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Anticipated performance index of selected plant species in University campus area, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Authors:
  • Shree Guru Gobing Singh Tricentenary University, Gurgaon

Abstract

Plants are only which help in reduce air pollution. In plants leaves play a vital role in absorbing gases and some particulate matter. Therefore, vegetation acts as the natural cleanser of pollution in atmosphere. According to their degree of tolerance and sensitivity towards several air pollutants, plants have been classified in the present study. The entire results obtained from the study concluded that different plant species respond differently to air pollution. Tree species (Ziziphus mauritiana, 5.621), shrub species (Calliandra haematocephala, 4.591) and herb species (Chenopodium album, 8.409) are highly tolerant plant species with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index and which are very important in landscaping of city. According to the Air Pollution Tolerance Index values, shrubs may be sensitive but trees or herbs may be tolerant to a given pollutant. Selection of plant species for urban green belt development, evaluation of Anticipated Performance Index was studied. Tree species (Eucalypytus oblique) and shrub species (Bougainvillea glabra) are accepted to perform well for the development of “Green belt” in University Campus on the basis of API values. Plant species Hamelia patens, among the shrubs and Chenopodium album among the herbs can effectively be used for the air pollution amelioration purposes in University Campus Rohtak.
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
32
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR)
ISSN: 2393-8870
www.ijarm.com
Research Article
Anticipated performance index of selected plant species in University campus area,
Rohtak, Haryana, India
Rajesh Dhankhar 1*, Vikram Mor1, Shelly Narwal2
1Department of Environmental Sciences, M. D. University, Rohtak, Haryana-124001, India
2Centre of Excellence for Energy and Environmental Studies, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram
University of Science and Technology- Murthal-Sonepat- Haryana- 131039, India.
Corresponding Author : dhankhar.r@rediffmail.com
Abstract
Plants are only which help in reduce air pollution. In plants leaves play a vital role in absorbing gases
and some particulate matter. Therefore, vegetation acts as the natural cleanser of pollution in
atmosphere. According to their degree of tolerance and sensitivity towards several air pollutants,
plants have been classified in the present study. The entire results obtained from the study concluded
that different plant species respond differently to air pollution. Tree species (Ziziphus mauritiana,
5.621), shrub species (Calliandra haematocephala, 4.591) and herb species (Chenopodium album,
8.409) are highly tolerant plant species with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index and which are very
important in landscaping of city. According to the Air Pollution Tolerance Index values, shrubs may
be sensitive but trees or herbs may be tolerant to a given pollutant. Selection of plant species for urban
green belt development, evaluation of Anticipated Performance Index was studied. Tree species
(Eucalypytus oblique) and shrub species (Bougainvillea glabra) are accepted to perform well for the
development of “Green belt” in University Campus on the basis of API values. Plant species Hamelia
patens, among the shrubs and Chenopodium album among the herbs can effectively be used for the air
pollution amelioration purposes in University Campus Rohtak.
.
Introduction
Air pollution is one of the severe problems faced by whole
world. Introduction of chemical, particulate matters or
biological materials into the atmosphere by anthropogenic
activities creates adverse effects on the humans or other living
organisms. Now a day’s atmosphere is quite different from
natural environment before the existence of industrialization.
“Clean airis now impossible to be found anywhere on the
Earth. The use of renewable and non renewable resources
leads to large scale economic growth. Three fold increases in
population requires resources in huge quantity, the way that
increased pollution loads. Environmental stress is increasing
day by day because of air pollutants (Sulphur dioxide,
Nitrogen dioxide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide) and
particulate matter which are emitted as the smoke from the
coal fired power plant and also other industries are also
responsible for the increasing level of environmental stress by
dint of leaves or soil acidification (Gostin, 2007; Iqbal, 2000;
Liu and Ding, 2008). These anthropogenic emissions have a
very adverse consequence into the atmosphere and their
alteration, reaction and conversion or modification results into
an array of chronic and acute diseases at local, regional and
global level (Rawat and Banerjee, 1996). Air pollution has
disastrous effects on the plants. Due to various pollutants
(oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, ozone, particulate matters,
hydrocarbon, peroxyacl nitrate (PAN), hydrogen fluoride etc.)
the urban area plants are mostly affected (Jahan and Iqbal,
1992). Morphological and physiological characteristics of the
plants are adversely affected by atmospheric sulphur dioxide.
