Article

Protective effects of three Artemisia essential oils against Callosobruchus maculatus and Bruchus rufimanus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the extended side-effects on their natural enemies

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Abstract

This research aimed to find plant essential oils with a strong fumigant-specific toxicity effects against Callosobruchus maculatus and Bruchus rufimanus, but which have lower side effects on their parasitoids wasps Dinarmus basalis and Triaspis luteipes. For that, the essential oils of Artemisia herba-alba, A. campestris and A. absinthium were investigated for their chemical composition using GC and GC–MS analysis and were used in a manner that combined exposure to their essential oils with parasitoids releases. Essential oils were assessed for their direct fumigant toxicity against both bruchid beetles and for their residual effects on parasitism rates and pests offspring control. The introduction of D. basalis and T. luteipes adults were done 6 days after the oil application.

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... The major constituents of the oil were 1,8-cineole, bornyl acetate, myrcene, and sabinene which account for more than 75.25% of the total oil. The earlier studies on Artemisia species also reported 1,8-cineole was the major compound (9.91, 12.96, and 19.59%) in the EO of A. sieberi, A. gmelinii, and A. herba alba, respectively [27][28][29] but lesser than the present study (41.14%). Similarly, 1,8-cineole present in A. maritima oil (23.6-25%) was also lesser [30][31][32] than in the present study. ...
... Similarly, 1,8-cineole present in A. maritima oil (23.6-25%) was also lesser [30][31][32] than in the present study. The β-myrcene (5.09-5.83%) in A. campestris and A. absinthium was also lesser [27,33] than present study (9.59%). The variation in the chemical constituents might be due to environmental conditions (climate, season, and geographical variation), location/altitude, stage of the plant, time of collection, species/chemotype, and nutritional status of the plant [34][35][36]. ...
... As per the information, the current report is the earliest to disclose that the essential oil of A. maritima showed promising results in toxicity, repellent, and ovipositional deterrence against C. chinensis and C. maculatus adults. The previous studies also reported that the EO from other Artemisia species including A. annua [19], A. judaica [20], A. monosperma [37], A. dracunculus, A. santonicum, A. spicigera [21], A. herba-alba, A. campestris, and A. absinthium [27], A. ordosica [38], A. vulgaris [22], A. scoparia [23], A. sieberi [24] and A. annua [39] showed contact, fumigant, repellent, and ovipositional activities against pulse beetle. Insecticidal activities of the EO depend upon the major constituents, concentration, application method, stage, and type of insect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pulse beetle is the major pests of pulses that cause significant loss to grains leads to unfit for consumption and marketing. Indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides for the control of pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus) led to insect resistance, pesticide residues on grains which affect consumer’s health and environment. Essential oils (EOs) are good alternatives to synthetics due to their safety to the environment and consumers’ health. The main objective of the present study was to explore the chemical composition, fumigant, repellency, ovipositional deterrence, persistence, and detoxification enzyme inhibition of Artemisia maritima essential oil against pulse beetle. Results showed that primary components of the EO were 1,8-Cineole and bornyl acetate. EO showed promising fumigant toxicity to C. chinensis and C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.17 and 0.56 mg/L, respectively) after 48 h. In the repellent assay, EO at 8 mg/L showed 92–96% repellence after 1 h. In ovipositional deterrence assay, EO showed more ovipositional deterrence against C. chinensis (OD50 = 3.30 mg/L) than C. maculatus (OD50 = 4.01 mg/L). Higher concentrations of oil (8 and 6 mg/L) in C. maculatus showed significant inhibition of the glutathione-S-transferase enzyme (7.14 and 5.61 n mol/min/mL, respectively).
... Recently, stored pest control trends emphasize on the use of nonchemical procedures with the judicious use of pesticides. In this context, various researches demonstrated the efficacy of parasitoids and predators in controlling storage pests (Flinn and Schöller 2012;Titouhi et al. 2017). Dinarmus basalis is a notable parasitoid potentially used as biological control agent against C. maculatus (Dorn et al. 2002;Schmale et al. 2001). ...
... The C. maculatus colony was maintained in the laboratory. Insects were reared in chickpea, maintained at 27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% RH in a 12:12 h cycle light:dark and renewed every three weeks according to the methods described by Haouel et al. (2017). Adult insects, 0-1day old, were used for all bioassays. ...
... The tests were carried out according Titouhi et al. (2017). The fumigant toxicity bioassays were applied against immature individuals developing inside the seed: neonate larvae L1 (3-day-old), second instar larvae L2 (5-to 6-day-old) and third instar larvae L3 (12-to 13-dayold). ...
Conference Paper
Haouel-Hamdi, S., Abdelkader, N., Hedjal-Chebheb, M., Saadaoui, E., Boushih, E., and Mediouni-Ben Jemâa, J. 2018. Combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 13 (si): 123-137. This work aims to evaluate the possible combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the ectoparasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a serious pest of economic importance on stored legumes including chickpea. This study carried out first investigation on the insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia grown in Gabès (South Tunisia). Fumigant toxicity of the essential oils was tested against pest adults and larvae (L1, L2 and L3 larval stages). The parasitoid was introduced respectively 3 and 6 days after oil application against the fourth instar larvae and nymphs of the target pest. Results reported the interesting insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia essential oils against C. maculatus L1, L2 and L3 larvae and adults. Oils significantly inhibited the parasitism potential of D. basalis. Indeed, at the concentration 12.5 µl/l air, the emergence rate of D. basalis adults decreased from 93.33% for the control to 40 and 28.33%, respectively, at 3 and 6 days following oil application. Storage of seeds using plant-based insecticides and essential oils is not always compatible with biological control strategies. Thus, identifying components that have lower effects on natural enemies is very important for a successful IPM program.
... Many studies have assessed the development of alternative control method over last decades. These studies highlighted five control levers, namely (i) semiochemicals Frerot et al., 2015;Ward, 1999), (ii) selection of resistant varieties (Carrillo-Perdomo et al., 2019;Seidenglanz and Hun Ady, 2016;Szafirowska, 2012), (iii) vegetal oils (iv) microbial control agents (e.g., entomopathogenic fungi) (Sabbour et al., 2007;Titouhi et al., 2017), and (v) an adaptation of cultural practices (e.g., sowing/harvesting dates, sowing density, and crop association) (Bachmann et al., 2020;Seidenglanz et al., 2011;Szafirowska, 2012;Ward, 2018). To date, management approaches mitigating B. rufimanus damage have yet to be implemented in Europe, and some biological aspects of this pest should still be elucidated to develop effective pest management tools, including overwintering behavior, temperature-dependent development, and quantitative economic thresholds. ...
... Ideally, the pushing effect also attracts natural enemies such as predators or parasitoids, and pulling plants reduce population with innate defense or with incorporated pesticide (Pickett et al., 2014). In the case of B. rufimanus, botanical oils of Artemisia campestris L., nigella and mustard were identified as having efficient repellence/oviposition-deterring/insecticidal effects on B. rufimanus (Sabbour et al., 2007;Titouhi et al., 2017). These could then constitute potential repellent agents, as far as their harmlessness effects against beneficial organisms of faba bean crops, and their stability against oxidation and photo-deterioration can be insured (Ketoh et al., 2005;Smart et al., 1994). ...
... predators and parasitoids) as well as on the practices favoring their presence. However, it can be pointed out that two types of parasitoids were identified to date: larvaphageous parasitoids including species from Braconidae (Nees, 1811) family such as Sigalphus pallipes Nees von Esenbeck, 1816, S. gibberosus Szépligeti, 1901, Triaspis thoracica (Curtis, 1860), T. similis (Szepligeti, 1901), T. luteipes (Thomson, 1874) and Chremylus rubiginosus (Nees, 1834), and oophageous parasitoids from Trichogrammatidae family such as Uscana semifumipennis Girault, 1911(Boughdad, 1994Pérez-Benavides et al., 2019;Titouhi et al., 2017). ...
Article
Promoting the cultivation of native legumes, such as faba beans (Vicia faba L.) within the European Union is anticipated to contribute to the sustainability of cropping systems and provide food and feed proteins as alternatives to unsustainable imports. However, efficient alternative control methods to pesticides must be implemented to combat key pests that devalue faba bean seeds (namely, Bruchus rufimanus Boheman, 1833; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). This pest causes significant economic losses in faba bean crops as post-embryonic development (cf. seminovorous larvae) occurs inside forming seeds. While there has been extensive research on the biology and chemical ecology of B. rufimanus, efficient control methods are lacking. Here, we review this pest species to identify: (i) knowledge gaps on its biology that could enhance management tools; (ii) potential improvements to current semiochemical-based control approaches; and (iii) other method of control based on semiochemicals that could be implemented.
... Recently, stored pest control trends emphasize on the use of nonchemical procedures with the judicious use of pesticides. In this context, various researches demonstrated the efficacy of parasitoids and predators in controlling storage pests (Flinn and Schöller 2012;Titouhi et al. 2017). Dinarmus basalis is a notable parasitoid potentially used as biological control agent against C. maculatus (Dorn et al. 2002;Schmale et al. 2001). ...
... The C. maculatus colony was maintained in the laboratory. Insects were reared in chickpea, maintained at 27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% RH in a 12:12 h cycle light:dark and renewed every three weeks according to the methods described by Haouel et al. (2017). Adult insects, 0-1day old, were used for all bioassays. ...
... The tests were carried out according Titouhi et al. (2017). The fumigant toxicity bioassays were applied against immature individuals developing inside the seed: neonate larvae L1 (3-day-old), second instar larvae L2 (5-to 6-day-old) and third instar larvae L3 (12-to 13-dayold). ...
Conference Paper
Haouel-Hamdi, S., Abdelkader, N., Hedjal-Chebheb, M., Saadaoui, E., Boushih, E., and Mediouni-Ben Jemâa, J. 2018. Combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 13 (si): 123-137. This work aims to evaluate the possible combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the ectoparasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a serious pest of economic importance on stored legumes including chickpea. This study carried out first investigation on the insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia grown in Gabès (South Tunisia). Fumigant toxicity of the essential oils was tested against pest adults and larvae (L1, L2 and L3 larval stages). The parasitoid was introduced respectively 3 and 6 days after oil application against the fourth instar larvae and nymphs of the target pest. Results reported the interesting insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia essential oils against C. maculatus L1, L2 and L3 larvae and adults. Oils significantly inhibited the parasitism potential of D. basalis. Indeed, at the concentration 12.5 µl/l air, the emergence rate of D. basalis adults decreased from 93.33% for the control to 40 and 28.33%, respectively, at 3 and 6 days following oil application. Storage of seeds using plant-based insecticides and essential oils is not always compatible with biological control strategies. Thus, identifying components that have lower effects on natural enemies is very important for a successful IPM program.
