Restrukturierungsmethoden im Bereich Marketing und Vertrieb

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Makro- und Mikroumfeld vieler Unternehmen sind heute hochvolatil. Unternehmen sollten in Marketing und Vertrieb in der Lage sein, Veränderungsbedarfe zeitnah und agil zu antizipieren oder auf diese angemessen zu reagieren. Unternehmen konzentrieren sich in krisenhaften Situationen häufig auf kostenseitige Quick Wins. Diese Maßnahmen sind aber für die nachhaltige Optimierung der Wettbewerbsposition nicht zielführend. Zudem ist es in krisenhaften Situationen unverzichtbar, eine Vision von einer vielversprechenderen Zukunft für das Unternehmen aufzuzeigen. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt folgerichtig umsatzseitige Handlungsoptionen in den Bereichen Markenstrategie (Positionierung und Markenarchitektur), Portfolio- und Wertkettenanalyse, Innovation (Geschäftsmodell und digitale Integration) sowie Vertriebsprozess und -organisation auf.

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In 2007, we created the Demand-first Innovation and Growth model (DIG).This framework proposed a systematic, repeatable process to help brands identify the biggest opportunities for innovation and growth hidden in plain sight. By creating an innovation playbook and accompanying strategy, companies could then effectively leverage those opportunities for substantial new growth.
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Purpose – This article explains how B2B companies can create economic value by designing experiences and innovations that will be transformative for their customers. Design/methodology/approach – The article shows that B2B goods and services are increasingly marketed in an Experience Economy, an arena where interactions are based on what experiences buyers and their customers value. Findings – The big value creation insight is that industrial companies. like consumer product companies, can create breakthrough innovations by understanding, responding to and transforming the experience of their customers. But with B2B companies the experience discovery process extends to their customers’ customers. Practical implications – Almost any B2B business can be transformative if it aims its innovation efforts at satisfying its customers emerging needs and those of its customers’ customers. These are the aspirational outcomes that transformative companies provide. Originality/value – One of the first articles to show leadership of B2B companies and their marketing and research units how to set up experience demonstrations and development projects that involve their customers in the process of customization, innovation and transformation.
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The purpose of this article is to explore the contribution of branding to building and maintaining B2B customer loyalty. It uses a case study methodology to examine how an established “brick and mortar” company, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, was able to withstand and, in the end, overcome the challenge posed by Chemdex, a well-funded start-up company with a cost-efficient and innovative business model, by leveraging its corporate brand equity. The failure of Chemdex can be attributed to a failure to grasp and replicate the tangible and intangible assets that underpin B2B corporate brands. This article suggests that strong corporate brand equity is important for maintaining customer loyalty and is the result of long-term relationships that place a premium on innovation, quality, technical support and customer service.
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The ability to convert inputs into outputs is a critical determinant of success in many fields of endeavor. In this research, the authors study the ability of firms to convert ideas into products, that is, their conversion ability. Specifically, they address the question, Why are some firms better at conversion than others? In contrast to much of the existing literature, the authors propose that a strong focus on speed and on generating many ideas may actually hurt firms by lowering their conversion ability. The authors test their arguments on data between 1960 and 2001 from a cross-national sample of pharmaceutical firms. They find that firms vary widely in their ability to convert promising drug ideas into launched drugs. Firms with the highest conversion ability are those that (1) focus on a moderate number of ideas, in areas of importance, and in areas in which they have expertise and (2) deliberate for a moderate length of time on promising ideas.
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The authors extend previous models for premarket forecasting of new durable consumer goods by including parameters that reflect consumers' categorization and consideration processes. They propose a model and measurement methodology, which they apply to the premarket forecasting of a new automobile. They describe empirical data collection, parameter estimation, managerial implications, validation issues, and future research needs. The extended model generates new managerial insights into positioning and marketing planning effectiveness, can be used to simulate the effects of changes in positioning strategy on consideration and choice, and provides more detailed information about why consumers consider or reject a new brand. The relevance of the categorization extension for other new product models that condition choice on a consideration set is also explored.
