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Overview to Special Issue: Understanding Emotions Means Crossing Boundaries within Psychology

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Abstract

Emotional processes influence a wide range of mental and physical systems, which makes them difficult to understand from a single perspective. In this special issue of the Review of General Psychology, contributing authors present 4 articles that draw from several areas within psychology in the service of understanding a topic relevant to emotion. In this overview, the authors argue that the long neglect of the scientific study of complex processes such as emotion might be linked, in part, to the fractionation of the field into specialized subdisciplines. Just as emotions were of central concern in the early years of psychology (which was a generalist's era), as psychology moves toward more integration in the late 20th century broad phenomena such as emotions are once again central interests. The 4 articles of this special issue are briefly reviewed as exemplars of an integrated approach to understanding emotional phenomena.

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... In its essence contentment involves appreciation of one's current life circumstances, accomplishments, and favourable events as well as incorporation of these into one's overall self-concept (Fredrickson, 1998). In view of the differences observed in people representing digital natives, as described above, related to ambitions, goals, systems of values, self-esteem, and interpersonal re-lations, and given the completely different methods used by them in the processing of any kind of information, it may be hypothesised that there will be differences in the contents of the concept of contentment in individuals representing various generations. ...
... The components of the concept of contentment shared by the different generations confirm that contentment is a concept associated with a few structural elements such as symptoms (Berenbaum, Huang, Flores, 2019;Morgan, Heise, 1988;Russel, 1980, Scherer, 2005. Barbara Fredrickson (1998) points out that contentment means savouring of one's overall life circumstances and success. It is characteristic for Polish people not only to appreciate their own life circumstances, but also to enjoy the moment and the small pleasures of the daily life, and to notice and appreciate higher values such as beauty, love or close contact with other people. ...
... The components of the concept of contentment shared by the different generatio confirm that contentment is a concept associated with a few structural elements such symptoms (Berenbaum, Huang, Flores, 2019;Morgan, Heise, 1988;Russel, 1980, Scher 2005. Barbara Fredrickson (1998) points out that contentment means savouring of one overall life circumstances and success. It is characteristic for Polish people not only appreciate their own life circumstances, but also to enjoy the moment and the small pleasur of the daily life, and to notice and appreciate higher values such as beauty, love or clo contact with other people. ...
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p>Celem artykułu jest porównanie narracji na temat zadowolenia u osób z różnych pokoleń, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem dwóch pokoleń digital natives , tj. digital natives 1.0 oraz digital natives 2.0. Pokoleniem digital natives określa się osoby urodzone i wychowane w erze cyfrowej, dla których nowoczesne technologie są nieodłącznym elementem życia. Odmienne warunki, w jakich dorastali przedstawiciele różnych pokoleń, warunkują odmienność ich funkcjonowania (w tym emocjonalnego) oraz różnice w zakresie treści i struktury konstruowanych przez nich reprezentacji emocji. Przeanalizowano wypowiedzi na temat zadowolenia 148 osób z różnych pokoleń. Na podstawie jakościowej i ilościowej analizy opisano specyfię treści narracji o zadowoleniu dwóch pokoleń digital natives . Wykazano, że narracje o zadowoleniu wśród digital natives zawierają liczne informacje na temat przedmiotów oraz małą liczbę odniesień do rodziny. Narracje o zadowoleniu przedstawicieli digital natives 1.0 są ubogie w informacje na temat zwierząt. Reprezentacja zadowolenia u osób z pokolenia digital natives 2.0 jest natomiast bogata w informacje dotyczące symptomów i synonimów oraz wartości materialnych i niematerialnych.</p
... Early research on emotion primarily focused on negative aspects of the human experience (Fredrickson, 1998). In recent decades Fredrickson (2004) and others have focused on researching positive emotions. ...
... When presented with negative emotional stimulus an individual experiences the impulse for specific action in response (Frijda, 1986). It was theorized that positive emotional stimulus had a similar thought-action association, however Fredrickson (1998) argued that the narrowing of focus was only evolutionarily necessary in response to threat and positive emotions serve a different function for human bonding and growth. Fredrickson (1998) theorized that positive emotions broaden our perception in the moment, increasing our urges to explore, connect, learn, and grow, thereby expanding our resources . ...
