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Purpose: The present research attempts to explore the relationship between work-life balance, social support and burnout whether work-life balance and social support might predict burnout. Approach and Methodology: Research data have been collected in five sectors via online survey which is conducted with three 5 points Likert type scales. Multiple regression analysis is applied to obtain predictors of burnout and in order to determine the differences between groups regarding socio-demographic factors, ANOVA analysis is performed via SPSS 20.0 software program. Findings and Results: According to the findings of the research; it could be briefly said that dimensions of work-life balance and social support are predictors of dimensions of burnout. More precisely; emotional support, neglecting life, life is just working and taking time for oneself dimensions are the predictors of depersonalization. Neglecting life, life is just working, work-life accordance, taking time for oneself and carrying work to home dimensions are the predictors of emotional exhaustion. Informational and instrumental support, neglecting life, work-life accordance and taking time for oneself dimensions are the predictors of personal accomplishment. Neglecting life, work-life accordance and carrying work to home dimensions are the predictors of involvement with people. Contribution and Implications: The need for this research is the absence of any study which consists of work-life balance, social support and burnout together. Therefore, the research aims to fill this gap and seeks to offer a contribution to the extant literature with determining the predictors of burnout. Keywords: Work-life balance, social support, burnout, multiple regression, ANOVA http://hrmars.com/hrmars_papers/Work-Life_Balance_and_Social_Support_as_Predictors_of_Burnout_An_Exploratory_Analysis.pdf
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International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences
2017, Vol. 7, No. 3
ISSN: 2222-6990
117
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Work-Life Balance and Social Support as Predictors of
Burnout: An Exploratory Analysis
1
Türker Tuğsal
Researcher, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey
Email: t.turker@gmail.com
DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2699 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2699
Abstract
Purpose: The present research attempts to explore the relationship between work-life balance,
social support and burnout whether work-life balance and social support might predict
burnout.
Approach and Methodology: Research data have been collected in five sectors via online
survey which is conducted with three 5 points Likert type scales. Multiple regression analysis is
applied to obtain predictors of burnout and in order to determine the differences between
groups regarding socio-demographic factors, ANOVA analysis is performed via SPSS 20.0
software program.
Findings and Results: According to the findings of the research; it could be briefly said that
dimensions of work-life balance and social support are predictors of dimensions of burnout.
More precisely; emotional support, neglecting life, life is just working and taking time for
oneself dimensions are the predictors of depersonalization. Neglecting life, life is just working,
work-life accordance, taking time for oneself and carrying work to home dimensions are the
predictors of emotional exhaustion. Informational and instrumental support, neglecting life,
work-life accordance and taking time for oneself dimensions are the predictors of personal
accomplishment. Neglecting life, work-life accordance and carrying work to home dimensions
are the predictors of involvement with people.
Contribution and Implications: The need for this research is the absence of any study which
consists of work-life balance, social support and burnout together. Therefore, the research aims
to fill this gap and seeks to offer a contribution to the extant literature with determining the
predictors of burnout.
Keywords: Work-life balance, social support, burnout, multiple regression, ANOVA
1. Introduction
Along with scientific management, work and life have become two basic living spaces
that must be maintained together and balanced. In fact, the concept of work-life balance
extends to the early times of the industrial revolution. In those years even nowadays, almost all
1
Derived from doctoral dissertation
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the family members have been working around 12 hours a day and this situation shows that
individuals are living for working instead of working for living. These working conditions express
the degree of the work-life imbalance. Therefore; in recent years, it can be argued that work-
life balance for employees should have better been eight hours of work, eight hours of sleep
and eight hours of rest.
By contrast, in order to make organization’s profitability and productivity sustainable,
employees have begun to spend more time in the workplace or carry work to home. In
addition; there are many factors which affect the work-life balance such as life challenges (child
or elder care and housework, such as cleaning, shopping, etc.), technology, increasing
competition, the need for faster response to internal and external customers, the need for
increased service quality, adaptation to change, increased labor force. As a consequence of the
deterioration of the balance of work life and non-work life; the motivation, job satisfaction, job
loyalty and performance of the employees are affected. If this effect is negative, it is thought
that there may be cognitive, emotional, psychological and behavioral disorders on the
employees. It is observed that providing social support by family, friends, relatives, colleagues,
managers or a significant other one is likely to be effective in eliminating or reducing the
negative effects. In this context, the relation of work-life balance and social support as
predictors of burnout becomes more important for employees and organizations.
