had to be clarified whether or not International Entrepreneurship—due to its contextual specificities—deserves to be extended by further elements, i.e. experience and knowledge. Based on more than 100 responses from German SME executives, the study yielded several interesting results. First, TPB indeed helps explain how intentions to actively participate in international business are built. Second, an extension of the theory’s basic model seems to make sense, probably due to the specificities of international entrepreneurial behavior. As for the extensions, direct and moderating effects have been observed. Furthermore, cognitive elements seem to be key entrepreneurial resources which serve as sort of enablers. From these results several conclusions can be drawn. Cognitive aspects are a promising starting point for understanding decision-making in SME. Thus, the intersection of international entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial cognition deserves further attention—several examples for possible future studies are presented. Policies supporting SME should be extended: pure resource-based approaches seem to be insufficient. Furthermore, entrepreneurship courses and curricula should reflect the relevance of cognitive aspects. KeywordsInternational entrepreneurship–Cognition–Intention–TPB
Article
We draw on entrepreneurship research to present a framework for international new ventures as the cross-border nexus of individuals and opportunities. Opportunities may be associated with cross-border combinations of resources and/or markets and therefore vary along these two dimensions. This framework accounts for the emergence of firms whose very existence stems from opportunities to engage in the cross-border combination of resources and/or markets. This perspective has important implications for whether internationalization follows competitive advantage or vice versa and also helps explain how the identification and exploitation of opportunities to create international new ventures may contribute to economic development.
Article
This paper is an introduction to the special issue on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Global Economy. The paper gives a broad outline of globalization, the role of technology, and examines the role that small and medium-sized enterprises play in the global economy. We focus on foreign direct investment of small technology based firms and how their innovations diffuse into the global economy. Copyright 1997 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
Foreign operation methods: Theory, analysis, strategy
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  • G R Benito
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Welch, L. S., Benito, G. R., & Petersen, B. (2008). Foreign operation methods: Theory, analysis, strategy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
SME internationalization research: Mapping the state of the art. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration
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Ribau, C. P., Moreira, A. C., & Raposo, M. (2016). SME internationalization research: Mapping the state of the art. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration. 10.1002/cjas.1419.