... Recently, stored pest control trends emphasize on the use of nonchemical procedures with the judicious use of pesticides. In this context, various researches demonstrated the efficacy of parasitoids and predators in controlling storage pests (Flinn and Schöller 2012;Titouhi et al. 2017). Dinarmus basalis is a notable parasitoid potentially used as biological control agent against C. maculatus (Dorn et al. 2002;Schmale et al. 2001). ...
... The C. maculatus colony was maintained in the laboratory. Insects were reared in chickpea, maintained at 27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% RH in a 12:12 h cycle light:dark and renewed every three weeks according to the methods described by Haouel et al. (2017). Adult insects, 0-1day old, were used for all bioassays. ...
... The tests were carried out according Titouhi et al. (2017). The fumigant toxicity bioassays were applied against immature individuals developing inside the seed: neonate larvae L1 (3-day-old), second instar larvae L2 (5-to 6-day-old) and third instar larvae L3 (12-to 13-dayold). ...
Conference Paper
Haouel-Hamdi, S., Abdelkader, N., Hedjal-Chebheb, M., Saadaoui, E., Boushih, E., and Mediouni-Ben Jemâa, J. 2018. Combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 13 (si): 123-137. This work aims to evaluate the possible combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the ectoparasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a serious pest of economic importance on stored legumes including chickpea. This study carried out first investigation on the insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia grown in Gabès (South Tunisia). Fumigant toxicity of the essential oils was tested against pest adults and larvae (L1, L2 and L3 larval stages). The parasitoid was introduced respectively 3 and 6 days after oil application against the fourth instar larvae and nymphs of the target pest. Results reported the interesting insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia essential oils against C. maculatus L1, L2 and L3 larvae and adults. Oils significantly inhibited the parasitism potential of D. basalis. Indeed, at the concentration 12.5 µl/l air, the emergence rate of D. basalis adults decreased from 93.33% for the control to 40 and 28.33%, respectively, at 3 and 6 days following oil application. Storage of seeds using plant-based insecticides and essential oils is not always compatible with biological control strategies. Thus, identifying components that have lower effects on natural enemies is very important for a successful IPM program.
... Recently, stored pest control trends emphasize on the use of nonchemical procedures with the judicious use of pesticides. In this context, various researches demonstrated the efficacy of parasitoids and predators in controlling storage pests (Flinn and Schöller 2012;Titouhi et al. 2017). Dinarmus basalis is a notable parasitoid potentially used as biological control agent against C. maculatus (Dorn et al. 2002;Schmale et al. 2001). ...
... The C. maculatus colony was maintained in the laboratory. Insects were reared in chickpea, maintained at 27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% RH in a 12:12 h cycle light:dark and renewed every three weeks according to the methods described by Haouel et al. (2017). Adult insects, 0-1day old, were used for all bioassays. ...
... The tests were carried out according Titouhi et al. (2017). The fumigant toxicity bioassays were applied against immature individuals developing inside the seed: neonate larvae L1 (3-day-old), second instar larvae L2 (5-to 6-day-old) and third instar larvae L3 (12-to 13-dayold). ...
Conference Paper
Haouel-Hamdi, S., Abdelkader, N., Hedjal-Chebheb, M., Saadaoui, E., Boushih, E., and Mediouni-Ben Jemâa, J. 2018. Combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 13 (si): 123-137. This work aims to evaluate the possible combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the ectoparasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a serious pest of economic importance on stored legumes including chickpea. This study carried out first investigation on the insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia grown in Gabès (South Tunisia). Fumigant toxicity of the essential oils was tested against pest adults and larvae (L1, L2 and L3 larval stages). The parasitoid was introduced respectively 3 and 6 days after oil application against the fourth instar larvae and nymphs of the target pest. Results reported the interesting insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia essential oils against C. maculatus L1, L2 and L3 larvae and adults. Oils significantly inhibited the parasitism potential of D. basalis. Indeed, at the concentration 12.5 µl/l air, the emergence rate of D. basalis adults decreased from 93.33% for the control to 40 and 28.33%, respectively, at 3 and 6 days following oil application. Storage of seeds using plant-based insecticides and essential oils is not always compatible with biological control strategies. Thus, identifying components that have lower effects on natural enemies is very important for a successful IPM program.
... Recently, stored pest control trends emphasize on the use of nonchemical procedures with the judicious use of pesticides. In this context, various researches demonstrated the efficacy of parasitoids and predators in controlling storage pests (Flinn and Schöller 2012;Titouhi et al. 2017). Dinarmus basalis is a notable parasitoid potentially used as biological control agent against C. maculatus (Dorn et al. 2002;Schmale et al. 2001). ...
... The C. maculatus colony was maintained in the laboratory. Insects were reared in chickpea, maintained at 27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% RH in a 12:12 h cycle light:dark and renewed every three weeks according to the methods described by Haouel et al. (2017). Adult insects, 0-1day old, were used for all bioassays. ...
... The tests were carried out according Titouhi et al. (2017). The fumigant toxicity bioassays were applied against immature individuals developing inside the seed: neonate larvae L1 (3-day-old), second instar larvae L2 (5-to 6-day-old) and third instar larvae L3 (12-to 13-dayold). ...
Conference Paper
Haouel-Hamdi, S., Abdelkader, N., Hedjal-Chebheb, M., Saadaoui, E., Boushih, E., and Mediouni-Ben Jemâa, J. 2018. Combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 13 (si): 123-137. This work aims to evaluate the possible combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the ectoparasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a serious pest of economic importance on stored legumes including chickpea. This study carried out first investigation on the insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia grown in Gabès (South Tunisia). Fumigant toxicity of the essential oils was tested against pest adults and larvae (L1, L2 and L3 larval stages). The parasitoid was introduced respectively 3 and 6 days after oil application against the fourth instar larvae and nymphs of the target pest. Results reported the interesting insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia essential oils against C. maculatus L1, L2 and L3 larvae and adults. Oils significantly inhibited the parasitism potential of D. basalis. Indeed, at the concentration 12.5 µl/l air, the emergence rate of D. basalis adults decreased from 93.33% for the control to 40 and 28.33%, respectively, at 3 and 6 days following oil application. Storage of seeds using plant-based insecticides and essential oils is not always compatible with biological control strategies. Thus, identifying components that have lower effects on natural enemies is very important for a successful IPM program.
... Recently, stored pest control trends emphasize on the use of nonchemical procedures with the judicious use of pesticides. In this context, various researches demonstrated the efficacy of parasitoids and predators in controlling storage pests (Flinn and Schöller 2012;Titouhi et al. 2017). Dinarmus basalis is a notable parasitoid potentially used as biological control agent against C. maculatus (Dorn et al. 2002;Schmale et al. 2001). ...
... The C. maculatus colony was maintained in the laboratory. Insects were reared in chickpea, maintained at 27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% RH in a 12:12 h cycle light:dark and renewed every three weeks according to the methods described by Haouel et al. (2017). Adult insects, 0-1day old, were used for all bioassays. ...
... The tests were carried out according Titouhi et al. (2017). The fumigant toxicity bioassays were applied against immature individuals developing inside the seed: neonate larvae L1 (3-day-old), second instar larvae L2 (5-to 6-day-old) and third instar larvae L3 (12-to 13-dayold). ...
Article
Full-text available
This work aims to evaluate the possible combined use of Eucalyptus salmonophloia essential oils and the ectoparasitoid Dinarmus basalis for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a serious pest of economic importance on stored legumes including chickpea. This study carried out first investigation on the insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia grown in Gabès (South Tunisia). Fumigant toxicity of the essential oils was tested against pest adults and larvae (L1, L2 and L3 larval stages). The parasitoid was introduced respectively 3 and 6 days after oil application against the fourth instar larvae and nymphs of the target pest. Results reported the interesting insecticidal potential of E. salmonophloia essential oils against C. maculatus L1, L2 and L3 larvae and adults. Oils significantly inhibited the parasitism potential of D. basalis. Indeed, at the concentration 12.5 μl/l air, the emergence rate of D. basalis adults decreased from 93.33% for the control to 40 and 28.33%, respectively, at 3 and 6 days following oil application. Storage of seeds using plant-based insecticides and essential oils is not always compatible with biological control strategies. Thus, identifying components that have lower effects on natural enemies is very important for a successful IPM program.
... Stored-product pest control strategies tend to emphasize the non-chemical aspects of pest control with the judicious use of pesticides. In this context, various researches demonstrated the efficacy of parasitoids and predators in controlling storage pests (Titouhi et al., 2017). Many parasitoids and predators of storage pests are notable for their potential as biological control agents (Flinn & Schöller, 2012). ...
... The C. maculatus colony was maintained in the laboratory. Insects were reared in chickpea, maintained at 27 ± 1°C and 70 ± 5% RH in a 12:12 h cycle light:dark and renewed every three weeks according to the methods described by Haouel et al. (2017). Adult insects, 0-1day old, were used for all bioassays. ...
Poster
Food safety is being challenged nowadays as a global concern. Thus, stored-product pest management strategies tend to emphasize the non-chemical aspects of pest control. Consequently, biological control with the use of parasitoids as natural enemies represents a good alternative. Unfortunately, for the correct implementation and success of this sustainable approach, higher management knowledge is required. In this context, the performance of parasitoids is directly related to the quality of the host. For this reason, our work investigated the relationship between Dinarmus basalis performances and the fitness of Callosobruchus maculatus forth larvae. Fitness was measured as the size and weight of C. maculatus forth larvae; while, longevity, parasitism rate, sex ratio and Mean Growth Rate were reported as D. basalis performances. Four Regression Equation Models were used. Results showed high positive correlation between D. basalis performances and larvae weight of the host C. maculatus. Heavy host bodies induced high parasitism rates and sex ratio shifted in favor of females. Moreover, D. basalis adults reread on heavy host bodies have a longer life span. Moreover, results showed that being small hosts does not prevent D. basalis to achieve acceptable performances. This work demonstrated the ability of D. basalis to control and limit C. maculatus populations with a parasitism rate reaching 86%.
