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Two endangered ornamental orchid species, Bulbophyllum coweniorum and Esmeralda bella (Orchidaceae), new in the flora of Vietnam

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  • Komarov Botanical Institute, Saint Petersburg

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Two rare endangered ornamental species of orchids (Orchidaceae) – Bulbophyllum coweniorum J. J. Verm. et P. O'Byrne and Esmeralda bella Rchb. f., new for the flora of Vietnam were discovered during botanical field surveys of medicinal plants conducted by Department of Pharmacognosy of Hanoi University of Pharmacy in years 2015–2016. According to people from local minorities, both species are used in traditional medicine, but no scientific data on medicinal activity of any substances obtained from these plants are yet available. Meanwhile, the wide deforestation in areas of discovered species is the main fatal factor of their fast extinction in known localities. Hence, they should be regarded as nationally critically endangered (CR) in terms of IUCN Red List categories and criteria. The extensive commercial collecting of both species as highly demanded medicinal and ornamental plants is additional factor of their extinction even in intact habitats. At the same time, any present field data on both species are very scarce for understanding of their current distribution, natural resources, ecology, biology and morphological variation. The paper provides relevant information for these species including valid name, main synonyms, data about type materials, common names, short morphological description, data on ecology and phenology, distribution, threat and estimated IUCN Red List status, use in traditional medicine, notes on taxonomy and related species and data on studied specimens with indication of herbaria where they are housed. Data on medicinal use of studied species in folk medicine were obtained by talks and interview with old local people from national minorities living in areas of species distribution. Identification of collected specimens was performed in Department of Pharmacognosy (Hanoi University of Pharmacy) on the base of comparative morphologic analysis with use of relevant taxonomic literature.
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ISSN 1560–7259 (print edition)
TURCZANINOWIA
ISSN 1560–7267 (online edition)
Turczaninowia 20 (1): 68–74 (2017)
DOI: 10.14258/turczaninowia.20.1.5
http://turczaninowia.asu.ru
УДК 581.95(571.513)
Two endangered ornamental orchid species, Bulbophyllum coweniorum
and Esmeralda bella (Orchidaceae), new in the ora of Vietnam
Nguyen Hoang Tuan1, L. V. Averyanov2*
1Department of Pharmacognosy, Hanoi University of Pharmacy, 13-15, Le Thanh Tong str., Hoan Kiem district, Hanoi, Vietnam
E mail: tuandl50@yahoo.com
2Russian Academy of Sciences, Komarov Botanical Institute, Prof. Popov, 2; St. Petersburg, RF-197376, Russia
E-mail: av_leonid@mail.ru; av_leonid@yahoo.com
*Corresponding author
Key words: Bulbophyllum coweniorum, Esmeralda bella, ora of Vietnam, orchids, Orchidaceae, medicinal plants,
plant conservation, plant diversity.
Summary. Two rare endangered ornamental species of orchids (Orchidaceae) Bulbophyllum coweniorum J. J.
Verm. et P. O’Byrne and Esmeralda bella Rchb. f., new for the ora of Vietnam were discovered during botanical
eld surveys of medicinal plants conducted by Department of Pharmacognosy of Hanoi University of Pharmacy in
years 2015–2016. According to people from local minorities, both species are used in traditional medicine, but no
scientic data on medicinal activity of any substances obtained from these plants are yet available. Meanwhile, the
wide deforestation in areas of discovered species is the main fatal factor of their fast extinction in known localities.
Hence, they should be regarded as nationally critically endangered (CR) in terms of IUCN Red List categories and
criteria. The extensive commercial collecting of both species as highly demanded medicinal and ornamental plants is
additional factor of their extinction even in intact habitats. At the same time, any present eld data on both species
are very scarce for understanding of their current distribution, natural resources, ecology, biology and morphological
variation. The paper provides relevant information for these species including valid name, main synonyms, data about
type materials, common names, short morphological description, data on ecology and phenology, distribution, threat
and estimated IUCN Red List status, use in traditional medicine, notes on taxonomy and related species and data on
studied specimens with indication of herbaria where they are housed. Data on medicinal use of studied species in folk
medicine were obtained by talks and interview with old local people from national minorities living in areas of species
distribution. Identication of collected specimens was performed in Department of Pharmacognosy (Hanoi University
of Pharmacy) on the base of comparative morphologic analysis with use of relevant taxonomic literature.
