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Impact of Senior Dance on emotional and motor parameters and quality of life of the elderly

Article

Impact of Senior Dance on emotional and motor parameters and quality of life of the elderly

Abstract

Objective to verify the effects of Senior Dance on cognitive and motor parameters and quality of life of elderly people. Methods pre-experimental study with pre and post-test for a group with a convenience sample composed of 20 elderly of both genders. Participants were evaluated through the agility test, the balance scale and inventories of depression and anxiety, and a questionnaire on quality of life. Elderly people participated in a physical activity program featured as Senior Dance for a period of three months. Results the intervention resulted in improved scores in most of the variables, with significant results only for anxiety classified as temporary emotional state. Conclusion Senior Dance was effective as physical exercise to improve the quality of life, as well as the physical and mental health of the elderly.
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Received: Nov. 1st 2016; Accepted: Jan. 16th 2017. Rev Rene. 2017 Jan-Feb; 18(1):51-8.
DOI: 10.15253/2175-6783.2017000100008
www.revistarene.ufc.br
Original Article
Impact of Senior Dance on emotional and motor parameters and
quality of life of the elderly
Impacto da Dança Sênior nos parâmetros emocionais, motores e qualidade de vida de idosos
José Alípio Garcia Gouvêa1, Mateus Dias Antunes1, Flavio Bortolozzi1, Andrea Grano Marques1, Sônia Maria
Marques Gomes Bertolini1
Objective: to verify the effects of Senior Dance on cognitive and motor parameters and quality of life of elderly
people. Methods: pre-experimental study with pre and post-test for a group with a convenience sample
composed of 20 elderly of both genders. Participants were evaluated through the agility test, the balance scale
and inventories of depression and anxiety, and a questionnaire on quality of life. Elderly people participated in
a physical activity program featured as Senior Dance for a period of three months. Results: the intervention
                
temporary emotional state. Conclusion: Senior Dance was effective as physical exercise to improve the quality
of life, as well as the physical and mental health of the elderly.
Descriptors: Dancing; Postural Balance; Aged; Mental Health; Quality of Life.
Objetivo               
vida de idosos. Métodos: estudo pré-experimental, com delineamento de pré e pós-teste para um grupo, com
uma amostra por conveniência composta por 20 idosos de ambos os gêneros avaliados por meio do teste de
agilidade, escala de equilíbrio e inventários de depressão, ansiedade e questionário de qualidade de vida. Os
 
três meses. Resultados: a intervenção apresentou melhores escores na maioria das variáveis, com resultados
         Conclusão: a Dança

Descritores: 
1Centro Universitário de Maringá. Maringá, PR, Brazil.
Corresponding author: Mateus Dias Antunes
Av. Guedner, 1610 - Jardim Aclimação, CEP: 87050-390. Maringá, PR, Brazil. E-mail: mateus_antunes03@hotmail.com
Gouvêa JAG, Antunes MD, Bortolozzi F, Marques AG, Bertolini SMMG
Rev Rene. 2017 Jan-Feb; 18(1):51-8.
52
Introduction
Cognitive ability is one determinant of quality
of life in old age, since losses in cognitive functions
may result in impaired physical, social and emotional
functioning of the elderly. Evidence shows that cogni-
tive impairment is strongly associated with impaired
mobility, as well as spatial disorientation and deterio-
ration of executive functions. Physical exercise can im-
prove mental health and contribute to prevent disor-
ders such as depression and even dementia(1).
In order to promote healthier aging, dance has
been indicated as a form of physical activity. Dance is
understood as art through body expression and deter-
mines the state of mind of people. Dance is related to
improving the quality of life of the elderly, improving
both the mobility and psychological problems as a
result of socialization. This makes self-esteem of the
elderly to increase, making them to leave a sedentary
lifestyle to become more physically active(2).
In 1974, a physical activity program called Dan-
ce Senior was created in Germany. The program was
based on folk songs of diverse peoples and most often
performed in circles, reliving childhood songs(3). Dan-
ce Senior causes the elderly to work physically with
planning, decision making and monitoring. These
tasks relate the functional capabilities by using a sys-
tematized set of choreographies specially adapted to
the possibilities and needs of the elderly(4).
There is evidence that physical activities such
as dance, which require in essence intense cognitive
demand, such memorizing sequences of movement
patterns and sustained attention to unintended chan-
-
cular, skeletal and cardiovascular systems, but also the
central nervous system, because of engaging the pro-
cess of executive control(5).
Physical and mental abilities have great syner-
gy with the quality of life of older people. Through
body language, such as dance movements, the elder-
  
intellectual and physical aspects(5). The guiding ques-
tion of the present study was: “What is the effect of the
Dance Senior on cognitive and motor parameters and
on the quality of life of short-stay elderly?”. Thus, the
aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the
Dance Senior on cognitive and motor parameters and
on the quality of life of the elderly.
Methods
This is a pre-experimental study with pre and
post-test for a group carrried out from February to
May 2014 in a convenience sample of 20 elderly of
both genders. Participants were aged between 60 and
89 years and they are regular visitors of two short-
-stay institutions for the elderly known as Day Centre
in the city of Maringá, PR, Brazil. A living space for
low-income seniors is provided during the daytime in
these institutions.
Inclusion criteria for selection of the sample
were: apparently healthy elderly who were able to re-
main in the upright position, with ability to walk with
or without assistance, whithout history of serious di-
seases (cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic or neu-
romuscular). Regarding the exclusion criteria, elderly
who had dementias, who were bedridden and users
of wheelchairs were excluded. As criteria for disconti-
nuation, elderly who did not attend 80.0% of the total
number of classes were excluded from the study.
The elderly were assessed in two moments:

