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Depressive Symptoms and the Anticipation and Experience of Uplifting Events in Everyday Life

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Abstract and Figures

Objective: Despite proliferation of laboratory-based studies examining reward functioning in depression, few studies have examined these processes in everyday life. We addressed this shortcoming by exploring experience and anticipation of uplifting experiences under ecologically valid conditions METHOD: One hundred fifty-seven young adults, oversampled for depressive symptoms, completed a 14-day diary tracking mood in relation to recent and anticipated positive events RESULTS: Consistent with studies supporting "mood-brightening" effects in depression, participants with greater baseline dysphoria showed stronger associations between elevated daily uplifts and lower daily depressive symptoms, particularly when events were interpersonal in nature. Baseline dysphoria was associated with lower daily anticipation of positive next-day experiences; however, when dysphoric individuals did anticipate positive experiences, they experienced greater reductions in depressed mood CONCLUSION: Results suggest that despite reward processing deficits found in laboratory studies, dysphoric individuals show improvements in mood in conjunction with anticipation and consumption of uplifting events in daily life.
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Running Head: DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 1
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Final Citation: Starr, L. R., & Hershenberg, R. (2017). Depressive Symptoms and the
Anticipation and Experience of Uplifting Events in Everyday Life. Journal of Clinical
Psychology, 73(10), 1442-1461. doi:10.1002/jclp.22447
**Author Self-Archived Version. May have minor differences from final version (see
journal) **
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 8
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Depression and Anticipatory Reward Processing in Daily Life
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 9
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The Current Study
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 10
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 11
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Procedure
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 12
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+'&&#0!W.&!C/%#8.,#0!,-!>.&#8'/#!0#$%#&&'-/<!X/!,-,.8F!#538C0'/9!+'&&'/9!0.,.F!-C%!0.,.&#,!
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1.(#!0#+-/&,%.,#0!,1.,!#538C0'/9!,1#&#!$.%,'3'$./,&k!0.,.!#/1./3#&!&,.,'&,'3.8!$-W#%<!X/!./!
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>.,,#%*!&'5!',#+&!W1'31F!'6!./&W#%#0!'/!./!.,*$'3.8!6.&1'-/F!'/0'3.,#0!8'Z#8*!'/.,,#/,'-/!b6-%!
#5.+$8#F!$.%,'3'$./,&!W#%#!.&Z#0!,-!8#.(#!3#%,.'/!',#+&!>8./ZF!./0!,-!#/0-%&#!1'91P6%#gC#/3*!
&,.,#+#/,&!&C31!.&!]X!0-!/-,!#/`-*!>#'/9!%'0'3C8#0!-%!1C+'8'.,#0<^f<!QW-!$.%,'3'$./,&!3-/&'&,#/,8*!
6.'8#0!'/.,,#/,'-/!31#3Z&!./0!W#%#!#538C0#0!6%-+!./.8*&#&<!!
Measures
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 13
Baseline dysphoria. )#(#%',*!-6!&#86P%#$-%,#0!3C%%#/,!0#$%#&&'(#!&*+$,-+&!-(#%!,1#!$.&,!
W##Z!W#%#!.&&#&&#0!W',1!,1#!INP',#+!jC'3Z!X/(#/,-%*!-6!"#$%#&&'(#!)*+$,-+.,-8-9*!bjX")_!
;C&1!#,!.8<F!KMMef<!X,#+&!%./9#!6%-+!M!,-!e!./0!.&&#&&!,1#!/'/#!3%',#%'-/!&*+$,-+!0-+.'/&!,-!
0'.9/-&#!.!+.`-%!0#$%#&&'(#!#$'&-0#!.33-%0'/9!,-!,1#!"'.9/-&,'3!./0!),.,'&,'3.8!A./C.8!-6!
A#/,.8!"'&-%0#%&rG,1!#0','-/!b")APX@_!2+#%'3./!?&*31'.,%'3!2&&-3'.,'-/F!IHHGfF!'/38C0'/9!
&.0!+--0F!3-/3#/,%.,'-/F!&#86P3%','3'&+F!'/,#%#&,F!#/#%9*l6.,'9C#F!&8##$!0'&,C%>./3#F!0#3%#.&#!-%!
'/3%#.&#!'/!.$$#,',#!-%!W#'91,!./0!$&*31-+-,-%!.9',.,'-/!-%!%#,.%0.,'-/<!Q1#!+#.&C%#k&!&C'3'0.8!
'0#.,'-/!',#+!W.&!#538C0#0!>#3.C&#!-6!'/&,',C,'-/.8!%#('#W!>-.%0!3-/3#%/&F!./0!,1#!&3.8#!-6!,1#!
,-,.8!-6!%#+.'/'/9!',#+&!W.&!.0`C&,#0!.33-%0'/98*!&-!,1.,!&3-%#&!3-C80!>#!'/,#%$%#,#0!C&'/9!
#&,.>8'&1#0!3C,P-66!&3-%#&<!?&*31-+#,%'3!$%-$#%,'#&!1.(#!>##/!W#88P#&,.>8'&1#0!b2!<c-1/!;C&1!#,!
.8<F!KMMN_!2<!c-1/!;C&1!#,!.8<F!KMMefF!'/38C0'/9!3-+$.%.>'8',*!W',1!'/,#%('#W!+#.&C%#&!-6!
0#$%#&&'-/!b#<9<F!=.+'8,-/!"#$%#&&'-/!;.,'/9!)3.8#_!&##!2<!c-1/!;C&1!#,!.8<F!KMMef<!X/!,1#!
$%#&#/,!&,C0*F!B%-/>.31!.8$1.!W.&!<TG<!Q1#!+#./!8#(#8!-6!0#$%#&&'(#!&*+$,-+&!W.&!T<TI!b)"!q!
S<IHF!%./9#!M<MM!,-!KS<TTf<!!
Diary Items. Daily uplifts.!Y#!.&&#&&#0!0.'8*!C$8'6,&!>.&#0!-/!,1#!.$$%-.31!-6!
Q-,#/1.9#/!./0!3-88#.9C#&!bKMIKfF!'/!W1'31!$.%,'3'$./,&!.%#!$%-('0#0!W',1!.!8'&,!-6!9#/#%.8!',#+&!
.3%-&&!.!%./9#!-6!0.'8*!8'6#!0-+.'/&!./0!.&Z#0!,-!'/0'3.,#!1-W!+C31!-6!./!C$8'6,!./0!1-W!+C31!
-6!.!1.&&8#!b/-,!$#%,'/#/,!,-!./.8*&#&f!#.31!',#+!W.&!,1.,!0.*!-/!.!M!bnonef!,-!e!ba great dealf!
&3.8#!b.8&-!&##!"#:-/9'&F!B-*/#F!".Z-6F!V-8Z+./F!d!:.[.%C&F!IHTK_!"#:-/9'&F!V-8Z+./F!d!
:.[.%C&F!IHTTf<!Y1#%#!%#8#(./,F!W#!.00#0!.!%#&$-/&#!-$,'-/!'/!W1'31!.!$.%,'3'$./,!3-C80!
'/0'3.,#!'6!./!',#+!0'0!/-,!.$$8*<!Q1#!-%'9'/.8!Ie!',#+&!W#%#!.0.$,#0!6-%!C&#!W',1!3-88#9#!
&,C0#/,&_!6-%!#5.+$8#F!',#+&!8#&&!%#8#(./,!,-!,1#!8'6#!-6!3-88#9#!&,C0#/,&!W#%#!%#$8.3#0F!&C31!.&!
%#+-('/9!]*-C%!31'80%#/^!./0!.00'/9!]*-C%!-,1#%!$##%&<^!)-+#!8./9C.9#!W.&!31./9#0!,-!>#!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 14
+-%#!>%-.08*!.$$8'3.>8#!'/!,1'&!.9#!9%-C$!b#<9<F!]*-C%!$.%,/#%^!W.&!%#$8.3#0!W',1!]*-C%!%-+./,'3!
$.%,/#%l%-+./,'3!8'6#l0.,'/9!8'6#^f<!\C%!6'/.8!8'&,!&$.//#0!IS!8'6#!.%#.&F!'/38C0'/9!bIf!$.%#/,&!./0!
6.+'8*!+#+>#%&F!bKf!%-+./,'3!8'6#F!bef!38-&#!6%'#/0&F!bGf!-,1#%!$##%&F!bSf!&-3'.8!#(#/,&F!bNf!`->l!
3.%##%F!bLf!6'/./3#&F!bTf!#5#%3'&#F!bHf!1#.8,1F!bIMf!31-%#&F!bIIf!1->>'#&l!#5,%.P3C%%'3C8.%!.3,'(','#&l!
%#3%#.,'-/F!bIKf!-/8'/#!.3,'(','#&F!./0!bIef!]-,1#%^!.%#.&<!V-88-W'/9!,1#!$%-3#0C%#&!-6!Q-,#/1.9#/!
#,!.8<F!bKMIKfF!'/!.00','-/!,-!3-+$C,'/9!.!&C++#0!,-,.8!&3-%#!6-%!C$8'6,&F!W#!.8&-!3-+$C,#0!
&#$.%.,#8*!&C++#0!8#(#8&!-6!C$8'6,&!6-%!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!b',#+&!IPSf!./0!/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!b',#+&!NP
IIf!.%#.&<!Q-!3-+$C,#!'/,#%/.8!3-/&'&,#/3*!-/!,1'&!./0!-,1#%!+#.&C%#&F!W#!&$8',!,1#!6'8#!>*!
31%-/-8-9'3.8!0'.%*!0.*!./0!,1#/!&#$.%.,#8*!3-+$C,#0!B%-/>.31k&!.8$1.&!6-%!#.31!-6!,1#!6-C%,##/!
0.*&!b)1%-C,!d!:./#F!KMIKf<!Y#!3.83C8.,#0!.!+#./!B%-/>.31k&!.8$1.!-6!<TG!6-%!-(#%.88!C$8'6,&F!
<NT!6-%!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&F!./0!<LL!6-%!/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&<!Q1#!8-W#%!b>C,!.0#gC.,#f!
'/,#%/.8!3-/&'&,#/3*!6-%!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!'&!,*$'3.8!-6!%#8'.>'8',*!#&,'+.,#&!,1.,!.&&#&&!+C8,'$8#!