Два исчезающих декоративных вида орхидей – Bulbophyllum coweniorum
и Esmeralda bella (Orchidaceae), новых для флоры Вьетнама
Нгуен Хоанг Тоан1, Л. В. Аверьянов2
1Отдел фармакогнозии, Ханойский Университет аптечного дела, ул. Ле Танг Тонг, 13-15, р-н Хон Кием, Ханой, Вьетнам
2Ботанический институт им. В. Л. Комарова РАН, ул. Проф. Попова, 2, Санкт-Петербург, 197376, Россия
Ключевые слова: Bulbophyllum coweniorum, Esmeralda bella, Orchidaceae, лекарственные растения, орхидные,
охрана растений, разнообразие растений, флора Вьетнама.
Аннотация. Два редких, исчезающих декоративных вида орхидей (Orchidaceae) – Bulbophyllum coweniorum
J. J. Verm. et P. O’Byrne и Esmeralda bella Rchb. f. – новых для флоры Вьетнама, были обнаружены во время
Поступило в редакцию 28.08.2016 Submitted 28.08.2016
Принято к публикации 27.01.2017 Accepted 27.01.2017
69
полевых исследований лекарственных растений, проводимых Отделом фармакогнозии Ханойского Универси-
тета аптечного дела в 2015–2016 годах. По собранным устным сообщениям представителей народных мень-
шинств оба вида используются в народной медицине местных племен, однако какие-либо научные данные
о биологической активности веществ, содержащихся в этих растениях, на настоящий момент отсутствуют.
Наряду с этим, повсеместное обширное сведение лесов в области обитания открытых видов создает угрозу их
быстрого исчезновения во всех известных местонахождениях, из-за чего их природоохранный статус на на-
циональном уровне определен, в соответствии с критериями Международного Союза охраны природы (IUCN
Red List), как близкий к вымиранию (nationally CR). Массовый сбор взрослых цветущих экземпляров коммер-
ческими сборщиками для торговли на местных рынках и продажи за рубеж (главным образом, в Китай) в ка-
честве востребованных рынком декоративных растений также является важным фактором исчезновения этих
видов даже в первичных, ненарушенных местах обитания. В то же время современные данные по этим видам
недостаточны для определения их действительного распространения, природных запасов, экологии, биологии
и морфологической изменчивости. В публикации анализируются все имеющиеся данные и приводятся обоб-
щенные сведения по этим видам, включающие: научное и народные названия, основные синонимы, данные
о типе, краткое морфологическое описание, экологическую и фенологическую характеристику, данные о рас-
пространении, важнейших факторах, определяющих вымирание и использовании в народной медицине, пред-
лагаемый охранный статус, заметки о таксономии и родственных связях, а также список изученных образцов
с указанием места их хранения. Данные об использовании изученных видов в народной медицине получены
на основе устных сообщений старейшин племен, населяющих области обитания указанных растений. Опреде-
ление собранных образцов проводилось в Отделе фармакогнозии Ханойского Университета аптечного дела на
основе детального сравнительно-морфологического анализа с использованием всех доступных литературных
источников.
Introduction
The orchid ora of Vietnam includes presently
at least 1210 documented species belonging to
172 genera according to the last available accounts
(Averyanov, 2015, 2016). Meanwhile, it still remains
far from complete inventory, and each new botanical
investigation, particularly in remote mountainous
areas, reveals new discoveries. Thus, two rare
species of orchids, Bulbophyllum coweniorum
J. J. Verm. et P. O’Byrne and Esmeralda bella Rchb.
f., new for the ora of Vietnam, were discovered
during botanical eld surveys of medicinal plants
conducted by Department of Pharmacognosy of
Hanoi University of Pharmacy in years 2015–2016.
According to people from local minorities both
species are used in traditional medicine, but any
scientic data on medicinal activity of any substances
obtained from these plants are not yet available. The
wide deforestation in areas of discovered species
is the main fatal factor of their fast extinction in
known localities. Hence, they should be regarded
as nationally critically endangered (CR) in terms
of IUCN Red List categories and criteria (The
IUCN Red List, 2016). The extensive commercial
collecting of both species as highly demanded
medicinal and ornamental plants is additional factor
of their extinction even in intact habitats. At the
same time, any present eld data on both species
are very scarce for acceptable understanding of
their current distribution, resources, ecology,
biology and morphological variation. Below we
provide relevant available information of these
species including valid name, main synonyms,
data about type materials, common names, short
morphological description, data on ecology and
phenology, distribution, threat and estimated IUCN
Red List status, use in traditional medicine, notes on
taxonomy and related species and data on studied
specimens with indication of Herbaria where they
are housed.
Materials and methods
The surveys of medicinal plants were conducted
in northwestern part of Vietnam (Lai Chau province,
Sin Ho district, Ta Ngao commune) and on the
south of the country (Kon Tum province, Ngoc Linh
Mountains) with assistance of famous Vietnamese
orchid enthusiasts Mr. Nguyen Phong and Mr. Chu
Xuan Canh. Observed and reported species were
conrmed by photographs and voucher herbarium
specimens housed presently in Herbarium of
Department of Pharmacognosy, Hanoi University
of Pharmacy. Some previously collected herbarium
specimens were also used in the current studies.
