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Financing Study Abroad: An Exploration of the Influence of Financial Factors on Student Study Abroad Patterns

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Abstract

This study examines the role of financial aid variables, namely, student loan and grant amounts, expected family contribution, and financial need, on the decision to study abroad among students in the University System of Georgia. Findings indicate that, generally, student loans negatively influence the likelihood of a student studying abroad whereas grant aid increases the likelihood. Students with higher levels of expected family contribution are less likely to participate in study abroad, as are those with more financial need. This study adds to our knowledge of factors that predict student study abroad participation in that it accounts for financial factors that have not yet been examined in the study abroad literature. Findings have important implications for students, study abroad practitioners, and institutions alike in terms of student access to international experiences, and also point to several directions for future research on the influence of students’ finances on their international educational experiences.

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... The present study is the first to examine whether low-income status is associated with any particular preference for program design features. A handful of studies have investigated the relation between student financial status and participation in education abroad (Kim & Lawrence, 2021;Salisbury et al., 2009;Soria et al., 2014;Whatley, 2017;Whatley & Clayton, 2020). The number of such studies is not great, no doubt in large part because of the difficulty of obtaining adequate data about students' finances. ...
... In regression models corresponding to research question 1, predictor variables follow from previous research (e.g., Salisbury et al., 2009;Whatley, 2017) and operationalize the layers of Perna's (2006) model. The student and family layer is represented by student sex, race/ethnicity, age, high school GPA, and SAT score (including concorded ACT scores), and receipt of a federal Pell grant, which we utilize as a proxy for lowincome status, as discussed below. ...
... It is likely that higher amounts of need-based aid are more effective in promoting study abroad than lower ones, on average. To the extent that assumption holds, findings here of the relationship of other need-based aid with study abroad decisions likely mask heterogenous effects by aid amount as suggested by Whatley (2017). Indeed, receipt of any needbased aid, including Pell, requires that a family fill out a FAFSA form. ...
... International students have different needs and require different information and services depending on the stage of their study abroad period (Perez-Encinas & Rodriguez-Pomeda, 2018;Whatley, 2017). The four stages, known as the international student life cycle, developed by the U.K. Higher Education Academy (2014) are as follows: ...
... Finances and funding have been identified as important factors for international students considering to study abroad. Student loans negatively influence the possibility of a student studying abroad, and funding, specifically grant funding, increases the possibility (Whatley, 2017). The after-mobility stage is when students can return home or remain in the country after graduation (McGill, 2018). ...
... The categories included city and culture, academics, university services, social life, personal and professional development, surroundings, costs, and finances. The following factors have been identified in various studies (Canadian Undergraduate Survey Consortium, 2004;Chapman, 1981;Maringe, 2006;Perez-Encinas & Rodriguez-Pomeda, 2018;Sanchez, 2012;Sorrells & Cole, 2011;Whatley, 2017) that presently influence students' choice of university: ...
Article
Higher education institutions (HEIs) are experiencing increased interest and enrollments in study programs by international students. The diversity of study options available to students requires HEI's management to understand the factors that influence a student's choice of HEI, specifically for recruitment and retention purposes. These factors differ from country to country as culture, educational needs, campus activities, safety, and security, and socioeconomic issues such as economic downturn and country instability all have various degrees of influence on a student's choice of where to study. This article investigates whether the factors, namely safety and security influence a national and international student's choice of a public university in South Africa. Two surveys were used to collect data from local and international students to determine what factors influenced their choice of university. The results indicate that safety and security, as deciding factors, do play a role in both South African public university students' and international students' choice of university. The #FeesMustFall student protests in 2016 disrupted the campuses of HEIs in South Africa and have made international students more aware of safety and security issues on South African university campuses.
... International students have different needs and require different information and services depending on the stage of their study abroad period (Perez-Encinas & Rodriguez-Pomeda, 2018;Whatley, 2017). The four stages, known as the international student life cycle, developed by the U.K. Higher Education Academy (2014) are as follows: ...
... Finances and funding have been identified as important factors for international students considering to study abroad. Student loans negatively influence the possibility of a student studying abroad, and funding, specifically grant funding, increases the possibility (Whatley, 2017). The after-mobility stage is when students can return home or remain in the country after graduation (McGill, 2018). ...
... The categories included city and culture, academics, university services, social life, personal and professional development, surroundings, costs, and finances. The following factors have been identified in various studies (Canadian Undergraduate Survey Consortium, 2004;Chapman, 1981;Maringe, 2006;Perez-Encinas & Rodriguez-Pomeda, 2018;Sanchez, 2012;Sorrells & Cole, 2011;Whatley, 2017) that presently influence students' choice of university: ...
Article
Higher education institutions (HEIs) are experiencing increased interest and enrolments in study programs by international students. For recruitment and retention purposes it is important that HEI managers understand the factors that influence a student's choice of HEI. Prior studies have found that these factors may differ from country to country and may include culture, educational needs, campus activities, safety, and security, and socioeconomic issues (such as an economic downturn and political or social instability). This article reports specifically on research into the influence of safety and security issues on national and international students' choice of public university in South Africa. Two surveys conducted at different times were used to collect data from local and international students. The results indicate that safety and security, played a deciding role in both local students' and international students' choice of university in South Africa, and that the disruption to campus life associated with the #FeesMustFall student protests in South Africa in 2016 may have made international students more aware of safety and security issues on South African university campuses.
... The amount, regularity, and types of activities students choose to participate in at university can also impact the likelihood of persistence and college completion (Kuh, 2008). Much of what we know about the relationship between socioeconomic status and study abroad has to do with differential participation in study abroad programs (Salisbury, Paulsen, & Pascarella, 2010, 2011Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, & Pascarella, 2009;Stroud, 2010;Whatley, 2017). Utilizing Perna's (2006) integrated student choice model, Salisbury et al. (2011) investigated factors that influence college freshmen of different racial groups to consider study abroad and found that among all groups, a student's intent to study abroad was related to that student's socioeconomic status. ...
... For example, a negative relationship was found between receipt of a federal grant and intent to study abroad among White and female students; yet, a positive relationship was found between receipt and intent to study abroad among Hispanic students (Salisbury et al., 2010(Salisbury et al., , 2011. Whatley (2017) went beyond research on intent to study abroad (Salisbury et al., 2010(Salisbury et al., , 2011Salisbury et al., 2009;Stroud, 2010) to examine the financial factors that influenced students to actually study abroad. Similar to research on student intent (Salisbury et al., 2010(Salisbury et al., , 2011Salisbury et al., 2009;Stroud, 2010), Whatley (2017) found that females were significantly more likely than males to study abroad and that minority students were significantly less likely than White students to study abroad, especially Asian and African American students. ...
... Whatley (2017) went beyond research on intent to study abroad (Salisbury et al., 2010(Salisbury et al., , 2011Salisbury et al., 2009;Stroud, 2010) to examine the financial factors that influenced students to actually study abroad. Similar to research on student intent (Salisbury et al., 2010(Salisbury et al., , 2011Salisbury et al., 2009;Stroud, 2010), Whatley (2017) found that females were significantly more likely than males to study abroad and that minority students were significantly less likely than White students to study abroad, especially Asian and African American students. In contrast to other research on the relationship between financial factors and intent to study abroad (Salisbury et al., 2009), Whatley (2017 found that need-based and non-need-based grant funding had a positive effect on actual student participation in study abroad. ...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers compared Pell eligible and non Pell eligible undergraduate students’ pre study abroad GPA and graduation GPAs and time to graduation. The results indicated a longer time to graduation for Pell eligible students. However, Pell eligible students who had studied abroad graduated with comparable GPAs to their non Pell study abroad peers four and six years post matriculation. The results suggest that study abroad did not create an undue burden that impeded the success of students from low income households. We discuss implications for funding priorities, university development offices, and study abroad advising.
... Women tend to be over-represented in the education abroad population in Australia (Daly & Barker, 2005;Nerlich, 2015) and the USA (Bryant & Soria, 2015;Luo & Jamieson-Drake, 2015;Naffziger et al., 2008;Salisbury et al., 2009Salisbury et al., , 2010Stroud, 2010;Whatley, 2017). They are also slightly over-represented in the education abroad populations of many European countries (Böttcher et al., 2016). ...