... Post-harvest treatment is necessary to limit the emergence of adult weevils from the inside of the stored seeds and to comply with market requirements that prohibit the presence of live insects in the grains for export. Biological control has been attempted by using predators and parasitoids (Titouhi et al., 2017) or by applying plant essential oil treatments (Jemâa, 2014;Amzouar et al., 2016;Titouhi et al., 2017). In addition, agronomical and cultural practices have also been applied (Keneni et al., 2011;Mishra et al., 2018). ...
... Post-harvest treatment is necessary to limit the emergence of adult weevils from the inside of the stored seeds and to comply with market requirements that prohibit the presence of live insects in the grains for export. Biological control has been attempted by using predators and parasitoids (Titouhi et al., 2017) or by applying plant essential oil treatments (Jemâa, 2014;Amzouar et al., 2016;Titouhi et al., 2017). In addition, agronomical and cultural practices have also been applied (Keneni et al., 2011;Mishra et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Seed weevils (Bruchus spp.) are major pests of faba bean, causing yield losses and affecting marketability. Our objective was to identify stable sources of resistance to seed weevil attacks, determine the climatic factors that most influenced its incidence and its relationship with some phenological and agronomic traits. The accessions “BOBICK ROD115”, “CÔTE D’OR”, “221516” and “NOVA GRADISKA” showed increased resistance to penetration and development of larvae. Other accessions such as “QUASAR”, “109.669” and “223303” exhibited resistance to larval development. The results of this work suggest the presence of different defense mechanisms to seed weevils in faba bean, which in the future could be introgressed in elite cultivars to create resistant varieties and contribute to more sustainable agriculture with less need for pesticides. The temperature, rainfall, and humidity seemed to be the climatic factors most influencing faba bean seed weevil attack while earliness and small seed weight were correlated with fewer infestation rates in the different experiments.
... Stored-product pest control strategies tend to emphasize the non-chemical aspects of pest control with the judicious use of pesticides. In this context, various researches demonstrated the efficacy of parasitoids and predators in controlling storage pests (Titouhi et al., 2017). Many parasitoids and predators of storage pests are notable for their potential as biological control agents (Flinn and Schöller, 2012). ...
... The C. maculatus colony was maintained in the laboratory. Insects were reared in chickpea, maintained at 27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% RH in a 12:12 h cycle light: dark and renewed every three weeks according to the methods described by Haouel et al. (2017). Adult insects, 0-1day old, were used for all bioassays. ...
Conference Paper
Food safety is being challenged nowadays as a global concern. Thus, stored-product pest management strategies tend to emphasize the non-chemical aspects of pest control. Consequently, biological control with the use of parasitoids as natural enemies represents a good alternative. Unfortunately, for the correct implementation and success of this sustainable approach, higher management knowledge is required. In this context, the performance of parasitoids is directly related to the quality of the host. For this reason, our work investigated the relationship between Dinarmus basalis performances and the fitness of Callosobruchus maculatus forth larvae. Fitness was measured as the size and weight of C. maculatus forth larvae; while, longevity, parasitism rate, sex ratio and Mean Growth Rate were reported as D. basalis performances. Four Regression Equation Models were used. Results showed high positive correlation between D. basalis performances and larvae weight of the host C. maculatus. Heavy host bodies induced high parasitism rates and sex ratio shifted in favor of females. Moreover, D. basalis adults reread on heavy host bodies have a longer life span. Moreover, results showed that being small hosts does not prevent D. basalis to achieve acceptable performances. This work demonstrated the ability of D. basalis to control and limit C. maculatus populations with a parasitism rate reaching 86%.
... The type and proportion of various monoterpenoids in the oil are characteristic of the genus and species. The composition of essential oils obtained from the tested Artemisia species in the current investigation showed a significant similarity to previous reports (32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37): the major component of the Tunisian A. absinthium was chamazulene, thujones are similar components from the essential oil of A. herba-alba and β-pinene was found in A. campestris collected from different geographic localities of Tunisia (33)(34)(35). Moreover, our results were in accordance with those of Riahi et al. (38) who found that the main components of A. absinthium in the semi-arid areas of Tunisia were camphor, chamazulene and bor- nyl acetate. ...
... The type and proportion of various monoterpenoids in the oil are characteristic of the genus and species. The composition of essential oils obtained from the tested Artemisia species in the current investigation showed a significant similarity to previous reports (32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37): the major component of the Tunisian A. absinthium was chamazulene, thujones are similar components from the essential oil of A. herba-alba and β-pinene was found in A. campestris collected from different geographic localities of Tunisia (33)(34)(35). Moreover, our results were in accordance with those of Riahi et al. (38) who found that the main components of A. absinthium in the semi-arid areas of Tunisia were camphor, chamazulene and bor- nyl acetate. ...
Article
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Essential oils of three species of the genus Artemisia (A. absinthiumL., A. campestrisL. and A. herba-alba (Asso)) were analyzed by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)and investigatedfor their insecticidal and repellent activitiesagainst the stored grains insect, Triboliumcastaneum(Herbst). Fumigantand repellent activity bioassayswere involved in vitroin this study. Chemical analysisof essential oils shows that the class of bicyclic monoterpenes was predominant in all Artemisiaessential oils. However, A. absinthium have the highest content of bicycloheptanes, naphthalenes and cycloalkenes, while for A. campestriswere sesquiterpenoids and acyclic monoterpenoids. A. herba-alba shows important amounts of menthanemonoterpenoids, oxanes, cumenes, oxolanes, ketones, methanes and monocyclic monoterpenes. Fumigant bioassay demonstratedthat the three individual oils displayed important insect mortality with 142.8 μL/L as the best LC50 for A. herbaalba. For repellency test, essential oil of A. absinthiumshows the most potent and rapid action than all other species in all tested exposure time. The effect assessment of Artemisiaessential oilsmixtures has shown an antagonistic effect of all tested combinations. This study highlighted an important potential of Artemisia species, especially A. herba-alba and A. absinthium in the control of stored products pests.
... Last years, the overuse of synthetic insecticides and fumigants such as phosphine for grain storage has resulted in a number of problems, including the development of insecticide resistance among insect pests of stored grains (Sousa et al. 2009). Currently, stored-product pest control 1 3 strategies tend to emphasize the non-chemical aspects of pest control with the judicious use of pesticides (Titouhi et al. 2017). In this respect, plant extracts are safe, ecofriendly and more compatible with environmental components compared to synthetic pesticides and so ranked under Green pesticides category (Rahman et al. 2016). ...
... The insecticidal activity of M. rotundifolia and M. communis essential oils was evaluated by the fumigant test according to Titouhi et al. (2017). Ten adults of E. kuehniella were placed in Plexiglas bottles of 38 mL volume. ...
Article
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Chemical composition of Algerian Mentha rotundifolia and Myrtus communis essential oils, their insecticidal activities and their impact on some biological parameters of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella were assessed. Results showed that M. rotundifolia essential oil contained piperitenone oxide (46.06%), d-limonene (9.10%), cis-piperitone oxide (6.81%), and endo-borneol (4.64%) as major compounds, while M. communis oil was rich in α-pinene (29.08%), 1,8-cineole (36.82%), α-terpineol (6.42%), geranyl acetate (4.38%), and β-linalool (4.04%). The fumigant potential and contact toxicity tests against E. kuehniella demonstrated the effectiveness of M. rotundifolia essential oil (LC50 = 0.54 μL/L air, LC50 = 0.004 μL/cm2) compared to M. communis oil (LC50 = 2.91 μL/L air, LC50 = 0.025 μL/cm2). Moreover, results revealed that all biological parameters were significantly affected (fecundity: 6 eggs/female, oviposition deterrence: 96.62%, log fertility: 0, hatching rate: 0%, copulation rate: 0% for M. rotundifolia oil against fecundity: 93 eggs/female, percentage of oviposition deterrence: 47.85%, log fertility: 6.7, hatching rate: 57%, copulation rate: 53.33% for M. communis oil). This work supports the use of botanical insecticide as active pest control agents under storage conditions.
... The parasitism rates of Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were reduced by more than 80% with sublethal doses of Artemisia herba-alba and A. campestris oils, whereas for Triaspis luteipes (Thompson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), this parameter was only reduced by 20-35% under the same experimental conditions (Titouhi et al. 2017). Already, Piper aduncum oil had no side effects in Telenomus podisi (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Trissolcus urichi (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Turchen et al. 2016), evidencing different susceptibility levels and toxicity among parasitoid species and essential oils, respectively. ...
Article
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Essential oils from botanical extracts used for insect pest control should be both effective and have low impact on natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the effects of ten essential oils on the biological and reproductive parameters in two Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) generations. The emergence F1 generation of T. galloi was reduced by more than 30% with Allium sativum, Carapa guianensis, Citrus sinensis, Neem and Syzygium aromaticum. Zingiber officinale reduced the T. galloi emergence of the F1 and F2 generations by between 30 and 99%. The longevity of the F1 generation was reduced by more than 50% with Z. officinale at the pre-pupae and pupae stages. All oils reduced the parasitism rate of the F1 generation in the egg-larva and pre-pupa stages. Allium sativum, C. guianensis and C. sinensis, Neem and Origanum vulgare reduced parasitism by between 30 and 79%. Zingiber officinale was slightly and moderately harmful to the F1 and F2 generations, respectively, for the T. galloi parasitism. The sex ratio of the two T. galloi generations was not affected by the essential oils. The low side effects of the oils on the F2 generation, except for Z. officinale (the most harmful oil), suggest that T. galloi developed some post-transgenerational tolerance/resistance mechanisms to these oils and/or their components. The A. sativum, C. guianensis, C. sinensis, Neem, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum and Z. officinale oils were not selective for T. galloi. Mentha piperita, Piper nigrum and Thymus vulgaris essential oils can be included in integrated pest management programs for this parasitoid.
... Locally, the powder from its leaves is used for gastric problems and intestinal worms, and its paste is applied to teeth for pain relief (Abad et al., 2012;Bano et al., 2014), while its seed powder is taken orally to treat rheumatism (Hayat et al., 2009). In addition, it has been reported to have toxicity against Callosobruchus maculatus and Bruchus rufimanus (Kordali et al., 2006;Titouhi et al., 2017), repellent and larvicidal activity against mosquitos (Benelli, 2015;Govindarajan and Benelli, 2016), ingestion toxicity against pealeaf weevil Sitona lineatus (Rusin et al., 2016) and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Mihajilov-Krstev et al., 2014), and fumigant toxicity against Tetranychus urticae and Bemisia tabasi (Aslan et al., 2005). The A. absinthium in the highlands of Skardu Baltistan, Pakistan is rarely explored for its bioactivities. ...