... There are multiple benefits to an intentional positivity practice around lifestyle change. The positive emotions experienced confer benefits on multiple fronts including allowing for a more creative and malleable mental state (Fredrickson, 1998). There are also more likely to be repeated, and through repetition build vantage resources (Van Capellen et al., This paper has also reviewed the interchange between self-transcendent experience, prosocial behavior, and beyond the self purpose and their benefits to well-being. ...
Article
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What builds lasting change in our lives and why is it difficult for so many people to sustain? The process of self-development happens on multiple levels and time horizons, yet much of the research on lifestyle change examines single factors or interventions. It is not only one thing, one cycle, or one process that moves someone from floundering to flourishing. This paper examines upward spiral dynamics, self-determination theory, self-actualization, and self-transcendence to identify the multi-level and multi-domain factors that contribute to lasting change. It also explores the development of vantage resources, the physiological, social, and emotional resources which allow us to benefit from positive experiences. I theorize that through the cultivation of vantage resources via intrinsic or integrated goals our potential to experience well-being grows, and through sustained effort we’re able to build lasting change. Additionally, self-transcendent experiences ranging from mild to significant reshape the schema of what is valued, purposeful and meaningful. By fostering experiences likely to trigger self-transcendence we perpetuate the cycle of self-development aimed not at narcissism, but meaningful contribution. Artifact 1 proposes a model for these cycles of change, the Upward Spiral of Self Development and Well-Being. Artifact 2 is a catalog of potential vantage resources and related multi-domain activities that potentially contribute to upward spirals.
... This theory not only signifies stable personal and work-related characteristics but also underscores that resources get exhausted and replenished on a dynamic and continuous basis. In a similar vein, Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory posits that positive emotions broaden an individual's awareness, enhance cognitive processes and encourage novel thoughts. These mechanisms build positive affect resources within individuals which may have a long-term impact on an individual's well-being. ...
... Participant shares, 'I can approach the top management if I have any issues…my business head is very compassionate and listens to problems in a very unbiased way'. Fredrickson's (1998) theorized that individuals broaden and build their inner resources through positive actions and emotions. Thus, positive leadership behaviour immensely helps employees in building resilience, self-esteem, and competence. ...
... We also contribute theoretically by extending the scholarly works of Hobfoll (1989) and Fredrickson (1998). Hobfoll's conservation-of-resources theory highlights the dynamic nature of resources that get depleted or replenished due to negative or positive effects respectively. ...
Article
The notion of well-being has been evolving as research continues to unfurl its multidimensional nature. The importance of well-being in the organizational context is becoming a valuable line of inquiry, and employee well-being has emerged as a pivotal focus in positive psychology. Despite this, employees report high levels of disengagement and stress at work. Thus, we conducted 15 in-depth interviews with middle- and senior-level managers in the service sector in India to understand the factors that impact an employee’s well-being. Research question: What comprises an individual’s well-being at the workplace? Theory: Conservation-of-resources theory, broaden-and-build theory. Type of the case: Applied problem-solving. Basis of the Case: Phenomenon. Protagonist: Not needed. Findings: Data was analysed using grounded theory. We synthesized the factors contributing to employee well-being into the following themes: encouraging organizational culture, providing social support, demonstrating positive leadership, integrating work and life, finding meaning in work, providing autonomy and ensuring good working conditions. Discussion: Study findings extend the conservation-of-resources and broaden-and-build theories by emphasizing on gain spirals; that is, individuals use a positive effect to conserve, replenish, broaden, and build their inner resources and well-being. While leaders in an organization invest in enhancing employees’ well-being, they need to be cognizant of the several factors at interplay. An overall positive environment, autonomy, safety and meaningfulness contribute holistically towards the well-being of employees.