... This over-representation is most evident in temporary enrollments and language courses, and less so in internships abroad (Hauschildt et al., 2015(Hauschildt et al., , 2018. Multivariate studies suggest that, after controlling for confounding factors, the influence of being female on the likelihood of studying abroad is positive in the USA (Bryant & Soria, 2015;Luo & Jamieson-Drake, 2015;Salisbury et al., 2009;Stroud, 2010;Whatley, 2017), Italy (Di Pietro & Page, 2008), Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands (Netz, 2015), slightly positive but not significant in Switzerland (Messer & Wolter, 2007;Netz, 2015), and negative in France concerning stays abroad outside of the Erasmus program (Di Pietro & Page, 2008). Robust evidence on gender-specific education abroad participation in African and Asian countries is not knownapart from an experimental study on students at a Japanese university who had already completed a short-term stay abroad, which finds no gender differences (Kato & Suzuki, 2019). ...
... Empirical studies align closely with both theoretical approaches. Compared to students from high socio-economic backgrounds, students from low socio-economic backgrounds are more strongly deterred by the costs of studying abroad: They are less likely to receive scholarships and financial support from their parents for studying abroad, and therefore, more reliant on gainful employment (Hauschildt et al., 2015;Li & Bray, 2007;Netz & Finger, 2016;Whatley, 2017). Related to their greater income dependency, average age, and familial responsibilities, they are also more worried about delaying their study progress, and about being separated from family and friends. ...
Chapter
In recent years, the body of evidence suggesting that studying abroad during higher education can positively influence students’ personality development, academic knowledge and skills, intercultural competences, and employment prospects has increased. Policy makers and scholars alike want to understand who reaps these benefits and who does not. Hence, we review studies examining how key socio-demographic variables (gender, age, socio-economic background, and ethnicity) influence the likelihood of studying abroad. We describe the extent to which students are over- or under-represented in different national study abroad populations depending on their socio-demographics, summarize explanations for the observed patterns, and discuss initial evidence on how socio-demographic inequalities in study abroad participation have changed over time. Based on this synthesis, we identify ways forward for research and derive implications for policy makers and practitioners. https://www.routledge.com/Education-Abroad-Bridging-Scholarship-and-Practice-1st-Edition/Ogden-Streitweiser-Van-Mol/p/book/9781138364288
... It is also important to highlight that finances are a mitigating circumstance for studying abroad (Brux and Fry 2009;Lörz et al. 2015;Presley et al. 2010;Relyea et al. 2008;Sánchez et al. 2006;Simon and Ainsworth 2012). Whatley's (2017) analysis of financial aid packages and their association with studying abroad may help to understand the results. Her analysis indicated a significant positive relationship in the amount of need-based loans and likelihood to study abroad. ...
... The study includes non-graduates for two reasons. First, students have a significantly higher probability of studying abroad in the first 3 years of college than they do in the fourth year (Whatley 2017). Second, roughly 10% of the subsample did not graduate in 4 years. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education to understand student study abroad participation while holding a student’s prior intent to study abroad constant. The study augments previous use of the data set by (1) holding intent to study abroad constant across models and (2) focusing on study abroad participation and the socioeconomic construct of parental education. Consistent with theories of high-brow embodied cultural capital and effectively maintained inequality, students of advanced degree parents are more likely to study abroad after holding intent to study abroad and the various forms of capital constant. Intent to study abroad, gender, prior and current academic characteristics, university type, diverse coursework, orientation towards diversity, non-classroom faculty interactions, and co-curricular involvement have associations with study abroad participation. After controlling for intent to study abroad, individual analyses of student socioeconomic status indicate that intent to participate, academic achievement, and liberal arts institution attendance remain salient for increasing study abroad participation, and some other factors had heterogeneous associations among subgroups.
... However, it appears as though the majority, 65% of students, are concerned with their finances with or without factoring in a semester abroad. As found by Whatley (2017) in a study solely dedicated to how finances influence international student programs, the financial factor may be explained in that grant funding was found to have a positive impact on participation, while loans, expected family contribution, and financial need have a negative impact. Perhaps the students not interested in studying abroad were only "somewhat" concerned with finances if they fell in the category of taking out loans or their family contributes to their education. ...
... Perhaps the students not interested in studying abroad were only "somewhat" concerned with finances if they fell in the category of taking out loans or their family contributes to their education. Whatley (2017) found that students whose parents were paying for the majority of their child's education were more likely to agree that studying abroad was too expensive. This could be an area to research further. ...
Article
In a world that is becoming more globally connected, universities in the United States of America are pushing for more students to participate in study abroad opportunities. The researcher looked to answer the following questions: What factors influence student involvement in study abroad programs? What influence does the study abroad office exert over a student’s decision to study abroad? What conceptions or circumstances do students have prior to college that stimulate them to decide one way or another? The results where then analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively paired with Social Judgment Theory. The data suggests that females, non-athletes, those that have traveled outside of the country before, and students who had a parent attend college are more likely to study abroad. The study also discusses a financial aspect, GPA, and traveling outside the country as additional factors.
... Regrettably, despite their apparent awareness and interest, the number of American college students who actually participate is small (e.g., American Council on Education 2008; Fischer 2019; Helms et al. 2017). Open Doors 1 2019 reported that less than 2% of all U.S. undergraduates (300,056 students) studied abroad for credit during 2017-18 (IIE 2019. ...
... It is widely reported that social class and financial constraints shape intentions and participation (e.g., Dessoff 2006;Lingo 2019;Schnusenberg et al. 2012;Simon and Ainsworth 2012;Whatley 2017). However, findings are mixed with some studies discovering no impact of socioeconomic status (e.g., BaileyShea 2009) and others obtaining important effects (e.g., Doyle et al. 2010;Lingo 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Integrated Student Choice Model and Theory of Planned Behavior are used to frame an analysis of longitudinal student data. We utilize generalized structural equation modeling to evaluate our framework and to examine the impact of select student characteristics and college experiences on actual involvement in study abroad, giving particular attention to the role of intentions. Study results generally confirm prior findings and provide general support to our framework underscoring the importance of considering the temporal aspect of decisions to study abroad and the strength of intentions when estimating its effect on participation. Findings highlight student attributes associated with intentions that differ in strength and patterns of institutional characteristics and student attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral control beliefs, intentions, and campus involvement that shape individuals’ decisions to study abroad. Our findings provide insights into why prior study results regarding antecedents of intentions and the impact of intentions on study abroad participation may vary. We offer insights into how to advise and market programs to individuals who enter with different levels of motivation to study abroad.
... Salisbury et al. (2011) additionally find that Hispanic students who use loans to pay for college are less likely to intend to study abroad and that Asian American students who receive an institutional grant are more likely to do so. A final study that explores the relationship between financial aid and study abroad participation is Whatley (2017). Of particular relevance to the current study is that this study's findings suggest that non-need-based grant funding, a category including merit aid, is positively associated with study abroad participation. ...
... In other words, non-need-based aid aside from merit-aid funds appears to positively relate to study abroad participation. One limitation of the dataset used in Whatley (2017) is the inability to disaggregate the non-need-based financial aid category into merit-based aid and non-meritbased aid. Future research might be able tease apart these two aid categories in a more nuanced way at the student level. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study employs difference-in-differences estimation to explore the relationship between the implementation of state merit-aid programs and students’ participation in study abroad. The relationship between implementation of these financial aid programs and study abroad participation has not been tested explicitly in prior policy or education abroad literatures. While state merit-aid programs provide students with additional economic capital that might allow them to participate in educational opportunities such as study abroad, other aspects of merit-aid programs could discourage such engagement. Indeed, analyses of a panel dataset consisting of information from all 50 states suggested either no relationship between the implementation of merit-aid programs and study abroad or a situation wherein merit-aid implementation tempers students’ desires or abilities to study abroad. These findings may be the result of certain characteristics of merit-aid policies, such as a cap on the number of credit hours for which scholarship funds can be awarded or satisfactory academic progress requirements, and have important implications for state policy-makers and institutional actors. This study highlights several directions for future research on the relationship between state-level merit-aid programs and undergraduate participation in education abroad.