Until recently, many researchers focus on work-life balance (Apaydın, 2011; Beauregard
and Henry, 2009; Bruck, Allen and Spector, 2002; Chimote and Srivastava, 2013; Fleetwood,
2007; Friedman, Christensen and DeGroot, 1998; Küçükusta, 2007; Lewis, Gambles and
Rapoport, 2007; Noon and Blyton, 2007; Pichler, 2009; Selvarajan, Cloninger and Singh, 2013;
Subramaniam, Overton and Maniam, 2015; Tuğsal, 2017a; Zedeck, 1987; Zhao, Qu and Liu,
2013); besides, many researchers work on burnout (Adriaenssens, De Gucht and Maes, 2015;
Demir, 2010; Doğan, Laçin and Tutal, 2015; Freudenberger, 1980; Güven, 2013; Li, Ruan and
Yuan, 2015; Maslach and Jackson 1986; Maslach and Leiter, 1997; Maslach, Schaufeli and
Leiter, 2001; McCormack and Cotter, 2013; Pines and Aronson, 1988; Shirom, 1989; Smith,
Segal and Segal, 2012) and some researchers investigate social support (Bolat, 2011; Constable
and Russell, 1986; Eker, Arkar and Yaldız, 2001; Ericson-Lidman and Ahlin,2015; Etzion, 1984;
Krespi, 1993; Kutsal and Bilge, 2012; Nie et al., 2015; Novara, Garro and Di Rienzo, 2015; Ross,
Altmaier and Russell, 1989; Shumaker and Brownell, 1984; Smoktunowicz et al., 2015; Torun,
1995; Tuğsal, 2017b; Woodhead, Northrop and Edelstein, 2014; Yürür and Sarıkaya, 2011;
Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet and Farley, 1988).
Based on the findings of the investigations, it is seen that the types of social support are
related to the dimensions of burnout. Owing to social observations and field studies; work and
life balance, social support, and socio-demographic factors can influence the burnout status of
individuals.
At this point, it is necessary here to clarify that the research has certain limitations. First
of all, research is limited to retail, logistics, industry, education and service sector employees.
Since flexible work is common in these sectors, it is assumed that it should play a more decisive
role in the perception of work-life balance and burnout compared to other sectors. Secondly,
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due to the fact that the concept of social support, work-life balance and burnout in the research
can not be explained by a single factor in confirmatory factor analysis, descriptive factor
analysis is tried to be explained with the interrelationships between dimensions at subscale
level. Finally, one criticism of much of the literature on burnout is determining the predictors.
As a consequence of burnout embodies multitude of concepts, many of the studies reviewed so
far, however, suffers from the fact that there is no agreement on predictors of burnout. This
research seeks to offer a contribution by fill this gap by determining predictors of burnout.
The remainder of the paper proceeds as follows. In the following section, the review of
the work-life balance, social support and burnout literature are reiterated. Furthermore, the
effects on individuals and organizations are tried to be explained in the theoretical framework.
Section 3 shows the research model, approach, methodology, analysis and findings. Finally,
Section 4 concludes the results.
2. Theoretical Framework and Review of the Literature
Most studies in the field of burnout have only investigate the relationship with work-life
balance (Chimote and Srivastava, 2013; Pichler, 2009). Alternative studies of the origins of
social support and burnout relationship can be found in Constable and Russell (1986), Ericson-
Lidman and Ahlin (2015), Kutsal and Bilge (2012), Nie et al. (2015), Ross, Altmaier and Russell
(1989) and Torun (1995). Tuğsal (2017) has also questioned the linkage between work-life
accordance and burnout. By contrast, little progress has been made and no single research
exists that explores social support, work-life balance and burnout relations together. In this
context it is thought that this research will contribute to the literature. In this part of the study,
the paper opens with definitions of the concepts of work-life balance, social support and
burnout; besides, the theoretical parameters are reiterated.
2.1. Work-Life Balance
Work-life balance is a term frequently used in the literature, however there is a need to
be explicit about exactly what is meant by the concept work-life balance. Pichler (2009, p. 461)
broadly describes life as non-work time. A further definition of work-life balance according to
Lockwood (2003, cited in Apaydın, 2011) is; the state of equivalence of a person's work
demands and personal life demands. According to another definition of life balance; it is used
solely when referring the state of non-existence of conflict between work life and family life
(Friedman, Christensen and DeGroot, 1998).
Many researches have been done to determine variables that predict work-life balance
in the literature. The researches on work-life balance concepts mostly focuses on flexible work,
family, demographic changes and rest time (Dex and Bond, 2005, cited in Pichler, 2009;
MacInnes, 2006). Variables explaining work-life balance can best be treated under four
headings: occupation, working conditions, housework and leisure time (Crooker, Smith and
Tabak, 2002; Noor, 2003; Pichler, 2009).
On the other hand; work-life integration is beneficial to either employees or
organizations. These benefits include protecting employee health in an individual sense;
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furthermore, in the organizational sense it is expected that productivity could increase.
Likewise; Thompson, Beauvais and Lyness (1999, p. 393) point out that in organizations that do
not support work-life balance practices; the productivity of employees decreases. Whereas;
Petchsawang and Morris (2005, p. 114) state that in work-life balance practices leader or
colleague support is effective.
According to some researchers, it is a widely held view that work-life balance affects
employee turnover, absenteeism and motivation in the organization (Parris, Vicker and Wilkes,
2008; Veiga, Baldrigde and Eddleston, 2004).