'/,#%$#%&-/.8!0-+.'/&!b#<9<F!a-1/F!:.6%#/'#%#F!d!iC%#('31F!IHHM_!A.*>#%*F!c-/#&P488'&F!D#.8#F!
d!2%#/,[F!KMMNf!
!Daily depressive symptoms. Y#!.&&#&&#0!W',1'/P&C>`#3,&!68C3,C.,'-/&!'/!0.'8*!0#$%#&&'(#!
&*+$,-+&!b%#6#%%#0!,-F!6-%!&'+$8'3',*F!.&!0#$%#&&#0!+--0f!C&'/9!.!+-0'6'#0!(#%&'-/!-6!,1#!
0#$%#&&'-/!&C>&3.8#!-6!,1#!"#$%#&&'-/!2/5'#,*!),%#&&!)3.8#!(e.g., Antony, Bieling, Cox, Enns, &
Swinson, 1998)<!Q1#!"2))!0#$%#&&'-/!&C>&3.8#!'/38C0#&!&#(#/!',#+&!.&&#&&'/9!.&$#3,&!-6!
0#$%#&&'(#!&*+$,-+-8-9*!b#<9<F!]I felt down-hearted and blueF^!]I felt I wasn't worth much as a
person^fF!#.31!%.,#0!-/!.!MPe!:'Z#%,P,*$#!&3.8#F!./0!1.&!&,%-/9!$&*31-+#,%'3!$%-$#%,'#&!'/38C0'/9!
%#8'.>'8',*!./0!#53#88#/,!0'&3%'+'/./,!(.8'0',*!bJ'#8'/9F!2/,-/*F!d!)W'/&-/F!IHHT_!B8.%.F!B-5F!d!
4//&F!KMMI_!B-5F!B-1#/F!"'%#/6#80F!d!)W'/&-/F!IHHNf<!Q1#!-%'9'/.8!"2))!',#+&!W#%#!+-0'6'#0!
,-!]'/0'3.,#!1-W!+C31!,1#!&,.,#+#/,!.$$8'#0!,-!*-C!today^!b%.,1#%!,1./!]over the past week^f<!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 15
A#./!'/,#%/.8!3-/&'&,#/3*!.3%-&&!'/0'('0C.8!0'.%*!0.*&!W.&!<He<!V-%!./.8*&#&!%#8.,#0!,-!$-&','(#!
#(#/,!./,'3'$.,'-/F!,W-!',#+&!W',1!3-/3#$,C.88*!-(#%8.$$'/9!3-/,#/,!b]I felt that I had nothing to
look forward to^!./0!]I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything^f!W#%#!0%-$$#0!6%-+!
,1#!&3.8#_!'/,#%/.8!3-/&'&,#/3*!%#+.'/#0!1'91!bs!q!<TTf<
Positive affect (PA) W.&!.&&#&&#0!C&'/9!,1#!$-&','(#!',#+&!6%-+!,1#!?-&','(#!266#3,!
D#9.,'(#!266#3,!)3.8#!b?2D2)_!Y.,&-/F!B8.%ZF!d!Q#88#9#/F!IHTTfF!.!W'0#8*PC&#0!&C>&3.8#!,1.,!
'/38C0#&!IM!.0`#3,'(#&!'/0'3.,'/9!$-&','(#!+--0!b#<9<F!]enthusiasticF^!]alertF^!]proud^fF!#.31!
%.,#0!-/!.!&3.8#!6%-+!I!b]very slightly or not at all^f!,-!S!b“extremely^f<!Q1#!?2D2)!1.&!W#88P
#&,.>8'&1#0!$&*31-+#,%'3!$%-$#%,'#&!bY.,&-/!#,!.8<F!IHTTf_!1#%#F!'/,#%/.8!3-/&'&,#/3*!.(#%.9#0!
<HK!.3%-&&!0'.%*!0.*&<
Anticipation of next-day positive experiences W.&!.&&#&&#0!C&'/9!.!&1-%,F!6.3#!(.8'0!&3.8#!
W',1!,1#!'/&,%C3,'-/&!]Think about how you think your day to go tomorrow. How much do you
expect that…”F!6-88-W#0!>*!b.f!]Something nice will happenF^!./0!b>f!]You will feel happy<^!7&#!
-6!>%'#6!+#.&C%#&!'&!3-++-/!'/!0'.%*!%#&#.%31F!./0!`C&,'6'.>8#!.&!#53#&&'(#!0'.%*!8#/9,1!3./!
3-+$%-+'&#!3-+$8'./3#!(Burisch, 1997; Laurenceau, Barrett, & Rovine, 2005; Pasipanodya et
al., 2012; Starr, 2015; Starr & Davila, 2012a, 2012b).!4.31!',#+!W.&!%.,#0!-/!.!I!bdefinitely notf!
,-!S!bdefinitely yesf!&3.8#<!Q1#&#!,W-!',#+&!W#%#!&,%-/98*!3-%%#8.,#0!bbq!<NMF!SEq!<MeF!p t!<MMIf!
./0!W#%#!&C++#0!,-!3-+$C,#!./!-(#%.88!$-&','(#!#5$#3,.,'-/!&3-%#<!!
Data Analytic Approach
! J#3.C&#!-6!,1#!'/1#%#/,!/-/P'/0#$#/0#/3#!'/!%#$#.,#0P+#.&C%#&!,'+#!&#%'#&!0.,.F!
./.8*&#&!C,'8'[#0!+C8,'8#(#8!+-0#8'/9!bA:Af!C&'/9!XJA!)?))!KK<M!AXu4"<!X/!,1#!3C%%#/,!
0.,.&#,F!%#$#.,#0!0.'8*!+#.&C%#&!W#%#!/#&,#0!W',1'/!$.%,'3'$./,&<!A-&,!+-0#8&!W#%#!3%-&&P8#(#8F!
3-/,.'/'/9!>-,1!>.&#8'/#!(.%'.>8#&!,1.,!(.%*!-/8*!>#,W##/!&C>`#3,&!b8#(#8!,W-_!#<9<F!>.&#8'/#!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 16
0#$%#&&'(#!&*+$,-+&f!./0!0.'8*!(.%'.>8#&!,1.,!.8&-!(.%*!W',1'/!&C>`#3,&!b8#(#8!-/#_!#<9<F!0.'8*!
C$8'6,&f<!A:A!-66#%&!1'91!&,.,'&,'3.8!$-W#%!./0!3-$#&!W#88!W',1!+'&&'/9!0.,.<!!
Model Construction. :#(#8!,W-!(.%'.>8#&!W#%#!#/,#%#0!.&!6'5#0!#66#3,&<!Y#!'/','.88*!
#/,#%#0!.88!8#(#8P-/#!(.%'.>8#&!-6!'/,#%#&,!.&!>-,1!6'5#0!./0!%./0-+!#66#3,&<!J#3.C&#!(#%*!&+.88!
%./0-+!#66#3,&!.%#!0'66'3C8,!,-!+-0#8!%#8'.>8*!./0!3./!'+$#0#!+-0#8!3-/(#%9#/3#!bD#[8#ZF!
KMIKfF!/-/P&'9/'6'3./,!bp!v!<ISf!#66#3,&!W#%#!0%-$$#0<!Y#!/-,#!,1#!3.&#&!'/!W1'31!W#!0%-$$#0!
%./0-+!#66#3,&_!,1'&!&,%.,#9*!0'0!/-,!.$$#.%!,-!&'9/'6'3./,8*!'+$.3,!%#$-%,#0!%#&C8,&<!Y#!&$#3'6'#0!
./!C/&,%C3,C%#0!3-(.%'./3#!+.,%'5!6-%!%./0-+!#66#3,&!./0!.!6'%&,P-%0#%!.C,-P%#9%#&&'(#!b2;wIxf!
+-0#8!,-!3-%%#3,!6-%!.C,-3-%%#8.,'-/!-6!%#&'0C.8&<!X/!%.%#!3.&#&!W1#%#!+-0#8&!W-C80!/-,!3-/(#%9#F!
W#!6'%&,!.,,#+$,#0!,-!+-0#8!.!0'.9-/.8!+-0#8!'/&,#.0!-6!2;bIfF!./0!6.'8'/9!,1.,F!%#,C%/#0!,1#!
2;bIf!&,%C3,C%#!>C,!0%-$$#0!,1#!&+.88#&,!%./0-+!#66#3,F!W1'31!%#8'.>8*!.88-W#0!3-/(#%9#/3#<!!
! Y#!6-88-W#0!,1#!%#3#/,!%#3-++#/0.,'-/&!-6!J-89#%!./0!:.C%#/3#.C!bKMIeF!B1<!Sf!,-!
$.%,','-/!,'+#P(.%*'/9!(.%'.>8#&!'/,-!-%,1-9-/.8!>#,W##/P!./0!W',1'/P&C>`#3,&!3-+$-/#/,&F!.!
6.'%8*!3-/&#%(.,'(#!.$$%-.31!,1.,!#/&C%#&!3-+$8#,#!'&-8.,'-/!-6!W',1'/P&C>`#3,&!#66#3,&!6%-+!
(.%'./3#!%#8.,#0!,-!>#,W##/P&C>`#3,&!0'66#%#/3#&!'/!.(#%.9#!8#(#8&!-6!,1#&#!0.'8*!(.%'.>8#&<!Q1#!
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Commented [SL2]: …and%this%describes%the %within-
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 17
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Results
!Preliminary Analyses
Q.>8#!I!$%-('0#&!0#&3%'$,'(#!0.,.!6-%!.99%#9.,#0!0'.%*!(.%'.>8#&<!?%'-%!,-!,#&,'/9!$%'+.%*!
&,C0*!1*$-,1#&#&F!W#!6'%&,!#5.+'/#0!+.'/!#66#3,&!6-%!>.&'3!.&&-3'.,'-/&!>#,W##/!>.&#8'/#!
0*&$1-%'.!bjX")fF!0.'8*!C$8'6,&F!./0!0.'8*!+--0<!V'%&,F!W#!#5.+'/#0!W1#,1#%!>.&#8'/#!jX")!
