Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) is a polymorphic species that consists of many subspecies and varieties. It is known for its medicinal, pharmacological, and culinary properties. This review is undertaken with the aim to highlight some aspects of this plant, specifically the taxonomy, the cytogeography, the phytochemistry with an emphasis on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the main bioactive compounds of A. campestris L. in addition to its biological properties and the food control properties. The bibliographic data compiled in this review allowed the revision of 146 papers, by using different databases and scientific engines, such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, and google scholar. The taxonomic analysis has embedded A. campestris L. in the tribe Anthemideae, and the genus Artemisia L. Also many subtaxa have been identified, and a subspecific classification of this species has been established on the basis of its botanical characters. The cytogenetic findings evidenced that A.campestris L. is prevailed by the chromosome number x = 9, with a polyploidization degree ranging from diploidy to hexaploidy according to the geographical distribution of the plant populations, while the genome size seems to be proportional to the ploidy level, suggesting an adaptive trait of the cytotypes to new environments. This plant is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, and terpenic compounds, which substantiate the bioactivities attributed to its extracts and essential oil. Hence, the SAR of the main bioactive compounds of A. campestris L., mainly the prominent flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenes revealed a tight link between specific chemical entities of the bioactive compound and the respective biological activity. Many biological activities were approached in this review, mainly the antioxidant, antivenom, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, anti-leishmaniasis, antinociceptive, wound healing, and analgesic activities in addition to the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective, and gastroprotective actions. Finally, the food preservative ability of the extracts and essential oil obtained from A.campestris L. have been fully discussed. The present review contributes to the literature, by bringing more clarifications about the different aspects of A.campestris L., like taxonomy, cytogeography and biological interests of this species. The SAR approach of some constituents that occur in A.campestris L., gives a solid support that can be used to explore the bioactivity of components isolated from this species, while the preservative properties of this plant can be usefully exploited for the agrifood sector.