classes, and the second assessment (post-test), after
the intervention program that lasted three months.
The Berg Balance Scale was applied and serves
to evaluate the functional balance of the elderly and
patients with balance disorders. The scale contains 14
tasks common to the activities of daily living. It is com-
       
zero to four points (zero, unable to perform the test
and 4 performs it safely). The score can range from
zero to 56 points. The higher the score, the better the
performance in the test(6).
The Timed Up and Go test was proposed to eva-
Rev Rene. 2017 Jan-Feb; 18(1):51-8.
Impact of Senior Dance on emotional and motor parameters and quality of life of the elderly
53
luate the balance, risk of falls and functional capacity
of the elderly. Adult individuals that are independent
and without impaired balance perform the test in 10
seconds or less. Those who are dependent on other to
carry out basic transfers perform the test in 20 secon-
ds or less. Finally, those individuals who need more
than 20 seconds to perform the test are dependent on
other for accomplishing many activities of daily living
and mobility(7).
To collect the data on the possibility of depres-
sion, we used the Beck Depression Inventory. This is
a scale for self-assessment of depression with 21 ite-
ms including symptoms and attitudes, each with four
statements in degrees of intensity that go from 0 to
3. There are different proposed cutoffs for the Beck
Depression Inventory depending on the nature of the
sample and the study’s objectives. In samples that
have not received medical diagnosis of depression,
such as the participants of this study, the literature
      
-
sion(8).
To evaluate anxiety we used the State-Trait An-
xiety Inventory. State anxiety is characterized by un-
pleasant feelings of apprehension and tension cons-
ciously perceived that can vary in intensity according
to the danger perceived by the person and the change
in time. Trait anxiety refers to relatively stable indivi-
dual differences in the tendency to react to situations
perceived as threatening, situations that rise the in-
tensity of the state of anxiety. It has a lasting effect in
the person because, as a personality trait, anxiety is
less sensitive to environmental changes and remains
relatively constant in time. The total score of each sca-
le ranges from 20 to 80, wherein higher values indica-
te higher levels of anxiety(9).
Quality of life was assessed through the WHO-
QOL-BREF questionnaire, a short version of the WHO-
QOL-100. This is composed of 26 questions of which
two relate to the individual’s perception of quality
of life and health and the others (24) are distributed
in four domains: physical, psychological, social re-
lationships and environmental. The closer to 20, the
better the quality of life in the assessed domain, and
the closer to 100, the better the overall quality of life(1).
Intervention with Senior Dance includes global
movements that mobilize the joints, help the physi-
cal and mental balance, posture, gait and stretching.
With the help of music, the Senior Dance estimulates
the memorization of movements through the rhythms
awakening social life, besides improving activities of
daily living(4). Classes lasted 45 minutes, were conduc-
ted three times a week for three months, resulting in
a total of 40 classes. Welcome songs were used, inclu-
ding Seated Waltz and Mexican Waltz, with the elderly
in the sitting position, and Tschok House in standing
position. These used low-impact choreography, short
and light steps and gentle movements, always respec-
ting the limits of each participant, and the activity was

      
 -
eks - 6 lessons) - Welcome songs; second stage (3 we-
eks - 9 classes) - Sitting Waltz song; third stage (3 we-
eks - 9 classes) - Mexican Waltz song; fourth stage (3

weeks - 9 classes) - all songs. The material used was a
stereo and 20 chairs.
Data were entered in a Microsoft Excel 2010
spreadsheet and analyzed statistically with the Statis-
tica 8.0 software. Normal distribution of the data was
tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Means and standard
deviations were evaluated for quantitative variables,
to which the Wilcoxon test was used for pairwise com-
parisons. As for paired situations, frequency tables
with percentage were used, followed by the McNemar

  

The study complied with the formal require-
ments contained in the national and international
regulatory standards for research involving human
beings.
Gouvêa JAG, Antunes MD, Bortolozzi F, Marques AG, Bertolini SMMG
Rev Rene. 2017 Jan-Feb; 18(1):51-8.
54
Results
Twenty elderly people participated in the Dan-

        
78.84 ± 5.26 years and of men, 78.42 ± 8.27 years. As
for education, regardless of gender, 55.0% of elderly
people could not read or write.
Table 1 shows the results of the effects of the
40 dance sessions in motor variables of the elderly,
which obtained the highest scores in the post-test for
the Berg Balance Scale (p<0.001) and for the Timed
Up and Go
both, balance and agility.
Table 1 - Pre- and post-test results for the Berg Ba-
lance Scale and the Timed Up and Go test for elderly