Article
The extensive use of synthetic chemical pesticides has led to negative effects on the environment and human health. Therefore, scientists are in search of natural products, especially those from plant sources, which are less hazardous, eco-friendly, and effective alternatives to the conventional pesticides. Essential oils are potential alternatives to the synthetic chemical pesticides. However, the toxicity of Artemisia absinthium against Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri has not been documented. Therefore, here we focused on the A. absinthium essential oil (ABEO) extracted from the population grown under the climatic conditions of Pakistan's high plateaus, as a natural pesticide for the control of the citrus psyllid. The results indicated that the oil caused significant acute mortalities in both topical and residual contact applications, with 50% lethal dose (LD50) and 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 5.2 μg/insect and 24.4 mg/mL. Among the constituents tested only carvacrol, (−)-α-bisabolol and chamazulene were toxic, with LD50 values of 6.9, 8.2, and 10.3 μg/insect via topical application and LC50 values of 28.5, 33.5, and 39.4 mg/mL via residual contact exposure. Several combinations of dominant constituents were both additive and synergistic when applied topically, especially carvacrol + (−)-α-bisabolol + chamazulene (1:1:1) displayed synergistic effect, with a poison ratio of 1.39. Furthermore, the essential oil and carvacrol inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity in citrus psyllid. It has been concluded that the essential oil and some of the compounds from A. absinthium might be developed as eco-friendly approaches for the control of citrus psyllid.
... Furthermore, the essential oil from A.campestris L. fresh shoots seems to acts as a relevant stored cereal protective agent, against the damages produced by the grain insect Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) [145]. While the essential oil extracted from A.campestris L. leaves represents a potential food control agent against the stored food legumes beetles:Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Bruchus rufimanus (Boheman) [146]. ...
Article
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Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) is a polymorphic species that consists of many subspecies and varieties. It is known for its medicinal, pharmacological, and culinary properties. This review is undertaken with the aim to highlight some aspects of this plant, specifically the taxonomy, the cytogeography, the phytochemistry with an emphasis on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the main bioactive compounds of A. campestris L. in addition to its biological properties and the food control properties. The bibliographic data compiled in this review allowed the revision of 146 papers, by using different databases and scientific engines, such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, and google scholar. The taxonomic analysis has embedded A. campestris L. in the tribe Anthemideae, and the genus Artemisia L. Also many subtaxa have been identified, and a subspecific classification of this species has been established on the basis of its botanical characters. The cytogenetic findings evidenced that A.campestris L. is prevailed by the chromosome number x = 9, with a polyploidization degree ranging from diploidy to hexaploidy according to the geographical distribution of the plant populations, while the genome size seems to be proportional to the ploidy level, suggesting an adaptive trait of the cytotypes to new environments. This plant is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, and terpenic compounds, which substantiate the bioactivities attributed to its extracts and essential oil. Hence, the SAR of the main bioactive compounds of A. campestris L., mainly the prominent flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenes revealed a tight link between specific chemical entities of the bioactive compound and the respective biological activity. Many biological activities were approached in this review, mainly the antioxidant, antivenom, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, anti-leishmaniasis, antinociceptive, wound healing, and analgesic activities in addition to the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective, and gastroprotective actions. Finally, the food preservative ability of the extracts and essential oil obtained from A.campestris L. have been fully discussed. The present review contributes to the literature, by bringing more clarifications about the different aspects of A.campestris L., like taxonomy, cytogeography and biological interests of this species. The SAR approach of some constituents that occur in A.campestris L., gives a solid support that can be used to explore the bioactivity of components isolated from this species, while the preservative properties of this plant can be usefully exploited for the agrifood sector.
... Titouhi et al., evaluated the sublethal effect of essential oils of Artemisia herba-alba Asso., (Asteraceae) and Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) on Bruchus rufimanus (Boheman) Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), presenting an adult emergency rate between 0.3 to 0.7%. This result may be related to the major components present in essential oils belonging to different groups [23] . The mixtures (Thymol+Camphora; Thymol+Campheno; Limomeno+Terpineol; Limonene+ β pinene; Limonene+Eucalyptol; ...
... The lipophilic chemicals of essential oils can enter into insects and cause biochemical dysfunction and mortality (Lee et al., 2004b). (Hamdi et al., 2015;Titouhi et al., 2017) and contact effects (Aouadi et al., 2020). Various activities were assessed against eggs, larvae and adults of insect species belonging to orders like Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Isoptera (Badreddine et al., 2015;Bosly, 2013;Digilio et al., 2008;Gonçalves et al., 2005;Lima et al., 2013;Ogendo et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
Essential oil (EO) components possess important biological functions including antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. However, their industrial application is limited due to their volatility, poor water solubility and chemical instability. To solve the aforementioned drawbacks, our thesis work focuses on the preparation and characterization of conventional liposomes (CLs) and drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes (DCLs) carrying several EO components. Characterization of EO encapsulation and release was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and multiple headspace extraction method, respectively. The effect of the chemical structure, the aqueous solubility, the octanol/ water partition coefficient (log P), and the Henry’s law constant (Hc) on the characteristics of CLs and DCLs was investigated. The non-hydrogenated soybean phospholipid (Lipoid S100) was used in combination with cholesterol (CHOL) to prepare the liposomes by the ethanol injection method. A series of EO components was considered including: α-pinene, camphor, estragole, eucalyptol, isoeugenol, pulegone, terpineol, and thymol. Entrapment in CLs was more efficient for the EO components presenting a hydroxyl group in their structure and for those exhibiting a low Hc as well as a low aqueous solubility value. The size and the composition of vesicles were shown to influence the release of components from liposomes. The factors related to EO properties that favor their encapsulation in DCLs were: the presence of a propenyl tail or a hydroxyl group in the structure as well as possessing a high log P value. Besides, a negative relationship was established between the encapsulation efficiency of EO components into DCLs and the CHOL membrane content of vesicles. The release of components from DCLs depends on their encapsulation efficiency into the formulations. Moreover, the interaction of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and HP-β-CD/drug inclusion complex with Lipoid S100:CHOL- and Phospholipon 90H:CHOL liposomes was studied where their effects on the size and the membrane composition of vesicles were examined. Results demonstrated that the incorporation of HP-β-CD in the internal aqueous compartment of the liposomes modified the size distribution of vesicles. In addition, HP-β-CD reduced phospholipids incorporation into both types of membranes while reduced CHOL incorporation only for Phospholipon 90H:CHOL vesicles. In conclusion, liposomes and DCLs could be considered as promising carrier systems for EO components. The developed formulations may find wide applications in food, agricultural and pharmaceutical fields.
... Similar results were obtained for controlling aphids [54,55] and some other insect pests [56][57][58] using plant-derived essential oils along with protecting their predators. However, the destructive side-effects of some essential oils on parasitoids have been reported [59][60][61]. Therefore, it is important to select efficient pesticides with lower side effects on natural enemies at operative concentrations to the pests, which has been achieved in the current study. ...
Article
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The use of chemical insecticides has had several side-effects, such as environmental contamination, foodborne residues, and human health threats. The utilization of plant-derived essential oils as efficient bio-rational agents has been acknowledged in pest management strategies. In the present study, the fumigant toxicity of essential oil isolated from Satureja intermedia was assessed against cosmopolitan stored-product insect pests: Trogoderma granarium Everts (khapra beetle), Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (lesser grain borer), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (red flour beetle), and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (saw-toothed grain beetle). The essential oil had significant fumigant toxicity against tested insects, which positively depended on essential oil concentrations and the exposure times. Comparative contact toxicity of S. intermedia essential oil was measured against Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (oleander aphid) and its predator Coccinella septempunctata L. (seven-spot ladybird). Adult females of A. nerii were more susceptible to the contact toxicity than the C. septempunctata adults. The dominant compounds in the essential oil of S. intermedia were thymol (48.1%), carvacrol (11.8%), p-cymene (8.1%), and γ-terpinene (8.1%). The high fumigant toxicity against four major stored-product insect pests, the significant aphidicidal effect on A. nerii, and relative safety to the general predator C. septempunctata make terpene-rich S. intermedia essential oil a potential candidate for use as a plant-based alternative to the detrimental synthetic insecticides.
... Bruchus rufimanus [21]. Therefore, A. campestris is suitable for preserving food since it can help to extend the shelf life and to prevent various food products from spoilage. ...
Article
Active food packaging films based on chitosan and enriched with Artemisia campestris hydroalcoholic extract (ACHE), aqueous extract (ACAE) and essential oil (ACEO) were developed. The effects of incorporating A. campestris were investigated on the physical, mechanical, thermal and antioxidant characteristics of the films. The structural properties of the films were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that adding ACHE and ACEO improved the water resistance of chitosan films. The FTIR spectroscopy analysis revealed covalent interaction and hydrogen bonding between chitosan and ACHE. The XRD and SEM analyses indicated that interactions occurred between the film matrix and A. campestris active compounds, which could be reflected by the physical and mechanical properties of composite films. Incorporating ACHE and ACAE in the chitosan matrix decreased the tensile strength. The film extensibility was reduced when ACHE and ACEO were added. All films exhibited great thermal stability as the degradation occurred above 300 °C. The addition of A. campestris active compounds, particularly extracts, to chitosan films notably increased the antioxidant and UV–Vis barrier properties. Chitosan films enriched with the A. campestris antioxidant compounds could be applied as food packaging alternatives.
... The problems of resistance and harmfulness of synthetic insecticides have led to the need to find more effective and healthier alternatives. Thus, essential oils are the most tested products at present [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Plant secondary natural products are natural chemicals extracted from plants and used as an excellent alternative to synthetic or chemical pesticides [13,14]. ...
Article
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In order to develop a strategy for the safe management of insect pests in stored agricultural commodities, Anserine (Chenopodium ambrosioïdes (L.)) essential oil was tested against Cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) raised on seeds of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) at 20–30°C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity in storage conditions. The essential oil extracted from Chenopodium ambrosioïdes (L.) was analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The chromatogram of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioïdes (L.) contains 13 compounds of which α-Terpinene is the majority constituent with a percentage of 61.04%. The results obtained have shown that the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioïdes (L.) has repellent and toxic effects on Callosobruchus maculatus. It causes a high mortality rate in adults and affects its fecundity, fertility and success rate in a very significant way compared to controls.
