Article

Etude ethnobotanique des plantes galactogènes et emménagogues utilisées dans les terroirs riverains à la Zone Cynégétique de la Pendjari

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  • Université Nationale d'Agriculture, BENIN
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Abstract

Dans le cadre d’un programme general de maintien de la biodiversite de la Reserve de Biosphere de la Pendjari, un inventaire des especes medicinales utilisees pour le traitement des troubles lies a l’allaitement et des troubles menstruels a ete effectue. A cet effet, une etude ethnobotanique sur les plantes galactogenes et emmenagogues a ete conduite dans les terroirs riverains a la Zone Cynegetique de la Pendjari aupres des traditherapeutes et personnes ressources de la zone d’etude. Les resultats de cette etude ont permis d’identifier, d’une part, 57 plantes medicinales intervenant dans le traitement des troubles menstruels et d’allaitement. Ces plantes sont reparties dans 31 familles dont les plus representees sont les Leguminoseae (17,9%), et les Combretaceae (8,6%). D’autre part, 157 recettes issues de differentes associations de ces plantes sont fournies par les populations pour traiter les troubles menstruels et ceux lies a l’allaitement. Differentes parties de ces plantes entrent dans la composition des recettes. Il s’agit surtout des feuilles (31%), des racines (31%) et des ecorces (18%). Les recettes sont administrees soit par voie orale, par inhalation ou application sur les parties du corps a traiter. Mots cles: Traditherapeutes, plantes medicinales, troubles menstruels, allaitement, Pendjari, Benin.

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... In Kinshasa, the use of Hymenocardia acida, Sarcocephalus latifolius and Securidaca longipedunculata in female intimate hygiene is well known [23]. S. latfolius is used against amenorrhea in Benin [29]. This species is the second most widely used plant in the treatment of menstrual disorders in the riparian areas of the Pendjari Hunting Zone [30]. ...
... is used against amenorrhea in Benin [29]. This species is the second most widely used plant in the treatment of menstrual disorders in the riparian areas of the Pendjari Hunting Zone [30]. ...
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Background: The collection and promotion of traditional knowledge is an international issue today. Thus, in this study we were interested in the local knowledge held by the Malinke of south-eastern Senegal on the plants used in gynecology. Methodology: The open semi-structured interviews technique, immersion, direct observations were used to collect local knowledge. The data are processed by descriptive statistical techniques for calculating ethnobotanical indices. Results: The Malinke use 30 plants, belonging to 24 genera, distributed in 15 families, the most representative of which are the Fabaceae with 5 species, the Rubiaceae comprising 4 species, the Apocynaceae, the Combretaceae and the Moraceae with 3 species each. Their traditional mode of use compared to the practice of modern medicine allows the plants used to be classified into 7 Groups: oxytocics, antispasmodics, uterine antispasmodics, antiemetics, diuretics, muscle relaxants and galactogens. The most used species are Erythrina senegalensis, Ficus umbellata, Raphionacme splendens and Indigofera leptoclada. Bark is mostly used (38%), followed by the leaves and roots (22% each), while the most common method of preparation is a decoction (60%). Conclusion: The study shows the importance of traditional medicine in rural areas of Kédougou region, south-eastern Senegal in the management of pregnancy, breastfeeding and maternal health. This is why a pharmacological characterization is underway to promote this local knowledge.
... Quant au Bénin, c'est 60 000 ha de forêt par an qui sont concernés soit un taux annuel de déforestation évalué à 1,2%. Cette déforestation n'est pas sans conséquences sur la conservation des ressources biologiques et notamment sur les plantes médicinales qui demeurent encore une source de soins médicaux dans les pays en voie de développement, en l'absence d'un système médical moderne (Tabuti et al., 2003 ;Deleke et al., 2009). En effet, la destruction des forêts tropicales est la cause essentielle de réduction de la diversité biologique (Djègo et Sinsin, 2006) et présente des conséquences économiques et écologiques graves. ...