... The focus of most psychological studies has been on maladaptive components of the human condition (e.g., depression & anxiety) instead of more adaptive components, therefore limiting our knowledge of the benefits of such positive psychological processes. Given that mitigating the harmful effects of negative components is not equal to promoting individuals' well-being, studies concentrating on more positive or adaptive components are worthy of being conducted (Fredrickson, 1998;Mangan, Baumsteiger, & Bronk, 2020). The aforementioned view led to emerging research on positive emotions. ...
... Positive emotions (e.g., joy, interest, & love) have wellestablished and direct links to a variety of positive outcomes, such as higher self-esteem, marital and life satisfaction, and better academic and work performance (Bieda et al., 2019;Coffey & Warren, 2020;Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005). Indeed, Fredrickson (1998) put forward a novel model (i.e., broaden-and-build model of positive emotions) to explain the beneficial effects of positive emotions. The broaden-and-build model proposes that positive emotions broaden a person's momentary thought-action repertoire and build enduring personal resources (i.e., physical, intellectual, psychological, & social resources;Fredrickson, 1998). ...
... Indeed, Fredrickson (1998) put forward a novel model (i.e., broaden-and-build model of positive emotions) to explain the beneficial effects of positive emotions. The broaden-and-build model proposes that positive emotions broaden a person's momentary thought-action repertoire and build enduring personal resources (i.e., physical, intellectual, psychological, & social resources;Fredrickson, 1998). For example, Fredrickson and Branigan (2005) found that positive emotions broadened the scope of attention and cognition (e.g., imagining more action urges when feeling good). ...
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Drawing upon the broaden-and-build model and self-determination theory, the present study examined whether and how the fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, & relatedness) might mediate the relationship between positive affectivity and distinctive positive outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction, self-esteem, & academic performance) in a sample of 320 (202 females) Chinese adolescents using a six-months’ prospective design. Results showed that positive affectivity was positively associated with all basic psychological needs and positive outcomes. Furthermore, results obtained from conducting mediation analyses indicated that competence mediated the link between positive affectivity and subsequent levels of self-esteem, while relatedness mediated the link between positive affectivity and subsequent levels of life satisfaction, and autonomy did not emerge as a significant mediator for any of the positive outcomes studied. Overall, the current study integrated the basic psychological needs theory into the framework of the broaden-and-build model, identifying the unique contribution of the needs in the link between positive affectivity and positive outcomes in Chinese adolescents.
... And their differences may result in their different roles in the association between dispositional gratitude and life satisfaction. As implied by the broaden hypothesis of broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson 1998(Fredrickson , 2001, positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoire in interpersonal domains, which is helpful for well-being. On the one hand, when a person inevitably draws social comparison with superior other and then envy is evoked (Collins 1996;Van de Ven et al. 2009), grateful people tend to experience benign envy rather than malicious envy (Xiang et al. 2018). ...
... For one thing, dispositional gratitude may predict mindfulness positively. People with high trait gratitude tend to experience grateful emotion frequently and intensely (McCullough et al. 2004), and this experience of positive emotion builds various of personal resources consequentially (Fredrickson 1998(Fredrickson , 2001. Among these resources, mindfulness is identified to be a cognitive resource built by positive emotions when Fredrickson et al. (2008) testing the build hypothesis. ...
... First of all, benign envy and malicious envy play different mediating role between dispositional gratitude and life satisfaction. Paralleling with the broaden hypothesis (Fredrickson 1998(Fredrickson , 2001Fredrickson and Branigan 2005), gratitude has a broadening effect on people's momentary thought-action repertoire in interpersonal domains and thus has a regulatory effect on negative emotions (Garland et al. 2010), which in turn promotes life satisfaction. People with grateful personality tend to experience gratitude (McCullough et al. 2004) and this positive emotion broadens the envious' attention and thinking (Fredrickson et al. 2008), which allows them to perceive other's advantage as deserving and themselves as controllable. ...