... The cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) is reported as major insect pest species of stored food legumes throughout the world (Sanon et al. 2001, Titouhi et al. 2017). The pest can cause up to 100% lost cowpea seed stored within a few months (Kang et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop as a source of basic protein for populations in tropical countries, generating profit after the processing and storage of grains. However, the attack of pests such as cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) can limit the production of cowpea, with the insect causing qualitative and quantitative losses to the grains. Its control is commonly performed with fumigant phosphine, which due to its almost exclusive use, has selected resistant populations of insects, causing control failure. This way, the present research aimed to investigate the effects of essential oils of Betula lenta, Cinnamomum cassia, Citrus aurantium var. Amara and Acorus calamus in the treatment of cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] under storage conditions, for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus. The effects of essential oils were investigated through contact, fumigation, and repellency tests. The LC50 found in the test of contact was 0.61; 0.63; 0.64 and 22.98 μL/20 g of beans for the oils of A. calamus, B. lenta, C. cassia, and C. auratium var. Amara, respectively. Based on the data, the number of eggs and insects that emerged decreased as the concentration of essential oils increased. The LC50 values in the fumigation test were estimated at 5.16; 8.24; 25.84 and 35.31 μL/L of air for A oils. calamus, B. lenta, C. auratium var. Amara and C. cassia, respectively. In the repellency test, all oils acted like antagonists to C. maculatus biology, but the latter presented deterrence against the oviposition and the emergence of adults in most concentrations. These findings indicate that essential oils can be used to manage C. maculatus.
... Recently, growing public concern regarding the adverse effects of pesticides and possible damage to the environment and human health has led to increasing attention being given to natural products to control pests (Ali et al. 2020;Khan et al. 2020). Currently, pests control strategies tend to emphasize the non-chemical aspects of pest control (Titouhi et al. 2017;Banaras et al. 2020Banaras et al. , 2021Javed et al. 2021). Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile compounds, principally monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and phenylpropanoids (Fujita and Kubo 2004), distributed at a quite different concentrations. ...
Article
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This work aimed to assess in vitro insecticidal and antifungal activities of Mentha rotundifolia and Myrtus communis essential oils against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and three fungal species (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum acutatum). Oxygenated monoterpenes presented the dominant group with 72.94 and 58.92% respectively for M. rotundifolia and M. communis essential oils. M. rotundifolia and M. communis essential oils composition was dominated by 72.94 and 58.92% of oxygenated monoterpenes, respectively. The determined lethal concentrations of mentha essential oils against T. castaneum adults revealed high toxicity respectively for fumigant and contact tests, LC50 = 0.113 μL cm-2 and LC50 = 32.71 μL L-1 air. However, common myrtle oil showed a weak fumigant activity (LC50 = 357.67 μL L-1 air) and no contact toxicity. Furthermore, M. rotundifolia essential oil showed a marked antifungal toxicity against all the fungal strains. The mycelial growth of the three fungal strains was completely inhibited at the concentrations of 0.33 μL L-1 by contact application and 8, 10 and 12 µL by fumigant application. M. communis essential oil displayed only a contact antifungal toxicity against B. cinerea at the concentration 21.33 μL L-1. Additionally, M. rotundifolia completely inhibited conidial germination of B. cinerea and F. solani, and affected significantly their morphology, With morphological modifications at the rate of 92.94 and 51.11% respectively. In light of in vitro tests results, the mentha essential oil appeared to be an excellent source of antifungal and insecticidal components and will allow the potential development of this species in the biological control of several pests and fungal diseases.
... Essential oils and their compounds exhibited a variety of biological functions including insecticidal activities [1,2]. Indeed, various studies reported the potential of many plant derived essential oils against insect pests mainly those infesting stored products [3,4]. ...
Conference Paper
Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Pyralidae) is the main inse ct pest attacking dates in fie ld and storage in Tunisia. Postharvest protection is re lie d on fumigants. This work inve stigates fumigant toxicity of 2-hydroxypropyl-be ta-cyclode xtrin (HP-β-CD) loading Rosmarinus officinalis esse ntial oil and its major constitue nts (1,8-cine ole , α-pine ne, camphor, borneol) against E. ce ratoniae larvae and adults. Results re veale d that mortalities reache d 56.86; 60.71; 64.28; 50 and 75% respective ly for the crude esse ntial oil, α-pine ne , camphor, borneol and 1,8-cineole afte r 30 storage days at the conce ntration 90 µl/l air. Also, results indicate d that 1,8-cine ole , camphor and α-pine ne showe d the stronge st inhibitory e ffects of adults e mergence.
... Sweet at 100 µL/L [31], Cuminum cyminum L. (LC 50 = 3.50 µL/L) [32] and Rosmarinus officinalis (LC 50 = 13.3 µL/L air) [32,33] against C. chinensis. The EOs at lower concentrations in the present study were also effective against C. maculatus compared to the EOs of Artemisia herbaalba and Vanillosmopsis arborea (5.2-7.7 µL/L) [34,35]. In a similar study, the EOs of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (LD 50 = 78.2 and 131 µL kg −1 ) were not superior [36] to the present study against C. maculatus. ...
Article
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Pulse beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus, are essential pests of cowpea, gram, soybean and pulses. Application of synthetic insecticides against the pulse beetle has led to insect resistance; insecticide residues on grains affect human health and the environment. Essential oils (EOs) are the best alternatives to synthetics due to their safety to the environment and health. The main objective of the investigation was to study the chemical composition and insecticidal activities of EOs, their combinations and compounds against the pulse beetle under laboratory. Neo-isomenthol, carvone and β-ocimene are the significant components of tested oils using GC-MS. Mentha spicata showed promising fumigant toxicity against C. chinensis (LC50 = 0.94 µL/mL) and was followed by M. piperita (LC50 = 0.98 µL/mL), whereas M. piperita (LC50 = 0.92 µL/mL) against C. maculatus. A combination of Tagetes minuta + M. piperita showed more toxicity against C. chinensis after 48 h (LC50 = 0.87 µL/mL) than T. minuta + M. spicata (LC50 = 1.07 µL/mL). L-Carvone showed fumigant toxicity against C. chinensis after 48 h (LC50 = 1.19 µL/mL). Binary mixtures of T. minuta +M. piperita and M. spicata showed promising toxicity and synergistic activity. EOs also exhibited repellence and ovipositional inhibition. The application of M. piperita can be recommended for the control of the pulse beetle.
... A. herba alba Asso. is among the most important species of the family Asteraceae, which has been the subject of various chemical and biological studies, including insecticidal properties [55,56]. It is thus fitting that our results are in agreement with those reported by Hussain [57], who investigated the insecticidal properties of A. herba alba Asso on other insects. ...
Article
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Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (C. maculatus) is one of the major pests of legume seeds in storage causing significant damage, leading to food insecurity and low income for farmers. This work was planned to develop eco-friendly agents from essential oils of Artemisia herba alba Asso. (AEO), Maticaria Recutita L. (MEO), and Dittrichia Viscosa L. (DEO) to control C. maculatus. To achieve this goal, essential oils (EOs) were extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus before being characterized by GC-MS. EOs were used for testing purposes using three different tests, namely, inhalation toxicity, contact toxicity, and repellency tests. GC-MS analysis of EOs showed the presence of 16 potentially active compounds in AEO and 38 in MEO, whilst 15 compounds were identified in DEO. AEO was higher in thujone (57.6%) and chrysanthenone (11.8%). Santolina alcohol (40.7%) and germacrene D (8.9%) were the major compounds identified in MEO, whereas isocostic acid (72.3%) was the chief compound of DEO. The obtained findings showed that the studied EOs showed considerable insecticidal activity against C. maculatus with a lethal dose (LC50) of 3.78, 8.86, and 14.34 μL/1 liter of air by AEO, MEO, and DEO, respectively. At 1 μL/1 liter of air, the oviposition reduction rate was 90.02%, 70.65%, and 48.23% by AEO, MEO, and DEO, respectively, whereas the emergence reduction rate was 87.32%, 60.08%, and 32.24% by AEO, MEO, and DEO, respectively. With increasing doses up to 20 μL/L, the reduction of individual emergence reached 98.8% by AEO of 24 h after treatment. AEO, MEO, and DEO showed significant repellent effects against adults of C. maculatus with repulsion percentages of 60.83%, 50.83%, and 72.5%, respectively. The outcome of this work suggests that the essential oils of the studied plants, particularly Artemisia herba alba Asso. oils, can constitute a natural and environmentally friendly alternative to develop new bioinsecticides for the control of C. maculatus.
... Bruchus rufimanus [21]. Therefore, A. campestris is suitable for preserving food since it can help to extend the shelf life and to prevent various food products from spoilage. ...
Article
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Growth regulators are rather important for obtaining high yields of agricultural crops. Recently, more and more research on biologically active substances has been carried out among natural products, in particular, essential oils of plants. Our study is aimed at the search for winter wheat growth regulators among essential oils. In three-year field small-plot experiments, the growth-regulating activity of anise, fenchel and apricot oils was studied. When we treated the vegetating plants with the water emulsions of the above mentioned oils (dose – 30 g/ha) twice in the tillering and the flag leaf phases, the yield increase of Grom winter wheat variety was 8.6–10.8 %. The quality of seeds also improved: the protein content increased by 0.6-1.1 %, gluten by 1.8-2.7 %.
Article
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Insect pests affecting standing and stored crops can cause severe damage and reduce yields considerably. Was this also the case in Neolithic Europe? Did early farming populations take a certain amount of harvest loss into account? Did they decide to change crops or rotate them when they became too infested? Did they obtain new crops from neighbouring communities as part of this process? Or did they actively fight against pests? This paper focuses on pulse crop pests, presenting the earliest evidence of fava beans displaying boreholes and of the presence of pea weevil in two different archaeological sites: Can Sadurní (in a phase dated to ca. 4800-4500 cal BC), located in the NE Iberian Peninsula and Zürich-Parkhaus Opéra (in a phase dated to ca. 3160 BC), located in Central Switzerland. Evidence suggests that early farmers were aware of the damages produced by pests and we propose different strategies for their management, including potential evidence for the use of repellent or trap plants in the plots.
