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... The work of Susan Sontag (1973) is especially helpful when studying photography. According to Sontag, 'photographs alter and enlarge our notions of what is worth looking at and what we have a right to observe' (p. ...
... The words are too small for readers to see if they are in different languages, and of course the subjects cannot be captured talking so we cannot see how well they speak or understand in two languages, or what they learn in DL programs. Because photographs are a 'thin slice of space and time' that encourage us to think about events in terms of memorable moments rather than complicated (and long) processes, we see the world of DL programs as a 'series of unrelated, free-standing particles' (Sontag, 1973(Sontag, : 2, 22, 2004. This image of the teacher pointing and students seated and listening merges well with traditional notions of what education is supposedly like, and hence does nothing to persuade or convince parents that they might like their child to be in the program. ...
Article
Despite well documented benefits of dual language (DL) programs which deliver educational content in two languages, there are still few DL programs in the United States. As such, there is a need to understand how to effectively persuade more states/districts to adopt the programs. In addition, more critical research is needed that focuses on how the programs are represented visually, as well as how this visual representation reflects wider discourses about DL education that could impede the programs from reaching those who need them most. In this article, the author explores ideologies behind DL program discourse by looking at photojournalism (or in some cases, stock photos) from 34 local online news reports. She employed multimodal critical discourse analysis (MCDA), including a thematic analysis of images. Findings reveal that many of the discourses (e.g. neoliberalism) seen in analyses of written text were repeated visually but, in some cases, visual data communicated different discourses that were advanced in nuanced ways. The author concludes by urging more critical work in visual communication that focuses on educational issues.
... All photographs, according to Susan Sontag (1977), are essentially memento mori. The photograph as a frozen moment testifies to the mortality of the person captured (Sontag, 1977). ...
... All photographs, according to Susan Sontag (1977), are essentially memento mori. The photograph as a frozen moment testifies to the mortality of the person captured (Sontag, 1977). The role of the photograph as a memento mori reminds me of 19th century post-mortem photography, a practice whereby a recently deceased family member is photographed as a means of remembrance -sometimes staged as if alive (Mendelyté, 2012). ...
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This is an exhibition catalogue and essay of memory and post-memory contained within the artists photographic family archive.
... In this paper, then, I will concentrate primarily on the role played by the camera in representing Lourdes to the wider world and what this role tells us about the relationship between gazing, knowledge and the body. My focus on the gaze is inspired by the turn towards sensuous experience advanced by those studying lived and material religion and exploring the power of images, especially those generated by the gaze of the camera (see Sontag 1977, Freedberg 1989, Meyer 2008, Urry 1990, Wolff 2012, Pink 2016. Four questions in particular will be addressed here: (a) how was knowledge about Lourdes and the 'sick' body disseminated through the 'cinematic gaze' during the late 19 th and 20 th centuries; ...
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The millions visiting pilgrimage sites across the world attest to the continuing social, political and economic significance of religion. The popularity of pilgrimage is partly driven by the expansion of global communications and the travel and tourism industry (a major contributor to the expansion of the service sector). Many shrines have adapted very successfully to technological change and even in the European region where engagement in Christian beliefs and practices has declined, especially in W. Europe, pilgrimage sites attract widespread interest and new routes are being invented or old ones revived. It is a mistake to see pilgrimage as just a 'traditional' survival or to simply contrast religious pilgrimage with secular tourism. In this article I want to explore the adaptation by pilgrimage shrines to technological change since the mid-19 th century by focussing on a very popular and well publicised Christian shrine-the Roman Catholic sanctuary of Lourdes near the Pyrenees in southwest France. Knowledge about this shrine was disseminated through the growth of mass media associated with the expansion of literacy. During the second half of the nineteenth century newspapers, magazines, pamphlets and postcards found their way across both European rural and urban societies facilitated by an expanding international railway network. Photography played an important role in this dissemination of knowledge, making saints and shrines more visible and the camera played an important role in the portrayal of dramatic events associated with them. Lourdes emerged as a particularly controversial shrine because of people's claims to having been miraculously healed there. The body became a prime focus of the photographic gaze in this context and photographs of the 'sick' body were quickly pressed into service as objective 'evidence' of dramatic healing.