2.2. Concept of Social Support and Theoretical Basis
Numerous terms are used to describe social support; the most common of which is the
beneficial social interactions between managers and colleagues in the organization (Karasek
and Theorell, 1990, p. 6). Brown, Prashantham and Abbott (2003) contend about the burnout of
employees that social support provided from managers and colleagues have more influence on
buffering employees’ burnout. Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet and Farley (1988) list social support
resources as family, friends, and significant other; besides in business life in organizational
context social support sources are considered as colleagues and managers.
According to the antecedent researches of Armsden and Greenberg (1987), Bayram
(1999), Cheng (1997) and Soylu (2002) there is a significant relationship between social support
and depression and stress. According to some researchers, men have higher levels of social
support than their spouses (Reevy and Maslach, 2001; Vaux, 1985).
Regarding the effects of social support to employees; it is suggested that social support
has positive health benefits (Boren and Veksler, 2011). In premise studies it is expressed that
social support has buffering effect on work stress and burnout (Haines, Hurlbert and Zimmer,
1991; Johnson and Hall, 1988; Van der Doef and Maes, 1999). On the other hand, in the field of
burnout, it is claimed that social support has direct effect and indirect effect, in other words
mediating effect (Jenkins and Elliott, 2004; Schaufeli and Greenglass, 2001). In another study,
Keeton et al. (2007) have found an inverse relationship between social support and burnout.
According to Kossek, Baltes and Matthews (2011) recieving social support from managers can
give rise to work-life balance.
2.3. Burnout
Although extensive researches have been carried out on burnout, there appears to be
some agreement on definition. The term burnout has been used to refer to the situations like
“physical fatigue, emotional exhaustion and cognitive fatigue" (Shirom, 1989, p. 33). More
recently Schaufeli and Greenglass (2001, p. 501) also describe burnout as physical, emotional
and mental exhaustion. According to Maslach, Schaufeli and Leiter (2001) burnout consists of
three dimensions which are called emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal
accomplishment. First subscale emotional exhaustion refers to the exhaustion of the individual
to work. Second subscale depersonalization is the result of the employee being exhausted
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towards the service recipient. Third subscale personal accomplishment refers to the lack of
resources.
The terms of burnout, stress and depression are generally confused with each other. In
fact, burnout might differ with its symptoms. Burnout symptoms are claimed as physical
exhaustion and emotional ejaculation (Constable and Russell, 1986; Pines, Aronson and Kafry,
1981). More recently, McCormack and Cotter (2013, p. 17) refer to burnout symptoms as
changes on behaviors, emotions, thoughts and health. Furthermore; there is some evidence to
suggest that without work-life balance emotional exhaustion and depersonalization levels of
individuals could probably be high (Umene-Nakano et al., 2013).
3. Methodology and the Research Model
In the present study multiple regression analysis is applied via SPSS 20.0 software
program. In exploratory researches while using Stepwise technique, software program itself
decides in which order to include the independent variables to the model. While using Stepwise
technique Backward method is preferred in order to decrease the probability of Type II error.
In the following section, first reliability and explanatory factor analysis are performed.
Afterwards, in order to determine the mean differences between groups regarding socio-
demographic factors, ANOVA analysis is performed via SPSS 20.0 software program. So as to
obtain which groups differ from other, Tukey and Games-Howell post-hoc comparisons are
analyzed.
Figure 1. Multiple Regression Model of the Research
Model of the research is a multiple regression model consisting of three concepts which
are work-life balance, social support and burnout. Burnout here represents the dependent
variable; work-life balance and Social support represent independent variables. Doing so allows
us to investigate the validity of aforementioned argument about determining the predictors of
burnout. In theory, there are studies researching the relationship between work-life balance
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and burnout; moreover, social support and burnout. On the contrary it could not have been
seen any study researching work-life balance, social support and burnout together. This
research intends to fill this gap. In the literature multiple regression analysis seems to be
applied in the investigated researches. The differences in practice stem from researchers'
preferences for hierarchical or logistic regression analysis. However, since the problem of this
research is work-life balance, social support and burnout; and the reason why it is a kind of
exploratory research; stepwise method (İslamoğlu and Alnıaçık, 2014, p. 367) is preferred.
Constable and Russell (1986) also used Maslach and Jackson's (1986) burnout scale and since it
was also not explained by a single factor; Constable and Russell (1986) in their research too
have analyzed depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment factors
separately with three dimensions of business environment and four dimensions of social
support. It is necessary here to clarify exactly that multiple regression model is analyzed in
inter-component level. For example; one of the regression model consists of depersonalization,
emotional support and neglecting life. Therefore, it is suggested to be evaluated in this way.
3.1. Research Population and the Sample
The research was carried out in 5 sectors. These are retail, education, service, industry
and logistics sectors. As the frequency distribution of employees' ages are examined, it is seen
that 101 employees are between 18-29 years, 88 employees are between 30-39 years, 53
employees are between 40-55 years and 18 employees are 56 or older. 118 of the employees
are single and 134 of them are married. Besides, 9 employees are divorced.