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Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum (Fam. Oleaceae), Basil Ocimum basilicum Var, (Fam. Lamiaceae), and Tagetes minuta (Fam. Asteraceae) are economical plants in Egypt that can resist insect infections, which may be related to its oils. Three types of geranium essential oils (geranium oil, geranium absolute and geranium stripping oil) were extracted with three different methods (steam distillation, solvent extraction, and hydrodistillation, respectively). Seven types of crude essential oils, three natural components (linalool, citronellol, and geraniol), and synthetic counterparts of two of these components (linalool and citronellol) were evaluated against Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica adults through evaluating their repellency, fumigation, contact and effect on progeny. The seven types of crude essential oils were analyzed by Gas Chromatography/mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatographic analysis of the geranium essential oils demonstrated that citronellol is the main constituent, accounting 29.70%, 31.80% and 18.30% of geranium oil, geranium stripping oil and geranium absolute, respectively. Acetic acid was the main component in Jasmine absolute with 15.951%, while linalool was the main component for basil oil and basil absolute with 54.80% and 46.345% respectively, for tagette oil dihydrotagetone was the main component with 28.85%. Geranium oil, geranium absolute and geranium stripping oil had the highest repellent activity against T. castaneum. In contrast, all tested crude essential oils had 100% repellency against R. dominica except basil absolute had 92.5% repellency. Furthermore, natural linalool had the strongest fumigant effect on T. castaneum among the oil components, while citronellol had the strongest effect on R. dominica, and the oil components had stronger fumigant effects than the crude essential oils. The fumigation activity showed the same trend as repellency against the two tested insects. Based on the LC50, the oil components have a stronger effect than the crude essential oils. Finally, T. castaneum was more tolerant than R. dominica to all tested materials. All geranium oils had no effect on T. castaneum for contact toxicity while geranium stripping oil had the strongest effect on R. dominica with the level of 63.1 mg/kg. All tested essential oils had reduction effect on both tested insects. The method of extraction effects on the chemical composition of essential oils produced from the same plant, all tested crude essential oils and its components (natural and synthetic) can be used as safe pesticide alternatives for stored product insects, geranium stripping oil is a new crude oil can increase the national income instead of losing it in waste water.
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The control of storage insect pests is largely based on synthetic pesticides. However, due to fast growing resistance in the targeted insects, negative impact on humans and non-target organisms as well as the environment, there is an urgent need to search some safer alternatives of these xenobiotics. Many essential oils (EOs) and their bioactive compounds have received particular attention for application as botanical pesticides, since they exhibited high insecticidal efficacy, diverse mode of action, and favourable safety profiles on mammalian system as well as to the non-target organisms. Data collected from scientific articles show that these EOs and their bioactive compounds exhibited insecticidal activity via fumigant, contact, repellent, antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activity, and by inhibiting/altering important neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and octopamine or neurotransmitter inhibitor γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), as well as by altering the enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR)] and non-enzymatic [glutathione (GSH)] antioxidant defence systems. However, in spite of promising pesticidal efficacy against storage pests, the practical application of EOs and their bioactive compounds in real food systems remain rather limited because of their high volatility, poor water solubility and susceptibility towards degradation. Nanoencapsulation/nanoemulsion of EOs is currently considered as a promising tool that improved water solubility, enhanced bio-efficacy, stability and controlled release, thereby expanding their applicability.
Chapter
Seeds are affected by majority of insects throughout the crop age. The majority of insect pests causing losses to seeds belong to order Coleoptera along with some species of Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera. Apart from this, some mites species (class Acari) are also associated with seed. However few mites are beneficial insects and called as biocontrol agents. Hence, in order to develop and implement seed inset pest (SIP) management programs, knowing pests and beneficial insects is important. Generally, the integrated pest management (IPM) is a systemic approach in which different control measures act together to suppress economic control of pests. Consequently, the present chapter provides an overview of the important SIP, and then, the different SIP control methods are mentioned to choose them for an integrated SIP management program. Accordingly, different control strategies are used in the management of the SIP including resistant plant varieties, healthy seeds, sanitation and exclusion, seed treatment (using chemical and botanical pesticides), physical treatments (aeration, extreme temperatures and relative humidity, impact and removal, ionizing radiation, modified atmospheres), biological control, mating disruption, trapping, and packaging, and sealing will be discussed. Based on the conditions and available facilities, an appropriate control method or integration of several control measures could be selected in the SIP control programs.
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In this study, the Chemical composition and bio-efficacy of essential oils (EOs) from Anethum graveolens, Thymus vulgaris, and Myristica fragrans were assessed. Seventeen, forty-five and twenty-nine compounds were identified in A. graveolens, T. vulgaris, and M. fragrans, respectively by GC-MS analysis. Dillapiole (44.01 %), D-Limonene (19.47 %), and carvotanacetone (13.03 %) in A. graveolen EO; estragole (15.30 %), γ-terpinene (14.49 %), and thymol (10.80 %) in T. vulgaris EO; safrole (14.93 %), α-terpinolene (14.65 %), and elemicin (14.62 %), in M. fragrans EO, were the main compounds. The bio-efficacy of these essential oils was tested against adults of major insect pests namely Callosobruchus maculatus using fumigant toxicity and biological parameters. Results revealed that the A. graveolens EO was the most toxic oil against C. maculatus adults with LC50 and LC90 values of 10.1 and 25.5 μl/l air, respectively after exposure for 24 h. EO of A. graveolens killed C. maculatus adults faster than T. vulgaris and M. fragrans. A. graveolens and T. vulgaris showed the highest effect on biological parameters of oviposition. This study suggests that EO from A. graveolens could be potentially using in IPM programs for suppressing this pest in infesting cowpea seeds.
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The importance of biomass as a source of chemicals, biofuels, and energy is widely accepted. Currently, the attention is mainly focused on the valorisation of by-products from lignocellulosic materials. Chemical compounds derived from plants and microorganisms that provide good protection for crops against weeds, pests, and diseases (biopesticide active substances) have been used to formulate pesticides. Their use is increasingly encouraged by new pesticide regulations that discourage the use of harmful active substances. This article reviews the current and future situation of biopesticides, especially natural chemical products, and focuses on their potential within the European pesticide legislative framework. Moreover, this article highlights the importance of the different modes/mechanisms of action of the active substances obtained from natural sources, the role of chemistry in biopesticide development, and how the adoption of integrated pest management practices contributes to a greater trend towards biopesticides.
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Natural products are excellent alternative to synthetic pesticides due to their reduced harmful impacts on human health and environment. Pesticides based on plant essential oils or their constituents have demonstrated efficacy against a range of pests and pre- and postharvest diseases. In this study, the pesticide potentiality of the essential oils from the absinthe wormwood Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) was investigated against two insect pests i.e. Rhyzopertha dominica and Spodoptera littoralis. Essential oil of the aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analyzed by GC– MS in order to determine its chemical composition. The major components identified were: camphor (24.81%), camazulene (13.17%), bronylacetate (5.89%), and myrcene (5.83%). The essential oil of A. absinthium exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against R. dominica adults, a stored product pest, with a LC50 value of 18.23 µl/l air and LC90 value of 41.74 µl/l air. The wormwood essential oil showed high fumigant activity against S. littoralis, one of the most dangerous pests of protected crops, with a LC50 value of 10.59 µl/l air and a LC90 value of 17.12 µl/l air.
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A survey of Coleopteran pest and beneficial insects was conducted on faba bean fields during 2013- 2014 cropping season in two main regions of leguminous production in north Tunisia. Scouting for insects was carried out by beating the plants vigorously into a white plastic container or by using sweep net. 8 families, 11 pest species and 6 predators were identified. Only Sitona lineatus and Bruchus rufimanus appeared to be main pest insects and they were relatively more abundant in both regions. B. rufimanus populations showed seasonal dynamics and adult activity started in faba bean fields in late February. Adult population density reached its highest percentage at the fructification period in mid-April. Significant harmful effects on seed germination, seed weight and infestation were recorded. Broad bean (Chahbi variety) seemed to be more damaged. Incidence of B. rufimanus attacks was greater on broad bean than on field bean. Reductions of the percentage of germination were 32.6 and 26.76% for Chahbi and Bachaar varieties respectively. Moreover, weight loss for Chahbi and Bachaar varieties were 7.33 and 9.37%, respectively. Additionally, the percentage of infested seeds was lower for Bachaar variety (25%) than for Chahbi variety (37%). Based on this study, the development of appropriate control strategy against faba bean infesting pests, mainly B. rufimanus is required. This will promote new view on the existing and potential control methods by the development of new selective chemicals, screening for new biocontrol agents and the design of new management strategies.
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Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and flavanols of the methanolic extract of the aerial part of A. herba-alba were determined. The extract was analyzed by LC-PAD/ESI-MS and allowed to identify of 10 phenolic compounds. Apigenin-6-C-glycosyl flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were identified. Chlorogenic acid and 1,4 dicaffeoylquinic acid being the major constituents. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC-MS. Twenty three compounds, representing 97.8% of the total oil, were identified. The most abundant components were β-thujone (41.9%), α-thujone (18.4%) and camphor (13.2%). Methanolic extract and essential oil exhibited a considerable antioxidant activity as evaluated by DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching test and chelating ability. The methanolic extract was found to be more efficient, while the essential oil exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Analysis of the antibacterial activity showed that A. herba-alba methanolic extract and essential oil are efficient against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
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This work aims to investigate for the first time the susceptibility of six Tunisian broad bean varieties: two large seeded varieties i.e. Chahbi and Mamdouh and four small seeded varieties namely Chourouk, Bachaar, Najeh and Badï, to natural field injuries caused by the broad bean weevil Bruchus rufimanus in the region of Béja. Results showed that the large seeded varieties appeared to be more infested than field ones. The infestation rates were 37 and 37.5% for Chahbi and Mamdouh, respectively, while for the small seeded varieties, infestations ranged between 29.5 and 6.5% with Badï as the less infested variety. Moreover, seed germination was considerably affected by B. rufimanus. Significant differences were observed between infested and non-infested seeds for all varieties. The highest germination reduction was obtained with Mamdouh variety with a rate of 32.98% whereas the lowest value was achieved with Chourouk variety (10.2%). In addition, results indicated that B. rufimanus larvae feedings produced significant loss in broad bean seeds weight for all studied varieties. The highest weight loss was observed for small seeded varieties Najeh and Bachaar with weight reduction of 9.67 and 9.37%, respectively.