$%#0'3,#0F!.&!-C,3-+#&F!0.'8*!+--0!./0!C$8'6,!(.%'.>8#&!b&#$.%.,#!+C8,'8#(#8!+-0#8&!W#%#!
3-/0C3,#0!6-%!#.31!-C,3-+#!(.%'.>8#F!6-88-W'/9!,1#!&,#$&!-C,8'/#0!'/!,1#!".,.!2/.8*,'3!2$$%-.31!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 18
&#3,'-/f<!?.%,'3'$./,&!W',1!1'91#%!>.&#8'/#!jX")!%#$-%,#0!1'91#%!0.'8*!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!bb!q!<SMF!
SEq!<MSF!tbISK<MTfq!H<SIF p!t!<MMIf!./0!8-W#%!0.'8*!?2!bb q!P<eTF!SE!q!<IMF!tbISe<NMf!q!Pe<TIF!p t!
<MMIf!-(#%!,1#!3-C%&#!-6!,1#!0'.%*!$#%'-0_!1-W#(#%F!>.&#8'/#!jX")!0'0!/-,!$%#0'3,!8#(#8!-6!0.'8*!
C$8'6,&!bb!q!P<MeF!SEq!<MHF!tbeTe<LIfq!PII<IKF p!q!<LILf<!D#5,F!W#!#5.+'/#0!,1#!+.'/!#66#3,&!-6!
0.'8*!C$8'6,&!-/!+--0!b.9.'/F!#.31!+--0!-C,3-+#!W.&!#5.+'/#0!'/!.!&#$.%.,#!+-0#8f<!Q1#%#!W.&!
.!&'9/'6'3./,!+.'/!#66#3,!-6!0.'8*!C$8'6,&!-/!3-/3C%%#/,!0.'8*!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!bb!q!P<IMF!SEq!<MeF!
tbIIN<GIf!q!Pe<TTF p!t!<MMIf!./0!?2!bb!q!<GIF!SEq!<MGF!tbIKT<SNf!q!H<TIF p!t!<MMIf<!Y1#/!+.'/!
#66#3,&!6-%!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!./0!/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!W#%#!#5.+'/#0!&#$.%.,#8*F!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!
C$8'6,&F!>C,!/-,!/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&F!W#%#!.&&-3'.,#0!W',1!8-W#%!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!bp&!t!<MMI!
./0!<IIHF!%#&$#3,'(#8*f_!>-,1!Z'/0&!-6!C$8'6,&!W#%#!.&&-3'.,#0!W',1!1'91#%!?2!bp&!t!<MMIf<!D-,#!
,1.,!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!./0!/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!W#%#!.8&-!&'9/'6'3./,8*!.&&-3'.,#0!W',1!#.31!-,1#%!
b'/!.!+-0#8!W1#%#!/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!W.&!,%#.,#0!.&!,1#!$%#0'3,-%!./0!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!
.&!,1#!-C,3-+#F!b!q!<eKF!SE!q!<MKF!tHTS<LKfq!IG<GKF!p!t!<MMIf<!!
D#5,F!,-!#5$8-%#!>.&'3!.&&-3'.,'-/&!>#,W##/!0.'8*!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&!./0!
-,1#%!W',1'/P&C>`#3,&!(.%'.>8#&F!W#!3-/0C3,#0!.!&#%'#&!-6!+C8,'8#(#8!+-0#8&!'/!W1'31!0.'8*!
./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&!&#%(#0!.&!,1#!-C,3-+#!(.%'.>8#<!X/!&#$.%.,#!+-0#8&F!0.'8*!
./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&!W.&!$%#0'3,#0!>*!.f!8-W#%!0.'8*!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!(b q!-.IIF!
SEq!<MIF!tbNH<MNfq!PT<KeF p t!<MMIfF!>f!1'91#%!0.'8*!?2!bb q!<MTF!SEq!<MIF!tbIII<SLfq!II<INF p t!
<MMIfF!./0!3f!+-%#!0.'8*!C$8'6,&!bb q!<MLF!SEq!<MIF!tbIGG<STfq!N<eHF!p t!<MMIf<!
Baseline Dysphoria and Mood Reactivity to Daily Uplifts
Y#!/#5,!#5.+'/#0!,1#!'/68C#/3#!-6!>.&#8'/#!0*&$1-%'.!-/!,1#!.&&-3'.,'-/&!>#,W##/!
$-&','(#!0.'8*!#5$#%'#/3#&!./0!+--0F!1*$-,1#&'['/9!,1.,!0.'8*!C$8'6,'/9!#(#/,&!W-C80!$%#0'3,!
8-W#%!3-/3C%%#/,!8#(#8&!-6!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!.&!>.&#8'/#!jX")!'/3%#.&#&<!V-88-W'/9!&,#$&!-C,8'/#0!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 19
'/!-C%!".,.!2/.8*,'3!?8./F!W#!3-/&,%C3,#0!.!+-0#8!,1.,!'/38C0#0!+.'/!#66#3,&!-6!>.&#8'/#!jX")!
./0!0.'8*!C$8'6,&!./0!,1#'%!'/,#%.3,'-/!b0.'8*!C$8'6,&!W#%#!$.%,','-/#0!'/,-!>#,W##/P!./0!W',1'/P
&C>`#3,&!3-+$-/#/,&!'/!>-,1!+.'/!#66#3,&!./0!'/,#%.3,'-/&F!.8,1-C91!-/8*!,1#!W',1'/P&C>`#3,&!
3-+$-/#/,&!W#%#!'/,#%$%#,#0_!&C>&#gC#/,!./.8*&#&!.8&-!,.Z#!,1'&!.$$%-.31!W',1!.88!0.'8*!(.%'.>8#&!
.&!0#&3%'>#0!'/!,1#!0.,.!./.8*,'3!$8./fF!.&!W#88!.&!#66#3,&!-6!,'+#<!2&!%#$-%,#0!'/!Q.>8#!KF!W1#/!
0#$%#&&#0!+--0!W.&!'/38C0#0!.&!,1#!-C,3-+#!(.%'.>8#F!,1#!'/,#%.3,'-/!,#%+!W.&!&'9/'6'3./,F!p!q!
<MKM<!)'+$8#!&8-$#!,#&,&!%#(#.8#0!,1.,!68C3,C.,'-/&!'/!C$8'6,&!$%#0'3,#0!0#3%#.&#0!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!
.+-/9!,1-&#!W',1!1'91!jX")!bI!SD .>-(#!,1#!+#./_!b= P<INF!SEq!<MGF!tbIIH<MGfq!PG<GLF!p!t!
<MMIfF!>C,!/-,!6-%!,1-&#!W',1!8-W!jX")!bI!SD >#8-W!,1#!+#./_!bq!P<MGF!SEq!<MeF!tbHN<HTfq!PI<KNF
p!q!<KIKfF!&C$$-%,'/9!,1#!+--0P>%'91,#/'/9!1*$-,1#&'&<!@'&C.8!'/&$#3,'-/!-6!,1'&!'/,#%.3,'-/!b&##!
V'9C%#!If!&C99#&,&!,1.,!8-W!jX")!'/0'('0C.8&!&1-W#0!%#8.,'(#8*!8-W!8#(#8&!-6!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!
%#9.%08#&&!-6!C$8'6,!-33C%%#/3#F!W1#%#.&!1'91!jX")!'/0'('0C.8&!y!,1-C91!0#+-/&,%.,'/9!
3-/&'&,#/,8*!1'91#%!b.>&-8C,#f!8#(#8&!-6!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!,1./!/-/P0#$%#&&#0!'/0'('0C.8&!y!
0#+-/&,%.,#0!9%#.,#%!%#0C3,'-/&!'/!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!-/!0.*&!W1#/!9%#.,#%!C$8'6,&!-33C%%#0<!X/!
3-/,%.&,F!8--Z'/9!.,!?2!.&!./!-C,3-+#F!,1#%#!W.&!/-!&'9/'6'3./,!'/,#%.3,'-/!bp!q!<SLSf<!!
D#5,F!W#!#5.+'/#0!,1#!0'66#%#/,'.8!#66#3,&!-6!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!./0!/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!#(#/,&F!
1*$-,1#&'['/9!,1.,!+--0P>%'91,#/'/9!#66#3,&!W-C80!>#!$.%,'3C8.%8*!$%-/-C/3#0!W1#/!,1#!0.'8*!
C$8'6,'/9!#(#/,&!W#%#!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!'/!/.,C%#<!Q-!0-!&-F!W#!,#&,#0!.!+-0#8!W',1!>-,1!jX")!z!
'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!./0!jX")!z!/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!'/,#%.3,'-/!,#%+&F!.&!W#88!.&!.88!
3-/&,',C#/,!+.'/!#66#3,&!./0!,'+#!bW#!->,.'/#0!&'+'8.%!%#&C8,&!W1#/!'/,#%.3,'-/&!W#%#!#5.+'/#0!
'/!&#$.%.,#!+-0#8&f<!!Q1#!%./0-+!#66#3,!6-%!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!W.&!1'918*!/-/P&'9/'6'3./,!bp v!
<ISf!./0!W.&!0%-$$#0!6%-+!,1#!+-0#8F!.&!$#%!&,#$&!-C,8'/#0!'/!,1#!".,.!2/.8*,'3!?8./!b,-!#/&C%#!
,1.,!,1'&!0'0!/-,!'+$.3,!%#&C8,&F!W#!.8&-!3-/0C3,#0!./!.8,#%/.,#!+-0#8!W1#%#!%./0-+!#66#3,&!6-%!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 20
/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!W.&!0%-$$#0_!,1#!&.+#!&'9/'6'3./3#!$.,,#%/!W.&!->,.'/#0<!X/38C0'/9!
>-,1!%./0-+!#66#3,&!$%#(#/,#0!+-0#8!3-/(#%9#/3#f<!2&!%#$-%,#0!'/!Q.>8#!eF!W1#/!0.'8*!
0#$%#&&#0!+--0!W.&!#/,#%#0!.&!,1#!-C,3-+#F!,1#!'/,#%.3,'-/!,#%+!6-%!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!W.&!
&'9/'6'3./,!bp t!<MMIfF!.9.'/!6-88-W'/9!.!+--0P>%'91,#/'/9!$.,,#%/<!=-W#(#%F!,1#!'/,#%.3,'-/!6-%!
