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Umm el-Qaab I. Das prädynastische Königsgrab U-j und seine frühen Schriftzeugnisse

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... These later tombs possess multiple chambers, outlined with mud-brick walls and roofed with wooden beams. Of these, by far the largest is the 12-chambered tomb U-j, dated to Naqada IIIA2 (Dreyer 1998(Dreyer , 2011, which despite plunder contained some 2000 clay vessels. More than a third of the ceramics were reported to be Palestinian imports (Hartung 2001), although one study indicated that these were largely local Egyptian imitations (Porat and Goren 2002). ...
... Other objects from tomb U-j, such as an expertly carved obsidian bowl and wooden chests made of cedar, additionally reveal substantial quantities of imported material. Among this eclectic assemblage are the first known examples of hieroglyphic writing on small, square ivory tags (Baines 2010;Dreyer 1998;Kahl 2001). Assumptions that the establishment of a writing system equates with the introduction of elaborate administrative structures and bureaucratic control (e.g., Dreyer 1998, p. 89;T. ...
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When the archaeology of Predynastic Egypt was last appraised in this journal, Savage (2001a, p. 101) expressed optimism that “a consensus appears to be developing that stresses the gradual development of complex society in Egypt.” The picture today is less clear, with new data and alternative theoretical frameworks challenging received wisdom over the pace, direction, and nature of complex social change. Rather than an inexorable march to the beat of the neo-evolutionary drum, primary state formation in Egypt can be seen as a more syncopated phenomenon, characterized by periods of political experimentation and shifting social boundaries. Notably, field projects in Sudan and the Egyptian Delta together with new dating techniques have set older narratives of development into broader frames of reference. In contrast to syntheses that have sought to measure abstract thresholds of complexity, this review of the period between c. 4500 BC and c. 3000 BC transcends analytical categories by adopting a practice-based examination of multiple dimensions of social inequality and by considering how the early state may have become a lived reality in Egypt around the end of the fourth millennium BC.
... cf. Baines 2004: 161-167 and Breyer 2002with Dreyer 1998. Palaeographic, art historical, and other approaches demonstrate that increasingly standardised sets of intermingled script -image motifs variously construct, communicate and display relationships of social and divine power, with particular emphasis on the ideology of rulership (Baines 2004). ...
... The labels can be divided chronologically into two main phases. Of some 370 published examples from Abydos, almost 200 come from a Predynastic / Later Predynastic cemetery (U) at this site, most being found in and around the large multi-chambered tomb U-j (Dreyer 1998). These have been dated to the Naqada IIIA1 cultural phase (c.3300 / 3100 bce; Boehmer et al. 1993;Görsdorf et al. 1998). ...
... The visual effect resulting from such a huge, double project is particularly striking when viewed from the (already old and revered at Snefru times) necropolis at Saqqara, with the two pyramids forming a giant version of the symbolic hieroglyph djew . This sign was associated with afterlife and was already extremely ancient, as it appears already in the seals found in the pre-dynastic tombs at Abydos (Dreyer 1998) . Of course, if Snefru really had a very huge, double project built for him at Dahshur, then it is at least conceivable that his son Khufu devised to construct a double project also for himself. ...
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In recent years, different scientific disciplines, from Physics to Egyptology, from Geology to Archaeoastronomy, evidenced a series of clues pointing to the possibility that the original project of the pyramid complex of Khufu at Giza included also the project of the second pyramid complex at the same site, that of Khafra. The aim of the present paper is to discuss this issue in a systematic fashion and to explore its consequences on the way the ancient Egyptians conceived and built monuments and entire landscapes during the Old Kingdom.
... The contention that emblematic devices, such as seals, may have been one of the sources of inspiration for symbolic visual imagery is reinforced by cross-cultural analogies relating to the earliest stages of other Near Eastern scripts. 6 Early iconic emblems drawn from the natural and ideal world and charged with a symbolic content are seen as connected with script invention in Predynastic Egypt, as shown by the finds from tomb j in cemetery U at Abydos (Baines 2004: 157-161, 164;Dreyer et al. 1998;Kahl 1994: 53-56, fig. 3; see also Piquette, this volume). ...