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The objective of this study was to review the published research works on control strategies of stored product pests. Also, to shed light on alternative environmentally friendly methods to protect stored products from pests attack for healthy food safe. The most promising technique that has been developed and continues to be refined, is monitoring populations with insect pheromones and/or food attractants for detecting stored-product insects. Visual and secondary olfactory cues may be necessary for increased the catch of insects in traps. Near Infrared Spectroscopy was used for the classification of insect species, detection of internal insect pests of wheat (infested or uninfested wheat kernels) and distinguishing between unparasitized weevil larvae in wheat and those parasitized by wasps. It may be possible to use electronic nose systems to try and distinguish between grain colonized by mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic species and this area needs further investigation. The main advantage of using inert dusts is that they are non-toxic to humans and animals. Inert dusts in stored grain can provide continuous protection from insect infestations and do not affect the baking quality of wheat. Ozone is safe to the environment when used for fumigation. Active research is going on to exploit ozone as a potential quarantine treatment for controlling stored-product pests. Natural compounds from plant sources may have the advantage over conventional fumigants in terms of low mammalian toxicity (not true in all cases), rapid degradation and local availability. Compounds of plant origin can be used only for small-scale applications or for space treatments. Validation studies will be necessary to fully determine the potential for biological controls as replacements for insecticidal protectants, Good hygiene in the grain store or storage depot is important in maintaining grain and seed quality. Computer-based decision support systems that use biological and environmental data to predict population trends and evaluate the need for insecticidal inputs have been developed for stored-product storage systems in several countries. As more of these expert systems are developed management decisions may shift to computer-based pest management.
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The aim of this study was to determine the chemical variability of wormwood extracts as affected by the growing region. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were also investigated. The essential oil composition variability of A. absinthium L. aerial parts collected from four different Tunisian regions was assessed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, total polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins as well as antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of methanolic extract and essential oils were undertaken. Chromatographic analysis of wormwood essential oils showed the predominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons represented mainly by chamazulene. RP-HPLC analysis of wormwood methanolic extract revealed the predominance of phenolic acids. Antiradical activity was region-dependant and the methanolic extract of Bou Salem region has the strongest activity (CI 50 = 9.38 ± 0.82 í µí¼‡g/mL). Concerning the reducing power, the methanolic extract of Bou Salem, Jérissa , and Boukornine regions was more active than the positive control. Obtained results of antimicrobial activities showed that wormwood essential oil is endowed with important antibacterial activity which was strongly related to the organoleptic quality of oil which appeared strongly region-dependant. A. absinthium L. EOs investigated are quite interesting from a pharmaceutical standpoint because of their biological activities.
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Abstract Essential oils from medicinal and aromatic plants are known as a source of secondary metabolites. They act as antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antiviral and anti-insect agents. In addition, essential oils of several species have been recently qualified as replacement alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Tunisia is located in the Mediterranean basin area, a temperate zone characterized by the greatest diversity on the planet since we find around 25,000 species and a very high percentage of these are endemic. The present mini-review comprises an investigation on major and predominant bioactive components and insecticidal potential of various species of Eucalyptus and Artemisia grown in Tunisia. The aim of this mini-review is to bring together most of the available scientific research in Tunisia conducted on insecticidal potential of the genera Eucalyptus and Artemisia, which is currently documented across various publications. Through this mini-review, I hope to attract the attention on the most bioactive essential oils as asource of bioactive constituents. This review has been compiled using references from major work on essential oil and their bioactive components against Tunisian strains of major stored product insect pests. Results revealed that the different species either from Eucalyptus or Artemisia genera have a vast range of insecticidal activities including fumigant, contact and repellent effects. Some very important components have been discovered from these genera, notably 1,8 cineole, and α-pinene from Eucalyptus and β-thujone and Camphor from Artemisia. Various species of Eucalyptus and Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various insecticidal activities, especially their effects on the stored product insect pest
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Abstract Studies on the protective effect of botanical products against pest insects have infrequently been extended to side-effects on natural enemies. Indirect effects of botanicals on the storability of seeds could occur through their possible negative impact on biological control agents. Four plant powders and six plant oils with a known effect on the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were investigated for their effect on the beetles’ egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga (Steffan) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and the larval parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). All treatments caused a decrease in parasitisation by U. lariophaga, and developing parasitoids of this species were affected by powders of Nicotiana tabacum (L.) and Tephrosia vogelii (Hook. f). In a two-choice situation using a linear olfactometer, U. lariophaga was repelled by most of the oils. In a no-choice situation, parasitisation by D. basalis was hampered by treatment with plant powders, but eggs that were laid developed normally. In a Y-tube olfactometer, this parasitoid did not discriminate between odours of untreated and plant-powder-treated beans. The powders of N. tabacum and T. vogelii had stronger negative effects on the two parasitoids than the powders of Azadirachta indica (Juss.) or Blumea aurita (DC). In samples collected from untreated traditional storage facilities, subsequently treated with plant powders in the laboratory, none of the treatments could prevent the increase in beetle numbers. At 24 days after treatment, most beetles had emerged from beans treated with powders of N. tabacum and T. vogelii. Parasitoids were affected by the botanical insecticides tested here, but the powders of A. indica and B. aurita may be compatible with biological control by D. basalis.
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Na busca de alternativas ao controle químico do caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera:Bruchidae), avaliou-se, em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), o efeito de três genótipos, cv. Carioca e duas linhagens contendo a proteína arcelina (Arc1 e Arc3), e da adição nos grãos armazenados de óleo de soja (Glycine max Merrill); óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), munha (resíduo de trilha da colheita), calcário dolomítico e terra de formigueiro, comparativamente aos grãos não tratados e ao controle químico com malathion 500 CE. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, localizado no Município de Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em condições não controladas. Na linhagem Arc1, constatou-se maior proteção aos danos do caruncho, observando-se redução do número de ovos e de adultos emergidos e da porcentagem de sementes danificadas em relação à Arc3 e à cv. Carioca. Quando os grãos foram tratados com malathion, óleo de nim e óleo de soja, observou-se menor número de ovos e de adultos emergidos e redução de danos, e não houve diferença na porcentagem de sementes danificadas entre o malathion e o óleo de nim. A mistura das sementes com terra de formigueiro conferiu baixa proteção ao caruncho, enquanto os tratamentos com munha e calcário dolomítico não apresentaram eficiência na redução da progênie e dos danos de Z. subfasciatus.
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The leaf oil isolated by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) collected from four areas of the south of Tunisia (Bengardane, Benikhdache, Jerba and Tataouine) at three periods of the year 1998 (April, August and November) have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS. β-Pinene (24.0–49.8%) was found to be the main component of this oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the major fraction (58.8–88.6%), and mainly composed of β-pinene (24.0–49.8%), α-pinene (5.9–12.5%), p-cymene (3.4–9.4%), limonene (4.9–9.3%), (Z)-β-ocimene (0.2–5.5%) and γ-terpinene (2.0–6.5%). Oxygen-containing monoterpenes represented less than 10% of the total oil and was found to mainly contain geranyl propionate (1.6–4.4%), α-terpineol (0.6–2.2%) and terpinen-4-ol (0.7–1.9%). Sesquiterpenes ranged from 5.0% to 29.8%. γ-Muurolene (0.3–5.4%) and ω-cadinene (0.2–2.4%) were the major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons whereas spathulenol (1.2–8.9%) and β-eudesmol (1.0–6.4%) were the main oxygen-containing sesquiterpenes. Samples collected in November were found to be rich in sesquiterpene hydro-carbons (14.4–15.8%) while those collected in August were shown to contain the highest amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons (74.8–88.6%) and the lowest percentage of oxygen-containing components (7.2–18.1%). The variation of the oil composition among origins and periods was not uniform. For all areas, the highest yield of oil was obtained from samples collected in August (1.20%).
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, angiotensin I- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Aha), a traditional medicinal plant widely growing in Tunisia. The essential oil from the air dried leaves and flowers of Aha were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. More than fifty compounds, out of which 48 were identified. The main chemical class of the oil was represented by oxygenated monoterpenes (50.53%). These were represented by 21 derivatives, among which the cis -chrysantenyl acetate (10.60%), the sabinyl acetate (9.13%) and the α-thujone (8.73%) were the principal compounds. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes, particularly arbusculones were identified in the essential oil at relatively high rates. The Aha essential oil was found to have an interesting antioxidant activity as evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and the β-carotene bleaching methods. The Aha essential oil also exhibited an inhibitory activity towards the ACE. The antimicrobial activities of Aha essential oil was evaluated against six bacterial strains and three fungal strains by the agar diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The inhibition zones were in the range of 8-51 mm. The essential oil exhibited a strong growth inhibitory activity on all the studied fungi. Our findings demonstrated that Aha growing wild in South-Western of Tunisia seems to be a new chemotype and its essential oil might be a natural potential source for food preservation and for further investigation by developing new bioactive substances.
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Exposure of freshly laid eggs of Earias vittella (F.) to volatiles from the essential oils of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.), peppermint (M.piperita L.), palmarosa (Cymhopogon martini (Roxb.) Wats) and citronella (C.winterianus Jowitt) for more than 24 h inhibited hatchability to varying degrees. This was, however, significant only in respect of the citronella and palmarosa oil vapour treatments when compared with the control. Less than 50% of larvae from eggs exposed to peppermint or citronella oil volatiles became adults. Male and female pupal weights of larvae that survived embryonic exposure to the volatiles of all the four essential oils were significantly lower than that of the untreated. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the possible role of the principal chemical constituents of these essential oils in regulating egg hatchability and developmental events in the biology of E. vittella.
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The leaves of the three plants Artemisia herba-alba, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia Pontica have been collected in the region of Guigou and Errachidia (Morocco) and then dried in the open air for fifteen days and kept fresh for extraction. The essential oils have been extracted by hydrodistillation method and analysed by the chromatographic techniques in the gas phase (GC-FID) and chromatography in gas phase coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) so as to determine their chemical composition and identify their chemotype. The insecticide activity is tested by methods of classic biological tests; their insecticide power has been studied in vitro on insects: Acanthoscelides obtectus, responsible for green beans rot. The essential oils yields (ml/100mg of dried substances) were 0.59% for Artemisia herba-alba; 0.57% for Artemisia absinthium and 0.31% Artemisia Pontica. The principal constituent of the three plants essential oils was the α- thujone (42.25%) for Artemisia herba-alba, (39.69%) for Artemisia absinthium and (22.13%) for Artemisia Pontica. All the tested insects have proved sensitive to the essential oils of studied species. Conversely Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia absinthium have shown a very efficient insecticidal activity, confirmed by the poor amount of DL 50 obtained respectively 5.9 and 8.4 mg/g; these oils can be exploited for industrial purposes.