Data on medicinal use of studied species in folk
medicine were obtained from talks and interview
with old local people from national minorities living
in areas of species distribution. Identication of
collected specimens was performed in Department
of Pharmacognosy (Hanoi University of Pharmacy)
by Nguyen Hoang Tuan on the base of comparative
morphologic analysis with use of relevant taxonomic
literature (Vermeulen, O’Byrne, 2003; Chen Xinqi,
Wood, 2009; Muennig, 2010).
Turczaninowia 20 (1): 68–74 (2017)
70
List of studied species
Bulbophyllum coweniorum J. J. Verm. et
P. O’Byrne,
2003, Gard. Bull. Singapore 55: 150, g. 12;
Newman et al., 2007, Checklist Vasc. Pl. Lao PDR:
255; Schuit. et al., 2008, Nord. Journ. Bot. 26: 267
(Fig. 1).
Described based on the single cultivated type
specimen originated expectedly from Laos, without
indication of certain locality (“Laos”). Type ( SNG –
0 3622”) – SING (holotype).
Description. Creeping epiphyte. Rhizome rigid,
woody, 4.5–6 mm diam., with erect pseudobulbs
distant on 0.9–1.6 cm, remnants of bracts persistent
as ne bres. Roots mainly below the pseudobulbs.
Pseudobulbs ovoid to cylindrical, 3.5–5.5 × 1.2–1.6
cm. Leaves petiolate; petiole 3–5.5 cm long; leaf
blade elliptic to obovate, 10–16.5 × 2.7–4.2 cm,
obtuse. Inorescence 1–1.2 cm long, erect to patent,
with 2–3 bracts, the longest 1.4–1.8 cm long. Floral
bracts tubular, 1.5–1.8 cm long, acute. Pedicel and
ovary 7–8 cm long, slightly curved at the base
and apex. Flowers resupinate, not widely opening.
Sepals and petals dull yellowish-green with red
spots, free, spreading, rather thick, glabrous, entire,
8–9-veined, tapering and acute at apex. Median
sepal erect, narrowly triangular-ovate, 2 × 1.2 cm,
at the base suddenly shortly narrowing; lateral
triangular-ovate, oblique, 2.3 × 1.2 cm, acute, lower
margin with a prominent fold at the middle, broadly
attached to column foot. Petals narrowly triangular-
ovate, 2 × 0.6 cm, with broad base. Lip movable,
white ushed with purple to the base, oblique ovoid
in outline, recurved, 10.5 × 7.5 mm; obtuse, thick,
entire, almost glabrous, somewhat coarsely warty
near apex, in basal half concave, nely ciliate at
margin near the base. Column broad, 4 mm tall,
stigma concave; column foot prominent, strongly
bent forward; stelidia minute, triangular, acute, 3–3.5
mm long. Anther almost hemispheric, glabrous to
nely papillose. Pollinia 4, ovoid, unequal, in two
pairs.
Common names. English Cowen’s
Bulbophyllum (named after Mr. and Mrs. Cowen,
who cultivated this species and successively made
it owering in their garden in Thailand), proposed
Vietnamese name – Long hoa lon.
Ecology and phenology. Creeping branch and
trunk epiphyte. Evergreen broad-leaved submontane
forests on silicate rocks. 800–1500 m a.s.l. Flowers
in March – April. Flowering in cultivation was
observed in January–March, October and December
(Ve rmeulen, O’Byrne, 2003; Schuiteman et al.,
2008).
Distribution. Vietnam: Dak Lak province (Chu
Yang Sin Mountains) and Kon Tum province (Ngoc
Linh Mountains); Laos: Champasak province (no
exact locality, Schuiteman et al., 2008).
Threat and conservation. The wide deforestation
due to uncontrolled primitive burning and shifting
agriculture, as well as forest logging throughout the
Lao PDR territory, is the leading factor of the species
extinction (Cockel, 2013). Additional threat factor
is commercial plant collecting, mainly for export
to China as ornamental and medicinal plant used
in traditional oriental medicine (Lamxay, 2009).