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In traditional narratives of Minoan archaeology, the visual display of writing is usually overlooked. Nonetheless, recent cross-disciplinary studies on the materiality of writing have demonstrated that attention should be directed not only to the written messages of inscriptions, the signified, but also to the physical aspects of their material supports, such as size, shape, material and functional aspects; these aspects were probably also perceived by past actors as signifiers employed and transmitted within various material and ideological contexts. This presentation seeks to outline a framework for exploring the modes of display and the perception of Minoan writing by focusing on artefact categories bearing Cretan Hieroglyphic and Linear A inscriptions and their interconnections. Special emphasis is placed on artefacts that possibly served as symbolic devices, mainly Hieroglyphic sealstones and their impressions on clay. Semiotic relationships that are grounded in the material and symbolic properties of the artefacts themselves are particularly examined. For example, how did scale, directionality, alignment and the small scale of writing inform the creation of stone, metal and clay objects inscribed in Cretan Hieroglyphic or Linear A? Were these parameters pertinent to the perception of the inscriptions thereon by elites or by other segments of the population? Finally, the combination of script with images that may have constituted a visual code, and its potential for assessing literacy, are also treated.
... At first view, the flint object seems to show the face of the bull in profile with a characteristic curve on the left side indicating the shape of animal's jaw. This profile can be found on vessel inscriptions from tomb U-j at Abydos, where a bull's head on a pike or support is represented (Dreyer 1998 (Hendrickx 2002a: 310, appendix H), and in addition to the potmark and "ostracon" from Hierakonpolis just mentioned, there is a gold amulet from Abydos (Price 1896: 338, fig. 2); an ivory plaque from the Hierakonpolis Main Deposit (?) (Adams 1974: n° 340); and an ivory comb from Kostamna (Garstang 1907: pl. ...
... 61. Voir, par exemple Berlin 18137 (Dreyer 1998: 86) et CGC 14606 (El Sayed 1982 ; et encore Kaplony (1963, III, pl. 34, n° 102, pl. ...
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The birth of the writing in the Nile valley is a problem abundantly dealt with. Nevertheless, it deserves to be revisited not only in the light of new archaeological discoveries, but also by taking into account a more thorough appreciation of these codes graphically realized, for which the label "semiography" can be coined. Writing is certainly a semiography, but it distinguishes from all the others - "the restricted semiographies" - by its being potentially capable of encoding the infinity of the linguistic statements. In ancient Egypt, as elsewhere, the border between writing and restricted semiographies is porous: they share a common heritage, borrow their elements, and are manipulated by social groups that have often much in common. Writing appears among other semiographies to enhance the efficiency of the semiotic arsenal implemented in the ideological proclamations of the powers that precede the rise of the pharaonic state.
... Não se conhecem estágios intermediários da sua evolução. Acreditava-se que sua escrita tenha surgido em torno de 3.000 a.C., porém escavações recentes efetuadas pelo Dr. Günter Dreyer (1999), do Instituto Arqueológico Alemão, no cemitério U em Abidos, especialmente na tumba U-J, podem mudar essa cronologia. Essa tumba, cuja construção foi datada pelo C-14 em 3.200 a.C, ou seja, cerca de 150 anos antes da 1 a dinastia, continha cerca de 180 etiquetas retangulares, de osso ou marfim, de aproximadamente 2 x 3 cm, com um pequeno furo no canto, provavelmente para serem atadas com um cordão aos bens rotulados. ...
Book
O presente volume estuda o nascimento da matemática, quando surgiu, quais suas primeiras manifestações e em que contexto se originou. Dá um tratamento inédito, multidisciplinar, sistêmico à questão. Procura respostas à Ur-questôes como: quem veio primeiro: a geometria ou os números, quando, como, porquê, onde, etc. Atenção especial é dada à Neurofisiologia da Matemática, ou seja, como o cérebro processa suas questões. Prefácio de Ubiratan D'Ambrósio.