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In West Africa Callosobruchus maculatus F. causes major losses during storage of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walper). The larvae of C. maculatus are parasitized inside the seeds by Dinarmus basalis (Rondani). African farmers introduce aromatic plants into storage systems at the beginning of the storage period that release toxic volatile compounds into the headspace of the stores. The susceptibility of C. maculatus and D. basalis to two plant sulphur-containing compounds, methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), was analyzed under laboratory conditions. The adults of C. maculatus and D. basalis had the same susceptibility to MITC but the parasitoid was more susceptible to DMDS than its host. The larvae were less affected by the treatments than the adults; the seed coat acts as a barrier for volatile penetration. Susceptibility to DMDS was high when the C. maculatus larvae were extracted from the seeds. DMDS was more toxic than MITC and differences in penetration inside the seeds could explain these results. The higher susceptibility of D. basalis to the treatments could have consequences on biological control in storage systems. The presence or absence of leaves of the shrub Boscia senegalensis Lamarck (Capparaceae), which release MITC into the jar atmosphere could have an impact on numbers of C. maculatus and D. basalis. When D. basalis adults were put into the storage systems in the absence of B. senegalensis leaves, successive generations of the parasitoids maintained the C. maculatus population at a low density. In the presence of B. senegalensis leaves, the D. basalis population was more affected by the treatment than its host C. maculatus and was incapable of preventing the increase in bruchid population. This traditional method appears to increase seed weight losses by limiting the efficiency of the biological control.
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The essential oil composition from the aerial parts of Artemisia campestris var. glutinosa Gay ex Bess and Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Asteraceae) of Tunisian origin has been studied by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil from A. campestris collected in Benguerdane (South of Tunisia) were found to be β-pinene (41.0%), p-cymene (9.9%), α-terpinene (7.9%), limonene (6.5%), myrcene (4.1%), β-phellandrene (3.4%) and a-pinene (3.2%). Whereas the oil from A. herba-alba collected in Tataouine (South of Tunisia) showed, pinocarvone (38.3%), a-copaene (12.18%), limonene (11.0%), isoamyl2-methylbutyrate (19.5%) as major compounds. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the two oils were investigated by the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome assay, with and without addition of an extrinsic metabolic activation system. The oils showed no mutagenicity when tested with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA97. On the other hand, we showed that each oil had antimutagenic activity against the carcinogen Benzo (a) pyrene (B[a] P) when tested with TA97 and TA98 assay systems.
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The solitary larval parasitoid Dinarmus basalis Rondani is a promising biological control of Callosobruchus maculatus F, a major insect pest of stored cowpeas in West Africa. Farmers traditionally introduce Hyptis suaveolens L. Poit. leaves in their granaries for protection of cowpea seeds against bruchid damage. However, effects of botanical treatment using this plant on host location behavior and reproduction of D. basalis remain unknown. Olfactometer studies showed that sublethal doses of volatiles emitted by the crushed leaves and the essential oils were repellent for naive females D. basalis, which had previously developed in the absence of H. suaveolens volatiles. These females were able to move in a three-dimensional device and to avoid the host patches associated with H. suaveolens volatiles. Their reproductive activity was consequently reduced in such patches. Females, which had been exposed to sublethal doses of H. suaveolens volatiles during their postembryonic development, were no longer repelled or only partially repelled by the plant volatiles. A habituation process may be involved in the behavior of these D. basalis females. The importance of this habituation process is discussed within the scope of the integrated protection of cowpea seeds during storage.
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Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. In the present study, aerial parts of A. herba-alba Asso were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by GC-MS. β-thujone (35.66) was the main component of the essential oil. Insecticidal activity of the oil was evaluated against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). After 24 h exposure time, R. dominica (LC50= 76.48 µl/l air) was more susceptible and T. castaneum (LC50= 564.40 µl/l air) was more tolerant than other species. In general, mortality increased as the doses of essential oil and exposure time increased. These results suggested that A. herba-alba oil might have potential as a control agent against T. castaneum, C. maculatus, and especially R. dominica.
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The susceptibility of C. maculatus and D. basalis to Jatropha seed oil was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The adults of C. maculatus and D. basalis had the same susceptibility to Jatropha seed oil but the parasitoid was relatively more susceptible than its host at all treatment levels. The oil was also repellent to C. maculatus but its persistency declined from 15 to 60 days in storage. The eggs of C. maculatus were comparatively more susceptible to the Jatropha seed oil than those of the parasitoid due to the protection afforded by the grain. However, the larvae and pupae of C. maculatus showed a relatively lower susceptibility to the oil. It is possible to incorporate the oil in a well designed pest management programme taking advantage of the short persistency of the oil on grains and its relatively ineffectiveness against the C. maculatus pupae developing inside the grain.
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Bruchids cause major losses during cowpea storage in West Africa, Two species, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic), and one endemic pteromalid, Dinarmus basalis (Rondani), are present in the Bobo Dioulasso region of Burkina Faso where this study was carried out. B. atrolineatus adults emerging in the stores from December to January are in reproductive diapause and the C. maculatus population is small. Numbers of C. maculatus increase substantially from February onward when temperatures and humidity rise. The number of D. basalis is low at the beginning of cowpea storage in December and the parasitoid cannot control the C. maculatus population, which therefore causes important seed weight losses. When adults of D. basalis are introduced into the stores at regular intervals, either during the first 2 mo of storage or during the entire storage period, the parasitoids reduce the increase in C. maculatus numbers and the seed weight losses are <100 g/kg of seeds, Releases of D. basalis adults were made in stores containing varieties of cowpea which had been infested naturally in the fields before harvest or were infested artificially. The introduction of high numbers early in the storage period limited the buildup of the bruchid population even when the climatic conditions become favorable for the rapid multiplication of C. maculatus. Studies in the laboratory under controlled conditions confirmed the results obtained under natural conditions in Burkina Faso. A high ratio of parasitoids to host larvae and pupae was critical to the successful biological control. It is only when this ratio is high that C. maculatus populations can be controlled. Biological control of bruchids, using inoculation by D. basalis adults in cowpea stores at the beginning of the storage time, is possible and limits weight losses of stored seeds to <10% after 6 or 7 mo.
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Bruchus rufimanus undergoes a reproductive diapause from the emergence of the adults, in September, until April, when the adults enter the fields of their plant host, at the beginning of the flowering period. In a previous paper, we pointed out that long days and the consumption of host plant pollen are the main environmental factors which are required for the termination of the diapause. We now analyse the modifications of ovariole structure and changes in the responsiveness of the bruchid to these environmental factors during the course of diapause. In constant conditions (10°C, constant darkness) in which diapause is maintained, the structure of the ovarioles does not vary during the first 5 months of diapause, but, after 6–7 months, previtellogenic phases are observed in the basal oöcytes. In September, a very small percentage of adults which have not experienced the exposure to 10°C, constant darkness, undergoes diapause termination when they are exposed to long days and consume pollen. The percentage of adults in which diapause terminates in conditions normally leading to termination increases after a period of 3–4 months in the diapausing conditions. We propose that horotelic processes take place during this initial phase of diapause. Longer periods in diapause do not result in greater rates of diapause termination when insects are exposed to long days and host plant pollen. The second phase of diapause, from the 5th month onwards, is interpreted as a facultative one, during which the insects are ready to respond to the factors inducing both the morphological and physiological development. The variations in responsiveness are important in the beetle's life history.
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The control of the development of Callosobruchus maculatus was studied using a method that combined exposure to essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and the introduction of a pteromalid natural enemy of the bruchid, Dinarmus basalis. The effect of the essential oil used was evaluated on all developmental stages of C. maculatus and on adults of D. basalis. At the highest concentration tested (33.3 μl/l) all adults of C. maculatus were killed within 24 h of exposure to the oil and the development of newly laid eggs and neonate larvae was also inhibited. However, the oil had variable efficacy against the bruchid instars developing inside the seeds: 5-day-old larvae (63% LI and 37% LII) of C. maculatus developing inside the seeds proving to be highly susceptible while 15-day-old insects (84% of pupae and 16% of larvae) were tolerant. Under the same conditions (33.3 μl/l), adults of D. basalis were very susceptible to oil vapours and to the residual activity of the oil after 3 or 6 days. However, the introduction of 10 pairs of adult D. basalis into a jar containing 100 hosts aged 10 days, 3 or 6 days before the oil application, gave respectively an emergence of 26 or 18 adults of the parasitoid compared to 28 in the control and there was no adult emergence of the host. The possibility of an integrated pest management strategy by using allelochemicals such as essential oils and indigenous natural enemies to control C. maculatus development in cowpea stocks is discussed.
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The pulverized leaves of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) and Murraya koenigii (Curry trees) were tested for their efficacy against the stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) under controlled laboratory conditions. Five different concentrations of leaf powders ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 g per 10.0 g wheat grains (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.5 & 1.0 g) were tested against the above mentioned common pest of stored grains for their insecticidal and seed protective properties. Both plant leaf powders have resulted in high mortality, delay in development and subsequent significant population reduction. They have also shown substantial seed protection over control cultures. The present study suggests that leaves from these trees have insecticidal properties against one of the most serious pest of stored wheat and could be employed as alternatives for chemical pesticides.
Chapter
IntroductionEssential Oil CompositionBiological Activities of Essential Oils Insecticidal/Deterrent EffectsHerbicidal ActivityAntimicrobial ActivityChallenges and Future OpportunitiesConclusion References Insecticidal/Deterrent EffectsHerbicidal ActivityAntimicrobial Activity
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We evaluated the longevity and progeny production of three hymenopteran parasitoids of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) when kept with or without food sources. In absence of adult food, Dinarmus basalis Ashm. (Pteromalidae) and Heterospilus prosopidis (Viereck) (Braconidae) lived longer than Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Pteromalidae). D. basalis produced the highest number of progeny and had the longest reproductive lifetime, making it the most promising parasitoid for the control of A. obtectus. A. calandrae performed poorly with A. obtectus and thus seems unsuitable as a control agent against this host. H. prosopidis had a shorter oviposition period than D. basalis, resulting in a lower lifetime progeny production. To determine the effect of food sources, either honey, sugarcane, or host larvae were offered to the parasitoids. Honey was a suitable food source for all three parasitoids. Honey as a food supplement for the synovigenic species D. basalis and A. calandrae increased their lifetime progeny production through an increase in reproductive lifetime, whereas in the proovigenic species H. prosopidis consumption of honey resulted in a higher number of progeny through an increase in daily oviposition rate rather than an increase in oviposition period. Positive effects of sugarcane and host-feeding were observed only for D. basalis.