... Современные технологии, появление портативных фотокамер, интегрированных в телефон, позволили перейти к коммуникации посредством фотоизображений. Вездесущесть изображения, отмеченная Р. Бартом [3] и С. Зонтаг [14], приводит к созданию особого метаязыка изображений, трансформируя восприятие и мировоззрение. Не случайно развитие подобной тенденции тесно связано с телевидением, послужившим своего рода предпосылкой к возникновению данной ситуации. ...
Article
The article is devoted to consideration of alteration of perception caused by influence of ways of reproduction of the screen images. The analysis of the factors influencing the process of perception is carried out. Special attention is given to inluence of TV and changes introduced by it. As consequence it changes the perception of reality and cause transformation of representation of the person about the validity. Development of new technologies caused changes in perception, but also in mentality and system of values of the modern spectator.
... On 22 May 2014, the day of the twelfth successful Thai military coup, an anti-military media activist, who works under the pseudonym 'Daeng', dumped his hard drive into a river in fear that it could be used to incriminate him under the newly imposed martial law (Lee and Darin 2014). While Daeng's digital archive of regional stories are decomposing in rust, the problem is also that media stories are being forgotten and while images of the oppressed are normalized, not by our own ignorance but in their redundancy (Sontag 1973;Shapiro 2008). From Thailand's rural north-east to the Muslim south, militarization and martial law escaped the kind of coverage captured in the accumulated images of Bangkok protests. ...
... The persuasive and aesthetic power of pictures has been discussed and exemplified in a variety of fields over decades, such as visual culture, visual persuasion, media studies or art history (e.g . Mirzoeff 2002;Mitchell 2013;Mitchell 2005;Smith 2008;Bal and Bryson 1991;Sontag 1997;Panofsky 2018). The affective and signifying value of digital pictures has contributed to the thriving of the ambiguous post-truth space in between truth and lie, reason and instinct (Jandrić 2018). ...
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This article introduces a new method to support critical media literacy, learning and research in higher education. It acts as a response to an unprecedented profusion of visual information across digital media that contributes to the contemporary post-truth era, marked by fake news and uncritical consumption of the media. Whereas much has been written about the reasons behind and the character of the post-truth, less space has been dedicated to how educators could counteract the uncritical consumption of images from the perspective of semiotics. This article adopts a unique semiotic approach to address the stated gap. It discusses in depth the meaning making of pictures, digital photographs and material objects that photographs can embody. It does so by focusing on three aspects of a pictorial sign: (1) the materiality of its representation and representational elements, (2) its object (what the sign refers to) and (3) its descriptive interpretations. These three aspects inform the signification analysis within the proposed production-signification-consumption (PSC) method, exemplified with digital photographs. Understanding and analysing images via the PSC method draw attention to how humans create, interpret, (re)use, consume and respond to online and offline communication signs. The method can contribute to the development of critical media literacy as an engagement with postdigital semiotics, much needed in an age of global ecological and social crises, uncertainty and fast consumption of digital content.
... On 22 May 2014, the day of the twelfth successful Thai military coup, an anti-military media activist, who works under the pseudonym 'Daeng', dumped his hard drive into a river in fear that it could be used to incriminate him under the newly imposed martial law (Lee and Darin 2014). While Daeng's digital archive of regional stories are decomposing in rust, the problem is also that media stories are being forgotten and while images of the oppressed are normalized, not by our own ignorance but in their redundancy (Sontag 1973;Shapiro 2008). From Thailand's rural north-east to the Muslim south, militarization and martial law escaped the kind of coverage captured in the accumulated images of Bangkok protests. ...