According to monthly total income level, 40 of the employees’ income level is between
0-1,500TL representing approximately minimum wage level; 83 employees’ income level is
between 1.501-3.000TL, 67 employees income level is between 3.001-5.000 TL and the income
level of 70 employees is over 5,001TL.
3.2. Reliability Analysis of the Measurement Tools
In this section of the research, first of all reliability analysis of three scales related to the
three concepts is performed. Reliability analysis of the Social Support Scale (Torun, 1995),
Work-Life Balance Scale (Apaydın, 2011) and reliability analysis of the Turkish version (Ergin,
1992) of the Burnout Scale of Maslach and Jackson (1986) are analyzed.
The Cronbach's Alpha value calculated as a result of the reliability analysis of the Social
Support Scale is .959; therefore, it could be said that the reliability of the scale is high. As a
result of the reliability analysis of the Burnout Scale, Cronbach's Alpha value is measured as
.844. Therefore, it is almost certain to claim that the reliability of the scale is high.
For all three scales, exploratory factor analysis is required because confirmatory factor
analysis could not be explained by a single factor. It is suggested that KMO coefficient should be
interpreted as results between .70 and .80 are good; and results between .80 and .90 are
excellent. Furthermore, the adequacy of sampling between .90 and 1.00 should be expressed
perfectly (İslamoğlu and Alnıaçık, 2014, p. 403). Moreover; in order to apply factor analysis, the
result of the Bartlett sphericity test should be significant (p <.05) (İslamoğlu and Alnıaçık, 2014,
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p. 396). KMO value of the social support scale is .956; KMO value of the work-life balance scale
is .903; and KMO value of the burnout scale is calculated .908. Consequently, adequacy of
sampling is excellent. The Bartlett sphericity test results are also statistically significant (p
<.001).
Although there are three factors at the original social support scale, as a result of the
exploratory factor analysis in this research, varimax perpendicular rotation technique is applied
and social support is explained with 2 factors. Adhering to the original scale items, the first
factor is named as emotional support, the second factor is named as informational and
instrumental support. Emotional support, the first factor in the model, explains 59.252% of the
total variance. The second factor, informational and instrumental support explains 7.095% of
the variance. The calculated cumulative variance of the Social support scale is 66.347%.
In the same way, explanatory factor analysis is required for work-life balance scale
because as a result of the confirmatory factor analysis scale is likely not be explained by one
factor. As a result of the explanatory factor analysis, factors 6 and 7 are represented by one
item. Due to the fact that a factor could not be explained statistically in one expression; after
subtracting item 6 and item 10 which are describing the 6th and the 7th factors, the
explanatory factor analysis is performed again. The first factor is neglecting life, the second
factor is life is just working, the third factor is work-life accordance, and the fourth factor is
taking time for oneself. The fifth factor which is explained as an additional explanatory factor
analysis in the study, is named as carrying work to home adhering to the relevant scale items.
The first factor neglecting life in the model is explained by 32.128% of the total variance. The
second factor is explained by 8.561% of the total variance. The third factor is explained by the
6.404%; and the fourth factor is explained by 5.208%. The last factor carrying work to home is
explained by 4.668% of the total variance. The calculated cumulative variance of the work-life
balance scale is 56.968%.
Likewise work-life balance scale and social support scale, explanatory analysis is
required also for burnout scale. As a consequence of the analysis, the first factor in the model
depersonalization explains 40.269% of the total variance. The second factor emotional
exhaustion explains 12.34%; the third factor personal accomplishment explains 6.806%; and the
fourth factor involvement with people explains 5.179%. The calculated cumulative variance of
the burnout scale is 64.594%.
Table 1. Model Summary of Regression Analysis
R
R2
SE
Durbin-Watson
Depersonalization
.571
.326
.8272
1.912
Emotional Exhaustion
.599
.346
.8087
2.099
Personal Accomplishment
.570
.325
.8297
1.931
Involvement With People
.362
.131
.9413
1.920
According to the results of the regression analysis, independent variables explain 32.6%
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of the variance of depersonalization; 34.6% of the variance of emotional exhaustion; 32.5% of
the variance of the personal accomplishment; and 13.1% of the variance of the involvement
with people. As seen on the Table 1, Durbin-Watson results are very close to 2. Therefore, it
could be contended that independence of the error terms precondition is accepted.
Table 2. ANOVA Results of Regression Analysis
F
Depersonalization
30.764
Emotional Exhaustion
28.302
Personal Accomplishment
24.359
Involvement With People
7.630
ANOVA test results Express that model almost best fits to data. Furthermore,
significance levels confirm that regression model is statistically significant at p<.001 level. In
other words, it can be claimed that regression model is statistically significant to predict the
dependent variable. Besides, statistically significant predictors are shown on Table 3.