Sulphur dioxide injury in plants can be promoted by high soil
moisture and high relative humidity (Tankha and Gupta,
1992). There is no mechanical or chemical device, which can
completely check the emission of pollutants at the source.
Only plants are the hopes, which can completely reduce the
pollution level in air environment by actively participating in
Keywords
Air Pollution
Tolerance Index,
Landscaping,
Green belt,
Anticipated performance
Index,
Amelioration
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
33
cycling of nutrients and gases like carbon dioxide, oxygen and
also provide enormous leaf area for impingement, absorption
and accumulation of pollutants (Escobedo et al., 2008). Plants
can also play the role of scavengers for air pollution as they
are initial acceptors.Various pollutants can be absorbed and
accumulated by the plants results in reducing the pollutant
levels in the environment (Liu and Ding, 2008). Plants when
exposed constantly to environmental pollutants, induces
functional weakening and structural simplification and finally
leads to negative effects on other biotic communities.
The resistance and susceptibility of plants to air pollutants can
be determined by its physiological and bio-chemical levels.
By analyzing the biochemical parameters of leaf materials
such as potential of hydrogen ion concentration (pH), ascorbic
acid, relative water content and total chlorophyll, the ‘Air
pollution Tolerance Index’ (APTI) can be determined (Pandey
and Sharma, 2003). Air Pollution Tolerance Index has been
used to rank the plant species in their’s tolerance to air
pollution suggested by Raza et al. (1988). The APTI has also
been used for identifying tolerance levels of plants species,
then it is used by landscapers to select plant species tolerance
to air pollution (Yan et al., 2008). Ascorbic acid and
chlorophyll of leaf are the most significant and determining
factor on which the tolerance depends (Rai, 2014). Tolerant
species play a role in reducing the overall pollution and
sensitive species can be regarded as primitive indicators of
pollution. Tolerant species have low injury level whereas
sensitive ones have high injury level (Rao, 1983). To
determine load of pollution on urban/industrial sites and to use
the tolerant varieties to control the menace of air pollution,
these studies are very essential especially for the landscapers
and green belt designers as they provide very valuable
information so that they can select sensitive as well as tolerant
varieties of plant species (Dineva, 2004). A large number of
trees and shrubs have been identified as dust filters to check
the rising urban dust pollution level (Rai et al., 2010).
Ornamental shrub in the palette design element of streetscape
may play a role as a beautification agent as well bio-
indicators. As plants having scavenging property for many air
pollutants, they are considered as the pioneer acceptors of air
pollutants (Rai, 2013). Therefore they are used as the bio-
monitors of air pollution.
The aim of present work is to evaluate the variation of
biochemical and physiological parameters of plant species in
Rohtak City, Haryana with reference to the Air Pollution
Tolerance Index and Anticipated Performance Index which
help to select the tolerant and indicator plant species to
develop the green and ecofriendly environment.
Materials and Methods
Study areaRohtak is one of the Districts of Haryana State and
known as “City of Dairies”. It falls in National Capital
Region. It is located (28.8909°N 76.5796°E) 70 km northwest
of New Delhi and with an elevation of 214m above mean sea
level. Total geographical area of the city is 1668.47 sq. kms
with the total population of 1058683 as per 2011
census. Average annual rainfall of the city is 458.5 mm. The
study was conducted on the thirty five different species of
trees, shrubs and herbs collected from the Maharishi
Dayanand University-Campus (28°52'37"N 76°37'1"E). This
study was conducted during February-April 2014.
Sample collection
The leaves sample of selected plant species were collected
from the study location. Due precautions were taken while
taking the samples such as leaves were not plugged alone but
taken out along with their twigs for the identification
objectives. The plants leaves were stored in the polythene bags
in order to retain their moisture level and keep away the
dryness. The leaf fresh weight was taken immediately upon
getting to the laboratory. Then leaf samples were preserved in
refrigerator at 4˚C for biochemical analysis.
The bio-chemical analysis of plant species
Biochemical parameters such as Potential of hydrogen ion
concentration (Agbarie and Esiefarenrhe, 2009), relative water
content (Singh, 1997), Total chlorophyll content (Aron, 1949),
Ascorbic acid content (Bajaj and Kaur, 1981), Proline content
(Bates et al., 1973) were done from selected plant species.
Air pollution tolerance index (APTI)
Air pollution tolerance index was assessed by Singh and Rao
(1983) to assess the tolerance/ resistance power of plants
against air pollution.