/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8!C$8'6,&!W.&!/-/P&'9/'6'3./,!bp!q!<GLGf<!D#',1#%!'/,#%.3,'-/!W.&!&'9/'6'3./,!W',1!
?2!.&!,1#!-C,3-+#<!!
Baseline Dysphoria and Daily Anticipation of Positive Experiences
! Q-!,#&,!-C%!1*$-,1#&'&!,1.,!'/0'('0C.8&!W',1!1'91#%!>.&#8'/#!0*&$1-%'.!W-C80!&1-W!
0.+$#/#0!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!/#5,P0.*!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&F!W#!3-/0C3,#0!.!+-0#8!W1#%#!>.&#8'/#!
jX")!W.&!#/,#%#0!.&!.!$%#0'3,-%F!.8-/9!W',1!,'+#!b.8,1-C91!,1'&!W.&!3-/0C3,#0!.&!.!+C8,'8#(#8!
+-0#8_!>#3.C&#!,1#!-/8*!$%#0'3,-%!-,1#%!,1./!,'+#!W.&!8#(#8!,W-F!',!'&!#&&#/,'.88*!.!>#,W##/P
$#%&-/&!./.8*&'&f<!2&!$%#0'3,#0F!1'91#%!>.&#8'/#!jX")!$%#0'3,#0!%#0C3#0!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!$-&','(#!
/#5,P0.*!#5$#%'#/3#&!bbq!P<IKF!SEq!<MKF!tbISG<MIfq!PS<HKF!p!t!<MMIf<!2&!W#!$%#('-C&8*!%#$-%,#0!'/!
,1#!$%#8'+'/.%*!./.8*&'&!&#3,'-/F!0.'8*!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&!W.&!.8&-!.&&-3'.,#0!
W',1!8-W#%!0.'8*!0#$%#&&#0!+--0F!+-%#!0.'8*!?2F!./0!+-%#!0.'8*!C$8'6,&F!.88!-6!W1'31!W#%#!.8&-!
.&&-3'.,#0!W',1!>.&#8'/#!0*&$1-%'.<!!Q1C&F!.&!.!+-%#!3-/&#%(.,'(#!,#&,F!W#!,#&,#0!./!.00','-/.8!
+C8,'8#(#8!+-0#8!#5.+'/'/9!jX")!.&!.!$%#0'3,-%!-6!0.'8*!/#5,P0.*!$-&','(#!./,'3'$.,'-/!W',1!.88!
-6!,1#&#!W',1'/P&C>`#3,&!(.%'.>8#&!b0.'8*!0#$%#&&#0!+--0F!0.'8*!?2F!./0!0.'8*!C$8'6,&f!#/,#%#0!.&!
3-(.%'.,#&<!D-,#!,1.,!%./0-+!#66#3,&!6-%!0.'8*!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!./0!0.'8*!?2!W#%#!1'918*!/-/P
&'9/'6'3./,!./0!W#%#!0%-$$#0!,-!6.3'8',.,#!3-/(#%9#/3#!b%#,.'/'/9!%./0-+!#66#3,&!6-%!0.'8*!C$8'6,&!
./0!,1#!'/,#%3#$,f<!\6!/-,#F!>.&#8'/#!jX")!%#+.'/#0!.!&'9/'6'3./,!$%#0'3,-%F!#(#/!W1#/!.88!-6!
,1#&#!W',1'/P&C>`#3,&!(.%'.>8#&!W#%#!#/,#%#0!.&!3-(.%'.,#&!bp t!<MMIfF!'/0'3.,'/9!,1.,!,%.',!
0*&$1-%'.!'&!.!%->C&,F!'/0#$#/0#/,!$%#0'3,-%!-6!%#0C3#0!0.'8*!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&<!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 21
Y#!/#5,!#5$8-%#0!W1#,1#%!>.&#8'/#!jX")!'/68C#/3#0!,1#!8'/Z!>#,W##/!./,'3'$.,'/9!
$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&!./0!3-/3C%%#/,!+--0F!,#&,'/9!,1#!3-+$#,'/9!1*$-,1#&#&!,1.,!>.&#8'/#!
0*&$1-%'.!W-C80!$%#0'3,!#',1#%!b.f!>8C/,#0!-%!b>f!1#'91,#/#0!.&&-3'.,'-/&!>#,W##/!0.'8*!%#W.%0!
./,'3'$.,'-/!./0!3-/3C%%#/,!0.'8*!+--0.!Y#!3-/&,%C3,#0!.!+-0#8!W1#%#!>.&#8'/#!jX")F!$-&','(#!
#5$#3,.,'-/&F!./0!,1#'%!'/,#%.3,'-/!b./0!,'+#f!W#%#!'/38C0#0!.&!$%#0'3,-%&<!Q1#!'/,#%.3,'-/!W.&!
/-/P&'9/'6'3./,!W1#/!?2!W.&!'/38C0#0!.&!,1#!-C,3-+#!bp!q!<TSSf!>C,!&'9/'6'3./,!W1#/!0.'8*!
0#$%#&&#0!+--0!W.&!'/38C0#0!.&!,1#!-C,3-+#!bp!t!<MMI_!6C88!%#&C8,&!%#$-%,#0!'/!Q.>8#!Gf<!)'+$8#!
&8-$#!,#&,&!%#(#.8#0!,1.,!.,!high 8#(#8&!-6!>.&#8'/#!jX")F!'/3%#.&#0!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!$-&','(#!#(#/,&!
$%#0'3,#0!%#0C3#0!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!bb!q!P<LLF!SE!q!<MHF!tbHL<ISfq!PT<SIF!p!t!<MMIfF!W1#%#.&!6-%!
8-W!jX")!$.%,'3'$./,&F!'/3%#.&#0!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!$-&','(#!#(#/,&!W.&!C/%#8.,#0!,-!0#$%#&&#0!
+--0!bb!q!P<MHF!SEq!<MHF!tbIMM<IGfq!P<HNF p!q!<eGMf<!X/!-,1#%!W-%0&F!/#5,P0.*!%#W.%0!./,'3'$.,'-/!
.$$#.%&!,-!1.(#!.!+--0P>%'91,#/'/9!#66#3,!-/!0#$%#&&#0!'/0'('0C.8&!b&##!V'9C%#!Kf<!i'(#/!,1.,!
./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!/#5,P0.*!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&!W.&!%#8.,#0!,-!&.+#P0.*!C$8'6,&F!,-!#/&C%#!,1.,!,1'&!
#66#3,!W.&!/-,!.!%#8'3!-6!,1#!+--0P>%'91,#/'/9!#66#3,!-6!C$8'6,&!%#$-%,#0!.>-(#F!W#!%#P%./!,1#!
+-0#8!3-/,%-88'/9!6-%!C$8'6,&!.&!.!3-(.%'.,#<!;#&C8,&!%#+.'/#0!C/31./9#0!b'/,#%.3,'-/!p!t!<MMIf<!!
Discussion
Q1# 3.$.3',*!,-!>#/#6',!6%-+!$-&','(#!.&$#3,&!-6!-/#k&!#/('%-/+#/,!'&!3#/,%.8!,-!1#.8,1*!
#+-,'-/.8!6C/3,'-/'/9!bV%#0%'3Z&-/!d!:-&.0.F!KMMSf!./0!'&!'/3%#.&'/98*!C/0#%&,--0!.&!3%','3.8!,-!
'+$%-('/9!#+-,'-/.8!0'&,%#&&!'/!0#$%#&&'-/!b"C//F!KMIKf<!"#&$',#!,1#!$%-8'6#%.,'-/!-6!8.>-%.,-%*P
>.&#0!&,C0'#&!#5.+'/'/9!%#W.%0!6C/3,'-/'/9!'/!0#$%#&&'-/F!,1#%#!1.&!>##/!.!/-,.>8#!&1-%,.9#!-6!
&,C0'#&!,1.,!#5.+'/#!,1#&#!$%-3#&&#&!'/!,1#!C/6-80'/9!-6!#(#%*0.*!#+-,'-/.8!#5$#%'#/3#&F!8#.('/9!
&#(#%.8!'+$-%,./,!.&$#3,&!-6!0.'8*!%#W.%0!$%-3#&&'/9!C/#5$8-%#0<!X,!'&!3%','3.8!,-!3-+$8#+#/,!8.>P
>.&#0!&,C0'#&!W',1!#3-8-9'3.88*!(.8'0!%#&#.%31!0#&'9/&!&-!,1.,!W#!3./!>#,,#%!C/0#%&,./0!1-W!,1#&#!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 22
$1#/-+#/.!,%./&8.,#!'/,-!%#.8!W-%80!>#1.('-%!./0!#5$#%'#/3#&<!Q1#!3C%%#/,!6'/0'/9&!>-,1!
3-/(#%9#!./0!0'(#%9#!6%-+!$%#('-C&!8.>-%.,-%*!%#&#.%31F!&C99#&,'/9!W1'8#!&-+#!.&$#3,&!-6!
%#W.%0!$%-3#&&'/9!.&!&,C0'#0!'/!,1#!8.>-%.,-%*!,%./&8.,#!'/,-!#(#%*0.*!>#1.('-%&F!-,1#%&!+.*!/-,<!!
V'%&,F!.&!1*$-,1#&'[#0F!W#!6-C/0!#('0#/3#!,1.,!C$8'6,'/9!#(#/,&!W#%#!+-%#!&,%-/98*!%#8.,#0!
,-!0#3%#.&#0!8#(#8&!-6!0.'8*!0#$%#&&#0!+--0!.+-/9!,1#!0*&$1-%'3!'/0'('0C.8&<!B-/&'&,#/,!W',1!
-,1#%!&,C0'#&F!W#!6-C/0!/-!'/68C#/3#!-6!>.&#8'/#!0*&$1-%'.!-/!,1#!'+$.3,!-6!C$8'6,&!-/!8#(#8&!-6!
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3-+$.%.>8#F!%#9.%08#&&!-6!1-W!+C31!>.&#8'/#!0#$%#&&'-/!,1#!$.%,'3'$./,!#/0-%&#0<!Q-!'/,#%$%#,!
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 23
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 24
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 25
>*!&*&,#+.,'3.88*!,#&,'/9!W1#,1#%!./,'3'$.,'/9!'++'/#/,!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&!0'%#3,8*!'+$%-(#&!