While this species appears rather common in the
orchid trade and in cultivation, its distribution and
occurrence in Lao PDR remains unclear (Vermeulen,
O’Byrne, 2003; Schuiteman et al., 2008; Cockel,
2013). Beside the type, two additional available
reports in Laos are based on cultivated specimens
originated from Champasak province without
indication of exact locality and data on ecology
(Schuiteman et al., 2008). Present record of this
species in Vietnam is based on the single observed,
highly depleted population standing on the verge of
full extinction due to overexploitation and habitat
loss. The absence of any current eld data makes
IUCN Red List criteria not well applicable for
identication of species’ status. Data decient (DD)
status should be formally applied for this species in
formal terms, whereas in fact it may be very near to
full extinction in the nature (nationally CR).
Use. This and similar related species are used
in traditional medicine for treating hemoptysis,
pneumonia, sore throat and chronic gastritis
according to verbal information obtained from
people of local minorities. Scientic data on
medicinal activity of any substances obtained from
these plants are not yet available.
Notes. Bulbophyllum coweniorum belongs to the
group of closely related species of B. lobbii Lindl.
complex including B. microglossum Ridl. (found
in Thailand, Malacca Peninsula, Kalimantan),
B. smitinandii Seidenf. et Thorut (Thailand,
Vietnam) and B. orectopetalum Garay, Hamer et
Siegerist (Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos),
but well differs in purple spotted tepals and purple
lip ciliate at the base and lacking central callus on the
disk near the base. The present discovery represents
rst record of this species in Vietnam.
Studied specimen. Southern Vietnam, Dak Lak
Province. Chu Yang Sin Mountains, November
2014, Nguyen Van Canh, s.n., herbarium specimen
prepared from cultivated plant 27 February 2017
Nguyen Hoang Tuan, Averyanov L. V.
Two endangered ornamental orchid species new in the ora of Vietnam
71
Fig. 1. Bulbophyllum coweniorum J. J. Verm. et P. O’Byrne. A – Flowering plant. B – Flower, frontal, back and side
views. C – Flower, pedicel and ovary, side view. D – Floral bracts. E – Median sepal, abaxial and adaxial views. F –
Petals, abaxial and adaxial views. G Lip, view from above and side view. H – Lateral sepals, abaxial and adaxial
views. I – Column and column foot, frontal view, side view and view from back. J – Operculum, view from below,
view from above and frontal view. K – pollinia. L – Pedicel and ovary. M – Transversal ovary section. N, O – Portion
of rhizome with leaf and pseudobulbs. P – Dissected oral parts. Photos of Nguyen Hoang Tuan, design and correction
by Leonid V. Averyanov.
Turczaninowia 20 (1): 68–74 (2017)
72
L.Averyanov CPC 7684 (LE). Southern Vietnam,
Kon Tum province, Ngoc Linh nature reserve, 28
March 2016, Nguyen Phong HNPI/03/2016/LHL
(Herbarium of Department of Pharmacognosy,
Hanoi University of Pharmacy).
Esmeralda bella Rchb. f.,
1888, Gard. Chron. Ser. 3, 3: 136; Chen Xinqi,
Wood, 2009, Fl. China 25: 465.
Arachnanthe bella (Rchb. f.) C. H. Wright et
Dewar, 1894, Johnson’s Gard. Dict.: 1045.
Arachnis bella (Rchb. f.) J. J. Sm., 1912, Natu-
urw. Tijdschr. Ned. – Ind. 72: 76.
Esmeralda clarkei auct. non Rchb. f.: Aver.,
2006, Turczaninowia 2006, 9, 3: 65, g. 1, f. (Fig.
2).
Described without indication of origin (“… Mr
W. Bull, whose No. 1022 it is among the Orchids
sent me out of his large stores.”). Type (“W. Bull,
1022”) – not located, W?
Description. Monopodial epiphyte with
pendulous and ascending stems. Stems to 1 m long,
1 cm in diam., stout, rigid, with many nodes. Leaves
many, distant, distichous. Leaves sessile, leaf blade
oblong, 13–16 × 2.5–3 cm, leathery, unequally
bilobed at apex. Inorescences ascending raceme,
12–18 cm long, often 2 or 3 on individual shoot,
each with 2–3 sparse owers; scape 5–12 cm long,
with 3–6 short tubular sheaths; oral bracts broadly
ovate, 1–1.7 cm long. Pedicel and ovary white to
greenish, 4 cm long. Flowers odorless, widely
opening, 5.5–7 cm across. Sepals and petals broadly
oblanceolate, obtuse, yellowish, densely marked
with transverse reddish-brown stripes; dorsal sepal
3 × 1 cm, rather straight or slightly curved forward;
lateral sepals obliquely falcate, 2.7 × 0.8 cm; petals
obliquely falcate, 2.7 × 0.7 cm. Lip somewhat
pandurate, 2.1–2.3 mm long, 3-lobed; claw 2 mm
long; lateral lobes erect, sub-quadrate, 4 mm long
and wide, obliquely truncate; median lobe obscurely
triangular, 8 × 9 mm, narrowing at the base, apex
abaxially with eshy callus, margin of median
lobe irregularly denticulate; disk with a thick keel
running from base to apex, at the base with bilobed
callus and a movable lid-like appendage; sac at the
base of median lobe small, 3 × 2 mm. Column stout,
12 mm tall. Anther cap slightly attened, 5 × 4 mm.