... Ces mêmes facteurs pourraient être la cause de la rareté d'espèces comme Olax subscorpioidea et Margaritaria discoidea. Cette menace de disparition est due aux prélèvements intenses, aux mutilations, à la déforestation incontrôlée ou mal gérée, aux pratiques agricoles dévastatrices (Adomou et al., 2007 ;Deleke et al., 2009 ;Delvaux et al., 2010). ...
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The prevalence of antibodies against the three active infections of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Sudan; “O”, “A” and “SAT2”, was studied in more than 1500 cattle sera, collected from 7 states in 2013, using a screening format of serum neutralization test (SNT). Prevalence detected were 60.16% ±2.25, 30.04%±2.19 and 12.31% ±1.59 for type “O”, “A” and “SAT2” respectively. The result indicated intense circulation and wide distribution of type “O” in the country as opposed to a likely significant introduction of type “SAT2” and “A”. The geographical distribution of FMD infections was defined as penetrating along the Nile basin, particularly, for “O” and “A” viruses and more favorable at Eastern and Western Sudan. Still more favorable conditions are to be expected North of Khartoum and in Darfur in the far West. Type “O” was intensely disseminated along the Nile basin and distribution decreased away from there. The Blue Nile state, at the South Eastern corner of the country, was an important route of entry of the three FMD viruses. Evidently, more risk factors were associated with intense traffic and movements of livestock related to national trade along and from the Nile basin than with movement of livestock associated with nomadic pastoralists in the East and West of the country. Nonetheless, movement of nomadic pastoralists in the East was associated with the potential risk of introduction of type “A” through the extended Eastern border of the country from Wad El Helew in Kassala to Aljabalein in the White Nile state.
... E. hirta was the most dominant species; this result is similar to Sawadogo [13] and Nacoulma [3], who have noted that this species are used in the lactation by the traditional healers. Moreover, another results [14] have showed that Euphorbiaceae family belongs to the most family of medicinal species plants which are used for the treatments of lactation disorders and menstrual disorders in waterside soil of cynegetic area of Pendjari (Benin). ...
... Organs of plants mostly used for medicinal preparation were leaves. These results are in agreement with those of other authors who also indicated that the leaves are the organ of the plant mostly solicited in the preparation of medicinal recipes [14] [16] [17]. ...
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An ethnobotanical survey for a better knowledge of lactogenic plants has been conducted in Cascades region of Burkina Faso. Biological activities of the two most used plants were evaluated. The survey concerned 25 species classified into 22 genera and 19 families. The most represented families were Moraceae, Apocynaceae, Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae and Malvaceae. The most used species were Euphorbia hirta, Calotropis procera and Ficus sycomorus with respectively 16.98%, 13.21% and 13.21% followed by Ficus platyphylla (9.43%) and Carica papaya, Holarrhena floribunda, Scoparia dulcis, Sorghum bicolor, each with 3.77% of frequency use. Plants organs mostly used for medicinal preparation were leaves, whole plant for herbaceous species, fruits and seeds. The main mode of medicinal preparation was decoction with 60.42% of frequency use. The most route of administration was oral (68.75%). Biological activities evaluation concerned Euphorbia hirta and Calotropis procera which were the most used plants. The acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera (AECP) and Euphorbia hirta (AEEH) showed a LD 50 of 2063 and 603 mg/kg body weight (b.w), respectively. These LD 50 values permitted to classify these plants as slightly toxic herbal drugs. The uterotrophic test showed that the AECP and AEEH exhibited estrogenic activity. In conclusion, important medicinal plants in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso were used to stimulate or ameliorate lactation. However further studies must be conducted to confirm the traditional use of these plants.
... Quant au Bénin, c'est 60 000 ha de forêt par an qui sont concernés soit un taux annuel de déforestation évalué à 1,2%. Cette déforestation n'est pas sans conséquences sur la conservation des ressources biologiques et notamment sur les plantes médicinales qui demeurent encore une source de soins médicaux dans les pays en voie de développement, en l'absence d'un système médical moderne (Tabuti et al., 2003 ;Deleke et al., 2009). En effet, la destruction des forêts tropicales est la cause essentielle de réduction de la diversité biologique (Djègo et Sinsin, 2006) et présente des conséquences économiques et écologiques graves. ...
