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Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow – Capital city of Uttar Pradesh, India



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IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT)
e-ISSN: 2319-2402,p- ISSN: 2319-2399.Volume 8, Issue 5 Ver. II (May. 2014), PP 41-49 41 | Page
Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management
(MSWM) in Lucknow Capital city of Uttar Pradesh, India
Archana1*, Daoud Ali2, Mohammad Yunus1 and V. Dutta1
1Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (A Central) University, Lucknow-
226025, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: Management of solid waste is one of the most challenging problems in India’s cities and towns.
Increasing population levels, rapid economic growth and rise in community living standards accelerate the rate
of generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indian cities. Most of the urban areas are currently facing a
serious problem of land and water pollution due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste and their
open dumping. In the present study an assessment is made of the existing situation of municipal solid waste
management (MSWM) in Lucknow city, UP (India). The current status of MSWM as per the MSW Rules, 2000
has also been appraised and an action plan for better management has been formulated. The quantitative and
qualitative characteristics of MSW along with basic information have been evaluated for Lucknow city. The
geographic information system has also been used to digitize the existing MSW dumping sites. The present study
has showed that there are many shortcomings in the existing MSWM practices. The Lucknow city is one of the
most densely populated, commercialized and urbanized city of India. This city is also adding on commercial
centres and new urban extensions which are providing additional housing services and employment
opportunities to increasing population resulting into generation of huge quantity of MSW. The inhabitants of
Lucknow presently generate approximately 1500 tonnes of MSW every day. In the absence of sanitary landfills
or other protected and lined dumping places, the MSW is transported to the various dumpsites, near fun
republic mall Gomti Nagar, Telibagh Bhattha Maidan, Ghaila (Dubbga) Hardoi-Kanpur Ring Road and
Ramdaskheda, Kursi Road. Such open dumping poses environmental and health hazards as leachate from open
dumps are becoming major sources of groundwater contamination in the subsequent years of dumping MSW.
Keywords: Solid waste, sanitary landfills, leachate, groundwater pollution, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
I. Introduction
After China, India is the second most populated and economically growing country of the world. In
future increasing population levels, rapid economic growth and rise in community living standards will
significantly accelerate MSW generation rate in Indian cities. As per the Census of 2011, Lucknow city has a
total population of about 4.5 million including 0.6 million floating population. Out of this about a quarter of
million people are living in slums which generates about 1500 metric tonnes of municipal solid waste every day.
On an average, about 60 65% of total MSW generated is collected by the municipal corporation of Lucknow,
with a collection efficiency ranging from about 55 to 60%. This has resulted in uncontrolled MSW generation
and dumping from the municipal boundary of Lucknow city. The total quantity of MSW has been reported as
1534 Metric Ton/day and average generation at the rate of MSW 0.39 kg/capita/day (LNN, 2010). The annual
waste generation has reported to increase in proportion of rise in population and urbanization. Issues related to
disposal have become challenging as more land is needed for the ultimate disposal of these solid wastes (Idris et
al., 2004). The waste pose serious hazard to human health and environment if improperly stored, treated,
transported, disposed off or managed (Misra et al., 2005). Small amount of leachate can pollute large amount of
groundwater posing serious health hazard due to consumption of such contaminated water (Bakare et al., 2007).
In several earlier studies, it has been observed that all of the Indian cities dispose their waste in few kilometer
distances from the city in open dumping places without having concept of scientific techniques of landfilling
and about its impact on human health. MSWM is a major problem being faced by municipalities. It is not only a
technical problem but also related with lack of awareness, political, legal, socio-cultural, environmental factors
and also on available resources. . In the present study an assessment is made of the existing situation of
municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow city. The current status of MSWM as per the MSW
Rules, 2000 has also been appraised and an action plan for better management has been formulated. The
quantitative and qualitative characteristics of MSW along with basic information have been evaluated. The
geographic information system has also been used to digitize the existing MSW dumping sites. The quantity and
composition of MSW generated over last four decades, pattern of primary and secondary collection,
transportation, treatment, and disposal and recycling has been discussed in detail.
Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow Capital city of 42 | Page
II. Methodology
In the first phase of the study, survey has been conducted during January 2010 to July 2012 to study
twenty four MSW dumping sites and 26 depot location in Lucknow (see Fig 5). Legal aspects of MSWM in
India, as well as state level provision were studied. In the second phase of the study, data were collected from
LNN, Lucknow about source of MSW waste, per capita waste generation, quantity, daily disposal, processing,
availability of containers and collection frequency etc. In the third phase of the study, original map of wards of
Lucknow city was scanned and also digitized. Thereafter, the collected data about various depots location and
MSW disposal sites has been used for the generation of maps using GIS applications.
III. Discussion
3.1. Legal Aspects for MSWM in India
For collection, segregation, storage, processing, transportation and disposal of MSW local municipal
bodies are responsible according to Rules of MSW, 2000. Besides these rules, the Government of India, State
Governments also drafted several acts and rules for MSWM in India. Which are summarized as follows:
i. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 made to consent from the state pollution control
board for establishment of a sanitary landfill site and compost plant is essential and, no water pollution
should be caused by the leachate that is emitted by the sanitary landfill site. The Water (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 and amendments aspect that for MSWM there should be is provision
for levying and collection of 3 Cess on water consumed for the sanitary landfilling, composting and
anaerobic digesters.
ii. The Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 aspect in regard to MSWM would be the EIA notification, 1944.