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C$8'6,&F!W#!&C99#&,!,1.,!6C,C%#!&,C0'#&!#5.+'/#!W1#,1#%!,1#!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!$-&','(#!
#(#/,&!$.%,'3C8.%8*!&$C%!'+$%-(#+#/,&!'/!0#$%#&&#0!+--0<!
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Kessler, & Schilling, 1989; Conway, Slavich, & Hammen, 2014; Starr, 2015; Stone, Neale, &
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 26
Shiffman, 1993; van Eck, Nicolson, & Berkhof, 1998)!./0!3./!#(#/!>#!#8C&'(#!'/!&,C0'#&!W',1!
>%'#6#%!'/,#%(.8&!>#,W##/!.&&#&&+#/,&!&C31!.&!#3-8-9'3.8!+-+#/,.%*!.&&#&&+#/,!(e.g., Marco &
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 27
#(#/,&!&1-C80!>#!+-%#!38-&#8*!#5$8-%#0<!X,!'&!.8&-!$-&&'>8#!,1.,!&-+#!,*$#&!-6!C$8'6,&!,1.,!W#%#!
38.&&'6'#0!.&!]/-/P'/,#%$#%&-/.8^!3-C80!1.(#!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!#8#+#/,&!b#<9<F!.!/#9.,'(#!&-3'.8!
'/,#%.3,'-/!.,!-/#k&!`->f<!V'/.88*F!W#!%#8'#0!-/!-/#!8#(#8!-6!./.8*&'&!-6!#+-,'-/R!&#86P%#$-%,<!
VC,C%#!%#&#.%31!W-C80!>#/#6',!6%-+!'/3-%$-%.,'/9!-,1#%!&-C%3#&!-6!'/6-%+.,'-/F!&C31!.&!
.+>C8.,-%*!$1*&'-8-9'3.8!.&&#&&+#/,&!-%!>.&#8'/#!/#C%.8!.3,'(.,'-/!bV-%>#&!#,!.8<F!KMMHf<!!
Conclusion
Q1'&!&,C0*!$%-('0#&!3-/(#%9'/9!#('0#/3#!,1.,!0.'8*!C$8'6,'/9!#(#/,&F!./0!,1#!3.$.3',*!,-!
./,'3'$.,#!6C,C%#!$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&F!3-%%#&$-/0!W',1!%#0C3,'-/&!'/!0#$%#&&#0!+--0F!#(#/!b-%!
$#%1.$&!#&$#3'.88*f!.+-/9!'/0'('0C.8&!W',1!#8#(.,#0!0#$%#&&'(#!&*+$,-+&<!\C%!6'/0'/9&!.00!,-!
9%-W'/9!#('0#/3#!,1.,!>8C/,#0!1#0-/'3!%#&$-/&#&!.&&-3'.,#0!W',1!0#$%#&&'-/!'/!8.>-%.,-%*!
&,C0'#&!0-!/-,!/#3#&&.%'8*!C/0#%+'/#!,1#!3.$.3',*!-6!0*&$1-%'3!'/0'('0C.8&!,-!>#/#6',!6%-+!
$-&','(#!#5$#%'#/3#&!'/!/.,C%.8'&,'3!&#,,'/9&<!28,1-C91!6C%,1#%!%#&#.%31!'&!/##0#0F!,1#!$%#&#/,!
W-%Z!.%9C#&!6-%!,1#!3-/,'/C#0!&*&,#+.,'3!'/(#&,'9.,'-/!-6!,1#!#5$#%'#/3#!./0!./,'3'$.,'-/!-6!
%#W.%0!'/!0.'8*!8'6#<!! !
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 28
;#6#%#/3#&!
2+#%'3./!?&*31'.,%'3!2&&-3'.,'-/<!bKMIef<!Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders!
bS,1!#0<f<!Y.&1'/9,-/F!"BR!2C,1-%<!
2/,-/*F!A<!A<F!J'#8'/9F!?<!c<F!B-5F!J<!c<F!4//&F!A<!Y<F!d!)W'/&-/F!;<!?<!bIHHTf<!?&*31-+#,%'3!
$%-$#%,'#&!-6!,1#!GKP',#+!./0!KIP',#+!(#%&'-/&!-6!,1#!"#$%#&&'-/!2/5'#,*!),%#&&!)3.8#&!'/!
38'/'3.8!9%-C$&!./0!.!3-++C/',*!&.+$8#<!Psychological Assessment, 10F!ILN<!0-'R!
IM<IMeLllIMGMPeSHM<IM<K<ILN!
J'#8'/9F!?<F!2/,-/*F!A<!A<F!d!)W'/&-/F!;<!?<!bIHHTf<!Q1#!),.,#PQ%.',!2/5'#,*!X/(#/,-%*F!Q%.',!
(#%&'-/R!&,%C3,C%#!./0!3-/,#/,!%#P#5.+'/#0<!Behavior Research and Therapy, 34F!HGHP
TSG<!0-'R!0-'RIM<IMINl)MMMSPLHNLbHTfMMMKePM!
J-89#%F!D<F!"#:-/9'&F!2<F!a#&&8#%F!;<!B<F!d!)31'88'/9F!4<!2<!bIHTHf<!466#3,&!-6!0.'8*!&,%#&&!-/!
/#9.,'(#!+--0<!Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57F!TMTPTIT<!0-'R!
IM<IMeLlMMKKPeSIG<SL<S<TMT!
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and experience sampling research<!D#W!O-%ZR!iC'86-%0<!
J-89#%F!D<F!d!)31'88'/9F!4<!2<!bIHHIf<!?#%&-/.8',*!./0!,1#!$%->8#+&!-6!#(#%*0.*!8'6#R!Q1#!%-8#!-6!
/#C%-,'3'&+!'/!#5$-&C%#!./0!%#.3,'(',*!,-!0.'8*!&,%#&&-%&<!Journal of Personality, 59F!eSSP
eTN<!0-'R!IM<IIIIl`<IGNLPNGHG<IHHI<,>MMKSe<5!
J%#&&F!c<!D<F!V-,'F!"<F!a-,-(F!;<F!a8#'/F!"<!D<F!d!=.`3.ZF!i<!bKMIef<!J8C/,#0!/#C%.8!%#&$-/&#!,-!
%#W.%0&!$%-&$#3,'(#8*!$%#0'3,&!0#$%#&&'-/!'/!.0-8#&3#/,!9'%8&<!Psychophysiology, 50F!LGP
TI<!0-'R!IM<IIIIl`<IGNHPTHTN<KMIK<MIGTS<5!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 29
J%-W/F!i<!Y<F!J'6C83-F!2<F!d!=.%%'&F!Q<!\<!bIHTLf<!:'6#!#(#/,&F!(C8/#%.>'8',*!./0!-/&#,!-6!
0#$%#&&'-/R!&-+#!%#6'/#+#/,&<!wc-C%/.8!2%,'38#x<!The British Journal of Psychiatry, 150F!
eMPGK<!0-'R!IM<IIHKl>`$<ISM<I<eM!
JC%'&31F!A<!bIHHLf<!Q#&,!8#/9,1!./0!(.8'0',*!%#('&',#0<!European Journal of Personality, 11F!eMeP
eIS<!0-'R!"-'!IM<IMMKlb)'3'fIMHHPMHTGbIHHLIIfIIRGteMeRR2'0P?#%KHKve<M<B-_KP{!
J*8&+.F!:<!A<F!A-%%'&F!J<!=<F!d!;-,,#/>#%9F!c<!bKMMTf<!2!+#,.P./.8*&'&!-6!#+-,'-/.8!%#.3,'(',*!
'/!+.`-%!0#$%#&&'(#!0'&-%0#%<!Clinical Psychology Review, 28F!NLNPNHI<!0-'R!
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.10.001!
J*8&+.F!:<!A<F!Q.*8-%PB8'6,F!2<F!d!;-,,#/>#%9F!c<!bKMIIf<!4+-,'-/.8!%#.3,'(',*!,-!0.'8*!#(#/,&!'/!
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IM<IMeLl.MMKINNK!
B.,.8'/-F!:<!X<F!d!V%#0%'3Z&-/F!J<!:<!bKMIIf<!2!QC#&0.*!'/!,1#!8'6#!-6!.!68-C%'&1#%R!Q1#!%-8#!-6!
$-&','(#!#+-,'-/.8!%#.3,'(',*!'/!-$,'+.8!+#/,.8!1#.8,1<!Emotion, 11F!HeTPHSM<!0-'R!
IM<IMeLl.MMKGTTH!
B1.%8#&F!)<!Q<F!?'.[[.F!c<!;<F!A-98#F!c<F!)8'W'/&Z'F!A<!c<F!d!28+#'0.F!"<!A<!bKMIef<!Q1#!W#.%!./0!
,#.%!-6!0.'8*!&,%#&&-%&!-/!+#/,.8!1#.8,1<!Psychological Science, 24F!LeePLGI<!0-'R!
IM<IILLlMHSNLHLNIKGNKKKK!
B1#/,&-(.P"C,,-/F!O<F!d!=./8#*F!a<!bKMIMf<!Q1#!#66#3,&!-6!./1#0-/'.!./0!0#$%#&&'-/!-/!1#0-/'3!
%#&$-/&#&<!Psychiatry Research, 179F!ILNPITM<!0-'R!IM<IMINl`<$&*31%#&<KMMH<MN<MIe!
B8.%.F!X<!?<F!B-5F!J<!c<F!d!4//&F!A<!Y<!bKMMIf<!B-/6'%+.,-%*!6.3,-%!./.8*&'&!-6!,1#!"#$%#&&'-/P
2/5'#,*P),%#&&!)3.8#&!'/!0#$%#&&#0!./0!./5'-C&!$.,'#/,&<!Journal of Psychopathology and
Behavioral Assessment, 23F!NIPNL<!0-'R!IM<IMKel2RIMIIMHSNKGLIL!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 30
B8.%ZF!:<!2<F!d!Y.,&-/F!"<!bIHTTf<!A--0!./0!,1#!+C/0./#R!;#8.,'-/&!>#,W##/!0.'8*!8'6#!#(#/,&!
./0!&#86P%#$-%,#0!+--0<!Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54F!KHNPeMT<!0-'R!