The air pollution tolerance index was calculated using the
formula:
APTI = A (T+ P) + R/10
Where,
A =Ascorbic acid (mg/g), T =Total chlorophyll (mg/g), P =
pH of the leaf extract, R = Relative water content of leaf (%).
Air Pollution Tolerance index range:
< 1 =Very Sensitive,
1 to 16 = Sensitive,
17 to 29 = Intermediate
30 to 100 = Tolerant (Kalyani and Singaracharya, 1995).
Anticipated performance index
By combining the resultant APTI values with some relevant
biological and socio-economic characters (plant habit, canopy
structure, type of plant, laminar structure and economic value),
the API was calculated for different plant species. Based on
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
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these characters, different grades (+ or -) are allotted to plant
species. Different plant species are scored according to their
grades. The criteria used for calculating API of different plant
species are given in table-6.
Statistical analysis
All data were presented as mean of three replicates, ± standard
deviation and data were statistically analyzed by correlation
coefficient to study the statistical relationship. API, APTI
calculations and other graphs have been formulated in
Microsoft excel 2007 and Origin Pro 8 software.
Atmospheric data
Meteorological data was taken from automatic Continuous
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Station (CAAQMS) installed
in the premises of Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak by
HSPCB, Pnchkula, Haryana. The CAAQMS is equipped with
analysers of PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2, O3, NO/NO2/NOx and
Volatile Organic Compounds (BTX). Besides this
meteorological sensor for Ambient Temperature, Relative
Humidity, Wind Speed, Wind Direction, Vertical Wind
Speed, Barometric Pressure and Solar Radiation are installed
with the station and recorded in the same logger at CAAQMS.
Results and Discussion
Concentration of major air pollutants
Data for average concentration of major air pollutants such as
PM 2.5, CO, NO, NO2, NOX, O and SO2was collected from
month of January to March, 2014 (Table-1). Average
concentration of PM 2.5 ranges from 128.17 to 75.04, CO
from 1.23 to .85, NO from 21.00 to 6.6, NO2from 38.97 to
25.42, NOXfrom 59.96 to 33.71, O3from 101.32 to 26.20 and
SO2varies from 8.81 to 3.51. Maximum value of most of
pollutants showed during month of March and April. Reason
behind the maximum values was heavy transportation and
commercial activities.
Total chlorophyll content (TChl)
Total chlorophyll content of plant species is graphically
represented in graph-1 respectively for trees, shrubs and
herbs. Among the tree species, highest total chlorophyll
content of 1.52 mg g-1fresh wt. was recorded in Azadirachta
indica and lowest 0.072 mg g-1fresh wt. in S. cimuni. In case
of shrub species, highest total chlorophyll content showed in
Gelsemum sempervirens, 0.306 mg g-1fresh wt. and lowest in
Hibiscus rosa- sinensis, 0.045 mg g-1fresh wt. Among the herb
species, Catharanthus roseus, 0.630 mg g-1 fresh wt. showed
highest total chlorophyll content and Taraxacum officinale,
0.172 mg g-1 fresh wt. showed lowest total chlorophyll
content. High total chlorophyll content of plant species may
be due to tolerant nature of these plants toward air pollution.
Chlorophyll content of plants varies from species to species;
age of leaf with the pollution level as well as with other biotic
and abiotic conditions (Katiyar and Dubey, 2001). Another
reason for higher chlorophyll content may be washout of dust
particles from the leaf surface which may increase
photosynthetic activity and low water content of soil as
shown by Shyam et al. (2006).
Reduction in chlorophyll content of plant species showed that
these are less tolerant and can be used as indicator of air
pollution. Low chlorophyll content in plant species may be the
result of presence of gaseous sulphur dioxide in the air causing
destruction of chlorophyll and that can be possible by the
replacement of Mg2+ by two hydrogen atoms and degradation
of chlorophyll molecule to phaeophytin. The air pollutants
make their entrance into tissues through stomata and cause
partial denaturation of chloroplast and decrease pigment
contents in cells of polluted leaves. Further decrease in
chlorophyll content in leaves can be due to alkaline condition
created by dissolution of chemicals present in cell sap that is
responsible for chlorophyll degradation. Reduction of
photosynthetic pigment has been widely used as an indicator
of air pollution (Ninave et al., 2001). Pollutants not only
decrease the chlorophyll content but certain pollutants may
increase the chlorophyll content. So chlorophyll is regarded as
the index of productivity of plant (Agbaire and Esiefarienrhe,
2009).