... Ces mêmes facteurs pourraient être la cause de la rareté d'espèces comme Olax subscorpioidea et Margaritaria discoidea. Cette menace de disparition est due aux prélèvements intenses, aux mutilations, à la déforestation incontrôlée ou mal gérée, aux pratiques agricoles dévastatrices (Adomou et al., 2007 ;Deleke et al., 2009 ;Delvaux et al., 2010). ...
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The use of plants to treat diseases of humans and animals is an important part of the lives of populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aims to identify the main medicinal plants used to treat animal diseases, to identify the different parts of these plants that are used and to evaluate the availability of zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Newbouldia laevis, two plants with proven anthelmintic properties. To this end, an ethnobotanical survey was carried out in four localities of Benin: Ouidah and Allada in the Atlantic, Abomey and Djidja in the Zou and a survey of vegetation. A total of 18 veterinary species were recorded in the Atlantic and 36 in the Zou. The main antiparasitic plants are zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides in the Atlantic and Moringa oleifera and Carica papaya in the Zou. The main form of administration of these plants is leaf browsing (61.11% in the Atlantic and 86.11% in the Zou). Other forms of preparation such as decoctions, macerations and triturations are poorly used. As for the availability of the two targeted plants, total stand density of the two species is more significant in the Atlantic than in the Zou (183.3 stems / ha and 62.96 stems / ha, respectively, Atlantic and Zou for Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and 174.07 stems / ha and 102.96 stems / ha respectively in the Atlantic and Zou for Newbouldia laevis). A predominance of young individuals (dbh <10cm) in both departments and a total absence of individuals of dbh≥10cm in the Zou with respect to Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is retained. The implementation of a conservation policy for these species, subject to strong anthropogenic pressure, would be an alternative to the erosion of the natural resources of our countries. Keywords: Ethnobotany, availability, Atlantic, Zou, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Newbouldia laevis, Benin
... des propri?t?s antipaludiques (Lagnika, 2005 ;Shuaibu et al., 2008); propri?t?s galactog?nes et emm?nagogues (Deleke et al., 2011);propri?t?s d'alicaments (Adjatin et al., 2013); propri?t?s antibact?riennes (Agbankp? ...
... Les esp?ces les plus connues et utilis?es par les populations ont ?t? d?termin?es selon la m?thode propos?e sur le groupe Tramil aux Cara?bes (Tramil 4, 1989) et utilis?e par Deleke et al., (2011) et Fagbohoun, (2014. Cette m?thode consid?re comme plantes ? ...
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In southern Benin, medicinal plants are used for the health care of children aged 0 to 12 years. The present study aims to highlight some medicinal plants used in southern Benin to treat childhood diseases including malaria, candidiasis, teething disorders, infant colic and diarrhea. The phytochemical screening of the leafy stems of the selected plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins (gallic and catechic), coumarins, anthocyanins and leuco-anthocyans, quinone derivatives, triterpenoids, steroids, saponosides and reducing sugars. These various metabolites possess various therapeutic properties involved in the treatment of the indicated disorders. This would confirm the therapeutic uses reported by the populations surveyed. However, the evaluation of antimalarial, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities as well as the toxicity test of the aqueous extract of these plants would be necessary.
... Le Bénin perd 60 000 ha de forêt par an soit un taux annuel de déforestation évalué à 1,2%. Cette déforestation n'est pas sans conséquences sur la conservation des ressources biologiques et notamment sur les plantes médicinales qui demeurent encore une source de soins médicaux dans les pays en voie de développement, en l'absence d'un système médical moderne (Tabuti et al., 2003 ;Deleke et al., 2009). En effet, la destruction des forêts tropicales est la cause essentielle de réduction de la diversité biologique (Djègo and Sinsin, 2006) et présente des conséquences économiques et écologiques graves. ...