IM<IMeLllMMKKPeSIG<SG<K<KHN!
B8n%*PA#8'/F!A<P:<F!)31+'0,F!:<F!:.6.%9C#F!i<F!J.C$F!D<F!V-&&.,'F!?<F!d!?#&&'98'-/#F!A<!bKMIIf<!
Y1*!0-/k,!*-C!,%*!1.%0#%m!2/!'/(#&,'9.,'-/!-6!#66-%,!$%-0C3,'-/!'/!+.`-%!0#$%#&&'-/<!
PLoS One, 6F!#KeILT<!0-'R!IM<IeLIl`-C%/.8<$-/#<MMKeILT!
B-/W.*F!B<!B<F!)8.('31F!i<!A<F!d!=.++#/F!B<!bKMIGf<!".'8*!&,%#&&!%#.3,'(',*!./0!&#%-,-/'/!
,%./&$-%,#%!9#/#!bSP=QQ:?;f!(.%'.,'-/R!X/,#%/.8'['/9!%#&$-/&#&!,-!#(#%*0.*!&,%#&&!.&!.!
$-&&'>8#!,%./&0'.9/-&,'3!$1#/-,*$#<!Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders, 4F!IPH<!0-'R!
IM<IITNlKMGSPSeTMPGPK!
B-5F!J<!c<F!B-1#/F!4<F!"'%#/6#80F!"<!A<F!d!)W'/&-/F!;<!?<!bIHHNf<!"-#&!,1#!J#3Z!2/5'#,*!
X/(#/,-%*!+#.&C%#!./*,1'/9!>#*-/0!$./'3!.,,.3Z!&*+$,-+&m!Behaviour Research and
Therapy, 34F!HGHPHSG<!0-'R!IM<IMINl)MMMSPLHNLbHNfMMMeLPu!
".('8.F!c<F!),%-C0F!B<!J<F!d!),.%%F!:<!;<!bKMIGf<!"#$%#&&'-/!'/!3-C$8#&!./0!6.+'8'#&<!X/!X<!=<!
i-,8'>!d!B<!:<!=.++#/!b40&<fF!Handbook of Depression!be%0!#0<F!$$<!GIMPGKTf<!D#W!
O-%ZR!iC'86-%0<!
"#:-/9'&F!2<F!B-*/#F!c<!B<F!".Z-6F!i<F!V-8Z+./F!)<F!d!:.[.%C&F!;<!)<!bIHTKf<!;#8.,'-/&1'$!-6!
0.'8*!1.&&8#&F!C$8'6,&F!./0!+.`-%!8'6#!#(#/,&!,-!1#.8,1!&,.,C&<!Health Psychology, 1F!IIHP
IeN<!0-'R!IM<IMeLlMKLTPNIee<I<K<IIH!
"#:-/9'&F!2<F!V-8Z+./F!)<F!d!:.[.%C&F!;<!)<!bIHTTf<!Q1#!'+$.3,!-6!0.'8*!&,%#&&!-/!1#.8,1!./0!
+--0R!?&*31-8-9'3.8!./0!&-3'.8!%#&-C%3#&!.&!+#0'.,-%&<!Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 54F!GTNPGHS<!0-'R!IM<IMeLlMMKKPeSIG<SG<e<GTN!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 31
"'31,#%F!i<!)<!bKMIMf<!2/1#0-/'.!'/!C/'$-8.%!+.`-%!0#$%#&&'(#!0'&-%0#%R!2!%#('#W<!The Open
Psychiatry Journal, 4F!IPH<!0-'R!IM<KILGlITLGeSGGMIMMGMIMMMI!
"'88-/F!"<!i<F!=-8+#&F!2<!c<F!c.1/F!2<!:<F!J-90./F!;<F!Y.80F!:<!:<F!d!?'[[.9.88'F!"<!2<!bKMMTf<!
"'&&-3'.,'-/!-6!/#C%.8!%#9'-/&!.&&-3'.,#0!W',1!./,'3'$.,-%*!(#%&C&!3-/&C++.,-%*!$1.&#&!
-6!'/3#/,'(#!$%-3#&&'/9<!Psychophysiology, 45F!eNPGH<!0-'R!IM<IIIIl`<IGNHP
THTN<KMML<MMSHG<5!
"C//F!J<!"<!bKMIKf<!=#8$'/9!0#$%#&&#0!38'#/,&!%#3-//#3,!,-!$-&','(#!#+-,'-/!#5$#%'#/3#R!BC%%#/,!
'/&'91,&!./0!6C,C%#!0'%#3,'-/&<!Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19F!eKNPeGM<!0-'R!
IM<IMMKl3$$<ILHH!
"C//F!J<!"<F!".898#'&1F!Q<F!:.W%#/3#F!2<!"<F!BC&.3ZF!;<F!d!\9'8('#F!2<!"<!bKMMGf<!B.,#9-%'3.8!
./0!0'+#/&'-/.8!%#$-%,&!-6!#5$#%'#/3#0!.66#3,!,-!#+-,'-/P'/0C3'/9!$'3,C%#&!'/!0#$%#&&'-/<!
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113F!NSGPNNM<!0-'R!IM<IMeLlMMKIPTGeu<IIe<G<NSG!
V-%>#&F!4<!4<F!=.%'%'F!2<!;<F!A.%,'/F!)<!:<F!)'8ZF!c<!)<F!A-*8#&F!"<!:<F!V'&1#%F!?<!A<F!<!<!<!".18F!;<!4<!
bKMMHf<!28,#%#0!&,%'.,.8!.3,'(.,'-/!$%#0'3,'/9!%#.8PW-%80!$-&','(#!.66#3,!'/!.0-8#&3#/,!
+.`-%!0#$%#&&'(#!0'&-%0#%<!American Journal of Psychiatry, 166F!NGPLe<!0-'R!
IM<IILNl.$$'<.`$<KMMT<MLMTIeeN!
V%#0%'3Z&-/F!J<!:<F!d!:-&.0.F!A<!V<!bKMMSf<!?-&','(#!.66#3,!./0!,1#!3-+$8#5!0*/.+'3&!-6!1C+./!
68-C%'&1'/9<!American Psychologist, 60F!NLTPNTN<!0-'R!IM<IMeLlMMMePMNNu<NM<L<NLT!
i.%0F!"<!4<F!i.%0F!A<!i<F!a%'/9F!2<!A<F!d!c-1/F!\<!?<!bKMMNf<!2/,'3'$.,-%*!./0!3-/&C++.,-%*!
3-+$-/#/,&!-6!,1#!#5$#%'#/3#!-6!$8#.&C%#R!2!&3.8#!0#(#8-$+#/,!&,C0*<!Journal of
Research in Personality, 40F!IMTNPIIMK<!0-'R!IM<IMINl`<`%$<KMMS<II<MMI!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 32
i.%0F!"<!4<F!a%'/9F!2<!A<F!i.%0F!A<!i<F!=-%./F!Y<!?<F!d!i%##/F!A<!V<!bKMMLf<!2/1#0-/'.!'/!
&31'[-$1%#/'.R!"'&,'/3,'-/&!>#,W##/!./,'3'$.,-%*!./0!3-/&C++.,-%*!$8#.&C%#<!
Schizophrenia Research, 93F!KSePKNM<!0-'R!IM<IMINl`<&31%#&<KMML<Me<MMT!
=.+#&F!c<!:<F!=.9./F!B<!;<F!d!c-'/#%F!Q<!4<!bKMIef<!X/,#%$#%&-/.8!$%-3#&&#&!'/!0#$%#&&'-/<!
w;#('#Wx<!Annual Review of Clinical Psycholology, 9F!eSSPeLL<!0-'R!IM<IIGNl.//C%#(P
38'/$&*PMSMKIKPITSSSe!
=.++#/F!B<!bKMMMf<!X/,#%$#%&-/.8!6.3,-%&!'/!./!#+#%9'/9!0#(#8-$+#/,.8!+-0#8!-6!0#$%#&&'-/<!X/!
)<!:<!c-1/&-/F!2<!A<!=.*#&F!Q<!A<!V'#80F!D<!)31/#'0#%+./!d!?<!A3B.>#!b40&<fF!Stress,
Coping and Depression!b$$<!LIPTTf<!A.1W.1F!DcR!:.W%#/3#!4%8>.C+!2&&-3'.,#&<!
=.++#/F!B<!bKMMef<!X/,#%$#%&-/.8!&,%#&&!./0!0#$%#&&'-/!'/!W-+#/<!Journal of Affective
Disorders, 74F!GHPSL<!0-'R!IM<IMINl)MINSPMeKLbMKfMMGeMPS!
=.++#/F!B<!bKMMSf<!),%#&&!./0!0#$%#&&'-/<!w;#('#Wx<!Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1F!
KHePeIH<!0-'R!IM<IIGNl.//C%#(<38'/$&*<I<IMKTMe<IGeHeT!
=#/%'gC#&F!c<!J<F!d!".('0&-/F!;<!c<!bKMMMf<!"#3%#.&#0!%#&$-/&'(#/#&&!,-!%#W.%0!'/!0#$%#&&'-/<!
Cognition & Emotion, 14F!LIIPLKG<!0-'R!IM<IMTMlMKNHHHeMMSMIILNTG!
=#%&1#/>#%9F!;<F!".('8.F!c<F!d!:#-/9F!)<!=<!bKMIGf<!"#$%#&&'(#!)*+$,-+&!'/!Y-+#/!./0!,1#!
?%#6#%#/3#!./0!4+-,'-/.8!J#/#6',&!-6!"'&3C&&'/9!?-&','(#!:'6#!4(#/,&<!Journal of Social
and Clinical Psychology, 33F!LNLPLTT<!!
=#%&1#/>#%9F!;<F!?.C8&-/F!"<F!i%-&F!"<!V<F!d!23'#%/-F!;<!bKMIGf<!"-#&!.+-C/,!./0!,*$#!-6!
.3,'(',*!+.,,#%!'/!>#1.('-%.8!.3,'(.,'-/m!2!$%#8'+'/.%*!'/(#&,'9.,'-/!-6!,1#!%#8.,'-/&1'$!