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People consume products in a variety of environments. They drink beer, for example, by themselves, with close friends, on the beach, when playing cards, at tailgate parties, and while having dinner with their boss. Within these environments, an individual may prefer Schaefer beer when drinking alone, Budweiser when having a party, Corona when lying on the beach, and Heineken when dining out. Preferences change across environments because the benefits sought by the consumer change. Consumers may feel thirsty while lying on the beach, and they may want to display refined tastes while dining out. Moreover, the effect of environment may not be homogeneous, as some people enjoy meeting new people in social gatherings while others may prefer to visit with those who are more familiar. Even though consumers face the same objective environment, different motivating conditions and brand preferences may arise. It is important for marketing managers to understand how brand preferences change across people, environments, and motivating conditions and, more importantly, which product attributes are associated with these changes. Communication and positioning decisions are more likely to be effective if the relationships among objective environment, motivating conditions, and preferences for brand attributes are known. If motivating conditions are uniquely associated with individuals across environments, or with environments across individuals, then the basis of marketing analysis is at the individual or environmental level. If, however, motivating conditions arise from the intersection of individuals and their environments, then analysis conducted at the individual or environmental level will be insufficient to understand human behavior. In such a case, firms may want to view different environments as distinct markets, each with its own pattern of heterogeneous wants and competitive environment. In this paper, the influence of objective environments and motivating conditions on brand preference is investigated. The mathematical model is based on the economic framework of utility maximization and discrete choice, and it accommodates three challenges that arise in modeling variation in brand preference. First, consumer consideration sets and purchase histories can vary widely across individuals in a relevant universe. Because brand preferences are the dependent variables in our analysis, our method must be able to accommodate a large number of brands to avoid restricting its measured variation as the objective environment and motivating conditions change. We propose a method using partial ranking data, combined with pairwise trade-off data, to obtain estimates of brand preference for all brands in our study. Second, the model must allow for multiple effects, leading to both within-person and across-person heterogeneity in preferences. Variation in brand preference is investigated within a hierarchical Bayes model in which motivating conditions are related to brand preference through a regression model in the random effects specification. Third, it is often counterintuitive for respondents to express preferences for attribute combinations that do not actually exist. A statistical method model is proposed for decomposing aggregate brand preferences into preferences for core and extended product attributes. Data are collected from a national survey of consumer off-premises beer consumption. A total of 842 respondents from six different geographic markets participated. Data include preferred brand sets under different objective environments, brand choice rankings, product attributes, and motivating conditions. Effect sizes for respondent and objective environment are both large. We found that the level of explained variance in brand and attribute preference attributable to motivating conditions is greater than that accounted for by a simple interaction of respondent and environmental effects, suggesting that motivations provide a more sensitive description of variation in brand preference. Our findings indicate that 1) across individuals the objective environment is associated with heterogeneous, not homogeneous, motivating conditions; 2) within an individual, motivating conditions may change with variation in the objective environment; and 3) motivating conditions are related to preferences for specific attributes. Our results imply that the unit of analysis for marketing is properly a person-activity occasion. Brands, for example, are used in individual instances of behavior—a brand performs well or poorly on individual occasions of use. The relevant universe is enumerated in person-activity occasions rather than in respondents. For some activities, such as doing the laundry, the occasions may typically occur in relatively unchanging environments, and it may be appropriate to allow respondents to summarize over occasions of the activity. For other activities, such as snacking or drinking beer, the activity may occur in distinct kinds of environment. In the case of such activities, it is appropriate to allow for the effect of changing environments to manifest themselves, if present. Doing so may require sampling from the relevant universe of person-activity occasions over an appropriate time frame. The design must be such as to record intraindividual variability due to changes in the environment for action.
Die Bedeutung des Themenkomplexes Kundenbindung hat seit den 1980er Jahren in Wissenschaft und Praxis stark zugenommen. Der vorliegende Sammelband trägt der Komplexität und Vielschichtigkeit des Themas Kundenbindung durch eine systematische Herangehensweise Rechnung, die die Unternehmenspraxis oft vermissen lässt. Die Autoren setzen sich mit den erfolgskritischen Grundlagen der Kundenbindung auseinander und zeigen die Mängel traditioneller Ansätze auf. Zahlreiche Fallstudien befassen sich mit den verschiedenen Herausforderungen bei der konkreten Umsetzung von Kundenbindungsmaßnahmen und -programmen in der Unternehmenspraxis.