Article
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Life satisfaction refers to people’s overall judgements on their own life experiences, which is considered to be a relative stable aspect of subjective well-being. Though a robust of literature has identified that gratitude predicts life satisfaction positively, the underlying mechanism remains to be explored from a powerful theoretical perspective. Following the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study explored the mediation role of benign envy, malicious envy and mindfulness in the relationship between dispositional gratitude and life satisfaction among 991 Chinese undergraduates (692 females and 299 males; M = 19.05, SD = 1.543, from 17 to 26 years old). The results revealed that benign envy, malicious envy and mindfulness were mediators between dispositional gratitude and life satisfaction. Importantly, dispositional gratitude linked to life satisfaction through the sequential intermediary of “mindfulness→benign envy” and “mindfulness→malicious envy”. These findings are not only valuable for understanding how dispositional gratitude is linked to life satisfaction according to the broaden-and-build theory, but also contributes to the development of psychological intervention programs aiming at improving people’s life satisfaction.
... Überwiegen positive Emotionen, weicht man eher von automatisierten Verhaltensweisen ab und verfolgt auch neue bzw. kreativere Handlungen und Gedankengänge (Fredrickson, 1998). Positive Emotionen erweitern nicht nur den Aktionsradius, sondern auch den Wahrnehmungs-und Aufmerksamkeitsumfang (Fredrickson, 1998). ...
... kreativere Handlungen und Gedankengänge (Fredrickson, 1998). Positive Emotionen erweitern nicht nur den Aktionsradius, sondern auch den Wahrnehmungs-und Aufmerksamkeitsumfang (Fredrickson, 1998). Zudem erholt man sich durch sie schneller von negativen Emotionen (Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998 (Aspinwall, 1998). ...
... Im Übertragen auf den schulischen Kontext lässt sich annehmen, dass eine Lehrkraft variantenreichere Unterrichtsstrategien sowie auch offenere Unterrichtsformen einsetzt, wenn positive Emotionen vorherrschen (Frenzel, 2014). Im Einklang mit der BBT von Fredrickson (1998Fredrickson ( , 2001Fredrickson ( , 2004 wäre von einem erweiterten Gedanken-Aktions-Repertoire auszugehen, das dauerhaft zum Aufbau personaler Ressourcen führt, wovon die Lehrkraft auch längerfristig (und in ungewohnten Situationen) profitieren kann. Die positiven Emotionen sollten folglich durch die damit einhergehende diversere, kreativere und flexiblere Denkweise dazu beitragen, dass sowohl offenere Formen des Unterrichts besser umgesetzt als auch Hindernisse/Erschwernisse besser gemeistert werden. ...
... For example, participants in a promotion focus generate more diverse response categories in sorting tasks (Crowe & Higgins, 1997) and on creative insight and idea generation tasks than participants in a prevention focus (Friedman & Förster, 2001). Therefore, we expect team members experiencing activated promotion focused affect to naturally focus on the idea generation portion of the creative process since the mindset linked with activated promotion-focus directly relates to idea generation (Fredrickson, 1998;Friedman & Förster, 2001;Isen, 2008). For example, studies conducted over more than 40 years consistently support the premise that situational happiness, an activated promotion-focused positive affective state , broadens people's awareness and encourages novel and exploratory thoughts and actions (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2013Isen, 2008). ...
... Therefore, we expect team members experiencing activated promotion focused affect to naturally focus on the idea generation portion of the creative process since the mindset linked with activated promotion-focus directly relates to idea generation (Fredrickson, 1998;Friedman & Förster, 2001;Isen, 2008). For example, studies conducted over more than 40 years consistently support the premise that situational happiness, an activated promotion-focused positive affective state , broadens people's awareness and encourages novel and exploratory thoughts and actions (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2013Isen, 2008). ...
... This would indicate that valence also plays a role in how individual affect influences team creativity. Alternatively, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, it is possible that excited team members are willing to break social norms or contradict other group members' wishes when it directly benefits task performance (Fredrickson, 1998;Isen, 2008). Future research could examine these possibilities. ...