... Elles sont liées principalement aux mauvaises exploitations d'organes sensibles (39%), à l'agriculture extensive (27%), à la déforestation (11%) et à l'urbanisation (9%). Elles sont dues aux prélèvements intenses, aux mutilations, à la déforestation incontrôlée ou mal gérée, aux pratiques agricoles dévastatrices (Adomou et al., 2007 ;Deleke et al., 2009 ;Delvaux et al., 2009). ...
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Les ressources vegetales constituant pour les ruraux, d’importantes sources de soins medicaux et d’aliments, sont mal gerees du fait de la forte emprise humaine. Cette etude diagnostique, evalue les connaissances ethnobotaniques des populations rurales au Benin, en vue d’analyser le niveau de conservation par rapport aux anciennes collections des annees 1935 et 1940 effectuees par Laffite. La methode de collecte de donnees est faite d’enquetes ethnobotaniques et de releves floristiques. Au total, 232 especes utiles ont ete collectees dont 25,86% recensees par Laffite. Parmi elles, 96% sont notamment utilisees en medecine traditionnelle, 20% en spiritualite, 13% dans l’alimentation et 3% en technologie. Certaines especes mentionnees par Laffite ont disparu ( Milletia thonningii, Premna hispida, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Spilanthes uliginosa, Caesalpinia bonduc, Tephrosia vogelii et Cissampelos mucronata ) des terroirs, tandis que d’autres sont vulnerables en declin ( Afraegle paniculata, Antiaris toxicaria, Carissa edulis, Commiphora africana, Crateva adansonii, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Securidaca longipedunculata, Leptadenia hastata et Tylophora camerunica ). L’urbanisation, l’agriculture itinerante, les changements climatiques et l’introduction d’especes exotiques sont autant de facteurs expliquant cette vulnerabilite. La prise de mesure de protection, l’installation de jardins de case et l’adoption d’approche de gestion durable de cette phytodiversite sont urgentes. Keywords : Ethnobotanique, Laffite, phytodiversite, vulnerabilite, conservation, Benin
... In Burkina Faso, the decoction of the leaves is used to treat fever and malaria (Nadembega et al., 2011). In addition to these use patterns, the bark and roots of shea butter are employed to treat amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and menorrrhogia in Northern Bénin (Déléké Koko et al., 2009). Furthermore, Ani et al. (2012) found out that the annual revenue of farmers of Benue State that keep shea butter tree on their farmland is 2 times higher than that of farmers uprooting or clearing the tree. ...
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This study assessed the vulnerability of five indigenous agroforestry trees to climate change: Adansonia. digitata, Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa, Tamarindus indica, and Vitex doniana, using the vulnerability of rural communities that rely on these species as a proxy. An integrated assessment approach, encompassing exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity was adopted. Individual questionnaires were administered to 340 farmers, across seven Local Government Areas (LGA): Bosso, Rafi, Lavun, Lapai, Mashegu, Kontagora, and Borgu in Niger State. Data were collected on farmers’ perceptions about species vulnerability to climate change. The vulnerability index was computed based on nineteen indicators. Trend analysis of rainfall and temperature dataset over 40 years, indicated on one side no trend of annual rainfall, but a significant increase of annual temperature on the other side, supported by high intra-annual variability. Although observed variabilities in the climate were confined within the known tolerance limits of these species, reduction in productivity was the most reported impact (58.21% of the respondents). A change in species’ distribution, progressive extirpation, premature fructification, and tree mortality were also mentioned among the impacts of climate change. V. doniana was perceived to be the most vulnerable by 68.75% of the respondents followed by A. digitata, while V. paradoxa and T. indica seemed not to be vulnerable to climate change according to 48.65% and 27.00% of the respondents, respectively. There was a spatial variability of species vulnerability. The study concluded that the cultural importance of the species influences the extent to which the species are perceived to be vulnerable to climate change. This conclusion draws more attention toward the promotion of sustainable use and conservation of indigenous tree species to reduce their vulnerability to future climate conditions.
... In Benin, many studies have highlighed the medicinal use of plants to stimulate, improve or increase milk production in women that have low production of breast milk. For example, Akouedegni et al. (2012) and Déléké Koko et al. (2009Koko et al. ( , 2011 identified 22 and 57 medicinal plants respectively. These plants were used to stimulate milk production and to treat breastfeeding and menstrual pain problems. ...