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The drone is defined within the duality of indifference and depersonalization, but also elevates a specific technology of seeing above fluid expressions of collectivity. This chapter addresses the drone as a mechanical device and figurative analogy of clarification that helped to organize ideological divisions into an objective narrative of the 2014 military coup d’état in Thailand. To critique these droned hierarchies, I draw upon Jacques Rancière’s conception of the ‘politics of aesthetics’ to address independent Thai cinema as a regime of ‘fictionality’ where the personalization of protest returns. The fictionality of Prapat Jiwarangsan and Danaya Chulphuthipong, two Thai film-makers, reconfigures the field of protest by extending its duration into an expanded realism of post-coup oppression and resistance. The book page: https://www.aup.nl/en/book/9789463724913/the-aesthetics-of-global-protest The e-book page: https://www.aup.nl/en/book/9789048544509/the-aesthetics-of-global-protest The Open Access page: http://oapen.org/search?identifier=1006541 The US book page: http://shop.btpubservices.com/Title/9789463724913
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This article uses text and film to demonstrate how the affective and sensory dimensions of narco‐power in contemporary Mexico haunt the familiar. As a case study, I draw on footage documenting my family's trip to Sinaloa to visit my father's birthplace in the rural mining town of Pánuco. Through an analysis of the ghosts produced by the filmmaking process and the disruptions to our travels by an increasingly tangible threat of narco‐violence, this article explores how fear and distrust reshape a pastoral aesthetics of family leisure. Film is adept at exploring sensory, affective, and embodied aspects of everyday experience. Here it is used to evoke unfolding tensions among my family members, underlining the ways narco‐terror manifests atmospherically and as an embodied experience. Film and text here narrate a subjective experience of narco‐power and make the case for the ways a spectral narco‐aesthetics, or narco‐spectrality, permeate the familiar. Este artículo utiliza texto y video para demostrar cómo las dimensiones afectivas y sensoriales del narcopoder en México acechan a lo familiar. Como caso de estudio, utilizo un documental de un viaje de familia a Sinaloa para visitar el lugar de nacimiento de mi padre en el pueblo minero rural de Pánuco. A través del análisis de los fantasmas producidos en el proceso de la realización e interrupciones a nuestro viaje por la amenaza de la narcoviolencia, este artículo explora cómo el miedo y la desconfianza cambian una estética pastoral del ocio familiar. El cine explora hábilmente aspectos sensoriales, afectivos y corporales de la experiencia cotidiana. Aquí se utiliza para evocar tensiones familiares, subrayando las formas en que el narcoterror se manifiesta atmosféricamente y como experiencia corporal. El documental y el texto narran aquí una experiencia subjetiva del narcopoder y discuten cómo una narcoestética espectral, o la narcoespectralidad, permean en lo familiar.
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en In September 2020, Oromo women marched through the streets of Berlin, Germany, demanding recognition for their struggle. This protest march, called a Hiriira in the Oromo language, offers a case study into the entanglements between settler colonial Ethiopia, Germany’s post-empire, and the forces of oppression which link them. This paper uses the spatiotemporal reckonings generated from the Hiriira perspective to understand violence and elucidate the practices of resistance that have emerged despite it. These contrasting ways of viewing space and time are expressed through the tension between imperial spatialising, a way of knowing the world that is imperial and oppressive in nature, and geography guraacha, a Black and Blackened way of knowing space with a particularly Oromo perspective. The result is a type of mapping, tracing the Hiriira route across Berlin while describing the histories that shadow these streets, and the pathways towards liberation that Oromo women are organising. Abstract fr Ji’a Fulbaana bara 2020 keessa dubartootni Oromo qabsoo isaanii beekumtii akka argatu gochuuf biyya Jarmanii, magaalaa Barliin keessatti diddaa dhageessisuuf daandii irraa bahan. Diddaa muliisuuf daandii irraa bahun, Afaan Oromoon Hiriira jedhamu, dhimma wal-xaxaa walitti hidhata qabu, sirna koloneefatoota qubattummaa Itiyoophiyaa, Impaayeera Jarmanii fi humnoota cunqurssaa kan walitti isaan hidhu yookin haariroo isaan gidduu jiru irratti, qoorannoo (case study) geggeessuuf carra kenna. Barreeffamni kun, tilmaama yeroo fi iddoo ilaalacha keessaa galchuun, akeeka Hiriirchaa irraa hubannoo gaj’ina fi akkaataa diddaan gindeefame irraa maddeetti fayyadama. Iddoo fi yeroo akka faallaatti ilaalun kan ibsamuu dhiphina Iddoo impaayeraan murteeffame, addunyaa impaayeera uumamaan cunqursaa ta’e fi geograafii guaracha, beekumsaa iddoo guraachifame, addatti akeeka Oromo ilaalchise walfalmii gidduu jiruu dha. Bu’aan isaas gosa kaartaa, karaa Barliin Hiriiri qaxxaamuree hordofuun seenaa daandii kana isa golgamee osoo ibsu, fi daandii gara bilisummaa dubartoonni Oromoo qindeessaa jiran ibsudha.