... Given Western assumptions about the nature of writing and how it can and should function, it is unsurprising that epigraphic analyses-which began with decipherment processes based on these etic assumptions-continue largely to dissociate word and image, except insofar as the pictographic qualities of graphemes and imagery associated with texts ofer clues to meanings and subject matter. he role of imagery and other kinds of physical notation in the emergence of writing systems has also been considered from varying geographic and temporal perspectives (see, e.g., Baines, 1989Baines, , 2007Boltz, 1986;Dreyer, 1998;Justeson, 1986;Schmandt-Besserat, 1982, 2007, but the categorical and conceptual separation of linguistic and nonlinguistic systems remains. ...
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The tendency to simplify the richness and intrinsic hybridity of writing systems is particularly apparent in considerations of the Maya hieroglyphic script. Orthodox approaches tend to focus exclusively on its linguistic dimensions (e.g., Houston, Robertson, & Stuart, 2000; Wichmann, 2002, 2004; Kettunen & Helmke, 2014). Considerations of how this system relates to imagery—spatially and graphically—have been largely limited to a search for pictorial features of graphemes as clues to linguistic readings (e.g., Macri & Looper, 2003; Macri & Vail, 2009). Graphemes—used here to describe elements of the script—have pictorial qualities and often serve as part of the imagery but they also occur in strings or blocks at a standard size so it is useful to distinguish them from other components of imagery. The important point is that script and imagery are inextricably intertwined whenever they co-occur: the space of semantic interpretation occurs at their juncture. Maya writing is an inherently hybrid system in which the linguistic dimensions of graphemes, usually called “glyphs” in the Mayanist literature, must be considered in tandem with imagery. Script and imagery together create a hybrid morphosyntax in which meaning is generated jointly through the use of linguistic and artistic forms; imagery and script cannot be divorced without losing semantic nuance along with, in most cases, a signiicant part of the basic message.
... Currently, there are no written historical documents describing the populations that may have occupied Mount Lebanon during the Iron or Bronze Ages or before. Predynastic archeology attests to trade with Phoenicia for cedar, that only grows in mountainous regions [1]. Yet, many of the early archeologists and researchers who undertook archeological and historical studies on Mount Lebanon believed that it was either not occupied, or very sparsely populated up until the Arab-Muslim conquest in the 7th century CE [2]. ...
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Currently, there are 18 different religious communities living in Lebanon. While evolving primarily within Lebanon, these communities show a level of local isolation as demonstrated previously from their Y-haplogroup distributions. In order to trace the origins and migratory patterns that may have led to the genetic isolation and autosomal clustering in some of these communities we analyzed Y-chromosome STR and SNP sample data from 6327 individuals, in addition to whole genome autosomal sample data from 609 individuals, from Mount Lebanon and other surrounding communities. We observed Y chromosome L1b Levantine STR branching that occurred around 5000 years ago. Autosomal DNA analyses suggest that the North Lebanese Mountain Maronite community possesses an ancestral Fertile Crescent genetic component distinct from other populations in the region. We suggest that the Levantine L1b group split from the Caucasus ancestral group around 7300 years ago and migrated to the Levant. This event was distinct from the earlier expansions from the Caucasus region that contributed to the wider Levantine populations. Differential cultural adaption by populations from the North Lebanese Mountains are clearly aligned with the L1b haplotype STR haplogroup clusters, indicating pre-existing and persistent cultural barriers marked by the transmission of L1b lineages. Our findings highlight the value of uniparental haplogroups and STR haplotype data for elucidating biosocial events among these populations.
... In Naqada IIIA1 (approximately 3300 BC) the multi-chambered Tomb U-j with at least 400 Canaanite vessels, many with traces of wine, indicates a powerful ruler at Abydos with at least exchange contacts to the Delta (Dreyer 1998). The first writing is found on 170 bone labels which were probably originally attached to grave goods in this tomb. ...