... Today, numerous studies suggest that the same demographics drive study abroad engagement, with participating students tending to be white and from higher-SES backgrounds than the undergraduate student population as a whole (Luo and Jamieson-Drake 2015;Salisbury et al. 2011). The financial barriers to study abroad are related to these demographic trends, since both the expense of international travel and the inability to work part-or full-time while traveling is a prohibitive challenge for many-if not mostcollege students (Salisbury et al. 2011;Whatley 2017). Our analysis will suggest that the specific kinds of messages in study abroad marketing may be related to the historically low participation rates among students from underrepresented or marginalized backgrounds (see also Salisbury et al. 2011: 144). ...
Article
Full-text available
Images of students in overseas settings have become a common feature of university websites in the USA, as universities employ bold visual imagery to encourage student participation in study abroad programs and to market the university more broadly. In this paper, we analyze the content of this visual material, reporting on an extensive analysis of 2000 screenshots from the websites of 39 leading U.S. research universities. We focus on three recurring visual categories of meaning that show up across the cases: images of students jumping, horizon-gazing, and standing with their arms open wide. We extend prior analyses of how marketing imagery commodifies study abroad, arguing that these images must also be situated within the cultural context of elite American higher education, where college is not only seen as a utilitarian or academic pursuit, but is also—or perhaps mostly—understood as a time of fun, maturation, personal discovery, and self-transformation. This work makes a methodological contribution toward the use of visual imagery in higher education research and also advances theoretical studies of how the meaning of study abroad is constructed and communicated.
... While the extra costs apply to all students, students of low-income backgrounds or with high financial needs are more affected. Correspondingly, students with higher financial need are less likely to participate in study abroad (Whatley, 2017). The financial considerations do not only affect students' opportunities; they influence their aspiration to go abroad. ...
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Study abroad is one of the main ways in which higher education institutions provide students with the opportunity to gain international experiences. While study abroad is mostly discussed in terms of the beneficial effects on students’ learning and development, the results in this dissertation indicate that study abroad works for some but disadvantages other students. Based on nationally representative U.S. data, I examined 1) disparities in students’ opportunities to study abroad as well as the effect of study abroad on the socioeconomic outcomes 2) early career income and 3) graduate school enrollment. The combined studies in this dissertation provided insight into how study abroad may contribute to the reproduction of social inequality. The first study indicated disparities in students’ opportunities to study abroad. Specifically, first generation, low-income students, students of color and rural students tend to study abroad less often than their peers. In the second study, I found that participation in study abroad did not result in a higher income within the four years after students graduated from their undergraduate degree. This suggests that there is no immediate effect of studying abroad on social mobility in terms of early career income. However, the third study showed that students who studied abroad were slightly more likely to enroll in graduate school. This may mean that studying abroad likely does have an indirect effect on income but only at later career stages. My studies indicate that studying abroad does not reproduce social inequality directly in terms of early career income but that it may do so indirectly through increased graduate school attendance. Based on the results of the three studies, I provide key recommendations for future research on study abroad. Moreover, I suggest ideas on how higher education institutions and their international offices can develop policies that address disparities in study abroad opportunities. In doing so, higher education can work towards a more equitable system in which all students have the opportunity to gain international and intercultural experiences that help them and those around them flourish.
... Perna et al., 2015), the availability of institutional or state funding (e.g. Kramer & Wu, 2021;Whatley, 2017), the economic wealth of countries, and the quality of national higher education systems (e.g. Beine et al., 2014;Rodríguez et al., 2011;Vögtle & Windzio, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This editorial to the special issue on heterogeneous effects of studying abroad starts with a review of studies on the determinants and individual-level effects of studying abroad. On that basis, it illustrates the necessity to place more emphasis on effect heterogeneity in research on international student mobility. It then develops a typology of heterogeneous effects of studying abroad, which shall function as an agenda for future research in the field. Thereafter, the editorial introduces the contributions to the special issue. It concludes by summarising major findings and directions for future research.
... While it has been determined that students enrolled in the liberal arts are more likely to study abroad (Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, and Pascarella, 2009), these fields tend to have flexible graduation requirements, thus conducive to lengthy student mobility commitments (Goldstein and Kim, 2006). Furthermore, exchange students have a history of being well traveled (Brooks and Waters, 2009;Daly, 2011) with fewer financial restrictions (Whatley, 2017), and a desire for individual growth (Pope, Sánchez, Lehnert, and Schmid, 2014;Twombly, Salisbury, Tumanut, and Klute, 2012). Relyea, Cocchiara, and Studdard align student mobility with "high risk propensity" and career value (2008, p. 346). ...
Research
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Applying a mixed-methods design, this study aims to generate knowledge regarding decreasing study abroad involvement amongst Japanese students. Based on data collected from a group of first-year Japanese university students, the authors propose six qualities of a predominantly willing, or self-selecting, group of study abroad participants, including 1) achievement in English-proficiency testing; 2) prior international experience and authentic cross-cultural interactions; 3) purpose and meaning connected to international experience, 4) a perception of barriers to study abroad as surmountable; 5) flexible beliefs on job hunting and lifetime employment; and 6) greater international posture. This paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of our findings to universities across Japan and in the Asia-Pacific region. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of fostering study abroad intent in the second language classroom, thus leading to greater study abroad interest and participation.
... The other factors ranked as important/very important by international students are listed in Table 9.2. The factors, which were ranked as important/very important, coincide with the majority of the main factors identified by international researchers (Maringe, 2006;Sanchez, 2012;Sorrells & Cole, 2011;Whatley, 2017). The following factors were ranked highly by the international students: ...
Chapter
An empirical study was conducted amongst national and international students at a South African university. International students indicated that university brochures and website, recommendations of former students and information from the International Office were considered important factors in their university of choice. National students indicated that the recommendation from a former student or friend, university website and visits by university representatives were the important factors they considered. The main factors in terms of marketing and recruitment tools students accessed were adverts in media, university websites, university fairs and word of mouth. The results of this chapter will assist the international offices and marketing departments to identify the important factors to consider and focus their attention on, when recruiting students, specifically from Africa.
... Over 20% of the agricultural students responding to the survey reported participation in at least one collegiate study abroad experience; yet overall, international experience was not highly ranked in the BWS experiment. Further investigation suggested study abroad participation may be related to financial outlook as has been previously observed (Whatley, 2017). The percentage of students studying abroad at least once who indicated high financial stress (4 or 5 on 1 -5 Likert scale) was smaller than the percent of highly stressed students never studying abroad (Table 8). ...
... Financial aid is a factor influencing study abroad, and its influences vary with students' characteristics. By examining the role of financial aid on students' study abroad decisions at the University System of Georgia, Whatley (2017) found that student loans had negative impacts on study abroad participation whereas grant aid had positive impacts; students with higher levels of expected family contributions or with more financial needs were less likely to study abroad. ...