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Benin has a high-value plant resources among which galactogenic plants are neglected. This paper aimed at assessing the diversity and indigenous practices associated with in situ conservation of galactogenic plants in the agro-ecological areas of Benin. An ethnobotanical study was carried out involving 310 informants in five sociolinguistic groups. The relative frequency of citation and fidelity index were used to assess the galactogenic value of each species. A principal component analysis and correspondence analysis were performed respectively to depict the relationships between the use of galac-togenic plants and the sociolinguistic groups and appreciate the relationships between sociolinguistic groups and local practices for in situ conservation of galactogenic plants. A total of 69 galactogenic species belonging to 57 genera and 25 families were identified. Results also showed that predominant species were Fabaceae (18.8%), Poaceae (11.6%), Euphor-biaceae (10.1%), Caesalpiniaceae, Combretaceae and Apocynaceae (7.2%). The most represented genera were Euphorbia (5.9%) and Ficus (4.5%). According to the informants, Afzelia africana Sm. ex Pers., Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton, Bobgunnia madagas-cariensis (Desv.) J.H.Kirkbr. & Wiersema, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. and Arachis hypogaea L. are the most effective galactogenic species for milk production with cow. Knowledge about galactogenic plants varied significantly across sociolinguistic groups, but not across agro-ecological zones and socio-professional profiles. Results also indicated that informants had poor knowledge of phenological time-axis of plant species, including A. africana, Pterocar-pus erinaceus Poir. and Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. Local in situ conservation practices identified were protection of seedlings, preservation of the species in the fields and habitation, and plantation. Phenological studies of the most important galacto-genic species are necessary to define appropriate strategies for their rational use and conservation.
... Dans la quasi-totalité des sociétés africaines, l'enfant occupe une place primordiale et devient de ce fait la raison de la survie ou non d'un couple ; la femme stérile, privée du seul principe naturel pouvant la valoriser, se trouve diminuée (Akare Biyoghe, 2010). Ainsi, une femme sans enfant est considérée comme un déshonneur pour sa famille (Déléké Koko et al., 2009). La présente étude vise à inventorier et documenter les principales plantes médicinales utilisées dans le traitement de la stérilité féminine dans les départements de l'Ouémé et du Plateau au Sud-Est du Bénin. ...
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Procreation has been and continues to be today the fundamental reason for marriage in Africa since immemorial time. Infertility of the couple is seen as a fatality that it seeks to fight at all costs for a good part of his life. To know the recipes used in Benin to treat female infertility, a survey was undertaken towards the traditional healers and resource persons in the departments of Ouémé and Plateau in South of Benin Republic. On the whole, 93 traditional healers and resource persons were surveyed. This is an ethnobotanical sample survey which has permitted to identify the causes of female infertility and 123 recipes in which involved 90 plant species belonging to 86 genera and 47 families, the most represented being Leguminosae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6.67%), Annonaceae (5.55%). The organs of species such as Afromomum melegueta, Allium cepa, Baphia nitida, Carissa spinarum, Elaeis guineensis, Garcinia kola, Kigelia africana, Monodora myristica, Mrinda lucida, Musa sapientum, Olax subscorpioidea, Pupalia lappacea, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Xylopia aethiopica are the most cited in the recipes. These plants contribute to relieve several infertile couples and deserve to be protected for posterity. Keywords: Infertility, recipes, traditional healers, resource persons, South of Benin.
... The leaves were plant organs the most used (41 report) following of bark (27 reports), root (6 reports), fruit (3 reports), seed (2 reports) and whole plant (2 reports) and fruit (2 reports). Deleke-Koko et al., (2011) and Mensah et al., (2006) have reported that the plant use was in the majority carried out on leaves studies (61, 79 à 96%) following numerous ethno-botanical studies led in Benin. According to Kaboré et al., (2007), the principal parts of plants used on remedies preparation are the leaves (56, 2%) and the bark (25%). ...