In case of trees species, total chlorophyll content is negatively
correlated with APTI (R2=0.157). In case of shrub species,
total chlorophyll content is positively correlated with APTI
(R2=0.135) whereas in case of herb species negatively
correlated with APTI (R2=0.041) as shown in table (2-4) for
trees, shrubs and herbs respectively.
Relative water content (RWC)
The relative water content of plant species is being graphically
represented in graph-2. Tree species Ziziphus mauritiana,
shown highest relative water content of 55.84 % and
Eucalyptus oblique, 30.36 % lowest. Among the shrub
species, highest relative water content observed in Calliandra
haematocephala, 45.55% and lowest in Rosa indica, 5.17 %.
Among the herb species, highest relative water content
observed in Chenopodium album, 83.73 % and lowest relative
water content found in Tagetes erecta, 22.55 %. The large
quantity of water (in terms of RWC) in plant body helps in
maintaining its physiological balance under stress conditions
of air pollution. High relative water content favours drought
resistance in plants (Dedio et al., 1975). Therefore, in the
present study plants with high relative water content may be
tolerant to air pollutants.
Naturally relative water content depends upon soil moisture.
Low relative water content of leaf means lower rate of
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
35
availability of water in soil along with high rate of
transpiration. Leaf water status is related with various
physiological conditions such as transpiration, growth,
respiration (Kramer and Boyer, 1995). In case of some plant
species, soil moisture is vey less hence showed less relative
water content in the particular area.
In case of tree and herb species, relative water content is
positively correlated with APTI (R2=0.997 for trees and
R2=0.999 for herb). In case of shrub species, strongly
correlated with APTI (R2=0.999 as shown in table (2-4) for
trees, shrubs and herbs respectively.
Potential of hydrogen ion concentration in leaf extract
The pH of plant species is being graphically represented in
graph-3. Among the tree species, highest potential of
hydrogen ion concentration in leaf extract was shown in F.
benjamina (7.463) and lowest showed in Eucalyptus oblique
(4.49). Among the shrub species, highest hydrogen ion
concentration showed in lantana camara (6.76) and lowest
was found in Hamelia patens (3.83). In case of herb species,
Helianthus Annuus (9.59) showed highest hydrogen ion
concentration and lowest in Tagetes erecta (6.36). High
potential of hydrogen ion concentration in leaf extract may be
due to the presence of SOx and NOx in the ambient air.
The leaf extract potential of hydrogen ion concentration is
lowered due to the presence of acidic pollutants. It was also
observed that decline in potential of hydrogen ion
concentration values is greater in sensitive species which
reduce efficiency of conversion hexose sugar to ascorbic acid.
Therefore potential of hydrogen ion concentration and
reducing activity of ascorbic acid depends upon each other.
(Scholz and Reck, 1977). Hence, leaf extract potential of
hydrogen ion concentration on higher side gives tolerance to
plants species against pollution level as shown by Agarwal
(1988).
In case of tree species, pH is positively correlated with APTI
(R2=0.0012) whereas pH of all shrub species is negatively
correlated with APTI (R2=0.0011). Among the herb species,
pH is positively correlated with APTI (R2=0.089 as shown in
table (2-4) for trees, shrubs and herbs respectively.
Ascorbic acid content
The ascorbic acid content of plant species is graphically
represented in graph-4. Among the tree species, highest
ascorbic acid content was found in F. benjamina, 0.16 mg g-1
fresh wt. and lowest in Alstonia scolaris, 0.042 mg g-1 fresh
wt. In case of shrub species, highest ascorbic acid content was
found in Tecoma stans, 0.075 mg g-1 fresh wt. and lowest in
Hamelia patens, 0.045 mg g-1 fresh wt. Among the herb
species, highest ascorbic acid content was found in
Catharanthus roseus, 0.093 mg g-1 fresh wt. and lowest in
Chenopodium album, 0.045 mg g-1 fresh wt. Ascorbic acid is
a natural detoxicant, which may prevent the effects of air
pollutants in the plant tissues (Kuddus et al., 2011). According
to Chaudhary and Rao (1977) and Varshney and Varshney
(1984) higher ascorbic acid content of the plant is a sign of its
tolerance against sulphur dioxide pollution and pollutants
which are normally affecting the roadside vegetations. Lower
the ascorbic acid content in plant species supports the sensitive
nature towards the pollutants particularly automobile exhausts
(Conklin et al., 2001).