For any project to be authorized an EIA report should be submitted first. Hazardous Waste (Management
and Handling) Rules, 1989 and Amendment Rules, 2000 and 2003 specifies process and limits waste
applicable for import and export. Occupier would be responsible for proper management and handling of
waste either themselves or through the operator.
iii. The Bio- Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 and Amendment Rules, 2003
recommended for treatment and disposal option according to their different 10 category. The treatment
technologies would be done according to Standards given in Schedule V.
iv. The MoEF, 2000 (government of India) has been defined MSW as a waste generated from residential and
commercial area in municipal area which included treated biomedical wastes may be solid or semi-solid
form without including any type of hazardous industrial waste. MoEF. Municipal Solid Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 stated that every municipal authority is responsible for setting up
a waste processing and disposal facility, and for preparing an annual report. The State governments will
have overall responsibility for enforcement of the provisions of these rules in the metropolitan cities and
within territorial limits of their jurisdiction (MSW Rules, 2000). The guidelines given in this law covers all
the functional elements of municipal solid waste management. The CPCB, State Boards, NGOs and the
other committees are required to monitor the compliance of the standards regarding groundwater, leachate
quality, and compost quality including incineration standards, and they are to examine the proposal taking
into consideration the views of other agencies. Waste collection by any method (community bin or home-
to-home collection, etc.) must be conducted by using bell ringing or a musical vehicle to alert citizens
without exceeding permissible noise levels.
v. The manufacturing, selling and usage of plastic bag and Non-Biodegradable garbage (control) Act has been
formed in year 2006 to regulated seriously by the Cantonment (which have separate municipal body)
Lucknow also prohibits throwing or deposit of these waste in open places, roads or drains in Cantt area.
3.2. Status of MSW
The city is in the forefront of industry with its emerging in biotechnology, having numerous small and
medium-scale industries and plantations. Lucknow district covering an area of about 2528 sq. Km, encompasses
the stretch ranging from 26°30' to 27°10' North latitude and 80°30' to 81°13' East longitude. Nestled on the
banks of the Gomti River, Lucknow is flanked by Barabanki District on the east, Unnao on the west, Raebareli
on the south and Sitapur and Hardoi districts on the north, respectively. Lucknow District population constituted
2.30 percent of total Uttar Pradesh population (Census of India, 2011). About 1,550,737 people are living in
rural areas and 3,037,718 in urban areas (<>). Lucknow is a center of power and
commercial activities and provides opportunities of employment which accelerates population so also
urbanization. About 125,000 persons increase each year in urban population of the city which comes from
neighboring cities for labor work, education and other job. In Lucknow the generation of waste quantity is
approximately 1500 MT/day (LNN, 2011). The city area is spread over an area of about The
Lucknow Nagar Nigam (LNN) divided whole city is into 110 election wards (see Fig.1) and 6 zones (see Fig.5)
Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow Capital city of 43 | Page
for solid waste management and is responsible for collection, treatment and disposal of MSW generated in
whole city.
Fig.1. Arc GIS view 9.3 of outlining of 110 wards of Lucknow city (LNN, 2012)
Existing MSWM system of Lucknow does not have an engineered landfill site for disposal of waste (see Fig. 3).
The Municipal Corporation of Lucknow (LMC) Cantonment Board (LCB) and Jyoti Enviro Tech are three
municipal bodies responsible for MSWM in Lucknow. In the city the cleaning and collection process involves
collection of MSW from the street in wheel barrows and thereafter, it is dumped into depots (see Fig. 5). MSW
is then loaded into the transportation vehicles, which transport the waste to different disposal sites.
3.3. Sources and quantity of MSW
The Lucknow city generates approximately 1500 MT of SW daily. The organic fraction is made up of
kitchen waste including food leftovers, rotten fruits, vegetables, leaves, crop residues, animal excreta and bones.
Plastics, glass, metals, and paper account for less than 15 percent of the total waste. In low income households,
solid waste is stored in open baskets and any available cans which do not meet hygienic standards. Component
of MSW founded to be bio-degradable, non-biodegradable (plastic, glass and metal etc.), Inert material (bricks,
stones and ashes etc.) indicates the construction and demolishes activities in the city. The amount and
components of solid waste generated in this city varies with income levels (see Table.1.).
Fig 2: Composition of Municipal Solid Waste in the Lucknow (U P Jal Nigam, Lucknow, 2010)
Table 1: Per capita waste generation in Lucknow
Percentage of Total Waste
Organic matter
Mixed waste & drain silt &
street sweeping
Construction debris
(paper,rubber, synthetics,
glass & metals etc)
Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow Capital city of 44 | Page
Approx percapita waste generation
(in %)
Low income group
Middle income group
High income group
Source: LNN, 2011 and UP Jal Nigam, 2009
This is the fact that low income groups generate less waste per capita than middle and high income groups. The
specific waste generation rate in low income areas is low at 172.89 g per capita per day. Middle income areas
show a specific waste generation rate of 162.67 g per capita per day and high income residential areas range
with 221.21g per capita per day. Packaged products and empty cans form a significant part of the waste in high
income areas. In many low income areas people dump waste in unauthorized places where cattel founded eating
food material (see Fig 4). Substantial amount of waste are dumped into canals and drains.