Table 3. Stepwise Regression Analysis Findings
Depersonalization
Emotional
Exhaustion
Personal
Accomplishment
Involvement With
People
Emotional Support
.124**
-
-
-
Informational and Instrumental
Support
-
-
.140**
-
Neglecting Life
-.222*
-.169**
-.435*
.213**
Life is Just Working
-.361*
-.167**
-
-
Work-Life Accordance
-
-.234*
.238*
.134**
Taking Time for Oneself
-.417*
-.402*
.155**
-
Carrying Work to Home
-
.300
-
.155**
* p<.001
** p<.05
Table 3 briefly shows that when the effects of other variables are kept constant; how
the dependent variable would change if independent variable level increases 1 level.
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Figure 2. Stepwise Regression Analysis and the Predictors of Depersonalization
To summarize the results of the first model; it is seen that neglecting life, life is just
working and taking time for oneself factors of work-life balance; and emotional support factor
of social support are the predictors of depersonalization dimension of burnout. It is seen that
32.8% of the variance is explained by independent variables in the model.
When the effects of other variables are kept constant; if emotional support level
increases 1 unit; it is observed that there is significant decrease of .124 units (p <.05) at
depersonalization level. Besides; should neglecting life level increases 1 unit; it is observed that
there is significant decrease of .222 units (p <.01) at depersonalization level. Moreover; if life is
just working level increases 1 unit; it is observed that there is significant decrease of .361 units
(p <.01) at depersonalization level. Furthermore; if taking time for oneself level increases 1 unit;
it is observed that there is significant decrease of .417 units (p <.01) at depersonalization level.
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Figure 3. Stepwise Regression Analysis and the Predictors of Emotional Exhaustion
As seen on Figure 3 neglecting life, life is just working, work-life accordance, taking time
for oneself and carrying work to home factors of work-life balance are the predictors of
emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. It is seen that 35.9% of the variance is explained
by independent variables in the model.
Whether the effects of other variables are kept constant; if neglecting life level increases
1 unit; it is observed that there is significant decrease of .169 units (p <.01) at emotional
exhaustion level. Additionally; if life is just working level increases 1 unit; it is observed that
there is significant decrease of .167 units (p <.01) at emotional exhaustion level. Should work-
life accordance level increases 1 unit; it is observed that there is significant decrease of .234
units (p <.01) at emotional exhaustion level. Moreover, if taking time for oneself level increases
1 unit; it is observed that there is significant decrease of .402 units (p <.01) at emotional
exhaustion level. On the contrary; should carrying work to home level increases 1 unit; it is
observed that there is significant increase of .300 units (p <.01) at emotional exhaustion level.
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Figure 4. Stepwise Regression Analysis and the Predictors of Personal Accomplishment
On Figure 4 it is seen that neglecting life, work-life accordance and taking time for
oneself factors of work-life balance and informational and instrumental support factor of social
support are the predictors of personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. It is seen that
32.5% of the variance is explained by independent variables in the model.
Providing that the effects of other variables are kept constant; if neglecting life level
increases 1 unit; it is observed that there is significant decrease of .435 units (p <.01) at
personal accomplishment level. On the contrary, should work-life accordance level increases 1
unit; it is observed that there is significant decrease of .238 units (p <.01) at personal
accomplishment level. Furthermore, if taking time for oneself level increases 1 unit; it is
observed that there is significant increase of .155 units (p <.01) at personal accomplishment
level. Besides; should informational and instrumental support level increases 1 unit; it is
observed that there is significant increase of .140 units (p <.05) at personal accomplishment
level.
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Figure 5. Stepwise Regression Analysis and the Predictors of Involvement with People
As seen on Figure 5 neglecting life, work-life accordance and carrying work to home
factors of work-life balance are the predictors of involvement with people dimension of
burnout. It is seen that 13.1% of the variance is explained by independent variables in the
model.
As long as the effects of other variables are kept constant; if neglecting life level
increases 1 unit; it is observed that there is significant increase of .213 units (p <.01) at
involvement with people level. Furthermore; should work-life accordance level increases 1 unit;
it is observed that there is significant increase of .134 units (p <.05) at involvement with people
level. In addition; if carrying work to home level increases 1 unit; it is observed that there is
significant increase of .155 units (p <.01) at involvement with people level.
3.3. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) and Findings
This part of the research presents the analysis of the socio-demographic factors in light
of the studies in the literature. Factors that cause employees experience burnout are;
demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status and education, personality traits and
work-related behavioral patterns.
Socio-demographic factors are analyzed according to the results of one-way analysis of
variance in relation to social support and burnout. Age, total monthly income and marital status
are the socio-demographic factors which has statistically significant differences (p <.05)
between the groups.
3.3.1. Differences Between Employees’ Burnout and Social Support Levels Regarding
Age
Inhomogeneous variance values are taken into account according to the homogeneity
test results of the variances. According to ANOVA results, informational and instrumental
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support (p <.05), depersonalization (p <.001) and personal accomplishment (p <.05) are found
statistically significant; others are not significant.