... Though more controversy surrounds the origins of Egyptian writing, the recent re-analysis of inscriptional evidence from the royal tombs at Umm el-Qaab near Abydos suggests that the earliest signs that can be associated with hieroglyphs are those found on bone tags dating to c. 3150 bc. This date indicates that Egyptian writing is older than previously thought and that it, also, underwent an evolution (Baines 2004;Dreyer 1998). Progression is noted also in Mesoamerica, where a recent discovery of an inscribed block from Cascajal (Veracruz, Mexico) in the Olmec heartland places the emergence of the earliest writing in the Early to Middle Formative at c. 800-1000 bc (Rodríguez Martínez et al. 2006). ...
Article
In China, a number of signs from some Late Neolithic contexts suggest that recoding activities were well developed before Chinese writing became widespread during the Shang period. Archaeological and palaeographic evidence indicates that mature writing is likely to have evolved from these earlier signing systems as a result of the increasing social and political complexity of the societies of the Late Neolithic. This article analyses three Late Neolithic signing systems that may have led to the mature Chinese writing of the Shang oracle bone inscriptions, and argues that non-linguistic visual signing played a role in the emergence of writing systems.
... The tomb U-j of a Predynastic king (probably " Scorpion " ) at Umm el-Qa'ab near Abydos was excavated in 1988 and its c. 150 bone tags, as well as the pottery inscriptions and sealings were published ten years later (Dreyer 1998). Dynasty in 2686 BCE, for about 600 years — equaling the duration of the Indus Civilization — the Egyptians used a language-based, phoneticized writing system, but did not write full sentences, only very short texts fully comparable to the surviving Indus texts. ...
Article
Methods and results of a systematic attempt to decipher the Indus script as a logo-syllabic writing system with Proto-Dravidian as the underlying language are first outlined. Then one so far undeciphered sign is interpreted as depicting an ungulate's 'hind leg.' A phonetic reading is proposed on the basis of its one-time occurrence in front of the plain 'fish' sign. (Besides the plain 'fish' sign, there are 'fish' signs modified by the addition of various 'diacritics,' such as a 'roof' placed over the fish, a horizontal or diagonal line crossing the fish in the middle, etc.) The sequence 'hind leg' + 'fish' is likely to represent a compound name of a heavenly body like several other already deciphered sequences, where the latter member of the compound is Proto-Dravidian *miin 'star,' homophonous with *miin 'fish.' A probable solution (to be tested by a study of other occurrences of the 'hind leg' sign) is offered by Old Tamil taaL 'leg,' which is once attested as denoting an asterism. Finally, some inconclusive in-depth attempts to decipher other undeciphered signs are recorded. Their purpose is to highlight difficulties due to the scantiness of early Dravidian lexical and textual material. entitled 'Fish', 'Crab', and 'Fig': Can we make sense of the Indus pictograms? Like similar earlier summaries (Parpola 1975a; 1997a; 2005) of the more extensive material documented in detail in my book Deciphering the Indus Script (1994), they focus on the methods and conclusions but especially on ways to check the interpretations of some select Indus pictograms. The last sections of this paper contain material published here for the first time.
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The two pyramids built during the Old Kingdom by the Fourth Dynasty King Sneferu at Dahshur are usually considered as two consecutive projects, the second - that of the Red Pyramid - being generated by a presumably failure of the first, the Bent Pyramid. In the present paper, we show that the archaeological proofs of such a scenario are far from obvious and that, on the contrary, a series of architectural, topographical, epigraphic, and astronomical hints point to a unitary project probably conceived from the very beginning in terms of the two pyramids and their annexes. Altogether the two pyramids are thus shown to form a conceptual, sacred landscape associated with the power of the Pharaoh and his afterlife.