Fig 3: Showing about 10 m height of dumped MSW in Jehta Mor Bandha
Fig 4: Showing cattle grazing and birds in open dump site of Telibagh
3.4. Primary collection of MSW
The municipalities and NGO’s related with municipalities are responsible for collection of segregated
waste from door-to-door (DTD) according to MSW Rules, 2000. NGOs (Jyoti Enviro Tech Limited) participate
in the (DTD) system which is currently collecting solid waste in 51 wards of Lucknow. MSW collection is
partially collected. It is segregation by rag pickers at community bin and landfill. Sweepers collect the MSW
from the roads/streets and carry it to the nearest collection points (depots or community bins). MSW produced
from individual households is taken to the collection point or deposited on the adjacent roadside from where it is
collected when the roads are being swept. The handcart of six bucket collected waste and transported to the
municipal bins which is designed especially for segregation of recyclable and non-recyclable wastes. According
to Singh, (2011) this collection would be extended to remaining 59 wards in next six months when the
processing plant would be ready.
Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow Capital city of 45 | Page
3.5. Methods of storage of MSW
LNN have provided twenty nine depots for the temporary storage of MSW, which are scattered
throughout the city (see Table.2. and Fig. 5). The depots are an open space enclosed on three sides with a
masonry wall of about 3.5 to 4.35 m height, with capacities ranging from 15 to 40 m3 and located in a congested
area containing narrow winding streets. These depots are in good condition. Although waste is scattered toward
the road and animals also founded there in search of food.
3.6. Secondary collection of MSW
In Lucknow city the disposal sites are generally within and also out of LNN area. The MSW is directly
collected from the collection points by the collection vehicle to the disposal site. Since the MSW is collected
again from the collection points to the disposal site, it is termed secondary collection. The hauled container,
stationary container, manually loaded dumper and mechanically loaded dumper systems are used during
secondary collection, transportation and disposal of MSW.
3.7 Transportation of MSW
MSW is transported by their own vehicle; private vehicles are not being used. This vehicle uses good
covering on the waste to prevent odourlessness and flying of waste during transportation. LNN have a large
number of vehicles for transportation. Presently LNN uses 3 hywa, 23 dumpers placer, 6 tractors, 44 trucks, 16
Tata-207, 68 Chota Haathi, 3 Refuse 8 collectors and 39 Vikram etc. vehicles for collection and transportation
of the waste from primary and secondary waste collection point to the landfills.
3.8. Processing of MSW
MSW is being processing in several ways in LMC area.
3.8.1. Composting
Currently MSW management system has no facility of composting. In the cattle colony near River
Gomti where cattels produces dung has not been collected by the LNN workers. So the people are living in
unhygienic condition. Mosquito, rodents and flies population increases to cause several diseases in these areas.
Gobar also reaches to the river stream on flooding in the rainy season from June to September and in January
3.8.2. Incineration
This equipment is only used for hospital waste. Approximately 500 Kg waste is incinerated per day in the
hospital. Rest of the waste is dumped in nearby open dumping places (LNN, 2010). Clinic dumps their waste in
open dump which is collected by LNN.
3.8.3 Recycling
Recyclable waste including paper, card board, plastics, polythene, glass, metals, rubber, leather and
textiles etc. collected and segregated by waste pickers and collectors. This collected waste daily collected and
transferred to dealers who are living in slums near their residence. The waste collector and waste picker are
generally illiterate and working without safety equipment such as boots and gloves although they contribute to
the environment.
3.8.4 Energy Generation
In Ghaila, on Hardoi, Sitapur Road an electricity generation plant has been established. But started
without having any proper management plan. So it stopped before electricity generation and without giving any
output. At present there is no electricity generation from MSW.
3.9. Disposal of MSW and analysis of landfill site in India
MSW is generally disposed in the nearby low-lying area; pond, river, lake and wasteland in the urban
area in uncontrolled manner without application of daily cover material. This is the reason of abate odour and
attraction of birds, animals and rodents so decrease site litter. Selection of these landfill sites by LNN depend
only on availability, not on scientific and socio-environmental criteria of landfill. There are many open disposal
sites where the MSW of the city is being disposed off. Since 1980, many landfills have been created in
Lucknow. At present, six landfill sites are active, namely Dubagga, Jehta Mor bundha, RR Bhawan, Daliganj
Pul (near Mankameshwar Mandir Marg), Tile Wali Masjid and Telibagh Bhatha Maidan which covers over total
area of about 260729.4 square meter (see Table 2 and Fig. 5).
Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow Capital city of 46 | Page
Table 2: Position of Active And Closed MSW Dumping sites
Site no.