Pollinia 2, globular, each distinctly notched into two
halves; stipe large, arcuate, saddle-shaped.
Common names. English The Beautiful
Arachnanthe, Chinese – Kou Gai Hua Zhi Zhu Lan,
proposed Vietnamese name – Bo cap sin ho.
Ecology and phenology. Pendulous monopodial
branch and trunk epiphyte. Evergreen broad-leaved
humid forests, preferably on karstic limestone. 1500–
1600 m a.s.l. Flowers in November–December.
Distribution. Vietnam: provinces – Lai Chau
(Sin Ho district) and Lao Cai (Sa Pa district). India,
Myanmar, Nepal, SW China (SE Xizang, SW
Yunnan), Thailand.
Threat and conservation. Almost total
deforestation in areas of known populations is the
main fatal factor of species extinction in Vietnam.
Habitats harboring few discovered populations
are currently degrading fast due to forest logging,
road construction and agricultural landscape
transformations. The gathering of mature samples
for local and international trade (mainly to China)
as a highly demanded ornamental plant is also
signicant factor of the species extinction even
in intact natural conditions. Very strict area of
distribution and rapid habitat loss lead to strong
declining of populations during last decade.
Therefore, species should be tentatively estimated
as nationally critically endangered (CR) in terms of
IUCN Red List categories and criteria (The IUCN
Red List, 2016).
Use. According to people from local minorities,
the leaves may be used in traditional medicine
for treating stomach pain and pimple. However,
scientic data on medicinal activity of any substances
obtained this species are not yet available.
Notes. This species was previously recorded in
Vietnam under the name Esmeralda clarkei Rchb.
f. s. l. (Averyanov, 2006) regarding its probable
synonymy with E. bella Rchb. f. However, later
some taxonomists accept these species as separate
taxa (Chen, Wood, 2009). Subquadrate lip side
lobes, truncate at apex and disk with moveable lid-
like appendage at the base were reported as the main
morphological characteristics separating E. bella
from E. clarkei. These characters well ts the studied
Vietnamese specimens; hence, their re-identication
as E. bella is proposed here as a new record for the
ora of Vietnam. At the same time, E. bella remains
purely studied, extremely rare species. Except
northwestern Vietnam, it is expectedly occurs also
in Nepal, northeastern India, Myanmar, northern
Thailand and in southwestern China (Chen, Wood,
2009). However, its distribution and morphological
variation needs further studies as presently available
herbarium collections are very scarce.
Studied specimen. Northern Vietnam, Lao Cai
province, Sa Pa district, vicinity of Sa Pa town,
mountain forest at 1500 m, epiphyte with pendulous
ascending shoots 25–40 cm long, owers odorless,
sepals and petals light yellowish with purple-brown
Nguyen Hoang Tuan, Averyanov L. V.
Two endangered ornamental orchid species new in the ora of Vietnam
73
Fig. 2. Esmeralda bella Rchb. f. A – Dissected oral parts and leaf. B – Flower, frontal view. C – Sepals and petals
from behind. D – Lip, frontal view, view from behind and side view. E – Column, frontal view, side view and view
from behind. F – Pollinaria. G – Anther cap. H – Floral bract. I – Transversal ovary section. J – Pedicel and ovary. K –
Leaf, view from adaxial and abaxial side. L – Flowering plant. Photos of Nguyen Hoang Tuan, design and correction
by Leonid V. Averyanov.
Turczaninowia 20 (1): 68–74 (2017)
74
transversal stripes, lip white with purple-brown
longitudinal stripes and brown margin, column
white, rare, 24 November 2005, L. Averyanov, P. K.
Loc, HAL 8311 (LE). Northern Vietnam, Lai Chau
province, Sin Ho district, Ta Ngao municipality, Hai
Ho village, around point 22º16’09’’N, 103º14’34’’E,
remnants of primary broad-leaved evergreen closed
wet forest on very steep rocky slopes and cliffs of
remnant mountains composed with stratied solid
gray highly eroded limestone at 1500–1600 m,
epiphyte and lithophyte with pendent shoot up to
1 m long on very steep rocky slopes and on shady
vertical cliffs, owers yellowish with brown-purple
marks, not common, 20 November 2006, N. T.