Chapter
Das älteste »urologische Dokument«, der von Elliot Smith (■Abb. 1-1) in einem Grab in El Amrah bei Abydos gefundene Harnblasenstein aus der prädynastischen Zeit um 3000 v. Chr. (■Abb. 1-2) markiert keinesfalls den Beginn der Urologie, sondern man darf annehmen, dass Symptome wie Koliken, Dysurie und Hämaturie schon immer Begleiter der menschlichen Entwicklung waren, die aber wegen fehlender Darstellungsmöglichkeiten nicht nachweisbar sind. Lediglich die jungpaläolithischen Felszeichnungen, die unter anderem Kopulationsszenen, Phallus-und Vulvadarstellungen zeigen, belegen, dass der Mensch bereits vor 30.000 Jahren durchaus vertraut war mit den »unteren Organen«, wenngleich es wohl eher magisch-mythische Gründe waren, sich mit ihnen zu beschäftigen.
Chapter
Since 2009, the Belgian Archaeological Mission to Elkab of the Royal Museums of Art and History is excavating the remains of a large settlement that has its origin in the Badarian period. During the excavation season of 2012, the distal end of an obsidian flake was found in the early Naqada II horizon of test pit 3. The geochemical analysis of its trace elements indicates that this flake, like other analysed samples from Hiera-konpolis and Naqada, originates from obsidian sources in the Ethiopian Afar triangle. The Elkab flake brings additional data to the existing corpus of provenanced obsidian fragments and the discussion on possible exchange routes. Based on the archaeological context, the geographical and chronological distribution of all known obsidian objects, combined with new data emerging from recent and intensive archaeological research in the deserts south and west of the Egyptian Nile Valley, the question of these exchange routes needs to be reconsidered within a broader framework of various simultaneous supply networks. In this paper, we propose to break down the procurement of obsidian in early Egypt in two phases that also highlight some of the socioeconomic developments occurring during the Predynastic period and the changes following the formation of the Egyptian state.
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Studies on pottery of the south Levantine Early Bronze Age (Early Bronze Ages I, II and III) often use terms such as 'wares' to designate specific types of ceramics identified with regional and chronological niches in the archaeological record. While some such designations appear to be valid, as they refer to groups of objects defined by very specific parameters, others represent broad categories with poorly defined parameters. This paper presents a proposal for some specifically defined groups, traditions of ceramic production called 'wares' and 'styles', with indications of their temporal and regional distributions. It further suggests abandoning some commonly used designations that offer too little specificity, thus making them less than useful for archaeological research and discussion.
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When a writing system is adapted to a previously unwritten language, it can happen that the deviser(s) of the new writing system do not fully understand the way the system worked in the donor language; they then, probably accidentally, create a writing system that operates on a different principle. Writing systems are invented ex nihilo only for mono-syllabically organized languages; an example is Sumerian cuneiform, but Egyptian is not such a language, so its script poses a problem for the hypothesis. The deviser(s) of Egyptian hieroglyphs may have known only that Sumerian cuneiform used one character per morpheme, and in attempting to apply the same principle to their own language, using existing pictographic traditions, found themselves recording only the consonants of morphemes, because Egyptian morphemes undergo internal inflection, so the vowels are unconstant. Thus where Sumerian, Chinese, and Mayan characters notate, for the most part, CV(C) syllables (also VC in Sumerian), Egyptian characters notate C(C(C)) sequences.
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PrologDie vorliegende Arbeit, die sich aufgrund des wider Erwarten umfangreichen Quellenmaterials auf eine mehrteilige Serie erstrecken wird, versucht die absolut ältesten geschichtlichen Quellen der Gefäßmedizin zu erschließen. Das reichlich vorhandene Material forderte geradezu eine detaillierte Aufarbeitung heraus. Sie soll neben einer kulturgeschichtlichen Beleuchtung der Medizin dieser Menschheitsepoche auch gleichzeitig als eine Aufarbeitung unter wissenschaftlichen Aspekten zu verstehen sein.Dabei erwies es sich als notwendig, neben Medizin und Geschichtswissenschaft eine dritte Disziplin, die Ägyptologie, hinzuzuziehen.So erfolgte die nahezu vollständige Erfassung und Auswertung aller gefäßmedizinisch verwertbaren Fakten, die für einen Mediziner aus den sehr spezifischen ägyptologischen Übersetzungen, Erläuterungen und Interpretationen zu entnehmen sind. Gewonnene Erkenntnisse und Denkweisen aus der Ägyptologie sind somit in die Aufarbeitung des Themas unweigerlich mit eingeflo ...