Tests Pre-test Post-test Difference (%) p
Berg Balance Scale
(score) 44.05 ± 0.5 48.15 ± 4.76 9.3 <0.001*
Timed Up and Go
(seconds) 15.74 ± 11.22 14.16 ± 8.6 11.5 0.049 *
*   Wilcoxon     
level of 5%
The results of the Beck Depression Inventory
applied in pre- and post-dance moments are presen-
ted in Table 2. The comparison between pre- and post-
-test, as indicator of the effects of the intervention in

difference.
Table 2 - Distribution of cases of depression in the
pre- and post-test of the elderly attending the Senior

Depression
Pre-test Post-test
p
n (%) n (%)
Normal or mild depression 10 (50.0) 11 (55.0)
Depression 10 (50.0) 9 (45.0) 0.831
Total 20 (100.0) 20 (100.0)
       

As for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, trait
anxiety showed a decrease of 7.4% in the score. Ho-

     
this was 12.6% and, in this case, was statistically sig-
    -
dency to perceive as threatening some circumstances
that are not so), there was a reduction of 15.0% of ca-
-
tional state), the reduction was 25.0% of cases.
The post-test group of elderly showed higher
scores in the four domains. The physical and envi-

pre- and post-test (Table 3).
Table 3 - Distribution of scores of quality of life do-
mains of the WHOQOL-BREF in the pre- and post-test

WHOQOL-BREF
(score) Pre-test Post-test Difference
(%) p
Physical 12.71 ± 2.64 14.17 ± 2.47 11.4 0.011*
Psychological 14.29 ± 1.72 15.12 ± 2.54 5.8 0,211
Social relationships 15.06 ± 3.03 15.33 ± 2.81 1.7 0.652
Environmental 13.95 ± 2.03 15.65 ± 2.03 12.1 <0.001*
Total 69.5 ± 7.6 75.4 ± 9.8 7.8 0.004*
 Wilcoxon paired test considering a

Discussion
   -
cant difference pre- and post-test results of the Berg
Balance Scale. Balance is a multi-organ function that
depends mainly on the sensitive-sensorial and motor
systems. As the Senior Dance is a physical activity of
low to moderate intensity, the improved body balan-
ce of the elderly attending the Senior Dance can be
explained most probably by decreased joint stiffness
and improvement of nervous impulse conduction ve-
locity than by increased muscle mass and strength.
A study carried out with elderly people in a
Senior Dance group also showed positive results, in-
Rev Rene. 2017 Jan-Feb; 18(1):51-8.
Impact of Senior Dance on emotional and motor parameters and quality of life of the elderly
55
dicating that this practice is a facilitating method for
working with the elderly(10). Positive results in rela-
tion to balance were also found for a shorter period
of intervention (12 weeks) in a study conducted with
25 elderly participants of a Senior Dance program(11).
The score (in seconds) of the Timed Up and Go
physical mobility test has a strong association with
balance, gait speed and functional capacity, variables
directly related to the propensity to fall. The time
taken to perform the test correlates with the level of
functional mobility. In this study, the time score of the
Timed Up and Go pre- and post-test showed that in
no instance the elderly had propensity to fall. Still, it
     
was found in the Timed Up and Go test between the
two moments of evaluation. A randomized clinical
trial was developed to determine the effect of the Se-
nior Dance in the lower limbs of fragile and sedentary
elderly under residential care in the Czech Republic.
This study concluded that the dance is causes impro-
vement in the functionality of the lower limbs(12).
Interventions of physical exercises involving
      
effective in to activities of daily living, as well to im-
prove the quality of life(13). However, dance move-
ments used as intervention combines therapeutic and
    
that can promote brain plasticity similar to the chan-
ges induced by physical exercise. Thus dance repre-
sents a great tool to promote health in the old age(14).
Depression is a public health problem conside-
red a major cause of disability worldwide. This dise-
ase can lead to limited social, physical and personal
functioning(2). The data presented in Table 2 show the
prevalence of depression in 50.0% of the individuals
at moments before the intervention and in 45.0% in-
dividuals after completion of the program. No statisti-

was found by applying the Beck inventory before and
after the intervention. In this sense, the time of inter-
vention may not have been enough to promote chan-
ges in the psychological parameter of the elderly, as
dance integrates physiological, psychological and so-
ciological components and also provides an opportu-
nity of living with music. Rhythmic moves of dancing
promote functional, emotional and behavioral skills
that are useful for the elderly, even despite the pro-
gression of disabilities. There is psychological eviden-
ce that dance moves prompt positive changes that fa-
cilitate self expression and communication among the
elderly. Dance causes in special a softening of feelings
of fear and isolation, and thus assists he development
of better self-esteem(15).
Normal aging implies a deterioration of cogni-
tive functions that can lead to depression, functional
dependency, low quality of life and decreased physi-
cal activity(16). The Senior Dance has a high cognitive
demand due to memorization of sequences of move-
ment patterns and attention supported by intentional
changes of movements(17). Although this study has not
established relationship between time of the inter-
vention and reduction of symptoms, the duration of
three months was not enough to cause positive effects
  
that when dance is included in programs designed to
the elderly, this prevents cognitive decline and makes
it possible to establish new social relations(18).