Hiep, L. Averyanov, P. V. The, HAL 10061 (HN,
LE, MO). Northern Vietnam, Lai Chau province,
Sin Ho district, anno 2014, Chu Xuan Canh CXC
108 (LE). Northern Vietnam, Lai Chau province,
Sin Ho district, Ta Ngao commune, around point
22°18’17.1’’N, 103°18’45.5’’E, 15 December 2015,
Chu Xuan Canh, HNPI/12/2015/BCSH (Herbarium
of Department of Pharmacognosy, Hanoi University
of Pharmacy).
Acknowledgements
Laboratory studies were supported by the Russian
Foundation for Basic Research (Plant taxonomy,
geography and biology in local oras of eastern
Indochina, 15-04-00419 А). The authors cordially
thank Mr. Nguyen Phong and Mr. Chu Xuan Canh
for collected voucher specimens.
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A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 394 pp.
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Laos. Nordic Journal of Botany 26: 257–316.
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Garden’s Bulletin Singapore 55: 125–162.
Nguyen Hoang Tuan, Averyanov L. V.
Two endangered ornamental orchid species new in the ora of Vietnam
... Yet, the same field has been the subject of various criticism as some taxonomists have been involved in the smuggling and/or "discovery" of new species using poached and/or illegally traded specimens (Fukushima et al., 2020;Law, 2019Law, , 2021van den Burg & Weissgold, 2020). In the case of ornamental plants, many species entered the local and international commercial trade even before they are taxonomically described and named, for example, Dendrochilum hampelii or "Big Pink" (Sulistyo et al., 2015) and many other species of horticulturally important orchid (Pedersen, 2011;Pedersen et al., 2004;Tuan & Averyanov, 2017;Vermeulen et al., 2014;Vermeulen & Lamb, 2011), pitcher plants (i.e., Nepenthes robcantleyi) (Cheek, 2011), and several Begonia species (Kiew, 2004;Ku et al., 2004;Tan et al., 2018). ...
Thesis
Indigenous peoples and indigenous knowledge systems are now considered as vital components of global conservation, science-policy assessments, and global targets indicated in the UN 2030 Agenda. In this Ph.D. project, I critically reviewed the social, political, and environmental issues over the concept of “indigenous peoples” in Asia and its implications for local and international policies with emphasis on the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda. This study showed that the legitimate recognition of indigenous peoples and indigenous knowledge systems and practices (IKSP) are important to achieve the SDGs. Zero Hunger (SDG 2), for example, may be achieved through the valorisation and conservation of the indigenous food system, biocultural refugia, and local plant resources. The food ethnobotany of the Higaonon tribe of Bukidnon in the Philippines provided valuable insights on the potential of neglected and underutilised species (NUS) in the diversification of the nutrient-poor and rice-centred diet of the majority of the Filipinos. The Higaonon tribe’s local staples consisted of yautia, taro, sweet potato, maize, and other NUS, may be tapped as additional food and nutrient sources to address the country’s problem of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. This Ph.D. project also demonstrated the benefits of collaboration with indigenous peoples in the co-production of knowledge, specifically on improving food safety in the local communities. Using the Two-Eyed Seeing approach, the protocol for the molecular identification of a poisonous wild yam locally known as ‘Lab-o’ (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) was developed along with documentation of the traditional detoxification process practised by the Higaonon tribe. Apart from its function as a reservoir of ethnobotanical knowledge, indigenous traditional territory is also home to a new species of Begonia L., a member of a horticulturally valuable group of flowering plants. Named after the Bangsamoro people of the southern Philippines, Begonia bangsamoro reflects the name and cultural identity of both the people and the land, and implicitly acknowledges indigenous relationships with the environment. This culture-sensitive approach in taxonomic naming contributed to the societal recognition of the indigenous peoples’ rights, and it also opened the opportunity for a meaningful engagement with the indigenous peoples and the government for conservation. Lastly, my Ph.D. thesis redefined the research approach in the field of taxonomy and ethnobotany to be socially just in a way that respects the universal rights of indigenous peoples, their land, and resources.
... The genus Bulbophyllum Thouars (1822) is one of the largest plant genera, with over 2200 species distributed in tropics and subtropics of the world (Vermeulen et al., 2014). Currently, more than 145 species from 15 sections have been recorded in Vietnam (Seidenfaden, 1992;Averyanov, 1994;Averyanov and Averyanova, 2003;Averyanov et al., 2015Averyanov et al., , 2016Averyanov et al., , 2018Averyanov et al., , 2019aNong and Averyanov, 2015;Nguyen and Averyanov, 2017;Truong et al., 2019a-c). ...