Chapter
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We examine work on the relationship between team affect and creativity from three increasingly complex lenses. First, we review work on affective contagion and convergence, assuming homogeneity in affect among team members. However, our review clearly shows that we can no longer neglect affective diversity in teams. Team members experience different emotions for many reasons including trait affect, appraisal processes, distinct experiences, and the team context. So, second, we discuss how team members simultaneously experiencing different affective states interact to impact team creativity. Third, team members themselves are also complex entities with multiple traits, attitudes, and other attributes in addition to their affective states. We hence take an alignment approach to consider how these other attributes (e.g., personality, attitudes) interact with state affect to influence team creativity. We integrate these lenses through the affect-as-information and broaden-and-build theories of emotion and through Amabile’s creative process model. Doing so allows us to link the creativity literature with work on team composition and emergence and identify opportunities for future scholarship.
... Στη συνέχεια παρουσιά ζονται τα αποτελέσματα ερευνών και οι θεωρητικές προτάσεις που έχουν διατυπωθεί από διαφορετικές ψυχοθεραπευτικές προσεγγίσεις για τα θετικά συναισθήματα. Τέλος, το άρθρο επικεντρώνεται στην θεωρία Διεύρυνσης και Δόμησης (Fredrickson, 1998 για τα θετικά συναισθήματα που προέρχεται από τον κλάδο της Θετικής Ψυχολογίας και στις ερευνητικές εφαρμογές της στην ψυχοθεραπευτική διαδικασία. ...
... Το μοντέλο της Διεύρυνσης και Δόμησης της Fredrickson (1998Fredrickson ( . 2001) προέρχεται από τον χώρο της εξελικτικής ψυχολογίας και είναι το πρώτο μοντέλο που ασχολείται αποκλειστικά με την φύση και την λειτουργία των θετικών συναισθημάτων στον ανθρώπινο οργανισμό. ...
Article
In this article we critically present the main theories, models and research findings regarding the role of positive emotions in psychotherapy. In the first part we present an overview of the role of the emotional presence, expression, and experience in psychotherapy and the role of emotions in different psychotherapeutic models. In the second part we focus on the role of humor, joy and love in psychotherapy, while in the last part we present and discuss the Broadenand- build model and its application to psychotherapy theory and practice.
... Meanwhile, prior research suggests that the valence of the emotional experience can also play a role. The broaden-and-build theory developed by Fredrickson (1998) assumes that positive emotions have a broadening effect on attention. In brief, positive emotions broaden the attentional focus, increase peripheral information processing (Estrada et al., 1997), and enhance semantic processing (Rowe et al., 2007). ...
... However, the inverted U-shaped effect of the emotion vector on attention observed here also implies that low-to-moderate arousal and neutral-to-positive emotional states are most likely to maximize viewer attention to sponsor messages. This finding can be explained using the broaden-and-build hypothesis(Fredrickson, 1998), which postulates that more positive emotions have a broadening effect on the scope of attention, suggesting that positive valence results in greater attention to peripheral sponsor signage.This study extends the state of research on sponsorship, brand attention, emotions and improvised marketing interventions (IMIs).(1) Although sponsor signage typically appears in dynamic and suspenseful game situations, sponsorship research mostly relies on studies with static designs or experimental treatments with already known match outcomes. ...
Article
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Live sport broadcasts can evoke emotions in consumers and allow companies to reach their audience in environments that allow for automatic processing of brand messages. However, only few studies have applied psychophysiological methodologies to assess how the live nature of a competition and viewers' emotions affect the processing of sponsor messages, and prior research has mostly relied on ex-post data. Therefore, to identify the interplay of game outcome uncertainty, viewers' emotions and attention to sponsor messages, this exploratory lab study tracks continuous viewer data during live sport broadcasts. Soccer fans' (n = 11) arousal, emotional valence, and visual attention to sponsors while watching live soccer broadcasts were measured using galvanic skin response, video-based facial expressions, and infrared eye-tracking. In-play betting odds served as an indicator of outcome uncertainty. Multi-level modeling reveals that greater outcome uncertainty increases arousal and the magnitude of emotional response. Further, the data reveal that low-to-moderate arousal and valence-neutral emotional states increase viewer attention to sponsor messages. This study is the first to consider the dynamics of live sports experiences in the explanation of sponsorship effectiveness. It contributes to the literature by using continuous measurements involving psychophysiological data to investigate emotions and attention to sponsors.