in trait anxiety before and after the intervention pe-
   
a study that showed no difference in scores for trait
anxiety in a group of women enrolled in a dance pro-
gram who were compared to a group that was not in-

difference was found for state anxiety in the present
study(2).
-
luated at two different times showed the effects of the
Senior Dance. This activity decreased the degree of
state anxiety. The improvement in state anxiety help
to eliminate unpleasant feelings of tension and ap-
prehension consciously perceived by the elderly. It is
Gouvêa JAG, Antunes MD, Bortolozzi F, Marques AG, Bertolini SMMG
Rev Rene. 2017 Jan-Feb; 18(1):51-8.
56
important to consider the number of participants who
initially showed depression and anxiety in this rese-
arch, because both emotional states may impact the
quality of life of these individuals(19).
Dance activates areas of the brain associated
with perception, emotions, executive function, me-
mory and motor skills. Dancing movements affect pro-
cedural memory skills, such as motor and cognitive(13).
Moving the body while dancing increases the body’s
ability to encode rhythmic movements. This, in turn,
has an effect in the gait of elderly people and, in thera-
peutic terms, these dislocations improve the balance
of elderly(3).
The evaluation of quality of life showed statis-
-
ronmental domains. A study describing the positive
impact of Day Centers in Portugal on the physical do-
main is in accordance with the present results. Ano-
ther important point is the social aspect. The dance
space can provide supervised activities and the possi-
bility of establishing new bonds. This, in turn, produ-
ces a pleasant environment for the elderly. Conside-
ring the need to expand the spaces and practices that
encourage social inclusion of the elderly, the dance is
a form of recreation available to the public and easy to
apply. It does not involve complex techniques that may
pose risks to participants(20).
Elderly who participated in the Senior Dan-
      
scores of domains of quality of life. Therefore, dance
-
tion to improve the quality of life in old age(3). In the
present study, although 55.0% of the elderly did not
know how to read or write, results were similar be-
tween literate and illiterate elderly when it comes to
improvement of scores of all domains, but especially
the physical and environmental.

of Senior Dance on changes resulting from senescen-
     
cognitive and social domains, improving the percep-

       -
terdisciplinary strategy of health perception and pro-
motion in favor of the elderly’s welfare. The inclusion
of the Senior Dance in programs of the Family Heal-
th Strategy and of the Family Health Support Center
as complementary and integrative practices, besides

promotion and prevention of the elderly(10).
The improved results in the balance test after
the intervention suggest reduced risk of falling and
consequent social and economic demands. The decre-
ased state anxiety, as well as the degree of anxiety ex-
perienced by individuals in the sample, endorses the
inclusion of Senior Dance in permanent programs in
Day Centers and also in health promotion actions di-
rected to the elderly.
It is very important to stimulate brain func-
tions. In this sense, as the Senior Dance demands phy-
sical and mental abilities from participants, this acti-
vity can be considered a low-cost option to be adopted
in short and long-term institutions to stimulate the
elderly’sr mental and motor functions.
It is recognized that the small sample size and
lack of a control group represents a limitation that
should be considered in future studies. But in spite
         
scholars on aging. It is expected that the results of this
research widen the possibilities created in order to
offer a better quality of life for older people through
psychomotor education.
Conclusion
Based on the parameters evaluated, the study
led to the conclusion that the Senior Dance positively
-
  -