Article
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Bulbophyllum sridithii a new species to science is described and illustrated from Kon Ka Kinh National Park of Vietnam. The new species belongs to the section Cirrhopetaloides and resembles B. layae, B. hirundinis, B. electrinum, B. pecten-veneris and B. tingabarinum but differs in the size and shape of pseudobulbs, the shape of the leaf blade, and flower size. Morphological description, illustrations, data on habitat, phenology, and conservation status are provided.
... It comprises about 2000 species distributed in tropical and subtropical zone of the World with the highest diversity in tropics of Africa and Asia (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992, Comber 1990, 2001, Pearce & Cribb 2002, Vermeulen 1991, Vermeulen et al. 2015. In Vietnam, 137 species of this genus from 14 sections were documented before present study (Seidenfaden 1992, Averyanov 1994, Averyanov & Averyanova 2003, 2016, 2018, Gruss & Averyanov 2016, Averyanov & Maisak 2017, Nguyen & Averyanov 2017. Meanwhile, the diversity of this genus in Vietnam and neighboring countries is very far from being acceptably inventoried. ...
Article
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Three species, Bulbophyllum layae, B. metallica and B. papilligerum (all from sect. Cirrhopetalum) are described as new for science. All of these novelties are local endemics of limestone areas of northern Vietnam. Additionally, three species, B. alcicorne (sect. Brachystachya), B. psittacoglossum and B. yunnanense (both from sect. Sestochilus) are recorded for the flora of Vietnam for the first time. These species have wide distribution in mainland Asia. Data on ecology, phenology, distribution, brief relevant taxonomic notes, as well as color photographs, analytical plates of the type and voucher specimens are provided for all reported taxa. Lectotypification is provided for B. yunnanense.
... This paper continues our recent publications of new original data on orchid diversity in Vietnam (Averyanov et al, 2018a-c) obtained in the field studies mostly during years 2016-2017 since last our publications (Averyanov et al., 2016a(Averyanov et al., -d, 2017aAveryanov and Maisak, 2017a, b;Nguyen and Averyanov, 2017). Like previous papers, it summarizes the results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids from subfamilies Epidendroideae and Vandoideae leading to the discovery of 5 species new for science, namely Calanthe nguyenthinhii Aver., Dendrobium truongcuongii Aver. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper continues our recent publication of new original data on orchid diversity in Vietnam (Averyanov et al., 2018a-c) obtained in 2016-2017. It includes data on 5 orchid species new for science (Calanthe nguyenthinhii Aver., Dendrobium truongcuongii Aver. et Canh, Gastrodia khangii Aver., Nephelaphyllum thaovyae Aver. et Canh and Podochilus truongtamii Aver. et Vuong) and 15 species, new for the flora of Vietnam (Calanthe ceciliae, Dendrobium eriiflorum, D. griffithianum, D. hekouense, D. minusculum, D. stuposum, D. xichouense, Eria lancifolia, E. xanthocheila, Geodorum terrestre, Liparis condylobulbon, L. tenuis, Luisia teres, Pomatocalpa maculosum, Porpax ustulata). Annotated species list includes the valid name, synonyms, type, citations of relevant taxonomic regional publications, data on ecology, phenology and distribution, estimated IUCN Red List status, studied specimens, brief taxonomic notes, and illustrations for each recorded species. Lectotypes for two species, Liparis tenuis, and Dendrobium exsculptum are proposed. When the new data presented in this paper are included, the documented orchid flora of Vietnam reaches at least 1243 species.
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North Sulawesi is one of the provinces which is included in the Wallacea area which is the world’s source biological diversity and endemism hotspot. Forest fragmentation and population growth is the greatest threat to a variety of Wallacea endemic species. This study aims to explore the plant diversity in various forest patches in North Sulawesi and their conservation strategies. The research was conducted in 7 forest locations. This research uses exploration method. Exploration results found 259 collection numbers consisting of 154 species, 114 genera and 53 families. Orchidaceae is the most commonly family found (48 species and 26 genera), followed by Moraceae (18 species) and Piperaceae (16 species). Four species of Begonia were identified as endemic Sulawesi, 3 number potential as new species. Potential of new species is also likely on the Alpinia spp. (Zingiberaceae) and Piper spp. because has a large variety. Forest patches in the study area still have a high variety of species but mostly surrounded by people’s gardens and exploited potentially. In situ conservation complementary with ex situ is a conservation strategy which needs to be carried out.
