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Abstract

The new 'Business For Peace' (B4P) paradigm urges multinational corporations (MNCs) to enter conflict zones and fragile post-conflict environments as an alternative to traditional development aid. While B4P's positive impact through economic opening and Corporate Social Responsibility is assumed, corporate presence can instead exacerbate conflict dynamics in certain settings. As B4P is becoming a standardized component throughout all multilateral development aid activities per the United Nations Global Compact B4P platform and the UN's 'Delivering As One' mandate, we argue that bringing B4P into the forefront of research on business, development, and conflict is essential. In this article, we unpack the relationships between business, conflict and liberal peace politics that led to the B4P framework. We then show how five major debates influence B4P today: if MNCs should be peacebuilders; if so, what should they do; how do we define and model 'peace' activities; how businesses navigate conflict economies; and how businesses engage with informal economies. We then show how these discussions guide the international community's multi-billion dollar development agenda and influence how businesses see their new role as peacebuilders and peacemakers. We conclude with suggestions for forward research on this rapidly emerging topic.
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... Delivered under the Bralima brand in the DRC, Heineken controls around 70 per cent of the country's market share and contributes a staggering 35 per cent of the state's revenue (Miklian and Schouten, 2014). Heineken operates like most DRC MNEs. ...
... Heineken operates like most DRC MNEs. To minimize risk and maximize profits, managers will, at times, use subcontractors for the most difficult or sensitive tasks (Miklian and Schouten, 2014;Miklian, 2017c). ...
... We recognize that these cases are far more complex than presented here. A more in-depth discussion of these and other business-conflict interactions can be found elsewhere (Miklian, 2017a(Miklian, , 2017bMiklian and Schouten, 2014;Miklian and Hoelscher, 2017;Miklian and Medina-Bickel, 2017). Our main takeaway, however, is that a peacebuilding approach is not one that requires corporations to be arbitrators of peace at the expense of profit. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reconceptualize how managers of multinational enterprises (MNEs) manage risk, particularly in fragile and/or conflict-affected areas of operation. The authors suggest that MNEs consider reducing risk at its source rather than trying to avoid or react to risks as they occur. By incorporating peacebuilding strategies, managers may not only reduce investment risk but also contribute to stability and prosperity in the communities where they operate, and gain a competitive advantage in doing so. Design/methodology/approach The authors show how firms can take a more holistic approach to working in conflict-affected areas. They do so by overlaying conceptualizations of risk with those of peacebuilding and then use case examples to illustrate how such actions work in practice. Findings Using a series of examples, the authors find that MNEs that incorporate peacebuilding frameworks in their risk calculations in complex settings tend to have a better understanding of local environments and how they affect firm operations and profitability. These same MNEs may hold a long-term advantage over international competitors that do not share the same understanding. Originality/value The authors argue that the study of relationships between international businesses and society in conflict-affected or fragile areas of operation is under-developed and tends to focus on negative (risk-aversion) aspects as opposed to positive (value-added) opportunities. This paper offers new ways in which these relationships can be reconceptualized. The authors’ main takeaway is that a peacebuilding approach does not require corporations to be arbitrators of peace at the expense of profit. Rather, it is instead a broader way to conceptualize and weigh risk when working in the world’s most challenging regions. This approach is more likely to be in the long-term interest of both the firm and the local society where the firm operates.
... El primer documento base que recogió todas esas experiencias previas y las formalizó metodológica y políticamente fue la Agenda para la Paz del secretario general de la ONU, Butros-Ghali (1992 Corporativa. Este renovado rol de las MNC como entes pacificadores, potencia la financiación privada en programas y proyectos de paz concretos, consolidándose como parte sustancial de un nuevo paradigma liberal para los programas o proyectos de paz (Miklian et al., 2014). Las crecientes cifras de inversión en B4P fueron estimadas por un grupo de investigadores noruegos en más de 8.000 Millones de euros gestionados y/o aportados por más de 20.000 empresas con Proyectos de Paz por todo el mundo (Miklian, 2018: 8 E4P. ...