emotional state.
Rev Rene. 2017 Jan-Feb; 18(1):51-8.
Impact of Senior Dance on emotional and motor parameters and quality of life of the elderly
57
Collaborations
Gouvêa JAG and Antunes MD contributed to the
project design, data collection, interpretation of re-
sults and writing of the article. Bortolozzi F, Marques
AG and Bertolini SMMG contributed to the relevant
-
proval of the version to be published.
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... As pesquisas de autores 8,[10][11][12][13][14][15]18,20,22 identificaram como resultados na variável de equilíbrio uma melhora estatisticamente significativa com intervenções como danças coreografadas, dança de salão e dança sênior; já outros artigos [8][9]13 Não houve mudanças significativas na marcha e mobilidade no grupo de tango. A velocidade da marcha para frente e para trás foi melhor no grupo esteira; e a velocidade para trás e função motora foram melhores no grupo de alongamento. ...
... As pesquisas de autores 8,[10][11][12][13][14][15]18,20,22 identificaram como resultados na variável de equilíbrio uma melhora estatisticamente significativa com intervenções como danças coreografadas, dança de salão e dança sênior; já outros artigos [8][9]13 Não houve mudanças significativas na marcha e mobilidade no grupo de tango. A velocidade da marcha para frente e para trás foi melhor no grupo esteira; e a velocidade para trás e função motora foram melhores no grupo de alongamento. ...
Article
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Introdução: A independência funcional tem relação com a capacidade de realizar o autocuidado e realizar tarefas diárias sem auxílio, itens estes considerados indispensáveis para os idosos. Com isso, acredita-se que a dança se torne capaz de estimular o sistema cognitivo e neuromuscular, atuando de forma a prevenir quedas, promover a manutenção do equilíbrio corporal, qualidade de vida e funcionalidade. Objetivo: Analisar a interferência da dança na mobilidade em idosos. Metodologia: Foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico de artigos publicados no período de 2014 a 2019, nas bases de dados PUBMED, SciELO, Portal Capes e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, utilizando-se as palavras-chave “idoso”, “dança”, “mobilidade” e as correspondentes em inglês “elderly”, “dance” e “mobility” e espanhol “ancianos”, “danza” e “movilidad”. Resultados: Foram selecionados 18 artigos relacionados ao tema proposto, destes 10 identificaram na variável equilíbrio uma melhora estatisticamente significativa; outros 3 artigos obtiveram melhores resultados frente à agilidade e mobilidade por meio da dança. Conclusão: A dança melhora de forma considerável a mobilidade, através do equilíbrio e a coordenação de idosos, pois promove melhora corporal e mental de forma contínua, sendo capaz de estimular o sistema cognitivo e neuromuscular. Palavras-chave: Idosos. Dança. Mobilidade.
... (Robles, y otros, 2017) Las actividades físicas recreativas tienen vital importancia para el hombre, ya que compensan la carga física, intelectual y emocional para evitar desequilibrios en su comportamiento personal y social, (Morales., Lorenzo., & de la Rosa., 2016;Chan, y otros, 2019;Gouvêa, Antunes, Bortolozzi, Marques, & Bertolini, 2017;Calero, Klever, Caiza , Rodríguez, & Analuiza , 2016;Mera, Morales, & García, 2018) contribuyendo a la consolidación de la recreación sana y constructiva de utilización del tiempo libre, en sus dimensiones como disciplina y como política de estado. ...
Thesis
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El diseño de un plan recreativo debe depender de las necesidades que requiera el personal que debe consumirlo en estrecha relación con un objetivo general bien definido. En tal sentido, un plan recreativo que pretenda combatir el sedentarismo en adolescentes debe definir correctamente las acciones físicas más efectivas. Por ello, se plantea como objetivo de la investigación validar teóricamente un plan recreativo para disminuir el sedentarismo en estudiantes de bachillerato, siendo una fase preliminar de importancia trascendental para lograr efectividad en el futuro proceso de intervención. Para el estudio se selecciona una muestra representativa de la población de 44 especialistas nacionales e internacionales que evalúan en dos momentos la propuesta de intervención con cinco indicadores de análisis, más 150 estudiantes de bachiller que realizan una evaluación final de dicha propuesta a través de otros cinco indicadores de análisis. Atendiendo a la necesidad de disminuir el sedentarismo en estudiantes de bachiller, y a las consideraciones emitidas por los especialistas consultados, se diseñó un plan recreativo teóricamente eficiente para cumplimentar el objetivo general de la investigación. El plan recreativo diseñado, validado según consideraciones de los especialistas y del alumnado estudiado, se considera adecuado teóricamente, cumplimentando el objetivo de la investigación, además de sentar las bases de una futura implementación práctica en escuelas de nivel bachiller en la ciudad de Quito.
... (Robles, y otros, 2017) Las actividades físicas recreativas tienen vital importancia para el hombre, ya que compensan la carga física, intelectual y emocional para evitar desequilibrios en su comportamiento personal y social, (Morales., Lorenzo., & de la Rosa., 2016;Chan, y otros, 2019;Gouvêa, Antunes, Bortolozzi, Marques, & Bertolini, 2017;Calero, Klever, Caiza , Rodríguez, & Analuiza , 2016;Mera, Morales, & García, 2018) contribuyendo a la consolidación de la recreación sana y ...
Thesis
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La carencia de actividades físicas sistemáticas trae como consecuencia problemas a mediano y largo plazo relacionados con la salud., incluyendo al sector de estudiantes de bachillerato. Validar teóricamente un plan recreativo para disminuir el sedentarismo en estudiantes de bachillerato. Los alcances y limitaciones de la investigación valorada con diversos indicadores por consulta de especialistas, tendrá en cuenta un muestreo intencional no probabilístico para seleccionar a 40 especialistas nacionales e internacionales (Ecuador, España, Colombia, México, Cuba y Argentina). Por otra parte, se empleará mediante entrevistas online y por vía telefónica los criterios de 50 alumnos de nivel de bachillerato (ambos géneros) en temas de interés relacionados con el campo de estudio.
... (23) In addition, it maximizes the control and the reduction of mood change symptoms by favoring social interaction and the development of autonomy and independence. (24) In that sense, most elderly people stated that they do not consume alcohol or tobacco. This fact has a positive impact on the individual's health, since the combination of alcohol and tobacco with the frequent use of drugs can worsen clinical manifestations and hamper rehabilitation and reintegration of elderly people to society. ...
Article