Eine Vision ist ein geistiges Bild einer möglichen und gewollten Zukunft, die sich als gemeinsam geschaffenes und positives Vorstellungsbild über einen zukünftigen Zustand selbst erfüllt. Eine Vision ist ein übergeordnetes Ziel, die das Unternehmen in die Zukunft leiten soll. Eine Vision ist auch eine ausformulierte Strategieverdichtung, in der sich der strategische Wettbewerbsvorteil wiederfindet. Die Vision umfasst die Merkmale der strategischen Wettbewerbsvorteile: Kundenrelevanz, wahrnehmbarer Vorteil und Einmaligkeit. Eine Visionsentwicklung ist zunächst einmal Management- und Führungsaufgabe. Aber dann muss dafür gesorgt werden, dass die Vision von allen Mitarbeitern mitgetragen und verwirklicht werden kann – auch dies ist primär Aufgabe des Managements. Eine Vision soll andere Menschen anstecken – die Führungskräfte und Mitarbeiter eines Unternehmens, die Kunden, die Investoren, die Lieferanten – alle, die mit dem Unternehmen etwas erreichen wollen.
Starke Marken sind nachgewiesenermaßen Treiber von Unternehmenswert. Dies gilt in besonderem Maße für Corporate Brands, die daher genauso professionell geführt werden müssen wie klassische Produktmarken. Mit dieser Herausforderung beschäftigt sich das Gebiet des Corporate Brand Management. Grundlage für ein erfolgreiches Corporate Brand Management ist einerseits ein profundes Verständnis darüber, welche Bezugsgruppen für eine Corporate Brand relevant sind und andererseits, was die Identität des Unternehmens beinhaltet. Zudem sind die komplexen Zusammenhänge zu beachten, die sich automatisch ergeben, wenn eine Vielzahl von Marken zu koordinieren ist. Dieses Kapitel führt in die Grundideen und Rahmenbedingungen des Corporate Brand Management ein und stellt dabei auch die Pluralität der damit befassten Denkschulen im Überblick vor.
With the globalization of markets, attention to international branding strategies becomes an increasingly important issue. Firms must decide on the appropriate balance of global, regional and local brands, as well as who should have custody of these brands and their positioning in international markets.
Purpose This paper applies the B2B Service Brand Identity Scale (SBI) to empirically assess the influence of service brand identity on brand performance for the first time. Design/methodology/approach Based on data collected from 421 senior marketing executives this paper applies the B2B Service Brand Identity Scale (SBI) and structural equation modeling to fulfill the above purpose. Findings Brand personality and human resource initiatives have a positive and significant influence on brand performance. Corporate visual identity, in addition to an employee and client focus, have an insignificant impact on performance. Consistent communications have a negative and significant influence on brand performance. Research limitations/implications Data was only collected from executives in the UK. This research would benefit from replicative studies. Practical implications This research empirically establishes the brand management activities that drive brand performance. Originality/value This is the first empirical study to assess the influence service brand identity has on brand performance.
Many firms and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria stress the importance of being customer focused and satisfying customers. Customer value is the customers perception of what they want to have happen in a specific-use situation, with the help of a product or service offering in order to accomplish a desired purpose or goal. Products or services create value for customers not by delivering the innate characteristics of the products or services, but by delivering consequences in their use situations. Results can be increased loyalty, long-term profitability, and growth.
The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i. e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
The classic brand manager dealt with simple brand structures in part because he or she was faced with a relatively simple environment and simple business strategies. Today the situation is far different. Brand managers now face market fragmentation, channel dynamics, global realities, and business environments that have drastically changed their task. In addition, there is pressure to leverage brand assets because of the prohibitive cost of creating new brands. This set of challenges has created a new discipline called "brand architecture." A coherent brand architecture can lead to impact, clarity, synergy, and leverage rather than market weakness, confusion, waste, and missed opportunities. Brand architecture is an organizing structure of the brand portfolio that specifies brand roles and the nature of relationships between brands. This article introduces a powerful brand architecture tool, the "brand relationship spectrum." It is intended to help brand architecture strategists employ insight and subtlety to subbrands, endorsed brands, and their alternatives. Subbrands and endorsed brands can play a key role in creating a coherent and effective brand architecture.