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While studies on visual communications of international development are small, scattered but well established, much of this comprises of representational analyses. However, studying development representations alone limits critical investigation of the complex contradictions and intersectionality that constitute their reception. Audience reception studies in this context are scarce, largely commissioned charity/NGO reports, with limited contributions to discussions. Nevertheless, this article examines these inquiries, evaluating their contributions, limitations and absences. Based on this critical review, I suggest a research framework outlined by a three‐pronged proposition: (1) situating UK audiences of mediated development within their contradictory heterogeneity. (2) Moving beyond normative binaries and towards understanding the complexities and experiential variability of mediated development; and (3) studying audience reception as a ‘multi‐sited ethnography’. This framework is intended as a resource to support development scholars and NGO practitioners in the study and evaluation of development reception by audiences.
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In the era of social media and digital cameras, street photography, or the candid documentation of everyday life in public space, has seen a resurgence of interest worldwide. What draws people to the genre is its ability to transform the way they see and experience the spaces around them. Street photography, I argue here, is a mode of shadow worlding, a dynamic and collaborative place‐making practice in which the places being built are left deliberately inchoate and incomplete. Based on several weeks of participant observation among street photographers in two Indonesian cities, this article considers what happens when we begin to see and experience the way a street photographer does. I tell the story of several Indonesian street photographers, as well as describe my own experiences with street photography, to demonstrate the potential of the genre for reimagining and reworking our relationships with the cities we live in and the fieldsites we pass through. En la era de las redes sociales y cámaras digitales, la fotografía en la calle, o la cándida documentación de la vida cotidiana en el espacio público, han visto una resurgencia de interés mundial. Lo que atrae a las personas al género es su habilidad de transformar la forma en que ellos ven y experimentan los espacios a su alrededor. La fotografía de la calle, argumento aquí, es una forma de shadow worlding, una dinámica y colaborativa práctica de creación de lugares en la que los lugares que son construidos son dejados deliberadamente inconclusos e incompletos. Basado en varias semanas de observación participativa entre fotógrafos de la calle en dos ciudades de Indonesia, este artículo considera qué sucede cuando empezamos a ver y experimentar la manera en que un fotógrafo de la calle lo hace. Cuento la historia de varios fotógrafos de la calle de Indonesia, así como describo mis propias experiencias con la fotografía de la calle, para demostrar el potencial del género para reimaginar y retrabajar nuestra relación con las ciudades donde vivimos y los sitios de campo que atravesamos. [fotografía de la calle, fotografía digital, antropología visual, worlding, creación de lugares, Indonesia] Dalam era media sosial dan kamera digital, fotografi jalanan (street photography), atau dokumentasi candid kehidupan sehari‐hari di ruang publik, telah mengalami kebangkitan minat di seluruh dunia. Apa yang menarik orang ke genre ini adalah kemampuannya untuk mengubah cara mereka melihat dan mengalami ruang‐ruang di sekitar mereka. Fotografi jalanan, menurut saya di sini, adalah mode shadow worlding, praktik pembuatan tempat yang dinamis dan kolaboratif di mana tempat‐tempat yang sedang dibangun sengaja dibiarkan tidak seluruh dan tidak lengkap. Berdasarkan observasi partisipan (participant‐observation) selama beberapa minggu di antara fotografer jalanan di dua kota di Indonesia, artikel ini membahas apa yang terjadi ketika kita mulai melihat dan mengalami seperti yang dilakukan seorang fotografer jalanan. Saya menceritakan kisah beberapa fotografer jalanan Indonesia, serta menggambarkan pengalaman saya sendiri dengan fotografi jalanan, untuk menunjukkan potensi genre ini untuk membayangkan lagi and menata ulang hubungan kita dengan kota‐kota tempat kita tinggal dan lapangan riset yang kita lewati. [fotografi jalanan, fotografi digital, antropologi visual, worlding, place‐making, Indonesia]
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Charitable fundraising appeals for international development created for potential donors in the Global North are often, if not always, designed without the inclusion of voices and insights from the intended beneficiaries in the Global South. The implications of these appeals, void of beneficiary input, may serve to proliferate poverty porn and racial stereotypes, promote paternalistic and colonial thinking, and strengthen white savior syndrome. This exploratory paper, through a set of interviews and a focus group with fundraising professionals at international development organizations, examines the need for a beneficiary-centered Code of Ethics. A framework, based on the four major findings, is proposed that begins with beneficiary input and considerations offer charities an inclusive method for the design of future fundraising appeals and a way to fulfill their responsibility in how the beneficiary is depicted and the societal understanding of their situation.
