Conference Paper

Impact of Battery and Water Storage on the Transition to an Integrated 100% Renewable Energy Power System for Saudi Arabia

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Abstract

Saudi Arabia can transition to a 100% renewable energy system by 2040 including the integration of the power, desalination and non-energetic industrial gas sectors. Single-axis tracking PV and battery storage contribute the highest to the final LCOE of the system. By 2050, single-axis tracking PV accounts for 77% of the total electricity generation. Battery storage accounts for 44% of the total electricity demand. Desalination plants provide additional flexibility to the energy system. Through sensitivity analysis, it is found that decreasing the capex of desalination plants results in a decrease in battery storage output and ultimately the total system capex throughout the transition. However, the required SWRO capex decrease seems to be higher than possible, leading to a lower cost flexibility provided by solar PV and battery storage than possible by very low cost water storage. This is because the relatively more expensive SWRO desalination prefers baseload operation for total energy system cost reasons.

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... The reason is that Power-to-Gas technology can operate as flexible demand and utilise the energy surplus in the system, or halt operation during periods of energy deficit. Desalination technology does not work as a flexible demand due to high capital costs, it has to be operated at maximum FLh to reach the minimum energy system cost, including the water cost [44]. Finally, desalination forms huge baseload demand in the system, therefore a decrease of flexibility of the system and an increased demand in storage capacities can be observed. ...
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