Site name
Dumping starts
Tot Area in sq.m
Kadimi Kbristan
Jehta-Mor Bandha
23660.5909, 17843.6384
Yadav Chowraha
0359.7415, 580.5386, 3559.5252
Pulton Chawni
Aliganj Sec-Q
Near Aliganj Sec-Q
RR Bhawan
91466.5592, 8459.2445
Near Race cource Maidan
Near Telibagh
Telibagh Main Bhattha Maidan
Rashmi Khand, Near Kansiram
Near Nahar Chowraha
Ramdas Khera
Chunnu Khera Village
Hansa Khera
Near Budheshvr Chowraha
Bohar Village, Near Alamngr
Moti Jheel in Aishbag
Budha Park
Hathi Park
Daliganj pul, Mankameshwar
Mandir Marg
Tile Wali Masjid
Gandhi Setu
Fig 5: Arc GIS view 9.3 map showing MSW dumping sites and collection depots in Lucknow city
Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow Capital city of 47 | Page
Waste releases from household, industry, commercial, medical, and slaughter houses are disposed together. The
dumped waste then leveled and compressed with hydraulic bulldozers. Construction and demolishes waste and
inert material are used as covering material in Telibagh Bhatha Maidan. Soil covering as a covering material
Lucknow Cantonment area at Sultanpur Road. It comes under Cant Municipal Corporation which is only
responsible for collection to dumping of waste from Cant area only. In the city landfills are devoid of base liner
or leachate collection, treatment and scientific disposal system according to MSWM Rules, 2000. Therefore
leachate when generates from the landfill which is either closed or open percolate to the groundwater or mixes
with nearby surface water or flows toward low lying areas specially during rainy season. Various studies
conducted by Mor et al (2006); Kumar et al (2002) and Kumar and Alapp (2003) founded and proved that
groundwater of residential area near the landfills significantly contaminated by leachate which is a
combination of liquid residues of heavy and toxic metals. The physical appearance of leachate when it emerges
from a typical landfill site is a strongly odored black colored liquid which severely contaminated groundwater
aquifers. Meanwhile, residents of Dubagga, Telibag bhattha maidan and Jehta Mor Bandha are unhappy.
IV. Initiatives and technology towards improvement of MSW
LMC proposed Master Plan (MP) for the treatment and disposal of MSW for the period of 2005-2021.
The objective of the MP is to implement their recommend measures for improvement in the treatment and
disposal of MSW through public and private partnership. On other hand Indian Express, Lucknow in 2011
published news that the state government has selected project of Jyoti Enviro Tech Private Limited (NGO)
under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The plant is coming up in Shivri village
on Mohan Road. The agreement has been signed for door-to-door collection of solid waste, its treatment in
processing plant and disposal at a landfill site for next 30 years. The municipal solid waste processing plant and
the garbage disposal site currently being developed on a 19-hectare land in Lucknow which will have the
capacity to treat city waste only for five years. Source segregation started with cooperation of LNN, NGO and
private collectors although waste mixes again in primary collection point. These wastes collector of NGO has
been provided aprons. Poor people have a lower willingness to pay for environmental quality, due to
unawareness about pollution, illiteracy and income elasticity of LNN, s environmental services. Only 31
percent, out of about 82 percent of the population that relied on communal waste disposal sites, paid a levy
(Benneh et al., 1993).
V. Conclusion and Recommendation
The study concludes that the present policy and infrastructure are inadequate in dealing with the
enormous quantity of MSW generated in the city. MSWM of this city is unsatisfactory and thereby needs
immediate attention. Increase in quantities of MSW due to rapid urbanization, commercialization and inability
of providing daily collection service cause nuisance and health hazards. The waste management plan also needs
significant cooperation of public in source segregation from the residential sectors. The intervention is needed
not only in policy formation, but also active involvement in waste collection and transportation till the waste is
dumped in the sanitary landfill sites for implementation of waste management policy. For this, media can play a
significant role and aware citizens calling for their active involvement. Informal collectors including waste
pickers, waste recyclers, scavengers and waste carriers must be fully integrated into the waste management
stream in order to realize the benefits of their contributions to environmental management in the city. Jyoti
Enviro Tech Private Ltd. (NGO) had took a big step towards improving MSWM practices by privatizing the
collection and transportation of MSW. This NGO started door- to-door collection of segregated waste in certain
wards of the city. This segregated waste should be taken to the designated dumping sites after careful recycling
and composting. The segregation of waste at source and promotion of recycling or reuse would reduce the
quantity of waste and the burden on landfills and would provide raw materials for manufacturers.