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El artículo describe las prácticas actuales de los irenólogos y los peacebuilders; y, previsiblemente, las futuras en el horizonte de los próximos 50 años, en una realidad mundial dominada por la Industria 4.0 constituida por la robótica, inteligencia artificial y el internet de las cosas. Mediante el enfoque cuantitativo, se realiza un análisis empírico socioeconómico utilizando estadística descriptiva e inferencial, basado en un estudio de campo del caso de Villa El Salvador en Perú que busca medir, por analogía, la viabilidad real de algunas hipótesis esgrimidas por grandes economistas y sociólogos actuales, referidas al escenario de la paz social o interna a finales del Siglo XXI que denominamos hipótesis LCommons. Finalmente, se propone un modelo bivariable conformado por las variables independientes: cultura de paz y los proyectos emprendedores para la paz (E4P); siendo la variable dependiente: la paz empírica denominada eirênê.
... Over time, MNCs and state-owned firms alike have increasingly been drawn into the discussion as the UN, World Bank and other international organizations have reported on success stories of public-private partnerships worldwide that try to stimulate peaceful development through poverty reduction, socio-economic growth, and security provision. (Miklian and Schouten, 2014) As evidenced by the 2011 World Development Report's unabashedly positive view on private sector contributions to 'security, justice and jobs' (World Bank, 2011, p. xii) in fragile and conflict-affected contexts, arguments for the proposition that the private sector is an under-utilized development and peacebuilding actor are strongly influenced by the liberal economic tradition. As early as 1884, the political economist John Stuart Mill claimed that 'it is commerce which is rapidly rendering war obsolete, by strengthening and multiplying the personal interests which are in natural opposition to it' (Mill, 1848, p. 582). ...
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... A subsequent wave of scholarship underlined that fragile and conflict affected states were not meeting any of the Millenium Development goals, punctuated by the World Bank's review of the link between conflict and development in its World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security andDevelopment (World Bank, 2011). In the wake of these and other works, 'MNCs and state-owned firms alike have increasingly been drawn into the discussion as the UN, World Bank and other international organizations have reported on success stories of public-private partnerships worldwide that try to stimulate peaceful development through poverty reduction, socio-economic growth, and security provision' (Miklian & Schouten, 2014, citing Brainard, Chollet, & LaFleur, 2007Brainard et al. 2007;Deitelhoff & Wolf, 2010;UNGC, 2013). ...
... Although the argument that firms can address conflict drivers through community development, economic engagement, and reconciliation-based peacebuilding is a popular truism (Ballentine & Haufler, 2009;Miklian, 2017b;Wenger & Mockli, 2003), critical scholars are more skeptical. Setting aside the institutional implications of encouraging businesses to be peacebuilding partners (Miklian & Schouten, 2014), the FOP case shows that positive change is possible in business-peace projects, and may be replicable. This positive impact was predicated upon specific characteristics of implementation, project design, and business reputation. ...
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Despite emerging study of business initiatives that attempt to support local peace and development, we still have significant knowledge gaps on their effectiveness and efficiency. This article builds theory on business engagements for peace through exploration of the Footprints for Peace (FOP) peacebuilding project by the Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia (FNC). FOP was a business-peace initiative that attempted to improve the lives of vulnerable populations in conflict-affected regions. Through 70 stakeholder interviews, we show how FOP operationalized local peace and development in four conflict-affected departments of Colombia, and examine FNC’s motivations for and effectiveness of its peacebuilding activities. Our main finding is that FOP’s success supported several existing theories on business engagement in peace both in terms of peacebuilding by business and for local economic and societal development, providing evidence in support of development–business collaborations and local peacebuilding by business under certain targeted circumstances. We relate these findings to existing literature, highlighting where existing business-peace theory is supported, where FOP challenged assumptions, and where it illuminated new research gaps. These findings serve to take business-peace theory forward and improve our understandings of what can constitute success for business-peace initiatives in Colombia and possibly other conflict-affected regions.
... These 'conflictaffected and high-risk areas' are the core focus of the international community's development agenda today (UNGC 2013;Oetzel and Oh 2014), and the UN, World Bank and others see business-government-development partnerships as key to peaceful development (UNGC 2013). PIs can improve the role of business in conflict reduction and peace promotion, while reducing the likelihood that unintended consequences of business activities in conflict or crisis zones are ineffective or even exacerbating conflict (Miklian and Schouten 2014). Conflicts in remote areas of the world can greatly damage lives and livelihoods before the international community (or even national capital) has the capacity to take notice and respond. ...
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