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Objective To analyze the clinical and functional vulnerability of elderly people from a day center. Methods Cross-sectional study carried out with 216 elderly people of a day center in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. Data collection took place between April and August 2018 by means of a questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, the clock drawing test (CDT), the Timed up and Go Test (TUG) and the Clinical and Functional Vulnerability Index (IVCF-20). Linear regression with a forward selection was applied to identify the predictive variables of individual vulnerability. Results It was observed that 37% of the elderly people were identified as showing medium risk with regard to clinical and functional vulnerability and 11.1% of them had a high risk. Sociodemographic (individual and family income) and clinical characteristics (self-declared comorbidities, polypharmacy, urinary incontinence, BADL-dependence, falls, hospitalization, frequency of physical activities, health self-perception, frequent sadness and depression, cognition, oblivion of drug therapy and functional mobility) were associated with clinical and functional vulnerability (p<0.05). Conclusion The findings of our study enable the operationalization of public policies and strategies for early detection of clinical and functional vulnerability in elderly people and intervention measures aimed at promoting health and preventing illness based on comprehensive care.
... Meanwhile, past studies on the effects of dancing and dance sports reported that dancing can lead to emotional wellbeing by enhancing moods (Eyigor, Karapolat, Durmaz, Ibisoglu, & Cakir, 2009), providing a sense of accomplishment (Brown, McGuire, & Voelkl, 2008), decreasing anxiety (Gouvea, Antunes, Bortolozzi, Marques, & Bertolini, 2017), and providing emotional escape from everyday worries and problems (Quiroga Murcia, Kreutz, Clift, & Bongard, 2010), as well as physical benefits such as body composition, blood biomarkers, and musculoskeletal function (Yan et al., 2018). ...
... Psychological effects: Improved mood and decreased depression (Crumbie, Olmos, Watts, Avery, & Nelson, 2015), reduced state anxiety (Gouvêa et al., 2017), and improved cognitive performance (Hamacher et al., 2015;Kattenstroth et al., 2013;Kosmat & Vranic, 2017). Reflecting on one's past while dancing may aid in actualizing one's present and future self (Wakeling & Clark, 2015), as well as increase feelings of connectedness between the mind and body (Thornberg, Lindquist, & Josephsson, 2012). ...
Technical Report
This research project was completed over 12 months, from October 2018 to September 2019, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MFA Dance Science at Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance. It aims to deepen our understanding of the ways in which regular engagement in creative dancing impacts the subjective physical, psychological, and social well-being of older adults.
... Psychological effects: Improved mood and decreased depression (Crumbie, Olmos, Watts, Avery, & Nelson, 2015), reduced state anxiety (Gouvêa et al., 2017), and improved cognitive performance (Hamacher et al., 2015;Kattenstroth et al., 2013;Kosmat & Vranic, 2017). Reflecting on one's past while dancing may aid in actualizing one's present and future self (Wakeling & Clark, 2015), as well as increase feelings of connectedness between the mind and body (Thornberg, Lindquist, & Josephsson, 2012). ...
Presentation
This research project was completed over 12 months, from October 2018 to September 2019, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MFA Dance Science at Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance. It aims to deepen our understanding of the ways in which regular engagement in creative dancing impacts the subjective physical, psychological, and social well-being of older adults.
Article
Objective The present study aimed to verify the feasibility and preliminary effects of nurse-led square dancing designed to improve older adults’ cognitive function and depressive symptoms who with MCI. Methods A quasi-experimental pilot study design was adopted for the present study. Screening for cognitive function was conducted among older adults (≥ 60 years old) living in two communities in Beijing who complained of memory loss. A total of 107 older patients with MCI and depressive symptoms were diagnosed after obtaining informed consent. Thirty-five patients selected from each community were included in the study as control and intervention groups, respectively. The two groups of patients received health education while the intervention group participated in a square dance intervention program led by nurses three times per week for 60 min per session over a period of three months. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Peking version (MoCA-P) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) were used to assess the cognitive function and depressive symptoms of patients in the two groups at three time intervals; before intervention, at the end of the three-month intervention period, and over a three-month follow-up period after the end of intervention. Results Feasibility of the intervention was established with a high completion rate of 90%. Data collection for 63 out of 70 patients enrolled for the study was completed after six months. MoCA-P and GDS-30 scores of the intervention group were significantly different after the intervention when compared with the control group. A significant improvement in cognition was observed in the intervention group, and depressive symptoms decreased after intervention and follow-up when compared with the control group. During the intervention and follow-up phases, the MoCA-P score of the intervention group increased gradually with time. Furthermore, the MoCA-P and GDS-30 scores of the control group remained unchanged. Conclusion This study has revealed that square dance intervention exerts a positive impact on cognitive function and depressive symptoms among older patients suffering from MCI and depressive symptoms. The results of this study support the feasibility and preliminary effects of square dancing on relieving cognitive decline and depressive symptoms. Square dancing is a recommended type of intervention that can be applied to the local Chinese population because of its simplicity, convenience, and suitability for the older adults.
Article
Purpose To establish a protocol of dance choreographies in order to determine how the regular practice of dance interferes with gait (habitual and dual-task) of community-dwelling older adults. Materials and methods This single-blinded parallel group randomised controlled trial will include 114 older adults divided into a dance group (DG) that will receive dancing intervention twice a week for 12 weeks, and a control group (CG) that will receive no intervention during the same period of time. The gait parameters of all participants will be evaluated in 3 moments: an initial evaluation, a re-evaluation after 12 weeks and a follow-up re-evaluation after 24 weeks. General linear model adjusted for confounding variables will be performed to compare the gait variables between groups. The intent to treat method will be applied. The study was registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC) through the number RBR-4zqcyr. Results It is expected that the DG presents better gait parameters than does CG after the dance, and that these benefits are retained for three months after the intervention. Conclusion Once the benefits of dance therapy for gait are identified, the dance protocol could be useful for strategies of health promotion and rehabilitation of older adults.
Article
Senior dance has been used in different health contexts, but information on its effectiveness has not been yet compiled. The present review shows the results of a search carried out in the Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases, including material published between 1974 and 2019, using the keyword “senior dance” in Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Twenty-one articles were retrieved, and seven met the selection criteria. Different intervention protocols were found, with the most common being therapy using two weekly sessions, with sessions lasting up to 60 min. The studies had small samples but indicated improvements in the cognitive or psychological component, especially in depression and anxiety; higher willingness to participate in other social activities; and improvements in self-care and family and social roles. The evidence also suggests gains in the biological dimensions, with improved body structure and function.