Article
International Branch Campuses (IBCs) are growing rapidly worldwide, particularly in emerging countries, such as China. A literature review finds that there are contradictions among home and host countries in the economic rationales for establishing IBCs. In theory, both home and host countries would like to benefit from IBCs; however, in practice, most Chinese IBC undergraduates go on to study abroad after graduation and the contribution they make to China’s development becomes a concern. This research aims to understand the contradiction by examining intentions to study abroad at an IBC in China. Based on the literature on college choice, choice of IBC, and study abroad, a combined model of study abroad is proposed, which provides a conceptual framework for this research. This research is conducted at an IBC with independent legal status in China. A cross-sectional study and a mixed-methods approach are adopted. An online survey is distributed to the Chinese undergraduates at the chosen IBC, and semi-structured interviews are conducted with fifteen interviewees. The quantitative data is analysed with descriptive analysis, binary logistic regression analysis, and spearman’s correlation analysis. Thematic analysis is applied to the qualitative data. Analyses show that most students at this IBC are from socioeconomically advantaged families and there is a high proportion of students reporting that they had intentions to study abroad before they enrolled at this IBC, with the proportion significantly increasing during their first year of study. The “controlled mobile” students (as this study refers to them) that intend to study abroad before they enrolled at this IBC, and their parents, chose an IBC mainly as a means of transition to foreign universities in future; they reproduce their social status through study abroad, with this IBC as a stepping stone. The “emergent mobile” students form their intentions to study abroad during their first year of study. They modify their habitus at this IBC with multiple subfields for their habitus-field dissonance. This research shows that expected benefits and costs, as well as academic ability and achievement, have the most significant correlations with intention to study abroad, and institutional characteristics of the IBC also influence this intention. The qualitative study provides explanations for the findings. This findings on the effects of an IBC on intention to study abroad are useful for policymakers to develop IBC policies and strategies for policy enactments. This research contributes a proposed conceptual model for researchers to examine study abroad. The findings provide a lens to understand the choice of IBC and IBC students’ intentions to study abroad, which may be of value to practitioners at IBCs, such as in the development of recruitment strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic, when the IBCs in China are facing challenges to recruit quality students.
... Abschließend fassen wir unsere Ergebnisse zusammen, diskutieren die Implikationen sowie Limitationen unserer Studie und verweisen auf weiteren Forschungsbedarf (Abschnitt 7). (Whatley, 2017). Diese beabsichtigen und realisieren tendenziell etwas häufiger studienbezogene Auslandsaufenthalte als asiatisch-, afrikanisch-und hispanisch-amerikanische Studierende (Luo & Jamieson-Drake, 2015;Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, & Pascarella, 2009). ...
Chapter
Using theories of social inequality and migration, we combine the research strands dealing with study-related international mobility and with migration-related inequalities in higher education. Based on data from the 20th German Social Survey, we examine mechanisms through which a migration background may influence whether students in Germany intend to study abroad. Logistic regressions show that students with a migration background tend to be disadvantaged regarding their social background, which reduces their likelihood of intending to study in a different country. They receive less financial support from their parents and worry more about additional expenses, both of which is negatively associated with an intention to study abroad. However, superior language skills help first-generation migrants to compensate for their socio-economic disadvantages. Second-generation migrants can even over-compensate by additionally benefiting from a good socio-economic situation. Our results align with the broader evidence that students with a migration background are not principally disadvantaged in the German higher education system, given that they have similar socio-economic preconditions. When it comes to studying abroad, their migration-specific experiences and competences actually turn out to be resources.
... The authors concluded that universities might attain stronger positions within the higher education global market if they include international students' perceptions and their needs within their strategies. Whatley (2017) examined the influence of financial factors on the students' decision to study abroad. The study revealed that grant funding has a positive impact on students' study abroad decisions, whereas student loans have a negative impact. ...
Article
Full-text available
Attracting and enrolling international students have become the primary concern of marketing efforts of higher education institutions. For this purpose, understanding the decision-making process of students is vital. This study examines the information sources, requirements, and choice factors of international students who study their higher education in an emerging higher education destination. This study is conducted through a quantitative approach, based on both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A survey was conducted with students who enrolled at a state university for the first time. University websites are identified as the most used sources of information. According to the study’s findings, job and scholarship opportunities are identified as the first and most crucial concern of international students. This study is of particular significance for higher education institutions in emerging higher education destinations to better understand students’ decision-making process.
... Students often think they cannot fit education abroadespecially long-term education abroadinto their schedules. Furthermore, they assume that going abroad would be too expensive and that they would lose their source of funding from home (such as scholarships, student loans, and income), a concern that has been cited in previous research on education abroad as well (Foster, 2014;Whatley, 2017). We have spent the last decade intensively recruiting students for education abroad, including for year-long programs. ...
... Recent research also highlights the growing popularity of short-term study abroad programmes (ranging in length from one to eight weeks) which are often seen as a route to increasing access to international experiences (Chieffo and Griffiths, 2004;Whatley, 2017). While there is growing evidence of the impacts of such short-term experiences on participants, questions remain about the relative value of short vs long term study abroad (Chieffo and Griffiths, 2004;Medina-Lopez-Portillo, 2004;Anderson et al., 2006;Llanes and Muñoz, 2009;Mapp, 2012). ...
Article
The opportunity to study abroad is broadly hailed as a route for young people to develop a wide range of knowledge and skills, including intercultural understanding, interpersonal skills, and language learning, among many others. Universities around the world are investing significant resources in developing a variety of study abroad programmes, ranging from short or long term in duration, and from guided to independent study. These may have a number of aims, including to promote individual student learning and development and to enhance student mobility and employability, particularly in the context of a rapid and changeable global employment market. The terms ‘global citizen’, ‘global graduate’, ‘global skills’ and ‘global mindset’ have all taken on increased significance within this context. Limited research has been conducted, however, to explore students' own perspectives of these terms. This small scale study therefore set out to explore the perspectives of students on UCL's BASc programme and especially to better understand where and how the learning they gained during study abroad resonates with UCL’s global citizenship and student mobility strategies.
... Außerhalb Deutschlands kommen Studien meist zu dem Ergebnis, dass die jeweilige nationale Mehrheitspopulation ohne Migrationshintergrund anteilig am häufigsten studienbezogene Auslandsaufenthalte durchführt. In den USA handelt es sich hierbei um weiße Studierende (Whatley, 2017). Diese beabsichtigen und realisieren tendenziell etwas häufiger studienbezogene Auslandsaufenthalte als asiatisch-, afrikanisch-und hispanisch-amerikanische Studierende (Luo & Jamieson-Drake, 2015;Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, & Pascarella, 2009). ...
Book
Durch Migration und Mobilität werden Studierende an Hochschulen vielfältiger. Beispielsweise lassen sich Studierende mit eigener oder familiärer Migrationserfahrung mit deutschem Pass, Bildungsinländer*innen mit ausländischem Pass, internationale oder geflüchtete Studierende als Gruppen mit unterschiedlichen Bildungschancen identifizieren. Aktuelle empirische Befunde zu den Bildungschancen und Bildungsrenditen dieser sozialen Gruppen belegen migrationsspezifische Muster beim Schulerfolg und Übergang in die Hochschule. Auch im weiteren Studienverlauf zeigen sich soziale Disparitäten bei der Studienintegration und beim Studienerfolg sowie in Bezug auf internationale Mobilität. Der Inhalt • Schulerfolg und Übergang in die Hochschule • Studienintegration und Studien(miss)erfolg • Internationale Mobilität Die Zielgruppen • Lehrende und Studierende der Bildungs- und Migrationsforschung, Sozial- sowie Erziehungswissenschaften • Expertinnen und Experten der (politischen) Praxis Die Herausgeberinnen Prof. Dr. Monika Jungbauer-Gans ist wissenschaftliche Geschäftsführerin des Deutschen Zentrums für Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung und Professorin für „Empirische Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung“ an der Leibniz Universität Hannover. Dr. Anja Gottburgsen ist Referentin für Forschung und Change Management am Deutschen Zentrum für Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung.
... Negative parental attitude and other family issues have been found to constrain the participation of specific multicultural groups in study abroad, both in terms of financial help and family responsibilities towards sons and spouses (Murray Brux & Fry, 2010). On the opposite, financial support from the family represents a stimulating push factor in the decision to study abroad (Whatley, 2017). However, in this research, I tackle the family social network as the sum of the significative relations with inlaws and family members from the student's perspective. ...