Table 4. Differences Between Employees’ Burnout and Social Support Levels Regarding Age
Dependent Variable
Age
Age
Mean Difference
p
Informational and Instrumental Support
56 and
above
18-29
.68
.010
30-39
.53
.061
40-55
.74
.011
Depersonalization
18-29
30-39
.38
.029
40-55
.75
.000
56 and above
.83
.013
Personal Accomplishment
56 and
above
18-29
.70
.001
30-39
.48
.032
40-55
.36
.150
According to the results of the Games-Howell post-hoc tests conducted to determine
age differences, the informational and instrumental support levels of employees in the age
group of 56 and above are .68 units higher (p ≤ 0.01) than the informational and instrumental
support levels of employees in the 18-29 age range. Besides; .74 units higher than employees in
the 40-55 age group and it is statistically significant (p <.05).
In this study the results obtained are supporting antecedent researches findings. In the
study of Kahn et al. (2006, p. 800) the level of depersonalization was found to be higher in
younger teachers than those who worked for many years. In this study, the levels of
depersonalization of employees between the ages of 18-29 are higher by .38 unit (p <.05) than
the levels of depersonalization of employees between 30-39 years of age; .75 units higher than
the level of depersonalization of employees in the 40-55 age range (p <.001); .83 units higher
than the depersonalization level of employees aged 56 and above (p<.05) and all are
statistically significant. A possible explanation for this result might be the avoidance and
shyness of the young and inexperienced employees and the fear of making mistakes.
Personal accomplishment levels of employees 56 and above are .70 units higher
(p≤.001) than those of employees 18-29 years of age; .48 units higher than the personal
accomplishment level of employees in the 30-39 age range and it is statistically significant (p
<.05).
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3.3.2. Differences Between Employees’ Burnout and Social Support Levels Regarding
Marital Status
According to the marital status variable, there is no significant difference between the
groups in the levels of the emotional support and involvement with people dimensions (p> .05).
Dimensions which have statistically significant differences (p <.05) between groups according to
their marital status are informational and instrumental support, depersonalization, emotional
exhaustion and personal accomplishment.
Table 5. Differences Between Employees’ Burnout and Social Support Levels Regarding Marital
Status
Dependent Variable
Marital Status
Marital Status
Mean Difference
p
Informational and Instrumental
Support
Married
Single
.3056
.040
Divorced
.4668
.359
Depersonalization
Married
Single
-.3583
.013
Divorced
-.0492
.989
Emotional Exhaustion
Married
Single
-.4192
.002
Divorced
-.6791
.111
Personal Accomplishment
Married
Single
.3508
.017
Divorced
.1738
.898
According to the result of the Tukey test to determine the difference between the
marital status of the employees, the informational and instrumental support of married
employees is .3056 units higher than the informational and instrumental support levels of
single employees and it is statistically significant (p <.05).
According to the result of the Tukey test to determine the difference between the
marital status of the employees, the level of depersonalization of married employees is .3583
units lower than that of single employees and it is statistically significant (p = .013).
There have been researches which have found that married employees feel emotional
exhaustion at a higher level than married employees (Ross, Altmaier and Russell, 1989).
Research findings do not support the study of Ross, Altmaier and Russell (1989).
According to the result of the Tukey test to determine the difference between the marital
status of the employees, the level of emotional exhaustion of married employees is .4192 units
lower than the emotional exhaustion level of single employees and it is statistically significant
(p = .002).
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According to the results of the Games-Howell test to determine the difference between
the marital status of the employees, it is seen that there is a statistically significant difference (p
= .017) in the level of taking time for oneself between the married and single employees.
3.3.3. Differences Between Employees’ Burnout and Social Support Levels Regarding
Monthly Total Income
Although differences of opinion still exist, there appears to be some consensus on
monthly income refers to salary. However, in the present research monthly total income refers
to the sum of monthly salary and additional incomes such as interest income, rent income,
family allowance and other kind of income. Dimensions which have statistically significant (p
<.05) differences between the groups according to their monthly total income are the
informational and instrumental support, depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and personal
accomplishment.
Table 6. Differences Between Employees’ Burnout and Social Support Levels Regarding Monthly
Total Income
Dependent Variable
Monthly Total Income
Monthly Total Income
Mean Difference
p
Informational and Instrumental
Support
0-1,500TL
1,501TL-3,000TL
-.4789
.052
3,001TL-5,000TL
-.6418
.006
5,001TL and above
-.8771
.000
Depersonalization
3,001TL-5,000TL
0-1,500TL
-.7683
.000
1,501TL-3,000TL
-.4524
.009
5,001TL and above
.2446
.404
Emotional Exhaustion
0-1,500TL
1,501TL-3,000TL
.4882
.126
3,001TL-5,000TL
.5969
.036
5,001TL and above
.7196
.011
Personal Accomplishment
5,001TL and above
0-1,500TL
.8017
.004
1,501TL-3,000TL
-.0462
.988
3,001TL-5,000TL
.3117
.165
For informational and instrumental support, the Tukey test is performed because the
variance homogeneity test is not significant (p = .132). According to the result of the Tukey test
to determine the difference between the income levels of the employees, informational and
instrumental support level of employees whose monthly total income is between 0 and 1,500
TL are -.6418 units lower than employees whose monthly total income is between 3,001 and
5,000 TL; moreover, -.8771 lower than employees whose monthly total income is between
5,001 TL and above and it is statistically significant (p <.05).