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Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate convergent validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Persian translation of the Fullerton advanced balance (FAB) for use in Iranian community-dwelling older adults and improve the quality of their functional balance assessment. Methods & Materials: The original scale was translated with forward-backward protocol. In the next step, using convenience sampling and inclusion criteria, 88 functionally independent older adults were selected to participate in the study. Their mean (SD) age was 67.15(5.79) years. The Persian version of the scale was administered to each participant twice with an interval of 2-4 days by the same examiner (occupational therapist). Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the scale with Berg balance scale, timed up and go test, and functional reach test. Results: The test-retest reliability of individual items indicated good to excellent reliability (Cohen’s Kappa=0.63–1). Intra-class correlation coefficient was excellent (ICC=0.98), standard error of measurement was good (SEM=0.17), and minimal detectable change was 0.46. Construct validity showed moderate to good correlation between the Persian version of FAB and Berg balance scale (r=0.65), functional reach (r=0.62), and timed up and go test (r=-0.77). Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach α= .83-0.84) for both phases. Conclusion: The Persian version of the FAB Scale is an acceptable and excellent psychometric instrument in assessing the multiple dimensions of balance in Iranian community-dwelling older adults.
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Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n = 28) with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n = 29), who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory) nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus) were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average) has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached.
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Objective to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression of professionals of Multidisciplinary Health Residence Programs. Methods this is a cross-sectional study, performed with fifty professionals, using three instruments: one for socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results predominance of females (92.0%), average age 26 years old, single (88.0%), family income from two to five salaries (56.0%) satisfied with the work (82.0%) and thought about quitting the program (56.0%) showed anxiety (50.0%) and depression (28.0%). Conclusion there was an association between anxiety and depression in multidisciplinary residents, which points to the need for rethinking strategies for identifying these symptoms and control of stress factors for the promotion of mental health.
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Background: Persistent suffering in anxiety can cause various health problems in old age and impairment of quality of life (QOL). Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the pattern of covert and overt anxiety among elderly population, to study the nature of relationship between the pattern of anxiety and domains of World Health Organization-QOL (WHO-QOL) among elderly population, to study the gender difference on the pattern of anxiety and WHO-QOL among elderly population. Materials and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional survey under a health camp approach was conducted by using two types of questionnaire, i.e., Institute for Personality and Ability Testing self-analysis questionnaire and WHOQOL-BREF. Results: The gender wise comparative profile of covert and overt anxiety with total, standard, and sten score shows that covert anxiety is higher in male in different background characteristics, except male group educated between 5 th and 12 th standard showing higher overt anxiety, whereas female group shows higher overt anxiety in different background characteristics. Spearman′s rank correlation shows that overt anxiety has an inverse relation with domain-1 in both sexes, a negative relationship is found between domain-2 of WHO-QOL and the covert and overt anxiety among female, a significant negative relationship in domain-3 of WHO-QOL with covert and overt anxiety among male, and also a significant negative association between the domain-4 of WHO-QOL and overt anxiety in female. Conclusion: The functional ability of both male and female elderly on various domains is related and influenced by the pattern of anxiety.
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Background: Death anxiety among elderly is a major public health concern. Few studies, however, have been conducted on factors associated with death anxiety. Objectives: This study investigated race and gender differences in psychosocial correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the US. Materials and methods: With a cross-sectional design, we used data of the Religion, Aging, and Health survey. 1,074 White and Black elderly (age > 65 years, 615 women, 359 men) were entered to this study. Demographic (age, gender, and race), socio-economic (family income, perceived financial difficulty), health (number of chronic medical conditions and self-rated health), and psychological (perceived control over life) factors were measured. Death anxiety was measured using four items. We used linear regressions to determine factors associated with death anxiety based on race and gender. Results: Although race and gender did not have main effects on death anxiety (P > 0.05), they altered correlates of death anxiety. Age was a predictor of death anxiety among women (B = 0.165, P = 0.002) but not men (B = 0.082, P = 0.196). Self-rated health was associated with death anxiety among Whites (B = - 0.120, P = 0.050) but not Blacks (B = - 0.077, P = 0.268). Total family income was only associated with death anxiety among White men. Conclusions: Demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychological determinants of death anxiety in United States differ based on race, gender, and their intersection. Findings advocate that geriatric psychiatrists and gerontologists who wish to reduce death anxiety among elderly people may need to tailor their interventions to race and gender.