Biodegradables should be processed by composting and anaerobic digestion. Landfilling should be restricted to
those wastes that are non-biodegradable or inert or which are not suitable for recycling. The study presents the
current scenario of MSWM, which will be helpful in creating awareness among the people and the planners. The
MSWM data obtained from Arc GIS maps are responsible for the retrieval, update and visualization of the
information required. The produced maps with data can provide LNN, environmental engineers and decision
makers about the present MSWM system, which is required for the improvement of the existing system and for
future planning. NGO and LNN should collect cattle dung from cattle shelters/colonies of the whole city. In the
cattle colony, LNN should provide gobar gas plant to the people who are living in unhygienic condition. The
dung also reaches the river stream due to flooding in the rainy season from June to September and in January
month. The dung if collected by the LNN can produce lots of organic fertilizer if supply in the rural area could
be arranged. Biomedical and industrial wastes must not be mixed with MSW. Municipal authorities are to
establish and maintain MSW storage facilities that do not create unhygienic and unsanitary conditions in the
Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Lucknow Capital city of 48 | Page
area. Citizens must be encouraged by the municipal authority to segregate wastes. Vehicles during waste
transportation must be covered and the MSW must be processed in such as way which could reduce burden on
landfills. Finally, it is clear that availability of such data would be helpful in the selection of appropriate
technology for solid waste management in Lucknow. In year 2021 the situation may reach critical proportion.
Specifications for maintenance of landfill sites and various other processing techniques should be applied such
as composting; leachate treatment and incineration as given in the MSW Rules, 2000. LNN and other urban
local bodies Uttar Pradesh should take up the issue of MSWM on priority and show their collective
responsibility and seriousness for proper disposal and treatment of MSW for the entire Lucknow city.
The authors acknowledge BBAU, Lucknow in facilitating and supporting the study. The authors also
acknowledge the contribution rendered by the official and technical staff of LNN, Lucknow for completing this
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... The result is visually displayed as a dendrogram (Fig. 5). The ward linkage technique of statistics was used in HCA, which prescribes an agglomerative hierarchical clustering approach in which the criterion for the set of groups to integrate each level is based on the key characteristics of an objective function (Archana et al. 2014). Two statistically significant groups were generated in this study (shown in Fig. 5): cluster-1 (variables 1-21 except 2 and 3) and cluster-2 (variables 2 and 3) since the chemicals in these clusters have comparable characteristic features and correspond to low and moderate, respectively. ...
The rapid expansion of the urban population and industrialization have led to significant contamination in the soil, surface water, and groundwater. Leachate is a complex organic waste extracted from waste dump sites, and it is one of the causes of groundwater contamination. This study investigated the effect of leachate extracted from the municipal solid waste dumpsite, Kanpur, on the groundwater and the health of human receptors. This location is a non-engineered open dumpsite, which handles about 1200 metric tons/day of domestic waste generated and collected from Kanpur city. This site is being used since the year 2010 and has completed 11 years of operation tenure till today. Different researchers have mentioned that any dumpsite having more than 10 operational years is categorized as matured landfill/dumpsite. The leachate samples were collected from the study area and tested for their physicochemical parameters. The effect of this leachate was also assessed on the groundwater quality parameters with the dilution factor of 1:100 in the three different seasons: Pre-monsoon (April), Monsoon (July), and Post Monsoon (October) in the year 2021. The test results were analyzed, and it was found that some hazardous metals were present in leachate samples. This may give rise to carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic health risks. To assess human health risks, the USEPA guidelines were adopted in the analysis. There is a residential area nearby the dumping site. In this study, adults and children are considered as receptors and pathways as oral and dermal. In all three seasons, the health risk was observed as non-carcinogenic, but children are more prone to health risks below the carcinogenic level. The chronic daily intake (CDI) during monsoon season was highest in the case of chromium (1.92 for children) and minimum for zinc (6.86 × 10–6 for adults). This study highlights that a child is a critical receptor during the monsoon season due to the highest value of the total hazard index, HItotal (= 0.68) among all values.
... Further, people can be encouraged to start home composting for gardening purpose along with educating them with potential health impacts from poor MSW management. Awareness programs can be arranged through public group meetings, seminar, workshops, newspapers, media, radio, and television networks involving active participation from local bodies [12,38]. ...
In developing countries, urbanization and rapid population growth has resulted in a substantial increase in generation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Safe collection, transportation and treatment of MSW are among the major issues for Indian cities. Poor MSW management practices have negative impact on public health, environment and climate change. India currently only treats 21% of MSW while the remainder disposed in unsanitary landfill sites with no recycling and treatment technologies. This paper reviews the existing MSW management practices, challenges and provides recommendations for improving MSW management for the city of Jaipur in Rajasthan, India. Despite being the state capital as well as the top tourist destination in northern part of India, there is no detailed study which reviews the waste management strategies of this city along with identifying the key challenges. The study reveals that the major challenges for MSW management in Jaipur include uncontrolled landfilling, inadequate public participation as well as failings of implementation of MSW legislation and waste conversion. Recommendations for improvement include public awareness campaigns, public-private partnership, investment in lined landfills, recycling and waste to energy techniques. Optimization models and life cycle assessment tools should be employed to minimize cost and the environmental impact of MSW management. This study will provide policy makers and private sector stakeholders to develop strategies for future planning, investment and execution of improved MSW management in Indian cities.
... Solid waste segregation, collection, transportation, treatment, and scientific disposal are largely inadequate, leading to environmental degradation and poor quality of life (Annepu 2012;Zhu et al. 2008). Therefore, MSW management is one of the most challenging environmental issues in India (Archana et al. 2014;Bundela et al. 2010;Devi et al. 2016;Gupta and Arora 2016;Kaushal et al. 2012;Kolekar et al. 2016;Korai et al. 2017;Sahu et al. 2014). The current status of MSWM in India is presented in Table 6. ...