>#,W##/!$8#.&./,F!6C/3,'-/.8F!./0!&-3'.8!.3,'(','#&!./0!-C,3-+#<!Behavioural and
Cognitive PsychotherapyF!IPIN<!0-'R!IM<IMILl)IeSKGNSTIeMMIITS!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 33
=--8#*F!c<!A<F!i%C>#%F!)<!2<F!)3-,,F!:<!2<F!='88#%F!c<!J<F!d!OC%9#8C/PQ-00F!"<!2<!bKMMSf<!
23,'(.,'-/!'/!0-%&-8.,#%.8!$%#6%-/,.8!3-%,#5!'/!%#&$-/&#!,-!+.,#%/.8!3%','3'&+!./0!$%.'&#!'/!
%#3-(#%#0!0#$%#&&#0!./0!1#.8,1*!3-/,%-8!$.%,'3'$./,&<!Biological Psychiatry, 57F!TMHPTIK<!
0-'R!IM<IMINl`<>'-$&*31<KMMS<MI<MIK!
=-$Z-F!"<!;<F!d!AC88./#F!B<!A<!bKMMTf<!45$8-%'/9!,1#!%#8.,'-/!-6!0#$%#&&'-/!./0!-(#%,!>#1.('-%!
W',1!0.'8*!0'.%'#&<!Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46F!IMTSPIMTH<!0-'R!
IM<IMINl`<>%.,<KMMT<MS<MMK!
c.3->&-/F!D<!)<F!A.%,#88F!B<!;<F!d!"'+'0`'./F!)<!bKMMIf<!J#1.('-%.8!.3,'(.,'-/!,%#.,+#/,!6-%!
0#$%#&&'-/R!;#,C%/'/9!,-!3-/,#5,C.8!%--,&<!Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8F!
KSSPKLM<!0-'R!IM<IMHel38'$&*lT<e<KSS!
a#&&8#%F!;<!B<F!J#%98C/0F!?<F!"#+8#%F!\<F!c'/F!;<F!d!Y.8,#%&F!4<!4<!bKMMSf<!:'6#,'+#!?%#(.8#/3#!
./0!29#P-6P\/&#,!"'&,%'>C,'-/&!-6!")APX@!"'&-%0#%&!'/!,1#!D.,'-/.8!B-+-%>'0',*!
)C%(#*!;#$8'3.,'-/<!Archives of General Psychiatry, 62F!SHePNMK<!0-'R!
IM<IMMIl.%31$&*3<NK<N<SHe!
a8#'/F!"<!V<!bIHLGf<!4/0-9#/-+-%$1'3!0#$%#&&'-/R!2!3-/3#$,C.8!./0!,#%+'/-8-9'3.8!%#('&'-/<!
Archives of General Psychiatry, 31F!GGLPGSG<!0-'R!
IM<IMMIl.%31$&*3<IHLG<MILNMINMMMSMMI!
a-1/F!?<!A<F!:.6%#/'#%#F!a<F!d!iC%#('31F!A<!bIHHMf<!Q1#!'/(#/,-%*!-6!3-88#9#!&,C0#/,&|!%#3#/,!
8'6#!#5$#%'#/3#&R!2!0#3-/,.+'/.,#0!1.&&8#&!&3.8#!6-%!.!&$#3'.8!$-$C8.,'-/<!Journal of
Behavioral Medicine, 13F!NIHPNeM<!0-'R!IM<IMMLlJVMMTGGLeT!
:.C%#/3#.CF!c<P?<F!J.%%#,,F!:<!V<F!d!;-('/#F!A<!c<!bKMMSf<!Q1#!'/,#%$#%&-/.8!$%-3#&&!+-0#8!-6!
'/,'+.3*!'/!+.%%'.9#R!2!0.'8*P0'.%*!./0!+C8,'8#(#8!+-0#8'/9!.$$%-.31<!Journal of Family
Psychology, 19F!eIGPeKe<!0-'R!IM<IMeLlMTHePeKMM<IH<K<eIG!
DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 34
:#A-C8,F!c<F!B.&,-/9C.*F!:<!i<F!c--%+./F!c<F!d!A328#.(#*F!2<!2<!bKMIef<!"#$%#&&'-/R!J.&'3!
%#&#.%31!./0!38'/'3.8!'+$8'3.,'-/&<!X/!:<!i<!B.&,-/9C.*!d!Q<!V<!\8,+.//&!b40&<fF!
Psychopathology: Bridging the gap between basic empirical findings and clinical
practice!b$$<!ILPNIf<!D#W!O-%ZF!DOR!iC'86-%0!?%#&&<!
:#W'/&-1/F!?<!A<F!d!i%.6F!A<!bIHLef<!?8#.&./,!.3,'(','#&!./0!0#$%#&&'-/<!Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology, 41F!KNIPKNT<!0-'R!http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035142!
:#W'/&-1/F!?<!A<F!d!:'>#,F!c<!bIHLKf<!?8#.&./,!#(#/,&F!.3,'(',*!&31#0C8#&F!./0!0#$%#&&'-/&<!
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 79F!KHIPKHS<!!
:#W'/&-1/F!?<!A<F!)C88'(./F!c<!A<F!d!i%-&&3C$F!)<!c<!bIHTMf<!B1./9'/9!%#'/6-%3'/9!#(#/,&R!2/!
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IM<IMINl`<`%$<KMIe<MH<MMT!
A.%3-F!B<!2<F!d!)C8&F!c<!bIHHef<!".'8*!&,%#&&!./0!,1#!,%.`#3,-%*!-6!+--0R!&$'88-(#%F!%#&$-/&#!
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 35
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 36
?##,#%&F!V<F!D'3-8&-/F!D<!2<F!J#%Z1-6F!c<F!"#8#&$.C8F!?<F!d!0#@%'#&F!A<!bKMMef<!466#3,&!-6!0.'8*!
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LIM<!0-'R!IM<IILNl.$$'<.`$<KMMT<MTMTIKMI!
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 37
.8,#%/.,'(#&!,-!%#8'#(#!0#$%#&&'-/!,%'.8!%#$-%,<!Biological Psychiatry, 59F!GHePSMI<!0-'R!
IM<IMINl`<>'-$&*31<KMMS<MT<MKK!
;C&1F!2<!c<F!Q%'(#0'F!A<!=<F!X>%.1'+F!=<!A<F!B.%+-0*F!Q<!c<F!2%/-WF!J<F!a8#'/F!"<!D<F!<!<!<!
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0-'R!IM<IMINl)MMMNPeKKebMKfMITNNPT!
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 42
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df
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.00
98.30
-2.37
.020
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z
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 43
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Baseline Dysphoria
.01
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96.67
0.72
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 44
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< .001
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 45
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DAILY UPLIFTS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS 46
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... By including questions regarding current and future activities, the design helps to ensure that ratings for consummatory pleasure and anticipatory pleasure were based on daily events rather than memory representations. The use of brief measures is common in ESM research because excessive length can compromise response quality and reduce compliance (Bakker et al., 2017;Starr and Hershenberg, 2017;Edwards et al., 2018). ...
... Only recently have researchers directly investigated depressed persons' anticipatory pleasure using ESM. Greater severity of subclinical symptoms of depression in the general population are found to be predictive of reduced pleasure during anticipating positive events in daily life (Bakker et al., 2017;Starr and Hershenberg, 2017). Our findings are also consistent with Wu et al.'s (2017) study in which patients with MDD demonstrated blunted state anticipatory and consummatory pleasure in relation to daily activities. ...
... Thus, dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals both report higher levels of consummatory pleasure when they anticipated greater pleasure at the previous time point, although dysphoria is associated with lower levels of anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. This result is in line with the ESM study using end-of-day dairy reports, in which it was found that the increased anticipation for positive experience and positive events of the next day predicted greater reduction of depressed symptoms in dysphoria (Starr and Hershenberg, 2017). ...
Article
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Anhedonia, the experience of diminished pleasure, is a core feature of major depressive disorder and is often present long before the diagnosis of depression. Most previous studies have investigated anhedonia with self-report measures of trait anhedonia or with behavioral paradigms using laboratory stimuli, and the real-time characteristics of hedonic processing in subclinical depression remain under-investigated. We used the experience sampling method to evaluate momentary experience of hedonic feelings in the context of daily life. Dysphoric (n = 49) and non-dysphoric (n = 51) college students completed assessments of their current positive affect (PA), as well as state anticipatory and consummatory pleasure, 3 or 4 times a day every day for 2 weeks. The results showed that dysphoric individuals reported less state anticipatory and consummatory pleasure compared with non-dysphoric individuals. Moreover, significant time-lagged associations between anticipatory pleasure and follow-up consummatory pleasure were found in the whole sample, after adjustment for current PA. The current findings thus hold considerable promise in advancing our understanding of anhedonia as well as the important role of state anticipatory pleasure in relation to depression.
... While the longitudinal nature of this study is a strength, future research should consider administering the pre-test several weeks or months prior to the trip to lessen the anticipatory effects associated with looking forward to an exciting trip (Luo et al., 2018;Starr & Hershenberg, 2017). However, providing the pre-test well before the trip proves complicated as changes in attendee schedules, weather, and a myriad of other factors may ultimately impact a veteran's ability to participate. ...
Article
As part of a larger research program examining the impacts of nature-based experiences on veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, this study focused on changes in their depression and meaning in life after participating in a four-day river rafting experience. Results showed that there were statistically significant improvements over time for both depression scores and meaning in life scores. Results also indicated a weak statistically significant, negative association between depression and presence of meaning in life. The study’s results are useful for practitioners who may be considering nature-based programs for their clients, as well as researchers seeking to better understand the psychological health benefits of river rafting.
... Notably, daily process designs find that depressed persons and nondepressed persons do not differ in PA after experiencing positive events in daily life, even as depressed persons experience fewer positive events (Bylsma et al., 2011). Engagement in positive events has also been related to lower depressed mood (Lewinsohn & Libet, 1972;Nezlek & Gable, 2001;Starr & Hershenberg, 2017) and larger decreases in daily NA after positive events (termed the "mood brightening effect") (Bylsma et al., 2011), the magnitude of which correlates with the extent to which depressed persons appraise an event as positive (Panaite et al., 2018). Findings to date highlight both the presence of differences between adults with and without depression, as well as heterogeneity among the group of people with depression. ...