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Due to the fact that the variance homogeneity test for the dimension of
depersonalization is p <.05; the Games-Howell test is performed. According to the results of the
Games-Howell test, there is a significant difference (p <.05) between the level of
depersonalization of employees with a monthly total income of 3,001TL to 5,000TL and the
level of depersonalization levels of employees between 1,501TL and 3,000TL.
According to the results of the Games-Howell test for the emotional exhaustion
dimension, it is seen that there is statistically significant difference (p <.05) between the levels
of the employees with monthly total income of 0-1,500 TL and the employees with monthly
total income of 3,001 TL-5,000 TL and those 5,001 TL and above. So; emotional exhaustion
levels of employees with a monthly total income of 0-1,500 TL are .7196 units higher than those
have monthly total income of 5,001 TL and above.
According to the results of the Games-Howell test for the personal accomplishment
dimension, there is a significant difference (p <.05) between the employees with monthly total
income of 0-1,500TL and the personal accomplishment levels of employees with total monthly
income of 5,001TL and above.
4. Conclusion
The research aimed to explore whether work-life balance and social support can the
predict burnout. Therefore; work-life balance, social support and burnout literature are firstly
reviewed in the paper. Afterwards, the effects on individuals and organizations are tried to be
explained in the theoretical framework. As mentioned afore, this is an exploratory research;
therefore, multiple regression analysis has been done with stepwise technique. To sum up, the
contribution of the research to the extant literature is determining the predictors of burnout.
According to the findings of the research; emotional support, neglecting life, life is just
working and taking time for oneself dimensions are the predictors of depersonalization.
Neglecting life, life is just working, work-life accordance, taking time for oneself and carrying
work to home dimensions are the predictors of emotional exhaustion. Informational and
instrumental support, neglecting life, work-life accordance and taking time for oneself
dimensions are the predictors of personal accomplishment. Neglecting life, work-life
accordance and carrying work to home dimensions are the predictors of involvement with
people.
With regard to depersonalization, emotional support dimension has converse impact;
however neglecting life, life is just working and taking time for oneself dimensions have positive
effect on depersonalization. Regarding to emotional exhaustion; carrying work to home
dimension has positive impact. By contrast; neglecting life, life is just working, work-life
accordance and taking time for oneself dimensions have inverse effect on emotional
exhaustion. Concerning to personal accomplishment, neglecting life dimension has adverse
impact. On the contrary; informational and instrumental support, work-life accordance and
taking time for oneself dimensions have positive effect on personal accomplishment. With
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respect to involvement with people dimension; neglecting life, work-life accordance and
carrying work to home dimensions have positive impact.
Regarding socio-demographic factors; there are statistically significant differences (p
<.05) between groups of age, marital status and monthly total income. Informational and
instrumental support, depersonalization and personal accomplishment are the groups which
might differ with respect to age. Furthermore; informational and instrumental support,
depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are the groups that
may differ in terms of marital status. Likewise marital status; the same groups could differ with
regard to monthly total income.
Last but not least, the results of the research may provide justifications. It needs to be
supported by different researches; therefore, it should be interpreted with caution.
For further research, it is believed that it would be interesting to find out the
relationship between burnout, work-life balance, workaholicism and personality types. Besides,
a new ground for further researches might be social support sources. Relations could be
searched on the basis of social support sources which are family, friends, spouse, significant
other one or colleagues instead of social support types.
Finally; for practitioners, it might be recommended that structural equation model could
be attempted for more complex research models although most common method used in the
extant literature is multiple regression model.
Corresponding Author
Türker Tuğsal, Researcher, School of Applied Sciences, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey,
t.turker@gmail.com
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The pandemic of COVID-19 has influenced business in general. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, most companies or organizations have been implementing work from home (WFH). For working mothers who have children, this WFH policy creates a more stressful situation since they simultaneously have to deal with work and family in the same place. This study investigated the role of work-life balance and perceived organizational support in the level of burnout tendency among working mothers. Two hundred thirty-seven working mothers who work from home participated in this study. Questionnaires were distributed to the working mothers to measure work-life balance, perceived organizational support, and burnout tendency. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypothesis. The results show work-life balance and perceived organizational support simultaneously predict burnout tendency. However, perceived organization support, especially a concern for employee welfare, contributes more to reducing burnout. Therefore, human resource management may develop a policy to reduce burnout among women employees by concerning employee welfare in terms of compensation and benefit and creating a conducive working environment
... Stress levels are workload, staff management, and work with parents related to the daily work of school principals are the main causes of imbalance. According to Tuğsal (2017), imbalances in work and personal life can be cognitive, behavioral, emotional, or psychological. Work-related stress levels have negative consequences when they negatively affect principals' health and well-being. ...