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This article considers the dichotomy of originals and copies in the specific context of photographs of objects that recreate an existing work of art or a documentary photograph. The examples span the period from the mid-nineteenth century to contemporary photographic practices. The traditional legal regulation of such copies is unsatisfactory compared with more recent theoretical approaches, as those proposed here. These approaches encompass the two modes of photographic copies after recreated realities: they simultaneously preserve identities and create original alterations.
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The aim of this article is to defend the narrative potential of depiction against different strands of skepticism that proceed from the lack of temporal order in a single static image: such images, it has been argued, cannot represent the temporal components of narratives – i.e. action(s) and/or causal relations between temporally ordered actions or events. Contemporary philosophers of depiction have strongly challenged the strand of skepticism that focuses on the representation of action(s), but the strand which focuses on the representation of causal relations may seem to be intractable. Yet, I will argue, it rests on a rather partial conception of causation that unduly directs attention to the dimension of time rather than to the dimension of space – the uncontested domain of depiction
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This visual essay reflexively explores experimental photographic research methods. Using cyanotypes, beer can cameras, maps, and exhibitions to make physical spaces and surfaces occupied by photography tangible, I show how these methods work with traditional anthropological approaches to orient us to how local place is represented, and how this visual critique connects with the ways landscape is experienced in contrast to historical national discourses. These methods were aimed at having a better understanding of local experiences and understandings of Northern landscapes in rural Sweden.
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For some longtime locals in Shanghai, China, street propaganda’s periodic renovations muddle the distinction between still and moving images. When the cyclic changing of propaganda pieces began to acquire filmic qualities for those who bore witness, they made recourse to these narrative and episodic properties to critique their experiences of political instability. Their discourses implicate media forms as genres of experiencing political transformation. Moreover, their refusal of still images in favor of fungible, overlapping filmic sequences lends ethnographic texture to ongoing scholarly debates about how to historicize the nonlinear development of contemporary Chinese politics, especially under the analytic of “postsocialism.”
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Photography is ultimately concerned with the ephemeral – with capturing and preserving transient moments. As a place in constant flux, full of ephemera and the ephemeral, the city has long been an important site for photographers. Those who study the city are increasingly incorporating photography into their research thanks to changing and more accessible technologies and epistemological shifts across the social sciences. Photographs are taking on new roles and are not only adjuncts or images that serve to illustrate or support text; they are integral to varied methodologies that centre the creation of images from participatory methods using photo‐voice to visual urban ethnographies. This paper considers how a move from illustrative and documentary style to more creative and evocative photography is changing the ways geographers compose images. Geographers are not just taking images but making them, involving themselves in a form of hybrid geographic and artistic practice. This shift involves a move from more objective to subjective framings and, in some cases, from more passive to active techniques. Taking graffiti photography as a departure, this paper explores how a hybrid geographic and artistic approach influences the composition and aesthetic qualities of images. The paper takes the reader through five compositions emerging from a study on the politics of graffiti in Norway: 1. Documentation; 2. Obstruction; 3. Abstraction; 4. Reflection; and 5. Negation. These compositions are useful in understanding the place of graffiti, one of the most contested and quintessentially ephemeral features of the urban landscape. This analysis demonstrates how a divergence from more typical representations is important in conducting critical urban photographic research, how an artistic eye is about the analytic as well as the aesthetic.