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Objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common problem among the elderly and is believed to be a precursor to dementia. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention as compared to relaxation alone in reducing anxiety and depression levels and improving quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function among the cognitively impaired elderly. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between May and December 2013 in Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects from four government residential homes for older adults aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate cognitive function as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination were included in the study. Subjects were divided into an intervention group and a control group; the former participated in a combined poco-poco dance and relaxation intervention whilst the latter participated in relaxation exercises only. Both groups participated in two sessions per week for six weeks. Anxiety and depression were self-assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and QOL was self-assessed using the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease questionnaire. Results: A total of 84 elderly subjects were included in the study; 44 were in the intervention group and 40 were in the control group. When compared to control subjects, those in the intervention group showed significantly decreased anxiety (P <0.001) and depression (P <0.001) levels as well as improved QOL (P <0.001) and cognitive impairment (P <0.001). Conclusion: Dance as a form of participation-based physical exercise was found to reduce anxiety and depression levels and improve QOL and cognitive function among the studied sample of cognitively impaired elderly subjects in Malaysia.
Article
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Background Dementia is characterized by a progressive decline and deterioration of brain regions such as memory, spatial navigation and language, along with disturbances in daily functioning. Non-pharmacological interventions that offer a holistic approach by targeting cognitive functioning, prognosis and the psychological and social effects of dementia require rigorous investigation. The well-established benefits of physical activity for cognitive functioning and psychological support in dementia have been observed with dance-movement intervention. There is substantial evidence that dance-movement interventions provide emotional and social advantages. Thus, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the positive effects of a dance movement intervention, compared with mild physical exercise, on the physical and psychological well-being of elderly Chinese individuals with early dementia. Methods/Design A 3-arm RCT with waitlist control design will be used in this study. Two hundred and one elderly participants with very mild to mild dementia will be screened and randomized into the following groups: (i) dance movement based intervention, (ii) stretching and exercise intervention and (iii) no intervention waitlist-control group. The two intervention groups will receive a 1-h intervention, twice a week, for 12 weeks. The participants will be assessed four times over the course of 12 months: baseline before randomization, post-intervention (3 months), 6 months from baseline and 12 months from baseline. The primary outcomes will be compared between assessment points and between groups on neuropsychiatric symptoms, psychosocial well-being and cognitive and daily functioning. Secondary outcomes will assess the changes in salivary cortisol levels and their relationships with the primary outcome measures. Discussion This study will provide substantial evidence of the efficacy of a dance-movement-based intervention in slowing down dementia progression, due to its ability to act as a buffer against decline and improve areas affected by dementia. We also anticipate an association between cortisol levels and the outcome measures. The further development of this intervention into a structural program may be warranted for early psychosocial support among elderly populations. Trial registration The trial has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IOR-15006541).
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Background: Falls are one of the most common health problems among older people and pose a major economic burden on health care systems. Exercise is an accepted stand-alone fall prevention strategy particularly if it is balance training or regular participation in Tai chi. Dance shares the 'holistic' approach of practices such as Tai chi. It is a complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity integrating multiple physical, cognitive and social elements. Small-scale randomised controlled trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve measures of balance and mobility in older people, but none of these studies has examined the effect of dance on falls or cognition. This study aims to determine whether participation in social dancing: i) reduces the number of falls; and ii) improves cognitive functions associated with fall risk in older people. Methods/design: A single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 months duration will be conducted. Approximately 450 participants will be recruited from 24 self-care retirement villages that house at least 60 residents each in Sydney, Australia. Village residents without cognitive impairment and obtain medical clearance will be eligible. After comprehensive baseline measurements including physiological and cognitive tests and self-completed questionnaires, villages will be randomised to intervention sites (ballroom or folk dance) or to a wait-listed control using a computer randomisation method that minimises imbalances between villages based on two baseline fall risk measures. Main outcome measures are falls, prospectively measured, and the Trail Making cognitive function test. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed. Discussion: This study offers a novel approach to balance training for older people. As a community-based approach to fall prevention, dance offers older people an opportunity for greater social engagement, thereby making a major contribution to healthy ageing. Providing diversity in exercise programs targeting seniors recognises the heterogeneity of multicultural populations and may further increase the number of taking part in exercise. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000889853The trial is now in progress with 12 villages already have been randomised.
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Background: there is no standardised test for assessing mobility in the Emergency Department (ED). Objective: we wished to evaluate the relationship between the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and frailty, functional decline and falls in community dwelling elders that present to the ED following minor trauma. Methods: this was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study conducted at eight Canadian hospitals. Evaluations included: TUG; Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Frailty Index; Older American Resources and Service Functional Scale; and self-reported falls. Of note, 3- and 6-month follow-up was conducted. Generalised linear model with log-binomial distribution was utilised. Relative risks (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. Results: TUG scores were available for 911/2918 patients, mean age 76.2 (SD 7.8) and 57.9% female. There was an association between TUG scores and frailty (P < 0.05) and functional decline at 3 (P < 0.05) and 6 (P < 0.05) months but not self-reported falls. For TUG scores 10-19 seconds, 20-29 seconds and ≥30 seconds, respectively: (i) frailty RR (95% CI): 1.8 (1.3-2.4), 3.0 (2.2-4.2) and 3.7 (2.6-5.1); (ii) functional decline RR (95% CI): 2.7 (1.1-6.4), 5.5 (2.1-14.3) and 8.9 (3.0-25.8); (iii) falls RR (95% CI): 0.9 (0.5-1.5), 1.3 (0.6-2.5) and 1.1 (0.4-3.5). Conclusion: in community dwelling elders presenting to the ED following minor trauma, TUG scores were associated with frailty and strongly associated with functional decline at 3 and 6 months post injury. TUG scores were not associated with self-reported falls. Use of the TUG in the ED will help identify frail patients at risk of functional decline.