In case of tree and herb species, ascorbic acid is negatively
correlated with the APTI (R2=0.0404 for tree and R2=0.0713).
In case of shrub species, positively correlated with APTI
(R2=0.076) as shown in table (2-4) for trees, shrubs and herbs
respectively.
Air pollution tolerance index (APTI)
Results of air pollution tolerance index (APTI) for each plant
species studied is depicted in table-5. Ziziphus mauritiana,
among the tree species exhibited the highest APTI value of
5.621 and among the shrub species, highest APTI value is
4.591 was observed in Calliandra haematocephala. Among
the herb species studied, highest APTI value of 8.409 was
observed in Chenopodium album in study area. The plants
with high and low APTI can serve as tolerant and sensitive
species respectively. Tolerant plant species with high APTI
which can be used as scavengers air pollution in MDU campus
as well as landscaping. These above studied tolerant plant
species can also be used as “sinkfor air pollutants in study
area. Sensitivity levels of plants to air pollutants differ for
herbs, shrubs and trees. Sensitive species and can be
recommended as bioindicators. Tree species (Eucalyptus
oblique, 3.068) and shrub species (Rosa indica, 0.548) and
herb species (Tagetes erecta, 2.291) in residential area are
having low air pollution tolerance index. Therefore these
plants can be recommended as bio-indicator which is an easy
and inexpensive technique to control air pollution. According
to present study shrubs may be sensitive, but trees and herbs
may be tolerant to pollutants which can be determined on the
basis of APTI values.
Anticipated performance index (API)
Based on Air pollution tolerance index and anticipated
performance index, the most suitable plant species for green
belt development in urban areas were identified and
recommended for long-term air pollution management.
Presence of suitable plants in the urban environment can thus
improve air quality through enhancing the uptake of pollutant
gases and particles (McPherson et al., 1994; Beckett et al.,
1998; Freer-Smith et al., 1997). Plant species were graded
based on biological and socio-economic with bio chemicals
parameters to determine the API of plant species (table-6).
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
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Table-1: Monthly average of atmospheric pollutants from January-March 2014.
Table-2: Correlation coefficient values of different biochemical parameters of tree species in campus area
AA
pH
TChl
RWC
AA
1
pH
-0.314
1
TChl
0.464
-0.459
1
RWC
-0.247
0.044
-0.418
1
APTI
-0.201
0.035
-0.396
0.998
Table-3: Correlation coefficient values of different biochemical parameters of shrub species in campus area.
pH
RWC
TChl
AA
APTI
pH
1
RWC
-0.036
1
TChl
0.314
0.366
1
AA
-0.043
0.273
0.274
1
APTI
-0.033
0.999
0.369
0.277
1
Table-4: Correlation coefficient values of different biochemical parameters of herb species in campus area.
pH
RWC
TChl
AA
APTI
pH
1
RWC
0.295
1
TChl
0.179
-0.208
1
AA
-0.110
-0.273
0.769
1
APTI
0.298
0.999
-0.203
-0.267
1
AA-ascorbic acid, TChl-total Chlorophyll content, RWC-relative water content, APTI-air pollution tolerance index.
Table-5: APTI values of selected plant species of campus area
S.No.