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The Mediterranean has long played host to unusually intense patterns of maritime-led exchange, involving both products made beyond the basin and local, culturally distinctive goods such as oils and wines that continue to be well-known markers of the region’s economies and lifestyles today. Protecting these commodities, and sometimes highly emblematic of them, have been specialized physical packages, of which clay amphoras are perhaps the most well-known early examples. In contrast, modern steel shipping containers, occurring in unusual densities at the Mediterranean pinch points of globalized trade, represent only a latest phase of this cultural tradition. Mediterranean containers therefore have a continuous history spanning at least 5,000 years, one that, worldwide, offers a uniquely long, continuous, and detailed record of economic specialization. It is remarkable, then, that there has been as yet so little consideration of this tradition over its full time span. This paper makes the case for developing a more strongly longitudinal, comparative, and evolutionary perspective on these highly iconic material forms.
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L'une des productions caractéristiques de la culture prédynastique égyptienne de Nagada est ses vases peints. Entre 3700 et 3400 av. J.-C., ceux-ci comportent fréquemment des scè nes dans lesquelles des personnages masculins présentent des objets courts, courbes, simples ou doubles à trois autres éléments : des femmes aux bras levés au-dessus de la tête, des addax ou des étendards fichés sur les ponts de bateaux. Ces objets courts ont traditionnnellement été interprétés comme des bâtons de pouvoir, mais un examen attentif amène à reconsidérer cette hypothèse. Il pourrait s'agir plus volontiers de cornes, d'addax ou d'ibex. Les silhouettes dessinées par les femmes et les étendards correspondent d'ailleurs à des formes de cornes, et la présence d'addax et d'ibex dans ces scènes renforce cette association. Ceci conduirait à une relecture de ce type d'iconographie qui serait alors plus orientée vers une problématique de régénération de la vie, à laquelle sont liées les cornes, que de maintien de l'équilibre cosmique par le détenteur du pouvoir terrestre, comme l'aurait voulu la lecture de bâtons de pouvoir.
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Considered one of the world’s earliest examples of a pristine state, the ancient Egyptian state arose by ca. 3000 BC. State formation in Egypt became a focus of much research in the 1970s and 1980s, as investigations of the Predynastic period in Egypt, when complex society arose there, began to uncover new evidence of the indigenous roots of this phenomenon. More recently, archaeological investigations in the Delta as well as continued work in southern Egypt have provided new evidence for the changes that took place in the fourth millennium BC. But the specific events and processes involved in this major sociopolitical and economic transformation and the resultant state still remain incompletely understood. To better understand the problem in Egypt, this study looks at the contrasting polities in fourth millennium BC Egypt and Nubia from the perspective of the political economy and the strategies to power proposed by the dual-processual theory, which also helps elucidate processes of state formation and the type of early state that developed there. The territorial expansionist model helps explain where and when this state first emerged.
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Palmahim (North) is a large Chalcolithic burial and cult site of a type previously unknown in the central coastal plain of Israel. The well-planned cemetery comprises circular or rectangular single-chamber burial structures, built upon or hewn into the kurkar bedrock. Within the burial structures, secondary interments were made in a variety of receptacles, including small cists, chain-burial cells, stone and clay ossuaries, and burial jars. Most of the tombs had rectangular, trapezoidal or ovoid orthostats attached to one of their sides within a recess. The pottery assemblage is small, consisting mainly of simple types very common in the Ghassulian Chalcolithic culture. The discovery of this type of cemetery in the central area of Israel changes our understanding regarding burial patterns in the Chalcolithic period.