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This article reflects on the relationship between visibility and violence as redefined by the combined action of warfare and networked communication technologies. Drawing on the author's own ethnography conducted in Syria in 2010, and on anonymous YouTube videos, it introduces the concept of “expanded places” to look at sites that have been physically annihilated; yet, at the same time, they have been re-animated through multiple mediated versions circulating and re-circulating on the networks. Building on Rancière's work on the distribution of the sensible, the article argues that, at the intersection of those simultaneous actions of annihilation and regeneration, a new geography of visibility and violence is being shaped which rearranges the existing into a completely new political form and aesthetic format. Thriving on the techno-human infrastructure of the networks, and relying on the endless proliferation of images resulting from the loss of control of image-makers over their own production, expanded places are aggregators of new communities that add novel layers of signification to the empirical world, and create their own multiple realities and histories.
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1. Mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei trekking is a substantial source of revenue for the conservation of this threatened primate and its habitat. Trekking, however, may pose a threat of human-to-gorilla disease transmission that could have disastrous effects on wild gorillas. 2. We used 858 photographs posted on Instagram in 2013-2019 to analyse the proximity of tourists visiting mountain gorillas in the wild. We classified photographs of the encounters according to the distance between the closest gorilla and human, the age class of the gorilla, the trekking location and presence of a surgical face mask on the tourist. We ran a generalised linear mixed model to test whether these variables influenced the distance between the human and the wild gorillas in the photographs, and to test whether these distances have changed over time. 3. Most sampled photographs (86%) showed tourists within a critical 4 m of the gorillas , with 25 incidents of physical contact between a tourist and a gorilla, and only 3% at the recommended distance of 7 m or more. We only were able to record face mask use in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where these were present in 65% of uploaded photos. 4. Tourists and immature gorillas tended to get closer to each other than tourists and adult gorillas, and this is more pronounced in female tourists than male tourists. The mean distance between human and wild gorillas decreased by ~1 m between 2013 and 2019. 5. The results indicate that existing rules are not enforced and raise attention to this unsustainable aspect of mountain gorilla trekking as it is practiced today. These ever-growing tourist attractions in the range countries pose risks of disease transmission in both directions between tourists and wildlife. The popularity of photograph-based social media may stimulate closer contacts and influence people into risky behaviours. 6. We advocate the establishment and reinforcement of regulations relating to the distance between animals and tourists in any in situ wildlife ecotourism context,
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In her biodramatic trilogy My Life after and Other Texts (2016) the Argentine playwright and director Lola Arias explores several resources that the generation of children has at its disposal. In this remake the life stories shared on stage belong to the generation of parents but they are reconstructed afresh in the present by the generation of children using their own creativity, imagination and interpretation. This article aims to study the intergenerational and intragenerational transmission of memory and the contribution of photographic memories in the remake of the family history of the performers to fill the gaps in the history of Latin America.
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This chapter considers the career of Tim Hetherington, who used embedding to rethink the nature of both war and war reporting. Intensifying the photographer's feelings for his subjects, embedded reporting complicates the perceived autonomy of the image and the neutrality of the journalist. Hetherington is best known for his intimate photographic portraits of American soldiers fast asleep at a remote outpost in Afghanistan's Korengal Valley. These images build on the immersive approach that Hetherington developed in his earlier reporting from Sierra Leone and Liberia. Analyzing these contexts broadens our understanding of Hetherington's career and demonstrates that embedding is not only a strategy of military control but also belongs to a history of documentary innovation.