Tree Species
APTI
Shrub Species
APTI
Herb Species
APTI
1
Eucalyptus oblique
3.068
Bougainvillea glabra
2.7467
Tagetes erecta
2.2917
2
Alstonia scholaris
4.373
Rosa
0.5482
Catharanthus roseus
4.0126
3
F. virens
4.201
Hibiscus
rosa- sinensis
2.5334
Crinum latifolium
5.5273
4
Azadirachta indica
3.154
Calliandra
haematocephala
4.5910
Helianthus Annuus
4.4703
5
F.religiosa
3.397
Hamelia patens
3.5018
Organum marjorana
3.4956
6
F. benjamina
3.888
Tecoma stans
3.6160
Chenopodium album
8.4096
7
F. benghalensis
3.241
Jatropha integerrima
1.5052
Amaranthus spinosus
5.4111
8
Mangifera indica
4.846
Nerium oleander
4.0057
Taraxacum officinale
5.2184
9
Syzygium cumini
5.540
Lantana camara
2.1931
Solanum nigrum
5.2824
10
Ziziphus mauritiana
5.621
Gelsemum
Sempervirens
4.5815
Croton bonplandianus
3.6214
Month
PM10
CO
NO
NO2
NOX
O3
SO2
µg/m3
mg/m3
µg/m3
µg/m3
µg/m3
µg/m3
µg/m3
January
128.17
0.87
6.6
35.58
41.70
26.20
8.81
February
75.04
0.85
8.71
25.42
33.71
101.32
7.49
March
117.19
1.23
21.00
38.97
59.96
57.20
3.51
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
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Table-6: Gradation of plant species based on Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and other biological and
socio-economic characters
Grading
Character
Pattern Of Assessment
Grade Allotted
Tolerance
APTI
12.0 16.0
+
16.1 20.0
++
20.1 24.0
+++
24.1 28.1
++++
28.1 32.0
+++++
32.1 36.0
++++++
Biological and socio-
economic
Plant habitat
Small
-
Medium
+
Large
++
C.S
Sparse/irregular/globular
-
Spreading crown/open semi
dense
+
Spreading dense
++
Type of plant
Deciduous
-
Evergreen
+
L.S.S
Small
-
Medium
+
Large
++
Texture
Smooth
-
Coriaceous
+
Hardiness
Delineate
-
Hardy
+
E.V
Less than three uses
-
Three or four uses
+
Five or more uses
++
E.V-Economic value, C.S.-Canopy structure, L.S.S.-Laminar structure size, *Maximum grades that can be scored by a plant = 16
Table-7: Anticipated performance index of tree species
S. No.
Name
APTI
Socio
economic
Total
plus
%
scoring
API
grade
Assessment
category
1
Eucalyptus oblique
-
10
10
63
4
Good
2
Alstonia scholaris
-
8
8
50
2
Poor
3
F. virens
-
5
5
31
1
Very poor
4
Azadirachta indica
-
7
7
44
2
Poor
5
F.religiosa
-
9
9
56
3
Moderate
6
F. benjamina
-
8
8
50
2
Poor
7
F. benghalensis
-
8
8
50
2
Poor
8
Mangifera indica
-
8
8
50
2
Poor
9
Syzygium cumini
-
6
6
38
1
Very poor
10
Ziziphus mauritiana
-
6
6
38
1
Very poor
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
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Table-8: Anticipated performance index of shrub species.
S. No.
Shrub species
APTI
Socio
economic
Total
plus
% scoring
API
grade
Assessment
category
1
Bougainvillea glabra
-
10
10
63
4
Good
2
Rosa indica
-
4
4
25
0
Not
recommended
3
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
-
7
7
44
2
Poor
4
Calliandra
haematocephala
-
6
6
38
1
Very poor
5
Hamelia patens
-
6
6
38
1
Very poor
6
Tecoma stans
-
6
6
38
1
Very poor
7
Jatropha integerrima
-
9
9
56
3
Moderate
8
Nerium oleander
-
9
9
56
3
Moderate
9
Lantana
camara
-
6
6
56
2
Poor
10
Gelsemium
sempervirens
-
5
5
31
1
Very poor
Table-9: Anticipated performance index of herb species.
S. No
Herb species
APTI
Socio
economic
Total plus
%
scoring
API grade
Assessment category
1
Tagetes erecta
-
5
5
31
1
Very poor
2
Catharanthus roseus
-
8
8
50
2
Poor
3
Crinum latifolium
-
9
9
56
3
Moderate
4
Helianthus
Annuus
-
6
6
38
1
Very poor
5
Organum marjorana
-
6
6
38
1
Very poor
6
Chenopodium album
-
4
4
25
0
Not recommended
7
Amaranthus spinosus
-
3
3
18
0
Not recommended
8
Taraxacum officinale
-
5
5
31
1
Very poor
9
Solanum nigrum
-
5
5
31
1
Very poor
10
Croton bonplandianus
-
4
4
25
0
Not recommended
Graph-1: Total chlorophyll content of different plant species in campus area.
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
39
Graph-2: Relative water content of different plant species in campus area.
Graph-3: Potential of hydrogen ion concentration of different plant species in campus area.
Graph-4: Ascorbic acid content of different plant species in campus.
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research 2(2): (2015): 3241
40
The present study also reveals that evaluation of anticipated
performance index (API) of plant species is useful in the
selection of suitable plant species for urban green belt
development.