Thesis
This thesis focuses on the assessment on a long-term perspective of the impacts of the professionals awarded with a MENA scholarship programme, majorly focusing on the social networks in which the student will reintegrate after the moment of the return to the home country. I challenge the comprehension of social change, of whom I scrutinise the minimum elements: the social networks, which I study by applying the Social network Approach. The social change is not only studied under the perspective of personal and professional development but expanded into a broader net of social connections that students may have created with other actors or institutions. Concentrating on the social networks enables an expansion of research from the simple academic training and linkages to the agency of national institution -both of the country of origin of the student and the Dutch public representatives-, local institutions, and, in greater detail, in the personal ties such as friendship and family. These elements will not be static and separated but explained and analysed in their social relationship and interplay, which can then create further links with new actors, solidify existing relationships or undo some ties in favour of fruitful ones
... While it has been determined that students enrolled in the liberal arts are more likely to study abroad (Salisbury, Umbach, Paulsen, and Pascarella, 2009), these fields tend to have flexible graduation requirements, thus conducive to lengthy student mobility commitments (Goldstein and Kim, 2006). Furthermore, exchange students have a history of being well traveled (Brooks and Waters, 2009;Daly, 2011) with fewer financial restrictions (Whatley, 2017), and a desire for individual growth (Pope, Sánchez, Lehnert, and Schmid, 2014;Twombly, Salisbury, Tumanut, and Klute, 2012). Relyea, Cocchiara, and Studdard align student mobility with "high risk propensity" and career value (2008, p. 346). ...
Article
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Applying a mixed-methods design, this study aims to generate knowledge regarding decreasing study abroad involvement amongst Japanese students. Based on data collected from a group of first-year Japanese university students, the authors propose six qualities of a predominantly willing, or self-selecting, group of study abroad participants, including 1) achievement in English-proficiency testing; 2) prior international experience and authentic cross-cultural interactions; 3) purpose and meaning connected to international experience, 4) a perception of barriers to study abroad as surmountable; 5) flexible beliefs on job hunting and lifetime employment; and 6) greater international posture. This paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of our findings to universities across Japan and in the Asia-Pacific region. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of fostering study abroad intent in the second language classroom, thus leading to greater study abroad interest and participation.
Article
Two distinct literature bases exist documenting the benefits of study aboard participation and state-adopted merit-aid policies. However, few, to date, have estimated the impact of merit-aid adoption on study abroad participation. Results from our study demonstrate the potential positive externality merit-aid policy adoption has on study abroad participation. In addition, we find that increases in study abroad participation is concentrated primarily within public doctoral/research institutions and institutions with students from more affluent families.
Chapter
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The United States is widely revered for its presumed excellence in higher education, and it now seems commonplace to characterize our postsecondary system as “the envy of the world”(eg, Khator 2011). In fact, according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities—which heavily weights research productivity—fifty of the top 100 universities globally reside in the United States (Shanghai Ranking Consultancy 2016). Few informed observers, however, would equate research prowess with educational effectiveness. Indeed, the educational quality of postsecondary institutions has been increasingly called into question as evidence periodically surfaces of marginal knowledge and skill acquisition among college graduates (Arum and Roska 2011; Kutner et al. 2007; Desjardins et al. 2013). For example, results from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy indicated that only 40 percent of bachelor’s degree recipients were proficient in prose literacy in 1992, a figure that fell to 31 percent in 2003 (Kutner et al. 2007). More recently, a national survey revealed that only 24 percent of employers agreed that college graduates were well prepared for “applying knowledge/skills to [the] real world”(Hart Research Associates 2015, 12). Concerns about educational quality have also emerged amidst competing state budgetary priorities and low graduation rates, as colleges and universities are pressured to provide evidence of their value, effectiveness, and efficiency, thereby ensuring that taxpayer investments
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore how postsecondary institutions with high and low study abroad participation rates communicate with students about study abroad opportunities. We were especially interested in identifying institutional policies and practices that focused on inequalities in access to study abroad. We addressed this purpose using a mixed-methods research design. We first conducted a quantitative regression analysis to identify two groups of institutions with especially high or low study abroad participation rates. We then applied a comparative qualitative content analysis to these institutions’ study abroad websites. Results suggested ways in which institutional policies and practices either perpetuate exclusion or promote access among diverse student populations.
Chapter
This chapter describes the history of state higher education funding, its impacts on tuition and fees, and the official academic costs that students expected to pay to attend college. The chapter then examines the hidden financial costs the students paid related to fees, programs and majors, textbooks and supplies, and professional development and networking; and the hidden social, emotional, and relational costs minoritized students faced inside and outside of the classroom. It closes by outlining how students responded to these hidden costs and the consequences for their academic pathways and well-being.
Article
Purpose The current work explores the attributes that serve as motivation regulations for students' selection of a higher education institute (HEI). Design/methodology/approach With a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective, the current study used a mixed-method approach to develop a scale to measure HEI attribute-based motivation regulations. Findings A total of eight regulations were proposed: academic/extracurricular activities, infrastructure, faculty research expertise, teaching and learning quality, placement opportunities, marketing and promotion, education cost and social influence. The first four were autonomous motivations and the remaining were controlled motivations. Research limitations/implications The study leverages the SDT motivation continuum into a structured HEI attribute-based student motivation framework. Practical implications The study guides HEI managers with specific attributes to position the institute appropriately. Originality/value This is one of the few works in the higher education utilizing the complete SDT framework.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this study explores individual student characteristics, specifically those related to demographics, financial need, academic characteristics, and social and cultural capitals, related to study abroad participation among community college students. Second, this study identifies when over the course of their studies community college students are most likely to participate in study abroad. Method: Data consist of student records provided by a large community college located in the U.S. Southeast. An event history model was used to estimate the relationship between both time-variant and time-invariant student-level indicators and study abroad participation. Smoothed hazard estimates were extracted from this model to explore the likelihood of study abroad participation over time. Results: Findings indicate that race/ethnicity, gender, state-residency status, age, need-based aid eligibility, field of study, and enrollment status (full- or part-time) significantly predicted study abroad participation. These results at times stand in contrast with findings from the literature on study abroad participation among students in the 4-year sector. Smoothed hazard estimates indicated that community college students were more likely to study abroad the longer they were enrolled at the community college. Contributions: These results speak to ways in which community college students access capital resources to promote participation in study abroad and highlight unique aspects of community college study abroad programming. Results also provide a foundation for recommendations for practice that would serve to open access to education abroad at community colleges.
Article
The University of Southern California School of Pharmacy has offered a residential summer course for international undergraduate pharmacy students for many years, with a focus on clinical therapeutics. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic made it impossible to offer the on-campus course. After some discussion, the course was moved online, with the goals of maintaining links with international partners and providing students with a virtual study abroad experience. This article describes the planning and implementation of this course, which was held for two weeks in July 2020 for 19 students from South Korea, Taiwan and Saudi Arabia. The course included an integrated science and clinical approach to diabetes and drug-drug interactions. The facilitation of active learning and problem-solving in transnational student groups through Zoom meetings are described. A post-course survey of students provided positive feedback on the content and online delivery of the course.
Article
This article demonstrates how network analysis of qualitative content can be used to build on traditional research approaches to confirm and expand prior findings and to point to fruitful directions for future research. Drawing on mixed methods research on policies and practices that improve access to study abroad at U.S. higher education institutions, we demonstrate how network analysis, namely, quadratic assignment procedure and community detection, of qualitative content codes can enhance the explanatory power and generalizability of previous research. Our use of network analysis contributes an empirical example that validates, challenges, and deepens conversations surrounding network analysis in mixed methods research, all while pushing the envelope on how and when qualitative and quantitative data can and should be integrated.
Article
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In many Western countries, women are more likely to study abroad than men. At present, there is a lack of theory-guided empirical studies searching explanations for this pattern. We address this research gap by examining gender differences in study abroad intent among first-semester students in Germany. To derive a comprehensive theoretical framework, we draw on social role theory of sex differences, cognitive development theory, new home economics and statistical discrimination theory. Using data from the nationally representative 2010 DZHW School Leavers Survey, we test our hypotheses by estimating logistic regressions and non-linear effect decompositions. We find that women more often intend to study abroad primarily because of the gender-specific interest profiles they develop throughout their early life course: Related to their subject choice at school, women tend to acquire competences (e.g., language skills) that ease later stays abroad. To some extent, women's better educational performance during school also explains their better chances to study abroad. Once in higher education, women tend to choose fields of study in which studying abroad is considered more valuable for competence acquisition. Losing time due to studying abroad is less of an obstacle for women but - against theoretical expectations - not because of a lower labour market orientation. Finally, the expectation to interrupt the professional career for taking care of the family deters women-especially those from a low social background-from studying abroad, but not men. We do not find evidence that women understand studying abroad as a strategy to counteract this anticipated discrimination. Overall, our results underscore the particular importance of social role and cognitive development theory for explaining gender differences in the spatial mobility of students.