OVERVIEW: Although the importance of integrating the voice of the customer into new product development is almost universally accepted, the techniques used by many organizations to identify customers’ needs have stagnated. The most commonly used techniques, focus groups and surveys (including both interviews and questionnaires), have significant limitations. Customers often struggle to articulate their needs in interviews, and focus groups often generate incremental ideas rather than breakthroughs. Companies in the service sector face an additional challenge, as their customers need to discuss services, which are by their nature intangible. One of the most promising approaches to generating a deeper customer understanding is ethnographic market research, which adopts ideas from ethnography, the set of tools social scientists use to study tribal cultures. These techniques can provide deep customer insights, but their application to new product development is not well studied. We explain the key elements of ethnographic market research, present four cases from the manufacturing and service sectors, and discuss the implications for managers.
Competitive advantage is a key concept in strategic management research for a number of reasons--not the least of which is that an avowed consequence of its attainment is held to be superior economic performance. However, few prior empirical studies have directly and systematically documented the incidence or prevalence of persistent superior economic performance. The research reported here is based on empirical studies of a large number of industry samples for which longitudinal data were stratified by levels of performance using a new methodology and then analyzed in terms of their dynamics. This new stratification technique was used in lieu of autoregressive methods employed in prior studies of performance persistence to allow for a true outlier analysis because persistent superior economic performance both has been argued theoretically, and found empirically, to be rare. Detailed results from a sample of 6,772 firms in 40 industries over 25 years are presented to illustrate the findings that: (1) while some firms do exhibit superior economic performance, (2) only a very small minority do so, and (3) the phenomenon very rarely persists for long time frames. These results, while not providing direct support for a particular extant strategic management or economic theory concerning firm performance, are most consonant with the resource-based view of the firm and have implications for significant aspects of other received strategic management and economic theories.
Building a complex portfolio of products can be beneficial for young firms due to increased sales growth and competitiveness. Yet, the benefits from product portfolio complexity (PPC) are often outweighed by rising costs, leading to an inverted U-shaped relationship between PPC and performance. Recent research has called for an increased understanding of how firms are able to better manage higher levels of PPC. We suggest that absorptive capacity and ambidexterity are vital to enhancing the benefits and mitigating the costs of increasing PPC. Using a sample of 215 young high technology firms, we find support for positive moderating effects of absorptive capacity and ambidexterity on the inverted U-shaped relationship between PPC and firm performance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zusammenfassung Mit dem Paradigmenwechsel im Internet hin zu partizipativ angelegten Internetangeboten ergeben sich neue Chancen für eine bedürfnisgerichtete Marktforschung. Die Analyse der intrinsisch motivierten Beiträge von Verbrauchern in Blogs und Communities erlaubt einen neuen Zugang zu den tatsächlichen Episoden und Ritualen im täglichen Leben der Kunden. So ergibt sich die Möglichkeit einer „netnografischen“ Identifikation von latenten Bedürfnissen. Eine systematische Herangehensweise liefert authentische Customer Insights.
I. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW. 1. Business Market Management: Guiding Principles. II. UNDERSTANDING VALUE. 2. Market Sensing: Generating and Using Knowledge about the Marketplace. 3. Understanding Firms as Customers. 4. Crafting Market Strategy. III. CREATING VALUE. 5. Managing Market Offerings. 6. New Offering Realization. 7. Business Channel Management. IV. DELIVERING VALUE. 8. Gaining Customers. 9. Sustaining Reseller Partnerships. 10. Sustaining Customer Relationships. Index.
Für Start-ups der weißen Biotechnologie gibt es bisher wenig Möglichkeiten, Wachstum zu finanzieren. Dabei ist der Bedarf an Kapital groß und wird weiter steigen.