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Over the past 2 decades or so, the triple digital revolution—social network, Internet, and mobile phone—has increased the use and popularity of the “selfie.” Within social sciences, the phenomenon of the selfie has been examined as a new culture that shapes human self‐presentation, social relationships, and social consumptions. This article provides an overview of the most common theoretical approaches that have been used by researchers to understand the phenomenon of the selfie. In particular, the article focuses on the use of the following frameworks: dramaturgic lens, sociosemiotic approach, and dialectical framework. In addition to these approaches, this article also introduces some preliminary ideas relating to the possibility of exploring the selfie through the lens of mediatization theory. This is based on the argument that the selfie phenomenon operates within media logic as it offers symbolic resources, discursive strategies, communicative messages, and performance tactics that shape and transform the presentation of self, social interaction, and social order.
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Stare into the Caffenol to Reveal your Future is a blueprint for an ecological future for photography, resulting from London Alt Photo Collective's sustainable darkroom residencies. Featuring interviews from analogue photographers, the paper proposes an alternative vision for photography to be tried and tested worldwide.
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Among Holocaust photographs, none are as problematic as images of atrocity: pictures that show humiliation, suffering, torture, and death. Among the most horrific is Lee Miller's photograph, published in 1945 in Vogue Magazine, of corpses dumped like garbage, beyond any recognizable form or order. This chapter considers the fascinations stirred by Holocaust pictures and the issues of evidence, empathy, and ethics they raise. By the late 1950s, the genocidal assault against European Jews had been labeled a Holocaust. The first extensive photographic compilation made for a general public appeared in Germany in 1960, a decade and a half after the war's end. Viewers of atrocity photographs shifted position from stunned witness to audience, a less invested response that might vary from horror and disgust to distanced curiosity, relief, or even a ‘safe’ pleasure in another's pain.
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Reporting War and Conflict brings together history, theory and practice to explore the issues and obstacles involved in the reporting of contemporary war and conflict. The book examines the radical changes taking place in the working practices and day-to-day routines of war journalists, arguing that managing risk has become central to modern war correspondence. How individual reporters and news organisations organise their coverage of war and conflict is increasingly shaped by a variety of personal, professional and institutional risks. The book provides an historical and theoretical context to risk culture and the work of war correspondents, paying particular attention to the changing nature of technology, organisational structures and the role of witnessing. The conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria are examined to highlight how risk and the calculations of risk vary according to the type of conflict. The focus is on the relationship between propaganda, censorship, the sourcing of information and the challenges of reporting war in the digital world. The authors then move on to discuss the arguments around risk in relation to gender and war reporting and the coverage of death on the battlefield.
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Atlases of anthropometric portraits—a scientific genre that emerged during the last quarter of the nineteenth century in the context of classical physical anthropology—invite readers to compare different races from all over the world. Concentrating on Bernard Hagen's Atlas of Heads and Faces of Asian and Melanesian People (1906), this article describes the apparatus that enabled such a way of viewing. A microanalysis of Hagen's facial atlas reveals the circumstances under which the portraits were produced, the reading strategies the atlas stimulates, as well as the reification of data through their circulation. It shows how precisely a facial atlas could function as an imperceptible interface between harsh colonial practices and German public support for colonizing “missions,” between individual subjectivity and racialized category, and between everyday colonial recognition and scientific analysis of “races.” Obscuring the apparatus facilitating such a vision naturalizes the position of a viewer surveying, analyzing, and comparing people of different geographic backgrounds as races. [colonial history, photography, face, racial science, Dutch East Indies] Los atlas de retratos antropométricos —un género científico que emergió durante el último cuarto del siglo XIX en el contexto de la antropología física clásica— invitan a los lectores a comparar diferentes razas de todas partes del mundo. Al concentrarse en el Atlas de cabezas y rostros de personas asiáticas y melanesias (1906) de Bernard Hagen, este artículo describe el aparato que permitió tal manera de ver. Un microanálisis del atlas facial de Hagen revela las circunstancias bajo las cuales los retratos fueron producidos, las estrategias de lectura que el atlas estimula, así como la reificación de datos a través de su circulación. Muestra cómo precisamente un atlas facial puede funcionar como una interface imperceptible entre las prácticas coloniales duras y el apoyo público alemán por las “misiones” colonizadoras, entre la subjetividad individual y la categoría racializada, y entre el reconocimiento colonial cotidiano y el análisis científico de “razas.” Al oscurecer el aparato que facilita tal visión naturaliza la posición de un espectador que inspecciona, analiza, y compara personas de antecedentes geográficos diferentes como razas. [historia colonial, fotografía, rostro, ciencia racial, Indias Orientales Holandesas]