Article
Full-text available
Can positive events and positive emotions reduce the impact of a stressful event in people with depression? In previous research, studies have found that positive events and positive affect (PA) that co-occur with daily stressors can reduce – or offset – the emotional impact of the stressors. However, this effect has not been examined in people with depression, an emotional disorder characterized by higher levels of negative affect (NA) and lower levels of PA. This study examined whether depression is an individual difference variable in affective offset through testing whether depression reduces or eliminates affective offset. Using a nationally representative sample with daily assessments across eight days, we examined reports of positive events, stressors, and PA and NA from 121 adults with a depression diagnosis versus 839 adults with no depression symptoms. For depressed persons, when a stressor occurred, same day number of positive events, but not PA, offset next day NA. At the same time, depressed participants who reported higher average daily PA also reported lower NA the day after a stressor occurred. Our study provides evidence that some depressed persons exhibit affective offset and some depressed persons do not. We offer several explanations for the heterogeneous reactions of depressed individuals.
... Furthermore, the trait depression/appetitive conditioning results are consistent with other research showing that depression is associated with deficits in reward processing (Admon & Pizzagalli, 2015). Specifically, depression is associated with avoidance of potentially rewarding environments (Smoski et al., 2008) and deficient processing of positive outcomes (Amsterdam et al., 1987;Branco et al., 2017;Potts et al., 1997;Schaefer et al., 2010;Scinska et al., 2004;Starr & Hershenberg, 2017;Wu et al., 2017). Modern theories of reward processing state that reward processing is composed of three stages: motivation/anticipation of reward (i.e., "wanting" reward), consumption of reward (i.e., "liking" reward), and reward learning (e.g., learning which behaviors lead to reward; Berridge et al., 2009;Castro & Berridge, 2014;Craske et al., 2016;Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Contexts and discrete stimuli often influence the association between a stimulus and outcome. This phenomenon, called occasion setting, is central to modulation-based Pavlovian learning. We conducted two experiments with humans in fear and appetitive conditioning paradigms, training stimuli in differential conditioning, feature-positive discriminations, and feature-negative discriminations. We also investigated the effects of trait anxiety and trait depression on these forms of learning. Results from both experiments showed that participants were able to successfully learn which stimuli predicted the electric shock and monetary reward outcomes. Additionally, as hypothesized, the stimuli trained as occasion setters had little-to-no effect on simple reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli, suggesting the former were indeed occasion setters. Lastly, in fear conditioning, trait anxiety was associated with increases in fear of occasion setter/conditional stimulus compounds; in appetitive conditioning, trait depression was associated with lower expectations of monetary reward for the trained negative occasion setting compound and transfer of the negative occasion setter to the simple reinforced stimulus. These results suggest that clinically anxious individuals may have enhanced fear of occasion setting compounds, and clinically depressed individuals may expect less reward with compounds involving the negative occasion setter.
... Genau das versteht auch der klinisch tätige Psychiater darunter. Anhedonie ist eines der Hauptsymptome der Depression nach DSM-5 und der International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10), aber auch ein wichtiges Symptom der Schizophrenie und bei Abhängigkeitserkrankungen; darüber hinaus tritt sie jedoch auch bei einer großen Anzahl anderer psychischer Störungen auf und ist [14,36] und/ oder das anstrengungsbasierte Entscheiden gestört sein [5,38]. Dies hat natürlich Implikationen für die Behandlung. ...
Article
In this paper, the domain positive valence systems (PVS) of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix and its subconstructs are presented and discussed. The PVS basically reflect different forms and aspects of reward processing. These have been investigated in psychiatry in the context of addiction, schizophrenia and depression for decades; the latter are therefore not the topic of this paper. This article presents the heuristic value of the RDoC system in understanding other disorders and constructs, namely the transdiagnostic symptom of anhedonia, autism spectrum disorder and eating disorders. In addition, it outlines how the PVS domain has also enriched the clinical perspective of traditional psychopathology and stimulated the development of new behavioral measurement instruments. Finally, the limitations and potential future developments of the framework are discussed.
... Second, based on the lack of research on protective factors, there is also a lack of research examining positive life events. For instance, in a daily diary study by Starr and Hershenberg (2017), the experience of uplifting events was related to a reduction in depressed mood, especially for individuals with higher baseline dysphoria. Lastly, most studies, like the current study, focuses on retrospective reports of negative life events. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that negative life events contribute to the development of depression. Moreover, it has been suggested that individuals with a family history of depression experience more negative life events and are more susceptible to the effect of negative life events. However, previous studies did not differentiate stable between-person effects (interindividual differences) and temporal within-person effects (intraindividual differences). This study aims to examine the bidirectional relation between negative life events and depressive symptoms using a novel statistical method (i.e., a random intercept cross-lagged panel model) that allows to separate within-person from between-person processes. Second, we examined the role of family history in that relation. Data came from 1,771 adults (1,320 with a depressive and/or anxiety disorder, 451 controls) that were followed over 9 years (baseline, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 9-year follow-up). Questionnaires were used to measure depressive symptoms and the number of independent (i.e., events independent of someone's symptoms) and dependent negative life events (i.e., events more likely to be influenced by a person). Results showed that individuals with more negative life events experienced more depressive symptoms on a between-person level. Additionally, although the effects were considerably smaller, results suggested within-person increases in dependent and independent negative life events were correlated with within-person increases in depressive symptoms. Overall, our results suggest that negative life events and depressive symptoms are more consistently associated on a between-person than on a within-person level. Thus, negative life events may rather explain differences in depressive symptoms between persons than within persons. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... This method has been used extensively in depression research, traditionally to investigate relationships between a person's emotions and their number of experienced positive events (see e.g., Hammen & Glass, 1975;Larson, Raffaelli, Richards, Ham, & Jewell, 1990;Lewinsohn & Graf, 1973;Lewinsohn & Libet, 1972;Nezlek, Hampton, & Shean, 2000). Findings have suggested that depressed persons engage in fewer day-to-day positive activities than healthy persons (Lewinsohn & Graf, 1973), despite observations showing that more engagement in day-to-day positive activities correlates with better overall daily affect (Lewinsohn & Libet, 1972;Starr & Hershenberg, 2017) and adjustment for people with depression (Nezlek & Gable, 2001). More recent studies using experience sampling methods (ESM; which include multiple assessments per day) find that depressed persons tend to report higher daily levels of NA and lower levels of PA, overall, and fewer subjectively rated positive events of any kind Thompson et al, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
We know relatively little concerning the links between the events and emotions experienced in daily life and long-term outcomes among people diagnosed with depression. Using daily diary data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), we examined how positive daily life events and emotions influence long-term (10 years later) depression severity and well-being. Participants met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD; n=121) or reported no depression (n=839) over the past 12-months. Participants reported positive events, socializing activities, and negative and positive affect (NA, PA) for 8 consecutive days. Relative to non-depressed adults, depressed adults reported fewer positive events (fewer positive interactions, spending less time with others), lower PA, and higher NA. Among initially depressed adults, higher baseline well-being was related to higher daily PA, lower NA, and fewer days of low reported social time; higher daily PA and positive interactions predicted higher well-being 10 years later (N=77). Variations in day-to-day events and emotions among people with depression may presage psychological functioning years later.
... Assessing both negative and positive affective states provides a more valid picture of the daily experiences of depressed individuals (Watson et al., 1988). Such research has revealed that depressed individuals' tendency to use strategies to dampen positive mood predicts the maintenance of depressive symptoms (Li, Starr, & Herchenberg, 2017;Starr & Hershenberg, 2017). Findings support the importance of examining daily mood states associated with depression (i.e., presence of negative affect and lack of positive affect; Watson, 2005), given that fluctuation in these mood states provides a sensitive measure of central features of depression. ...
Article
Substantial research supports bidirectional links between intimate relationship discord and individual psychopathology, including depressive symptoms. However, few studies have utilized daily diary methods to capture the micro-level processes underlying the association between couple discord and depression, particularly among populations that are at elevated risk for both interpersonal and individual dysfunction. To address this gap, we examined whether daily changes in satisfaction with relationship functioning were associated with daily changes in negative affect and positive affect over the span of 2 weeks among mental health outpatients of low socioeconomic status. Participants were 53 low-income outpatients from community mental health clinics who completed a semi-structured interview about the quality of their intimate relationships followed by 14 daily reports of positive and negative mood and satisfaction with relationship functioning across several domains. Growth curve analytic techniques revealed the hypothesized bidirectional relations. Decline in satisfaction with relationship functioning predicted escalation in negative affect and deterioration in positive affect over 2 weeks, and deterioration of mood predicted declining satisfaction with relationship functioning. This study extends existing knowledge about couple dysfunction and individual psychopathology by highlighting the immediate nature of this dynamic process as it unfolds over time. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Article
Existing research supports competing hypotheses about the link between negative emotional (NE) reactivity to daily events (e.g., hassles and uplifts) and depression. Some have suggested that depression is associated with blunted reactivity, and others have suggested that depression is associated with heightened reactivity. In this study, we tested linear and nonlinear associations, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, between NE reactivity and depression among a sample of 232 adolescents. Participants completed lab-based assessments of depression then rated their experience of emotions, daily hassles, and uplifts three times per day for 7 days. Interviews were readministered 1.5 years later. Results show a significant U-shaped relationship between NE reactivity to hassles and depression symptoms cross-sectionally, which suggests that depression is more severe at the extremes of NE reactivity. NE reactivity to daily uplifts showed significant linear associations, but not quadratic associations, with depression such that heightened reactivity to uplifts was associated with more severe depression symptoms concurrently and predicted worsening of depression longitudinally.
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In this short review, we describe recent trends from Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) research investigating positive affect (PA) in relation to mood disorders. Aside from notable exceptions (e.g., mania), most mood disorders involve relatively lower levels of PA in daily life, often combined with a larger level of variability in PA. In reaction to positive events, studies show a puzzling “mood brightening” effect in individuals with mood disorder symptoms that suggests hyper responsiveness to real-life rewards. Studies into anhedonia (i.e., lack of, or lower levels of PA) suggest that high-arousal PA and anticipatory PA are potential targets for intervention. Despite PA-focused EMA-interventions bear promises of greater therapeutic effectiveness, so far, these promises have not yet materialized.
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