Article
The paper provides a short review of Bulbophyllum species recorded in Laos and Vietnam during the two last decades and continues the publication of results of our successive studies of the genus in this area. It presents data on two new species for science discovered in Laos (Bulbophyllum pachypodum) and Vietnam (B. neglectipetalum), one lesser known species for the flora of Laos (B. microtepalum), two new records for the flora of Vietnam (B. echinulus, B. setilabium), and new illustrated data on B. secundum insufficiently known in the flora of Vietnam. Bulbophyllum fascinator earlier accepted in specific rank reduced into the synonymy of B. putidum on the base of studies of newly obtained materials. Taking into consideration the new data presented in this paper, the flora of Laos presently includes 85, and flora of Vietnam 151 Bulbophyllum species, excluding Monomeria, Trias, and Sunipia. It is the largest genus in the orchid floras of both countries.
Article
Bulbophyllum trongquyetii is described as new for science from Vietnam. Detailed morphological description, illustration, data on distribution, and phenology are provided. Described species resembles B. nipondhii but differs in the bigger size of plant, longer inflorescence, and uniform yellow or reddish-orange flowers. It can be also compared with B. thaiorum and B. farreri but easily distinguished by the bigger size of plant and flowers, as well as smooth or sparsely papillose lateral sepals.
Article
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Bulbophyllum leysianum (sect. Hyalosema) and B. ovalifolium (sect. Macrocaulia) are recorded as new for the flora of Vietnam. Both species originate from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve (Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam). The first was found as an epiphyte on fallen branch in riparian lowland forest, while the second was recorded on small branches in a canopy tree at about 1500 m a.s.l. Key Words: Bulbophyllum sections, Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae, Vietnam
Article
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The new species, Bulbophyllum claviforme, originated from Sơn La province and was cultivated in Ho Chi Minh city. The publication presents a detailed description and figures for this species. It differs from all known members of the Bulbophyllum alliance by the color of the flowers, the short inflorescence, and the clavate hairs along the margin of dorsal sepal and petals.
Article
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Bulbophyllum hainanense is an addition to the Flora of Vietnam. Previously, Vietnamese material of this species was listed as Bulbophyllum hymenanthum, a similar-looking species. This paper provides a description and illustration of the Vietnamese material of B. hainanense.
Article
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Averyanov L., A. Averyanova. 2002. Rare species of orchids (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Vietnam. Turczaniniwia. T. 5. N 4. P. 49-108.
Article
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This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume) and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala) and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis) are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense) is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during the last three years. It provides new original data about the discovery of 4 genera (Brachypeza Garay, Drymoda Lindl., Macropodanthus L.O. Williams, Octarrhena Thwaites) and 44 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species. Twelve species (Bulbophyllum blaoense, Cheirosollis glandulosa, Eria grandicaulis, E. praecox, Liparis caudata, L. longispica, Luisia parviflOra, Oberonia janae, O. tatianae, Octarrhena minuscula, Odontochilus aureus and Vanda gracilis) are described as new for science. An illustrated checklist of all studied species is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1180 documented species from 170 genera.
Article
A checklist is presented of the orchid flora of Laos, enumerating 485 species in 108 genera. An estimate is given of the expected size of the orchid flora of Laos. Notes on habitat, global and local distribution, endemism, conservation, phenology, as well as a systematic overview complement the checklist.
Case study on orchid exports from the Lao PDR: Recommendations for using the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora to increase sustainable orchid trade. IUCN and the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science
  • V Lamxay
Lamxay V. 2009. Case study on orchid exports from the Lao PDR: Recommendations for using the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora to increase sustainable orchid trade. IUCN and the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, National University of Laos, No pagination. Muennig T. 2010. Bulbophyllum coweniorum, ein Orchideenkurzportrait. Die Orchidee 61, 3: 202.
The IUCN Red List Terms and Conditions of Use (version 2.1) 2016-1
  • The
  • Red Iucn
  • List
The IUCN Red List. 2016. The IUCN Red List Terms and Conditions of Use (version 2.1) 2016-1. http://www. iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use (Accessed 22 August 2016).
A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR
  • M F Newman
  • S Ketphanh
  • B Svengsuksa
  • P Thomas
  • K Sengdala
  • V Lamxay
  • K Armstrong
Newman M. F., Ketphanh S., Svengsuksa B., Thomas P., Sengdala K., Lamxay V., Armstrong K. 2007. A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 394 pp.
Bulbophyllum coweniorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T44393238A44460663
  • C Cockel
Cockel C. 2013. Bulbophyllum coweniorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T44393238A44460663. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T44393238A44460663.en. (Accessed 22 August 2016).
New Species and New Records of Southeast Asian Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae)
  • J J Vermeulen
  • P O 'byrne
Vermeulen J. J., O'Byrne P. 2003. New Species and New Records of Southeast Asian Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae).
Bulbophyllum coweniorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • C Cockel
Cockel C. 2013. Bulbophyllum coweniorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T44393238A44460663. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T44393238A44460663.en. (Accessed 22 August 2016).