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India has drawn the world's attention due to the high-paced growth of industrialization, urbanization, and population. However, another aspect of higher economic development has resulted in increased waste generation and consumption of natural resources, and hence ecological degradation and pollution. As awareness increases of the detrimental effects of currently used waste disposal methods on the environment, accountability is needed for an effective waste management system. This paper presents the existing situation of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, composition, management, and problems associated with it in Indian cities. Statistically, urban India produced around 62 Mt of solid waste (450 g/capita/day) in 2015. Approximately 82% of MSW was collected and the remaining 18% was litter. The waste treated was only 28% of the collected waste, and the remaining 72% was openly dumped. Waste collection efficiency ranges between 70% and 95% in major metropolitan cities, whereas in several smaller cities it is below 50%. Most urban local bodies (ULBs) are unable to manage such a large amount of solid waste due to financial debilities and inadequate infrastructure. Source segregation of waste, doorstep collection, options for recycling and reuse, technologies for treatment, land availability, and disposal competence are a few of the prime challenges. Addressing these challenges, this paper discusses the current government's policies, financial supports, and incentives for solid waste management (SWM), as well as gaps and suggestions of current SWM rules. This paper also addresses a comparative view of MSW management in different countries and adoption of waste processing technologies for a particular place in India. This study can assist decision makers, planners, municipal authorities and researchers to create a more efficient plan for the current status of, challenges of, and barriers to SWM in India.
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The open dumpsite is often the preferred option for waste disposal in most developing economies, but this option has severe environmental threats. For Kanpur city, being a hot tropical urban city, the generation of landfill gasses and secretion of leachate may be a factor in health concerns for the population on-site and vicinity of the dumpsites. In this study, leachate samples were collected in three different seasons: pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon season in the year 2021, and then analyzed for their physicochemical properties. The pollution potential was assessed in terms of the leachate pollution index. Its calculated index values for these three seasons were found as 6.44, 6.91, and 6.55, respectively. Based on the index values, it can be observed that the overall pollution potential of leachate was low but it was highest in the monsoon season. Hierarchical cluster analysis was also carried out to identify different clusters of parameters contributing to the index values. In addition, a study has also been done for the assessment of non-carcinogenic health risk in terms of hazard index due to on-site contaminated soil for the working population. The analysis shows that a child as a receptor poses a considerable non-carcinogenic health risk, but an adult is under non-potential health risk. However, prolonged exposure to adults might have damaging consequences like kidney failure, laxative, constipation, etc. The results of the study may help the professionals deal with waste disposal management and related technical aspects.
The present review deals with the issues related to municipal solid waste management in India. It emphasizes on identification and generalization of the shortcomings towards sustainable waste management for cleaner and healthier urban environment. This chapter is mainly based on electronically available materials. A comprehensive survey of literature was carried out covering studies from every part of the country with special reference to class I and class II urban centres. It is found that although in India, waste management is an obligatory function of urban local bodies, this indispensable system experiences several problems and challenges in almost every urban area. Handling of very large, diversified and ever-increasing quantities of wastes have become a serious issue in larger urban areas like Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi, etc. The main reasons identified behind this are deficiency in the implementation of rules for eco-friendly management of wastes at the ground level; financial constraints specially for mechanization and modernization of existing management system; lack of public awareness to promote segregation, etc., while in small urban areas basic urban facilities and infrastructure for waste management are merely available. But urban areas like Panaji, Indore, Tenali have confirmed proper management of waste through appropriate planning and implication of modern technologies for waste segregation and scientific treatment. Green marketing based on recyclable and reusable materials has also started growing in different parts of the country. Massive awareness campaign is required in association with communities, NGOs and other stakeholders to promote-source segregation and to stop littering and open burning.
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Human health is “at risk” from exposure to sub-lethal elemental occurrences at a local and or regional scale. This is of global concern as good-quality drinking water is a basic need for our wellbeing. In the present study, the “probability kriging,” a geostatistical method that has been used to predict the risk magnitude of the areas where the probability of dissolved mercury concentration (dHg) is higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit. The method was applied to geochemical data of dHg concentration in 100 drinking groundwater samples of Lucknow monitoring area (1222 km²⁾ located within the Ganga Alluvial Plain, India. Threefold (high to extreme risk) and twofold (moderate risk) higher dHg concentration values than the WHO permissible limit were observed in all of the groundwater samples. The generated prediction map using the probability kriging method shows that the probability of exceedance of dHg is the highest in the northwestern part of the Lucknow monitoring area due to anthropogenic interferences. The hotspots with high to very high probability are potentially alarming in the urban sector where 32.4% of the total population is residing in 6.8% of the total area. Interpolation of local estimates results in an easily readable and communicable human health risk map. It may help to consider substantial remediation measures for managing drinking water resources of the Ganga Alluvial Plain, which is among the anthropogenic mercury emission–dominated regions of the world.