This article attempts to provide deeper insights into the link between the innovativeness of a company’s offered goods/services and customer satisfaction. This study proposes an inverted U-shaped relationship between the innovativeness of the offered goods and customer satisfaction. For the innovativeness of services, information economics and services marketing literature indicate an inverted S-shaped relationship. Two separate studies conducted for goods and services confirm the proposed nonmonotonic effects of the investigated relationships. Both studies use dyadic data from marketing managers to assess innovativeness and from customers to indicate customer satisfaction. KeywordsInnovativeness of goods and services–Customer satisfaction–Nonmonotonic effects
In the past few years, some companies have not just weathered the economic storm: They've emerged stronger than ever. How did such players as Four Seasons, Sephora, and Standard Chartered Bank defy conventional logic? Instead of pursuing a single ambition, such as profits, employees defined a collective ambition. As a result, those organizations deepened their engagement with employees and other stakeholders and became sustainably profitable. Purpose, a company's reason for existence, is the central element of collective ambition. The other elements--vision, targets and milestones, strategic and operational priorities, brand promise, core values, and leader behaviors--must be aligned to serve the company's purpose. Articulating the elements of collective ambition can give everyone in the organization a better sense of the company's purpose and how they can contribute to it. Purpose does not have to be about saving the world; providing excellent entertainment or banking services is just as meaningful a purpose as improving health care in emerging economies--as long as it is an authentic representation of why the company exists. To shape and then achieve a collective ambition, companies must strengthen their organizational glue (the collaborative engagement that creates a unified culture) and grease (the disciplined execution that enterprisewide change initiatives require).
Looking from the outside in -- Capturing the ecosystem of demand -- Creating the demand landscape -- Reframing the opportunity space -- Structuring the opportunity space -- Formulating a strategic blueprint for action -- Creating customer advantage -- Connecting with and engaging customers -- Internalizing the innovation and growth agenda.
Auf dem Gebiet des Marketing hat sich in Wissenschaft und Praxis seit geraumer Zeit ein bemerkenswerter Wandel vollzogen. Unter dem Einfluß veränderter Markt-und Umwelt­ bedingungen ist die auf den Einsatz absatzpolitischer Instrumente bezogene Sichtweise des Marketing-Management weiterentwickelt und zu einer marktstrategisch ausgerichteten Führungskonzeption ausgebaut worden. Ihr liegt die Vorstellung zugrunde, daß die Marktleistungen auf strategische Ziele ausgerichtet und in einer längerfristigen Akzent­ setzung der Geschäftstätigkeit im Spannungsfeld zwischen Untemehmenspotentialen, Kundenbedürfnissen, Wettbewerbsangebot und gesellschaftlichen Ansprüchen festzulegen sind. Mittlerweile ist - trotz der Vielzahl auch im deutschsprachigen Bereich erschienener Ver­ öffentlichungen-auf dem Gebiet des strategischen Marketing nach anfänglicher Euphorie eine gewisse Ernüchterung eingetreten. Angesichts der hohen Dynamik und unvorherseh­ barer Diskontinuitäten auf den Märkten wird eine Abkehr vom strategischen Denken und wieder eine stärkere Hinwendung auf das operative Geschäft gefordert. Darüber hinaus wird die Dominanz strategischer Analysemethoden in den Lehrbüchern und das Fehlen leistungsfähiger Instrumente für das Auffinden situationsgerechter strategischer Optionen beklagt. Schließlich wird auf die Schwierigkeiten und das Bestehen einer Lücke bei der Implementierung von Marketingstrategien in der Praxis verwiesen. Diese z. T. berechtigte Kritik macht deutlich, daß strategisches Marketing nicht isoliert betrachtet, sondern in ein umfassendes Marketing-Management-Konzept eingebunden werden muß. Dies gilt umso mehr, als sich erfolgreiche Unternehmungen durch eine längerfristige, auf die Sicherung und den Ausbau von Wettbewerbsvorteilen ausgerichtete strategische Planung stützen und diese konsequent mit dem operativen Marketing verbinden müssen.
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