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This book studies past economics from anthropological, archaeological, historical and sociological perspectives. By analyzing archeological and other evidence, it examines economic behavior and institutions in ancient societies. Adopting an interdisciplinary perspective, it critically discusses dominant economic models that have influenced the study of past economic relations in various disciplines, while at the same time highlighting alternative theoretical trajectories. In this regard, the book’s goal is not only to test theoretical models under scrutiny, but also to present evidence against the rationalization of past economic behavior according to the rules of modern markets. The contributing authors cover various topics, such as concepts of commodity and value, trade in the classical Greek world, and management of economic affluence.
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One of the artefacts from the Predynastic period of which its functionality has been much controversial are the so-called tusks. On the basis of the classification works of those objects done by S. Hendrickx and M. Eyckerman, the current paper will only take into account their typologies A.5 and A.6 as they are considered a whole group different from the other ones. From its basic shape, a tubular object with a loop on the top and a protruding on the bottom, and through ethnographic comparison, this paper will demonstrate that this object is, in fact, a penis sheath, a typical «clothing» of hunting cultures since Prehistory.
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Revolution in Time and Timing in Ancient Egyptian Civilization "An Introductory Study" Prof. Dr. Ayman Waziry Professor of Archaeology/Egyptology- Faculty of Archaeology- Fayoum University- Egypt Head of the Department of Egyptology - Faculty of Archeology - Fayoum University Vice President of the Union of Egyptian Archaeologists and the General Representative of the Founders of the Union in Egypt E-Mail:aah00@fayoum.edu.eg Published in:"Ayman Waziry, Revolution in Time and Timing in Ancient Egypt "A Comparative Study between Old Concepts and Contemporary Developments from the Cognitive Perspective of Time Synonyms and Timing Synchronizations", Vol.1, OmniScriptum Publishing Group- LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG Heinrich-Böcking-Str., Germany, 2019.
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Revolution in Time and Timing in Ancient Egyptian Civilization- "An Introductory Study" Published in:"Ayman Waziry, Revolution in Time and Timing in Ancient Egypt "A Comparative Study between Old Concepts and Contemporary Developments from the Cognitive Perspective of Time Synonyms and Timing Synchronizations", Vol.1, OmniScriptum Publishing Group- LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG Heinrich-Böcking-Str., Germany, 2019.
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Ancient Egyptian is attested with an extraordinary depth in written form, although the amount of attested texts can differ significantly from period to period. This chapter looks at the periods of Proto‐ and Early Egyptian. Language was deliberately transformed into script in Egypt as well as in Mesopotamia in the second half of the fourth and the early third millennium BCE. The chapter describes the written language, while spoken language can only be deduced with limitations for distant observers such as ourselves. The oldest rebus writings from the Nile valley date around 3200 BCE. The first phonographic writings come from archaic labels from the royal necropolis of Abydos. From the perspective of the history of writing, mono‐consonantal signs functioned as a type of determinatives of sound. Gestural signs were specifically composed at interfaces in the history of the Egyptian script in the context of important reforms.
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El arte del período predinástico se ha estudiado y entendido como característico de unas culturas neolíticas que precedieron a la unificación de Egipto y el comienzo de la I dinastía. Sin embargo, las investigaciones y excavaciones realizadas en los últimos años revelan que el arte faraónico tuvo algunos de sus precedentes en este período.En este artículo analizaremos la evolución del arte y su intencionalidad a lo largo de dicho período, al tiempo que estudiaremos las manifestaciones artísticas desde la óptica de la antropología cultural para entender el arte del Egipto predinástico en su contexto cultural y social, en especial en el ámbito de los rituales y en el proceso de creación de una memoria cultural.AbstractThe art of the Predynastic period has been studied and understood as a cultural manifestation of the Neolithic cultures preceeding to the unification of Egypt and the beginning of the 1st dynasty. However, the investigations and excavations carried out in recent years have showed that Pharaonic art had some of its origin in this period.In this article we will analyse the evolution of art and its intentionality throughout this period, while we will be studying the artistic manifestations from the perspective of cultural anthropology, looking for new ways of asking a work of art to understand it in its cultural and social context.