Technical Report
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The hot topic of Student Loans is a firestorm led by the United States and England. As an indicator of worse to come, household debt due to student loans now exceeds debts due to credit cards in the USA and UK. Yet as a result many Universities are booming. But as one observer noted, “How much ivory do these towers need?” A review is presented of the impact on the English political, social and financial fabric being caused by the rapidly growing burden of Student Debts to graduates and their households. Scholarly articles on Student Loans are now appearing at a rate exceeding 4,000 a year worldwide and show no sign of abating. By August 2017, Google Scholar was listing 53,700 articles worldwide under ‘Student Loans’. To serve as a sample, a World Checklist of Articles on Student Loans is presented, consisting of 1,000 entries. 775 entries are from Researchgate www.researchgate.com by searching for ‘student loans’, topped up by 238 records for 2017 scalped from Google Scholar. The ‘World Checklist’ has 1,000 entries constituting barely a two percent sample of the estimated 50,000 scholarly articles on ‘student loans’. Nevertheless the checklist is believed to be a primer and pathfinder into the complex and controversial field of how to fund Higher Education. The World Checklist is proving to be of value to Liberal Democrats in Manchester England, seeking the elusive ‘holy grail’ of how to expand places at English universities and vocational education training centres without burdening students with the spectre of long-term debts, stress and anxiety.
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This study analyzes the benefits of rapid student loan repayment, defined here as borrowers who repaid their cumulative undergraduate loan debt in half the time of the expected repayment cycle (10 years). Drawing from data on borrowers in two nationally representative samples, I first explain the analytic framework employed to identify rapid loan repayers, then examine whether rapid loan repayment is associated with financial benefits in terms of salary, homeownership, and non–poverty level, identifying how rapid loan repayers differ from their non–rapid loan repayer and nonborrower counterparts. Results show salary benefits associated with rapid loan repayment and indicate that among rapid loan repayers, cumulative loan debt generally did not surpass $15,000. These findings suggest that policy-makers may consider the adoption of shorter repayment plans with clear eligibility cutoff amounts as an alternative to the more common 10-year fixed plan.
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More than 4 decades of research on community colleges has indicated that students who begin in these institutions realize lower levels of educational attainment than initial 4-year entrants. In terms of labor market outcomes, studies have overwhelmingly focused on comparing 2-year entrants to high school graduates who did not attend college. In contrast, this study concentrated on 2-year entrants who became scientists in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and compared their individual and professional characteristics and monetary compensation during a 10-year period to those of scientists who entered college in the 4-year sector. The data analyzed came from 2 National Science Foundation longitudinal and nationally representative samples of doctorate recipients. The analytic techniques relied on the instrumental variables approach for dynamic panel data and propensity score weighting. Findings consistently revealed that 2-year entrants came from lower-income backgrounds and had lower mean salary and lower salary growth than their 4-year sector counterparts. Despite these negative salary-based effects, data showed that the 2-year sector has had an active function in the early formation of scientists. As the competition for science and technology development tightens worldwide, initiatives should identify understudied venues to increase the production of STEM graduates. Considering its scope, the 2-year sector could be one of them.
Article
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This study examined US undergraduate students’ intent to study abroad upon college entry and their actual participation in study abroad during their undergraduate years, correlating the college outcomes of three cohorts to identify trends. The findings show that study abroad intent and participation are interrelated and shaped by an array of factors, including gender, race or ethnicity, major, and involvement in college activities. While mathematical ability and helping to promote racial understanding negatively affected study abroad intent, aspiring to earn an advanced degree, time spent socializing with friends, artistic ability, seeking to improve understanding of other countries and cultures, and expectations to join a social fraternity or sorority, to be satisfied with college, and to participate in student clubs or groups positively influenced study abroad intent. Also, the findings indicate that involvement in the student government, a music or theater group, a political club, club sports, and off-campus study negatively affected participation in study abroad. Finally, the findings reveal that study abroad made a unique contribution to college outcomes, such as understanding moral and ethical issues, communication skills, academic performance, and overall satisfaction. Implications for higher education researchers, study abroad professionals, senior administrators, faculty advisors, and college students are discussed.
Article
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Policy makers and state representatives have claimed that, compared to the traditional path to a four-year degree, a course of study that begins in the 2-year sector provides a more affordable option. If this is true, then all else equal, 2-year students who obtained a 4-year degree would be expected to have acquired less student loan debt. To test these claims, this study examines the effect of initial enrollment in public 2- and 4-year institutions on education loan debt conditional upon bachelor’s degree completion. Two quasiexperimental techniques (Propensity Score Matching and Heckman Control Function) applied to official longitudinal loan data consistently revealed that similar 2- and 4-year students who obtained a bachelor’s degree had similar levels of debt and repayment. Among non-degree-completers, initial 4-year entrants had higher loan debt than 2-year students. These findings suggest that the 2-year path culminating in a 4-year degree is not less expensive in terms of loan debt. As such, initiatives that lead traditional 4-year students to the “cheaper” 2-year sector may crowd-out students who truly need to begin in these schools. In light of these results, studies analyzing the impact of the private and for-profit sectors should be conducted following the approach presented in this study.
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We jointly model the application, admission, financial aid determination, and enrollment decision process. We simulate how enrollment and application behavior change when important factors like financial aid are permitted to vary. An innovation is the investigation into the role of financial aid expectations and how they relate to application and enrollment behavior.
Article
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With the number of American students studying abroad increasing each year and the expected passage of a federal law that would increase and diversify study abroad participation and locations, U.S. colleges and universities likely will have to make changes related to curriculum, faculty involvement, institutional leadership, programming, and resources (both financial and human) to meet the mandate. Therefore, it is imperative that colleges and universities understand how the characteristics and backgrounds of their students influence intent to study abroad. This study examined factors that may affect U.S. student participation in study abroad, including parental income and education, gender, race, intended major, attitudes about other cultures, and distance of college from home. Data were collected from a large, public northeastern university in the United States that participated in the 2007 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) survey, which provides information about incoming students’ backgrounds, academic and career expectations, personal goals, and opinions on a wide range of political and social issues. The results indicate that being female, attending school more than 100 miles from home, and expressing an interest in improving one’s understanding of other cultures and countries have a positive influence on American students’ intent to study abroad. Planning to pursue a master’s degree or higher, living with family while attending school and majoring in engineering and professional areas such as architecture and medicine negatively affect U.S. student intent to study abroad.
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Globalization and internationalization are related but not the same thing. Globalization is the context of economic and academic trends that are part of the reality of the 21st century. Internationalization includes the policies and practices undertaken by academic systems and institutions—and even individuals—to cope with the global academic environment. The motivations for internationalization include commercial advantage, knowledge and language acquisition, enhancing the curriculum with international content, and many others. Specific initiatives such as branch campuses, cross-border collaborative arrangements, programs for international students, establishing English-medium programs and degrees, and others have been put into place as part of internationalization. Efforts to monitor international initiatives and ensure quality are integral to the international higher education environment.