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Context and objectives. Maternal healthcare remain a major health problem in developing countries. The present study (i) inventoried various benign conditions of maternal health, (ii) identified plant species used in the management of these conditions, (iii) described the various types of use of these plants, and (iv) evaluated the levels of knowledge on the use of plant species in the care of the pregnant and nursing women according to the gender, age and ethnic group. Methods. Semi-structured interviews coupled to field observations were carried out in the Maritime region of Togo among local populations. Data analysis was based on the computation of relative frequencies (Fr), the use values (UV), the diversity use index (DUI), the index of important use values (IIUV) and the Sorenson index (SI). Résultats. A flower of 127 plan species including 126 plants divided into 112 genera and 57 families and one fungus has been reported Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, Asteraceae and Leguminosae-Papilionoideae were mostly used in the management of 37 conditions. Conclusion. This study identified more than one hundred plants species used in women's health-related disorders. Additional studies, including efficacy and toxicological tests are needed for better to promote these folk medicine practices.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Plant parts are often used by local people to treat their affections. This study addressed the classification of diseases treated with woody species in Benin and the dependence of medicinal use of woody species on climatic zones. Aim of the study: It reports (i) the main diseases categories treated with woody species in Benin and changes across climatic zones, and (ii) the woody species involved and their treatment according to climate conditions. Materials and methods: Ethnobotanical interviews were undertaken using a semi-structured questionnaire. Five hundred and ninety medicinal plant professionals (healers, traders…) were interviewed in the whole country. Frequency of citation and informant consensus factor were calculated to highlight the main human international diseases categories and woody species used for their treatment. A principal component analysis was performed to determine the occurrence of diseases categories in different climatic zones. Results: About 77.27% of international diseases categories were treated using woody species in Benin. One hundred diseases in 17 international diseases categories were identified. Among them, six diseases categories were highlighted as important. In the Guineo-Congolean zone, the highest rate of diseases categories was observed, and the lowest was found in the Sudanian zone. The epidemiological status of some phytodistricts was worrisome. In our study, 128 woody species belonging to 96 genera and 36 families were reported, and among them, 7 were the most used as treatments. Conclusions: There is a lack of consensus among traditional healers about which woody species to use. Many different species were used to treat a given diseases category. Also, information concerning their organ composition was not available in the literature, for the majority of species. Biological and chemical investigations are thus needed for a better valorization of the most frequently used plants in the future.
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Many causes are suspected to explain the decline of medicinal plant species. This study aims to understand the threats on Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloïdes and Morinda lucida in Benin in order to plan sound conservation strategies. A total of 247 respondents of the Southern and Central Zones of Benin were interviewed based on the uses of each target species, their perceptions about species availability in the natural vegetation and the farming operations (clearing and uprooting) that destroy plant species. In the field, 130 plots were established in various habitats where at least one plant of the two species was found, to assess the abundance of each targeted species. Traditional medicinal uses were recognized by respondents as the most important and preferred use of the target species based on the cultural importance index (1.86–2.50) within each zone. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloïdes and M. lucida were both available in Southern Benin but were threatened by farming operations in this zone. The findings indicate that the ecological impacts of medicinal uses of the two tree species are minor compared to the effects of pineapple production. The findings also suggest the need for conservation actions and further researches in this area of pineapple production in Southern Benin to reconcile the issue of pineapple production with the need for biodiversity conservation.
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The inventory of lactogenic plants and their modes of preparation were carried out in Alibori, Borgou, Collines and Mono from April 22th to August 05th, 2013. A sample of 142 cattle-breeders was interviewed during the data-gathering. The survey indicated that cattle-breeders use various organs of plants such as the bark (34%), the roots (32%), the leaves (30%), the seeds (29%) and the fruits (13%) to increase milk production. Various modes of preparation are used: the cold extract (51,6%), the decoction (32,6 %), the powder (13,7%) and the pomade (2,1%). The oral way is used most (97%). The duration of the treatment is until there is a satisfactiry resukt. All the recipes are prepared without recourse to expensive products, thus ensuring their sustainability. The plants most used in the galactagogue receipts are cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Euphorbia balsamifera, Cucurbita maxima and Swartzia madagascariensis.
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