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The health hazards and environmental degradation from the uncontrolled and unlined landfills are well known facts. The most commonly reported danger to human health from these landfills is from the use of polluted groundwater, which has been contaminated by leachate produced from these landfills. A technique to quantify the landfill leachate pollution (using an index known as Leachate Pollution Index) has been developed. Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) is a quantitative tool by which the leachate pollution data of landfill sites can be reported uniformly. The LPI is an increasing scale index and has been formulated based on Delphi technique. In this paper, the concept of LPI is described in brief and LPI for Okhla landfill, New Delhi, has been calculated based on the actual field data. The LPI for this landfill has been compared with the LPI estimated for treated leachate as per the Indian Standards. Based on the results, it is concluded that a single number index value which reflect the composite influence of significant pollutant variables on leachate pollution is possible and it can provide a meaningful, uniform method of assessing the leachate contamination potential of landfill site at a particular time. The LPI value of the Okhla landfill, New Delhi, calculated in this paper is significantly high and proper treatment will be necessary before the discharge of the leachate.
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Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in leachate and groundwater samples obtained at different locations adjacent to a municipal solid waste landfill in order to assess the impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and Na+ exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerance levels for drinking water in 62.5, 100, and 37.5% of the groundwater samples, respectively with pH and Fe exceeding WHO limits in 75% of the samples. Significant negative correlations of -0.839, -0.590, and -0.590 were shown by Na+, TDS, and EC respectively to distance from landfill. A high population of Enterobacteriaceae ranging from 4.0 x 103 ± 0 to 1.0575 x 106 ± 162,705 CFU/ml was also detected in the groundwater samples, indicating contamination. The results show that the leachate from the landfill has a minimal impact on the groundwater resource and this can be attributed to the existing soil stratigraphy at the site consisting of clay which is deduced to have a significant influence on the natural attenuation of leachate into groundwater.
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The management of municipal solid waste has become an acute problem due to enhanced economic activities and rapid urbanisation. Increased attention has been given by the government in recent years to handle this problem in a safe and hygienic manner. In this regard, Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) environmental audit has been carried out for Bangalore city through the collection of secondary data from government agencies, and interviews with stakeholders and field surveys. Field surveys were carried out in seven wards (representative samples of the city) to understand the practice and identify the lacunae. The MSWM audit that was carried out functional-element-wise in selected wards to understand the efficacy and shortfalls, if any, is discussed in this paper. Biographical notes: Ramachandra holds a BE (Electrical Engg) from Bangalore University, India and a PhD in Energy and Environment from the Indian Institute of Science. He has made significant contributions in the area of energy and environment. His areas of research include energy systems, environmental management, regional planning, spatial decision support systems, GIS and remote sensing. He teaches principles of remote sensing, digital image processing, renewable energy technologies, and natural resources management. He has published over 108 research papers as well as nine books. His latest book entitled Management of Municipal Solid Waste, 2006, has been published by Capital Publishers, New Delhi. He is a fellow of the Institution of Engineers (India) and Institution of Electrical Engineers (UK), senior member, IEEE (USA) and AEE (USA), and many similar institutions.
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Municipal solid waste management in Accra, Ghana, is at present delivered in an unsustainable manner. Due to uncontrolled urbanisation, large quantities of waste are generated daily in Accra, and this exerts much pressure on an over strained solid waste management system. Coupled with weak institutional capacity, and lack of resources, both human and capital, the city authorities face difficulties in ensuring that all the waste generated in the city is collected for disposal. Home collection of waste is limited to high and, some middle income areas while the poor are left to contend with the problem on their own. This leads to indiscriminate disposal of waste in surface drains, canals and streams, creating unsanitary, and unsightly environments in many parts of the city.
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Integrated solid waste management (ISWM) based on the 3R approach (reduce, reuse, and recycle) is aimed at optimizing the management of solid waste from all the waste-generating sectors (municipal, construction and demolition, industrial, urban agriculture, and healthcare facilities) and involving all the stakeholders (waste generators, service providers, regulators, government, and community/neighborhoods). This article discusses the concept of solid waste management (SWM). Initially, SWM was aimed at reducing the risks to public health, and later the environmental aspect also became an important focus of SWM. Recently, another dimension is becoming a critical factor for SWM, i.e., resource conservation and resource recovery. Hence, the 3R approach is becoming a guiding factor for SWM. On the one hand, 3R helps to minimize the amount of waste from generation to disposal, thus managing the waste more effectively and minimizing the public health and environmental risks associated with it. On the other hand, resource recovery is maximized at all stages of SWM. Lately, the new concept of ISWM has been introduced to streamline all the stages of waste management, i.e., source separation, collection and transportation, transfer stations and material recovery, treatment and resource recovery, and final disposal. It was originally targeted at municipal solid waste management (MSWM), but now the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is promoting this concept to cover all waste generating sectors to optimize the level of material and resource recovery for recycling as well as to improve the efficiency of waste management services. The ISWM concept is being transformed into ISWM systems to replace conventional SWM systems. This article further discusses the implementation process for ISWM. The process includes a baseline study on the characterization and