... The second most common self-reported stressor was relationship conflicts in a person's private life, and the third most common self-reported stressor was emotional demands at work. Additionally, work-family conflicts are important for stress reactions [43] and burnout [44]. An increasing number of individuals struggle with the challenges of fulfilling responsibilities at home and at work [45], which can lead to work-family conflict (i.e., stress reactions both during the day and evening with few opportunities for stress recovery). ...
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Burnout is common in many countries and is associated with several other problems such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, and memory deficits, and prospectively it predicts long-term sick-leave, cardiovascular disease, and death. Clinical burnout or its residual symptoms often last several years and a common assumption is that recovery takes a long time by nature, despite full time sick-leave and the absence of work stress. The literature suggests models that hypothetically explain the development, but not maintenance, of the syndrome. Based on cognitive and behavioral principles, stress research, and stress theories, this paper describes a theoretical model explaining how clinical burnout can develop and be maintained. While the development of clinical burnout is mainly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to work related stress-ors, maintenance of the syndrome is particularly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to the new context of experiencing burnout and being on sick-leave. Worry about acquired memory deficits, passivity and excessive sleep, shame, fear of stress reactions, and the perception of not being safe are examples of responses that can contribute to the maintenance. The model has important implications for research and how to intervene in clinical burnout. For example, it can offer support to professional care providers and patients in terms of focusing on, identifying, and changing current contextual factors and behaviors that maintain the individ-ual's clinical burnout symptoms and by that facilitate burnout recovery. Regarding research, the model provides a highly important reason for researchers to study contextual factors and behaviors that contribute to the maintenance of clinical burnout, which has been neglected in research.
... The second most common self-reported stressor was relationship conflicts in a person's private life, and the third most common self-reported stressor was emotional demands at work. Also, work-family conflicts are important for stress reactions [54] and burnout [55]. An increasing number of individuals struggle with the challenges of fulfilling responsibilities at home and at work [56], which can lead to work-family conflict, i.e., stress reactions both during the day and evening with few opportunities for stress recovery. ...
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Burnout is common in many countries and is associated with several other problems, such as depression, anxiety, insomnia and memory deficits, and prospectively it predicts long-term sick-leave, cardiovascular disease and death. Clinical burnout or its residual symptoms often last several years and a common assumption is that recovery takes a long time by nature despite full time sick-leave and absence of work stress. Literature suggests models that hypothetically explain the development, but not maintenance, of the syndrome. Based on cognitive and behavioral principles and stress theory this paper describes a theoretical model explaining how clinical burnout can develop and be maintained. While the development of clinical burnout is mainly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to work related stressors, maintenance of the syndrome is particularly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to the new context of experiencing burnout and being on sick-leave. Worry about acquired memory deficits, passivity and excessive sleep, shame, fear of stress reactions, and the perception of not being safe are examples of responses that can contribute to the maintenance. The model has important implications for research and how to intervene clinical burnout.
... Further research studied the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout (Hooigard, Giske,& Sundsli, 2011;Arslan & Acar,2013); work engagement, workaholism and burnout (Stoeber & Damian, 2016;Schaufeli, Taris & Rhenen, 2008); workaholism, work engagement, and well-being (Shimazu & Schaufeli, 2009); workaholism, work-life conflict, and life satisfaction (Bonebright, Clay & Ankenmann, 2000); work-family life relations and burnout (Tuğsal & Ülgen, 2017;Troppmann & Troppmann, 2012;Özkin, 2015); however, only a thesis study conducted on workaholism, work-family conflict, burnout (Macit, 2015) has been found. ...
Chapter
Careers in research come with many challenges that can hinder or foster your professional and personal goals. One of those challenges involves developing and maintaining a work–life balance that allows you to thrive in your work (and in your nonwork life). Early career researchers are often navigating demanding timelines, unconventional work schedules, and intense pressure to achieve tangible research and career milestones (e.g., publications, funding applications) in a short period of time to stand out in a competitive workforce. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the importance of healthy work–life balance for not only your career success but also your own personal well-being. A brief exercise is presented that allows you to compare how you currently divide your time up between (work, social, personal, family) commitments and how you ideally would distribute your time in valued work/life domains. Actionable strategies and suggestions are discussed to allow you to find what works best for you when developing or maintaining a work–life balance, drawing from social and organizational psychology disciplines as well as personal and anecdotal experiences from other early career researchers.KeywordsWork–life balanceTime managementJob-related stressEarly career researchersWork–life conflictWork–life balance inventory
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