In the present study according to table 7, 8 and 9, tree
species (Eucalyptus oblique) and shrub species
(Bougainvillea glabra) is considered as good whereas tree
species (F.religiosa), shrub species (Jatropha integerrima
and Nerium oleander)and herb species (Crinum
latifolium) is considered as moderate species respectively.
Therefore present study indicates tree species (Eucalypytus
oblique) and shrub species (Bougainvillea glabra) are
accepted to perform well for the development of “Green
belt” in campus area.
Conclusion
With the increase in air pollution, evaluation of APTI is
very important in landscaping. Landscaping is based on the
values of air pollution tolerance index, so it should be done
on the basis of tolerance or sensitivity to air pollution of
plant species. Therefore,tree species (Ziziphus mauritiana,
Syzygium cumini,Mangifera indica) and shrub species
(Calliandra haematocephala,Gelsemum sempervirens,
Nerium oleander) as well as herb species (Chenopodium
album,Crinum latifolium,Amaranthus spinosus) are very
important in landscaping of campus area. The present study
also reveals that evaluation of anticipated performance
index (API) of plant species is useful in the selection of
suitable plant species for urban green belt development.
Present study indicates tree species (Eucalypytus oblique)
and shrub species (Bougainvillea glabra) are accepted to
perform well for the development of “Green belt” in campus
area of university, Rohtak, Haryana. Among the different
plant species selected for study of tolerant plant species, tree
species (Ziziphus mauritiana), shrub species (Calliandra
haematocephala)and herb species (Chenopodium album)
can effectively be used for the air pollution amelioration
purposes.
Acknowledgments
Authors wish to acknowledge Department of Environmental
Science, MDU Rohtak for accomplishment and providing
facilities to carry out the present study.
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... Higher level of ascorbic acid content was reported in various studies that provide support to our study such as Kaur and Nayyar (2014), Ogunkunle et al. (2015), Sharma et al. (2019) (Table 2). Dhankhar et al. (2015) reported that air pollution increases the cell permeability in plants which causes dissolution of nutrients, loss of water and early senescence of leaves. Relative water content of plant leaves is directly associated with protoplasmic permeability and high percentage in stress conditions making plants tolerant to air pollutants (Achakzai et al. 2017;Bahadoran et al. 2019). ...
... Bora and Joshi (2014) reported that higher pH of leaves extract increases the air pollution tolerance level in plants. The present result is supported by previous studies such as Pathak et al. (2011), Kulkarni and Ingawale (2014), Dhankhar et al. (2015) and Aji et al. (2015). ...
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... High water content in plants enables the plant to dilute acidity that may occur in the cytoplasm of leaf cells [36]. The status of leaf water in plants is directly linked to numerous physiological conditions such as respiration, transpiration, and growth [37]. ...
... Study on air pollution biomonitoring in an urban area of Varanasi by [73] recommended Ficus infectoria as the best performers while Mangifera indica and Ficus religiosa were classified into the excellent performer category. [19] study indicates tree species (Eucalypytus oblique) and shrub species (Bougainvillea glabra) are accepted to perform well for the development of ―Green belt‖ in campus area of university, Rohtak, Haryana. The study also reveals that evaluation of anticipated performance index (API) of plant species is useful in the selection of suitable plant species for urban green belt development. ...
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Air pollution has been aggravated by developments that typically occur as countries become industrialized: growing cities, increasing traffic, rapid economic development and industrialization, and higher energy consumption. The development of sustainable and cost effective technologies for air pollution abatement is one of the promising areas of research. The quest of an alternative eco-friendly technology relating to restoration of urban ecosystem has resulted in the study of influence of air pollutants on plants as an integral part of pollution ecology. Although, review relating to use of plant species in controlling air pollution have been carried, but extensive review on the use of anatomical, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of plants of urban forest as biomarkers of air pollution has not been done. The objective of this paper is to review the responses of plants to air pollution.
Chapter
During the past few years several thermal power plants have been commissioned in India to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of pollutants is released in the atmosphere on combustion of bituminous coal. These pollutants include CO, SO2, NOx, flyash and particulate matters, that are known to paralyse the normal performance of vegetation (see review, Treshow, 1984; Alscher & Wellburn, 1994; Yunus & Iqbal, 1996; Dhir et al., 1999; Iqbal et al., 1999a,b; Agrawal & Agrawal, 2000). The present study deals with the long term exposure effect of thermal power plant emissions on Cassia sophera L. (a common annual shrub) as analysed at pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering stages of the plant and in relation to increasing distance between plant population and the point source of pollution.