... Аналогичный подход применим и к условно позитивным эмоциям, наличие высоких значений позитивных эмоций не гарантирует нормальное психофизиологическое состояние человека. Несмотря на то, что общий подход к позитивным эмоциям предполагает, что большее значение позитивной эмоции характеризует лучшее психофизиологическое состояние человека (Fredrickson, 1998;Kok, 2013), аномально высокие значения, полученные для позитивных эмоций, так же свидетельствуют об отклонении от нормы, аналогично низким значениям, полученным для негативных эмоций. Для позитивных эмоций предполагается, что их изменение от статистического центра в сторону увеличения величины параметра характеризует улучшение психофизиологического состояния. ...
... Однако восприятие личности другими людьми зависит прежде всего от характеристик самой личности, поэтому данная характеристика нам представляется достаточно важной и является одной из предлагаемых характеристик позитивных эмоций. Современные исследования позитивных эмоций (Fredrickson, 1998;Kok et al., 2013) предлагают широкий выбор принципов формирования позитивных эмоциональных состояний, которые определяются практически только субъективной фантазией исследователей. В этом плане предложения разработчиков технологии виброизображения (VibraStat, 2019) отличаются объективностью, так как для каждой предлагаемой позитивной эмоции предлагается четкий алгоритм ее определения. ...
Book
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В монографии представлен новый взгляд на кибернетический подход к поведенческим характеристикам личности человека. Предложена классификация поведенческих характеристик, основанная на математических и метрологических принципах. Эмоции и психофизиологические параметры человека определяются при измерении физических величин и физиологических параметров человека. Предлагается использовать линейную корреляцию Пирсона как классификационный признак, разделяющий поведенческие характеристики на эмоции, психофизиологические параметры и параметры сознания. Описаны алгоритмы вычисления 12 эмоциональных и 4 психофизиологических параметров, определяемых с помощью технологии виброизображения. Приведены функции распределения эмоциональных и психофизиологических параметров, измеренных по базе из 10 266 тестирований программами VibraMed, VibraMI и PsyAccent. Построены и проанализированы корреляционные зависимости (корреляционные матрицы и графики) для всех приведенных поведенческих параметров. Исследованные базы данных поведенческих параметров предоставлены в открытый доступ. Монография рассчитана на специалистов в области физики, математики, кибернетики, информатики, психологии, биологии, физиологии, виброизображения и биометрии, а также на широкий круг читателей, интересующихся эмоциями, психофизиологическими параметрами, чертами характера, способностями и другими поведенческими характеристиками личности человека.
... The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions provides a more specific link between positive affect and creativity. It states that positive affect increases creativity, not because it decreases focused attention allowing for broader mental structures, but because it facilitates the recombination of ideas through novel and exploratory thoughts and actions (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2013. People experiencing positive affect can flexibly consider multiple aspects of a situation and switch among them (Emich, 2014a;Isen & Daubman, 1984). ...
Chapter
The question of “success” in collaborative creativity, from groups and teams to communities, is of enormous importance today. This is not only because we live in increasingly interdependent worlds, but also because the kinds of challenges we are confronted with, as individuals and societies, are becoming more and more complex. This chapter adopts a sociocultural approach and uses it to redefine the notions of “success,” “creativity,” and “teamwork.” We do this by outlining a sociocultural framework for collaborative creativity grounded in a vocabulary of difference, positions, perspectives, and dialog. Within this approach, creative success in collaboration cannot be judged exclusively based on its outcomes, but needs to take into account process and context. We illustrate this general principle with empirical research from two different settings: a field research on multidisciplinary groups working with innovation in a corporate environment, and another on coaches’ work with developing collaborative creativity in team sports. By focusing on process and context rather than outcomes and isolated individuals, this chapter will expand the notion of “creative success” to include the emergent and developmental quality of relations and interactions established within collaborative settings.