Book
At the bottom of the sea, freedivers find that the world bestows humans with the magic of bodily and mental freedom, binding them in small communities of play, affect and respect for nature. On land, rational human interests dissolve this magic into prescriptive formulas of belonging to a profession, a nation and an acceptable modernity. The magical exploration is morphed by such multiple interventions successively from a pilgrimage, to a cinematic and digital articulation of an anarchic project, to an exercise in national citizenship and finally, a projection of post-imperial cosmopolitan belonging. At the bottom of the sea, freedivers find that the world bestows humans with the magic of bodily and mental freedom, binding them in small communities of play, affect and respect for nature. On land, rational human interests dissolve this magic into prescriptive formulas of belonging to a profession, a nation and an acceptable modernity. The magical exploration is morphed by such multiple interventions successively from a pilgrimage, to a cinematic and digital articulation of an anarchic project, to an exercise in national citizenship and finally, a projection of post-imperial cosmopolitan belonging. This is the story of an embodied, relational and affective journey: the making of the explorer of worlds. At its heart stands a clash between individual and collective desires to belong, aspirations to create and the pragmatics of becoming recognised by others. The primary empirical context in which this is played is the contemporary margins of European modernity: the post-troika Greece. With the project of a freediving artist, who stages an Underwater Gallery outside the iconic island of Amorgos, as a sociological spyglass, it examines the networks of mobility that both individuals and nations have to enter to achieve international recognition, often at the expense of personal freedom and alternative pathways to modernity. Inspired by fusions of cultural pragmatics, phenomenology, phanerology, the morphogenetic approach, feminist posthumanism and especially postcolonial theories of magical realism, this study examines interconnected variations of identity and subjectivity in contexts of contemporary mobility (digital and embodied travel/tourism). As a study of cultural emergism, the book will be of interest to students and scholars in critical theory, cultural, postcolonial and decolonial studies, and tourism/pilgrimage theory.Inspired by fusions of cultural pragmatics, phenomenology, phanerology, the morphogenetic approach, feminist posthumanism and especially postcolonial theories of magical realism, this study examines interconnected variations of identity and subjectivity in contexts of contemporary mobility (digital and embodied travel/tourism). As a study of cultural emergism, the book will be of interest to students and scholars in critical theory, cultural, postcolonial and decolonial studies, and tourism/pilgrimage theory.
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The concept of gentrification was coined in the 1960s referring to the formerly working class neighborhoods invaded by higher status social groups in London, while today it can be seen as a global phenomenon appearing in most of the cities all around the world. Budapest is not an exception either: since the transition, several neighborhoods started to be gentrified, especially the inner parts of the Pest side. In the recent years, overcoming the former theoretical debates about the explanation of gentrification, gentrification research has been centered on the observation of the effects of the process. A crucial phenomenon taken into consideration when analyzing the effects of gentrification is the question of displacement, or in other words the involuntary move of a household. While the protagonists of gentrification – both in the international and in the Hungarian literature – state that displacement is either a marginal phenomenon or a process through which the living conditions of the displaced families are improved, the critical gentrification researchers argue that displacement destroys communities and social networks; causes invaluable psychological harms and usually results that the originally less affluent people have to live in a neighbourhood outside the inner areas, where they have even less chance for a better life. In their view this leads to spatial segregation and the shaping of socially homogenous areas, which undermines the stability of the society and increases inequalities. My aim is to bring empirical evidences about the process of displacement by following‐up families facing a situation in which they are forced to leave their former homes, in order to contribute to the more precise evaluation and analysis of the phenomenon of gentrification. For this reason I focus on Ferencváros (the 9th District of Budapest), where a slow municipality‐led gentrification process has been going on since the early 1990s.
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