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Ein kurzer historischer Abriss verschafft einen Überblick über die wechselvolle Geschichte Altägyptens, das stets ein Angriffsziel der benachbarten Völker in Anatolien und Mesopotamien war. Es schließt sich eine Schilderung der literarischen Welt der altägyptischen Schreiber an, die ja die Schriftgelehrten ihrer Zeit sind. Ihre Erzählungen, Lebensregeln, Gedichte und Tempelinschriften vermitteln den Lesern einen lebendigen Einblick in die ägyptische Geisteswelt. Im Anschluss wird eine Einführung in die ägyptische Mathematik gegeben, insbesondere in das Rechnen mit Brüchen, eine Rechenart, bei der sie ganz eigenen Ideen entwickelt haben. Es folgt eine umfassende Besprechung des mathematischen Schrifttums, das nach Museumsbeständen geordnet, sich handbuchartig darstellt.
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During the mid-Holocene, some of the world's first large-scale complex societies came into being within the lower and middle reaches of a number of large river systems. Around this time, as global sea-level stabilised, the hosting fluvial environments of Lower Mesopotamia, the Nile Delta and the North China Plain were evolving from spatially varied landscapes dominated by swampy marshland, to better-drained, more uniform floodplain environments. It is necessary to consider whether such environmental changes could have guided aspects of sociocultural evolution in these settings. In the Nile Delta, the setting for which most data are available, these palaeolandscape changes are comprehensively mapped through the construction of a four-dimensional aggradation model of the Holocene alluvial plain. Development of this model takes place within the context of a full reinterpretation of the Upper Quaternary stratigraphy of the Nile Delta, which is itself further informed by substantial programmes of fieldwork in the western delta. The environmental changes were forced by a decrease in the rate of relative sea-level rise within the context of decreased discharge and sediment-supply due to regional climate change. A geoarchaeological model links these changes in the landscape to sociocultural developments taking place in Egypt between 5500 and 2500 BC. Increased adoption of agricultural practices in the delta was stimulated by a decrease in the primary productivity of the landscape, which then led to population growth and shifts in settlement styles. The emergence of the first Egyptian capital of Memphis at the delta apex can also be seen as having been facilitated by changes in the palaeogeography of the fluvio-deltaic environment. Such linkages between the changing deltaic landscapes and social change are crucial in understanding the formation of the Ancient Egyptian State (c. 3100 BC), which involved increased involvement of regional elites using the delta as both an agricultural resource and trade route.
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download PDF Abstract This article is devoted to the forecasting by the Egyptians of the important events of their history by means of the fi rst rising of Sirius. In particular, the author examines the papyrus 1116 B recto (The Prophecy of Neferti), a well-known literary work dated to the Middle Kingdom (1991–1785 BC), which is kept in the Hermitage Museum. Having experienced the infl uence of Egypt, ancient people used the rising of this star to predict the major social disasters, crop failure, pestilence and natural disasters. The greater part of the evidence is known from ancient times. However, the Egyptian civilization created the fi rst solar calendar based on the Sirius cycles. Therefore, it is evident that the Egyptians could have been the ones where these predictions could appear for the fi rst time. In particular, such a forecast was presented by a priest of the goddess Bastet Neferti to appeal to the king Snofru (2613–2589 ВC). However why, in that case the Middle Kingdom monument mentions the name of the king of more ancient era, the era of construction of the great pyramids? The author concludes that tragic events described in this text resemble those that happened at the beginning of the Old Kingdom (2767 BC), when the practice of observations over Sirius’ rising was established in Memphis for the fi rst time. Imhotep, a famous Djoser’s architect, played an important part in this event and became a prototype of the prophecy’s main character. Keywords Ancient Egypt, religion, Nefertiti’s Prophecy, Sirius, Imhotep, Djoser, Snofru
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