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International student exchange programs are widely promoted in higher education as a means of developing desirable intercultural skills and understanding among students. This multimethod study employed data from student surveys, tertiary institution case studies, and interviews with key stakeholders to identify factors that inhibited or promoted the uptake of international exchange programs among New Zealand students. These factors include the development of early understanding of the benefits of studying abroad; ongoing support to students; social, cultural, and linguistic capabilities; and how effectively overseas study was integrated into student degree programs. Implications of these findings for exchange programs in general are discussed in the context of future strategic development of expanded, more diverse opportunities for study overseas. Yes Yes
Article
Policy makers and state representatives have claimed that, compared to the traditional path to a four-year degree, a course of study that begins in the 2-year sector provides a more affordable option. If this is true, then all else equal, 2-year students who obtained a 4-year degree would be expected to have acquired less student loan debt. To test these claims, this study examines the effect of initial enrollment in public 2- and 4-year institutions on education loan debt conditional upon bachelor's degree completion. Two quasiexperimental techniques (Propensity Score Matching and Heckman Control Function) applied to official longitudinal loan data consistently revealed that similar 2- and 4-year students who obtained a bachelor's degree had similar levels of debt and repayment. Among non-degree-completers, initial 4-year entrants had higher loan debt than 2-year students. These findings suggest that the 2-year path culminating in a 4-year degree is not less expensive in terms of loan debt. As such, initiatives that lead traditional 4-year students to the “cheaper” 2-year sector may crowd-out students who truly need to begin in these schools. In light of these results, studies analyzing the impact of the private and for-profit sectors should be conducted following the approach presented in this study.
Book
This volume explores the relationship between 'study abroad' and the acquisition of 'sociolinguistic competence' - the ability to communicate in socially appropriate ways. The volume looks at language development and use during study abroad in France by examining patterns of variation in the speech of advanced L2 speakers. Within a variationist paradigm, fine-grained empirical analyses of speech illuminate choices the L2 speaker makes in relation to their new identity, gender patterns, closeness or distance maintained in the social context in which they find themselves. Using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, four variable features of contemporary spoken French are analysed in a large population of advanced Irish-English speakers of French. This close-up picture provides empirical evidence by which to evaluate the wide-spread assumption that Study Abroad is highly beneficial for second language learning. © 2009 Vera Regan, Martin Howard and Isabelle Lemée. All rights reserved.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficacy of foreign immersion programs in terms of increasing cross-cultural awareness among university students in business, accounting, human resources and agriculture. The authors extrapolate from their population to the practice of developing business professionals on international assignments. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents findings of a four-year, government-sponsored university exchange program involving 40 professional management and agriculture science students from four US and Brazilian top research universities who participated in a semester-long study abroad experience. Pre-departure and post-exchange data were collected using the well-established Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI). In addition, the authors collected academic performance data and verbal mid- and end-project personal assessments. Two of the authors of this paper served as project directors, the third as evaluation specialist. Findings – Despite intensive pre-departure preparation, in-country support and cultural immersion, the research subjects failed to attain significant and consistently higher levels of intercultural awareness. Students tended to overestimate their own level of cross-cultural competence both before and after the program. While students tended to perform well academically and voiced high levels of satisfaction with their own overseas stay, objective measures of cross-cultural awareness did not mirror these outcomes. Research limitations/implications – Multiple measures of cross-cultural competence exist, and it is possible that the development in areas other than those measured by the IDI did take place. It is also sensible to assume that cognitive development might take longer and was not captured by the post-test right after return. Practical implications – The paper suggests that cross-cultural development requires carefully designed interventions, feedback and mentoring/coaching. Simply sending individuals on overseas assignments, no matter how well prepared and supported by the institution, does not guarantee the development of multi-cultural attitudes and cognitive frames of mind. Social Implications – The development of cross-cultural competence has been described as a central concern for universities and workplaces alike. The burgeoning research literature on cross-cultural development reflects not only the importance of the topic but also the struggle to find effective pedagogical and andragogical approaches to fostering such development in university students, expatriate managers, working professionals and members of the workforce in general. Originality/value – The paper presents evaluation findings of a carefully designed and well-supported exchange program over a period of four years and involving three cohorts of students. These students are at the cusp of moving into the workplace, where many will assume professional and leadership positions in international settings. Given the high failure rate of international development and placement and the increasing global interconnectedness of academic and business organizations, the paper suggests the need for carefully designed and well-supported overseas programs to maximize cross-cultural development.
Article
This study examined 656 students’ perceptions of international education and study abroad programs. Respondents included business students from seven universities, both public and private, across the United States. The research addressed four issues: general perceptions of international course work; general perceptions of study abroad programs; perceptions of study abroad program costs in both time and money; and desired program characteristics. The results indicated that many of the students were misinformed regarding their university’s programs. The research offers insight for developing and modifying study abroad programs that will encourage student participation.
Article
This study aims to clarify the influencing factors for Asian American students when making the decision to study abroad. By understanding the influencing factors, efforts could be made to help increase the overall participation of students in study abroad and, more specifically, increase the rate of participation of Asian Americans.
Article
European and U.S. institutions have promoted the value of a learning abroad experience for many years. As Australian higher education institutions have adopted policies and strategies to increase participation in learning abroad, with employability as a central argument, it is important to study this claim. This article examines the links between a learning abroad experience and early career benefits for recent graduates from Australian higher education, with an exploratory consideration of various conditions that may promote working for an international organization. Participation in multiple learning abroad programs emerged as an important variable. Participants reported a high level of benefit from their learning abroad experience in relation to the early stages of their career. Although employability skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork skills, and problem solving and analytical skills were rated as the greatest perceived benefits, career-related benefits such as future career prospects and increased motivation and passion for their chosen career direction were also identified. Although the study is set within the Australian higher education and graduate employment context, it contributes to the growing body of literature on the value of learning abroad to participants, educational institutions, employers, and society in general.
Article
Over the last four decades, participation in postsecondary education has grown, yet degree completion rates have not risen at a proportional rate (Bound, Lovenheim & Turner, 2009; National Center for Educational Statistics, 2008; Turner, 2004) and the length of time to graduation is increasing (Tinto, 1993; Turner). At the same time, the benefits of degree completion for the individual and society are well documented (McMahon, 2009). Significant research since the 1970s explored factors related to student retention and attrition in an effort to understand and intervene in these processes. Building on Astin’s (1984) Theory of Student Involvement, Kuh and associates (2005) investigated practices and activities employed by institutions to promote student engagement using degree completion as a measure of institutional success. Study abroad is among these practices. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study examined degree completion rates and time-to-degree for the 2002 entering cohort of first-time-in-college freshmen at The University of Texas at Austin (7,845 individuals). Rates were compared for three groups of students: students who had participated in a study abroad program (participants), students who applied but did not participate (applicants), and students who did not apply to participate or study abroad (non-participants). Applicants were included to approximate the motivational factors which may distinguish study abroad participants from non-participants. Results indicated that study abroad participants graduated at higher rates than either applicants or non-participants, and that participation increased the predicted probability of graduating in five years by 64% and in six years by 202%. In addition, time-to-degree was slightly shorter for participants when compared to all non-participants, although the effect size was small. No significant difference existed in the predicted time-to-degree of participants and non-participants. Analyses of degree completion rates and differences in time-to-degree between participants based on program type, length, and classification at the time of participation also yielded multiple significant results. Interviews with alumni from this cohort provided greater insight into factors which influence or inhibit study abroad participation at the university.
Article
This article investigates the early career of graduates who have studied abroad (mobile students) compared to graduates who have undertaken the entire education at domestic higher education institutions (nonmobile students). The main question is to what extent mobile students get jobs with international assignments compared to nonmobile students. Results show that mobile students—particularly those who graduated abroad— more often than nonmobile students search for and gain work experience abroad. The vast majority of mobile students return from abroad after graduation. In the domestic labour market, mobile students hold jobs with more international assignments than nonmobile students.
Article
In 1987 Leslie and Brinkman published an important review of the literature on the relationship between price and enrollment in higher education. Since publication of their article many student demand studies have been released. This article summarizes the results of many of these key studies in light of Leslie and Brinkman's findings a decade ago.
Article
The purpose of the present paper is to describe, for a North American audience, how “study abroad” or “residence abroad” is understood in the European context. Here, it is not merely an educational matter: the historical, geographical and political context of Europe has an important influence on the rationale for student residence abroad and on its organisation. As well as highlighting differences from the American context, the paper will describe features of current practice, focusing particularly on the United Kingdom, for several reasons. Residence abroad has been a compulsory part of most degrees in modern languages in the UK for many years, the UK has larger numbers of students involved in the process, and the evaluation of residence abroad has arguably been more systematic than elsewhere in Europe, where residence abroad is normally optional, is not closely integrated into the degree structure, and (at least until recently) has carried little or no weight within the credit structure of the degree. Finally, I shall review the published research into residence abroad, especially with regard to foreign language proficiency and to intercultural competence. The paper is divided into four sections dealing respectively with the European context, residence abroad in Europe, UK specific information, and research findings.