quantification of waste for all waste generating sectors within a city, assessment of current waste management systems and practices, target setting for ISWM, identification of issues of concern and suggestions from stakeholders, development of a draft ISWM plan, preparation of an implementation strategy, and establishment of a monitoring and feedback system. UNEP is assisting member countries and their cities to develop an ISWM plan covering all the waste generating sectors within a specific geographical or administrative area such as a city or municipality. This umbrella approach is useful to generate sufficient volumes of recycling materials required to make recycling industries feasible. This is also helpful for efficient reallocation of resources for SWM such as collection vehicles, transfer stations, treatment plants, and disposal sites. UNEP is assisting cities to develop and implement ISWM based on the 3R approach. These experiences could be useful for other countries to develop and implement ISWM to achieve improved public health, better environmental protection, and resource conservation and resource recovery. Key wordsSolid waste-3R approach-Waste management-Assessment and planning
Solid waste management is associated with the control of waste generation, from its storage to disposal while satisfying the principles of public health and other environmental considerations. However, rapid population growth coupled with the increased rate of unplanned urbanization in Indian cities have led to the tremendous increase in the amounts of solid waste (MSW). Mismanagement of solid waste leads to public health risks, adverse environmental impacts and other socio-economic problems. The problems derived from solid waste have a unique and complicated character; they are not only a potential source of pollution, but they can be used as a secondary source of raw materials. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is considered a serious environmental challenge confronting local authorities and several city administrators have realized that the way they manage their solid wastes does not satisfy the objectives of sustainable development. Therefore, there is a move to shift from traditional solid waste management (SWM) options to more integrated solid waste management approaches. The selection of priorities regarding the solid waste management has direct economic and environmental impacts. This procedure concerns not only the environmental policy but also technological, economic and purchasing policies. However, the lack of adequate resources to implement the necessary changes is posing a serious obstacle. Environmentally sound solid waste management involves • Segregation of waste at source (separate organic and inorganic - recyclable, reusable fractions); • Door to door collection of waste with incentive based mechanism to enhance segregation at source: This entails (i) deploying appropriate mobile collection vans (for each locality) with an option to store segregated and unsegregated wastes, (ii) incentive of Rs 1 per kg of segregated organic waste and payment directly to the respective household account through bank transfer – Jan Dhan scheme with Aadhaar linkage, (iii) dis-incentive to unsegregated waste – individuals who refue to segregate needs to pay Rs 5 per kg of unsegregated waste. Revenue generation would encourage many households to switch over to segregation. • Collection trucks to have GPS (global positioning system) which would help in online tracking and also in reducing malpractices associated with waste management. • Transparency in the administration though online availability of spatial information system, accessible to all including public. • Eradicating waste mismanagement lobby - nexus of contractors-consultants-engineers. Successful elimination of the mismanagement lobby would help in solving the waste problem in any city. • Setting up waste processing yards with decentralised treatment of organic fraction of waste in each locality (stop using parks and recreation spaces for this purpose). • Encouraging youth to take up innovative waste treatment options (suitable to handle Indian waste- rich in organic fractions) • Only inert materials shall go to landfill locations. • Implementation of SWM 2016, GoI and penalising the city administrator in-charge of city waste for dereliction of duties in cases of mixed waste reaching the landfill site or littering of waste’s in city open spaces.
Due to rapid urbanization and uncontrolled growth rate of population, municipal solid waste management (MSWM) has become acute in India. MSWM, though an essential service, is given low priority. Lack of financial resources, institutional weaknesses, improper choice of technology and public apathy towards MSW have made this service far from satisfaction. The current practices of the uncontrolled dumping of waste on the outskirts of towns/cities have created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of the present paper is to evaluate the present situation of MSWM in India based on published information and NEERI's expertise towards MSWM. An approach to design a sustainable MSWM system to meet the future challenge is presented. The expertise of NEERI towards MSWM has provided extensive services to various municipal bodies in improving their MSWM system. Some of the best practices are also detailed. The efforts by a community-based organization to promote a sustainable integrated waste management in mega cities and lessons learnt from EXNORA's Zero Waste Management Scheme in South Indian cities has also been outlined.
In the past, landfilling involved burying municipal refuse directly or after on-site burning. Typically, little attention was given to proper siting and engineering to obviate the hazards of the generation of CH4 and toxic leachates as wastes decomposed. Leachates were hopefully attenuated by natural processes (adsorption, precipitation, ion exchange, microbial decomposition or dilution in the unsaturated zone below landfills). Landfills slowly evolved by proper siting, design and management into efficiently operated bioreactors to produce purified CH4 for use as a fuel, and leachates, which were treated biologically and chemically to minimize groundwater pollution. Microbial reactions in landfills are outlined. The amounts and composition of landfill gas and leachate as determined by the interaction of factors such as refuse composition, degree of compaction, temperature, moisture content, refuse age and depth are discussed. Typical inorganic and organic composition of landfill gases and leachates are presented.The potential and real environmental effects on soils, plants, groundwater, aquatic organisms and humans of disposal of municipal refuse by landfilling are reviewed. Finally, the most recent trend in constructing refuse landfills to serve as final storage reservoirs which are deliberately kept dry to minimize gas and leachate production is discussed and illustrated. Present activities in waste recycling to conserve landfill space are outlined.