Article
This article outlines an ongoing initiative that was also part of the “Navigating Other Cultures” project at the University of Melbourne. It seeks to address the underrepresentation of science students from this university in international exchange programs. It includes a brief literature review that highlights the intrinsically international nature of science, the need for more internationally competent graduates, and benefits of international experiences for students. Two surveys were designed and administered. The first was intended to gain essential information about the reasons that so few science students choose to undertake international exchange programs. The second asked science faculty staff to provide information about the nature and perceived value of their own international experiences. The findings of both surveys are used to propose future strategies to foster greater participation in international exchanges by science students.
Article
This paper considers the relationship between admissions criteria and subsequent academic performance in a university-level special study program, using the example of study abroad. The University of California Education Abroad Program (EAP), perhaps the largest single study abroad entity, provides the data and institutional setting for this study. Based on a study of nearly 1,600 students over a five-year period, we describe student characteristics associated with participation, with special attention to diversity issues; we explore factors associated with academic performance abroad; we investigate minimum academic qualifications associated with academic “success” in the study program. Findings show marked variations in the demographic characteristics of students participating in the program and that students’ pre-departure academic performance and foreign language proficiency are positively related to academic performance abroad. It is also shown that some students admitted to the program by exception do perform at equivalent levels.
Article
Study abroad professionals have attempted in recent years to bring a statistical objectivity to the evaluation of the American study abroad experience. The complexity of international education is such that it is far from easy to move towards significant, objectively measurable, and comparable outcomes. This article presents a preliminary examination of one attempt to generate and interpret meaningful statistical assessment of the study abroad experience, within the context of specifically defined study abroad program types. The authors examine the data thus far generated, suggest its limitations, and appeal for a continued gathering of information. The authors suggest a structured, coordinated, profession-wide assessment effort that will gradually reveal a useful correlation between study abroad learning and the input of program variables such as duration, housing, experiential work and on-site mentoring. They argue that there is a strong relationship between a program's curricular design and the performance of students enrolled in it. The American University Center of Provence (AUCP), a small, independent, semester or full-year study abroad program, offers an example of a program that was designed by moving from desired learning outcomes to program design. The authors assess the extent to which students enrolling in this program are meeting the two primary goals of language and intercultural learning and explore as well the relationship between the two, relying on the Intercultural Development Inventory and on a language testing instrument developed by the "Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris," the "Test d'Evaluation de Francais." Each testing instrument, its use at AUCP, and a brief presentation and preliminary analysis of results are presented. (Contains 4 figures and 1 note.)
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The collection of essays on second language learning during study abroad includes: "Language Learning and Study Abroad" (Barbara F. Freed); "Predictors of Foreign Language Gain During Study Abroad" (Richard D. Brecht, Dan E. Davidson, Ralph B. Ginsberg); "A Canadian Interprovincial Exchange: Evaluating the Linguistic Impact of a Three-Month Stay in Quebec" (Sharon Lapkin, Doug Hart, Merrill Swain); "Getting Into, Through and Out of a Survival Situation: A Comparison of Communicative Strategies Used by Students Studying Spanish Abroad and 'At Home'" (Barbara A. Lafford); "What Makes Us Think that Students Who Study Abroad Become Fluent?" (Barbara F. Freed); "The Peace Corps Experience: Language Learning in Training and in the Field" (Gail Guntermann); "The Effects of Overseas Language Programs: Report on a Case Study of an Intensive Japanese Course" (Thom Huebner); "The Acquisition of Politeness Patterns by Exchange Students in Japan" (Helen Marriott); "Individual Differences and Study Abroad: Women Learning Japanese in Japan" (Meryl Siegal); "The Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Native Speech Norms: Effects of a Year Abroad on Second Language Learners of French" (Vera Regan); "Language Learning and Living Abroad: Stories from the Field" (Livia Polanyi); "Folklinguistic Theories of Language Learning" (Laura Miller, Ralph B. Ginsberg); and "On the Value for Formal Instruction in Study Abroad: Student Reactions in Context" (Richard D. Brecht, Jennifer L. Robinson). (MSE)
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This research compares the study-abroad perceptions and preferences of business and non-business majors. The results suggest that the two groups have somewhat different motivations for studying abroad. On balance, business students appear more pragmatic than their non-business counterparts, expressing greater concern for financial issues, and the effects of study abroad on both graduation dates and future job prospects. However, the two groups expressed virtually unanimous agreement when asked to describe their specific preferences regarding a study-abroad program. The results suggest that although the two groups seem driven by different motivations, their study-abroad needs may be satisfied by a single, carefully designed program. (Contains 5 tables.)
Article
This research compares the study-abroad perceptions and preferences of business and non-business majors. The results suggest that the two groups have somewhat different motivations for studying abroad. On balance, business students appear more pragmatic than their non-business counterparts, expressing greater concern for financial issues, and the effects of study abroad on both graduation dates and future job prospects. However, the two groups expressed virtually unanimous agreement when asked to describe their specific preferences regarding a study-abroad program. The results suggest that although the two groups seem driven by different motivations, their study-abroad needs may be satisfied by a single, carefully designed program.
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Despite substantial efforts across postsecondary education to increase minority participation in study abroad, the homogeneity of study abroad participants remains largely unchanged (Dessoff in Int Educ 15(2):20–27, 2006; Shih in http://diverseeducation.com/article/13193/study-abroad-participation-up-except-among-minority-students.html, 2009). This study applies an adaptation of an integrated student choice model (Perna in Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, 2006; Salisbury et al. in Research in Higher Education 50:119–143, 2009) to identify differencesbetween white and minority (African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American) studentsacross measures of human, financial, social, and cultural capital previously shown to influence aspirations to study abroad (Salisbury et al.). Analysis of data from 6,828 students at 53 institutions participating in the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education suggests numerous differences between racial groups with considerable implications for institutions, scholars, and policymakers. KeywordsStudy abroad–Minority students–Student choice construct
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This study applies an integrated model of college choice to better describe students who do and do not intend to study abroad. Although internationalization through study abroad is widely touted as a preferred means of developing globally competent college graduates, very little is known about the factors that influence students’ predisposition to study abroad. This research explores the impact of financial, human, social, and cultural capital on students’ intent to study abroad. Analysis of data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNSLAE) demonstrates a complex interplay between SES, accumulated pre-college capital, and capital acquired during the freshman year. Important implications for national policy makers, senior administrators, study abroad professionals and higher education researchers are discussed.
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Although interest in study abroad has grown consistently in recent decades, study abroad professionals and higher education scholars have been unable to explain or rectify the long-standing gender gap in study abroad participation. This study applies an integrated model of the student-choice construct to explore differences between male and female intent to study abroad. Results indicate that, not only can various forms of social and cultural capital predict student decisions about curricular opportunities during college such as study abroad, but gender plays a substantial role in altering the ways in which those forms of capital shape student decisions differently. These findings present a range of implications for researchers interested in better understanding the decision making process of college students as well as study abroad professionals and national policymakers intent on narrowing the gender gap in study abroad participation. KeywordsCollege students-Study abroad-Gender differences-Student choice construct-Intent
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This study was designed to identify variables that predict participation in study abroad programs. A total of 179 undergraduates were followed through their 4-year college career. At year one, students completed a survey packet that included measures of study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, intolerance of ambiguity, and academic and demographic variables. During the students’ senior year, follow-up data was collected from the college registrar's database regarding participation in study abroad, including placement and duration. Students who studied abroad differed significantly from those who did not in terms of concern about completing their major, study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and foreign language interest. Study abroad expectations and levels of ethnocentrism distinguished participants from nonparticipants in a binary logistic regression analysis. These findings suggest that participation in international study may be facilitated in part by interventions that seek to modify expectations, reduce ethnocentrism and prejudice, and help students understand the value of language study.
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