... Across all three studies, we found that, compared to a validation condition, invalidation resulted in greater decreases in positive affect. According to Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, positive emotions can have a restorative effect such that they 'undo' the physiological effects of negative emotions and, thus, bring induced arousal down to baseline levels (Fredrickson et al., 2000). We did not include measures of physiological arousal in this study; however, future researchers would benefit from including markers of physiological effects in tests of the impact of validation on subsequent affect to extend examinations of the broaden-and-build theory. ...
Article
Validation communicates that another’s experiences make sense and are understood, while invalidation dismisses the validity of an individual’s experience. Validation has the potential to preserve positive affect in the face of interpersonal stressors. We aimed to assess and replicate the effect of validation/invalidation on changes in affective experiences. We conducted three experimental studies in which participants were randomized to have their experiences of anger either validated or invalidated. We examined the effects of condition on changes in positive and negative affect as well as global mood. Participants in the validation conditions reported lower decreases in positive affect and mood over the course of the experiment compared to participants in the invalidation conditions. We did not find significant between-condition differences on negative affect. These studies highlight the importance of validation as a communication strategy to buffer against decreases in positive affective experiences after a stressor.
... Recently, the positive experience of being with significant others was found to be one of the two counteracting factors against the wish to die amongst people with neurological conditions, including MND [29]. Taken together, these findings seem to support Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory [77,78], that the cultivation of positive emotions can lead to improve life quality, while offsetting negative emotions. However, further studies are warranted to examine this plausible relationship between positive emotions and QoL among this illness group. ...
Article
Objectives To identify influential factors for quality of life (QoL) among individuals with motor neurone disease (MND) and explore how regulatory flexibility and psychological flexibility may contribute towards maintaining and improving QoL. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 individuals with MND. Thematic analysis, using both inductive and deductive analyses, was employed to examine subjective QoL in view of previous understanding of QoL. Results Four factors were important for the QoL of participants: perceived illness prognosis, sense of self, concerns for significant others, and life to enjoy. These factors reflected psychological stress caused by MND, the participant’s value system, and their beliefs about life. In optimising QoL, both regulatory flexibility and psychological flexibility were essential to maintain and enhance QoL. Often, regulatory flexibility was perceived among those employing a mindful approach, and psychological flexibility was found to involve savouring positive experiences. Conclusions People with MND reported that seeking ways to both maintain and enhance their QoL is crucial, and that this may be accomplished by increasing flexibility through mindfulness and savouring. (171/200 words) • Implications for rehabilitation • People with motor neurone disease (MND) seek to maintain quality of life (QoL) following changes caused by the condition, whilst attempting to enhance QoL by maximising their positive experiences. • Regulatory flexibility is essential to maintain QoL and it was closely associated with mindful approach so that MND is not perceived as an inevitable threat to QoL. • Psychological flexibility was found to enhance QoL and it involves savouring positive experiences, while abandoning fault-finding of the current situation. • Positive inter-personal interactions can encourage people with MND to engage with mindfulness and savouring for favourable outcomes in terms of QoL; current support services should orient towards both mindfulness and savouring.
... Finally, the circumplex model of affect (Russell, 1980(Russell, , 2003 defines activated positive affect as an affective state with positive valence that leads to high levels of arousal, such as feeling enthusiastic and excited. Positive affect has been found to guide individuals' cognitive activities by activating an approach-action tendency, broadening momentary action-thought repertoires, and increasing openness to feedback (Fredrickson, 1998;Gervey et al., 2005;Isen, 1999;Seo et al., 2004). Such effects are particularly beneficial in terms of imagining a different future and identifying more creative ways of realizing that future. ...
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Given the critical role of leaders in managing employees' goal-setting, we theorized and examined how leader proactive goal regulation facilitates employee proactive goal processes and outcomes. Based on a sample of 74 leaders and 371 employees who work in research and development groups, we found that employees' three motivational states-role breadth self-efficacy, psychological ownership, and activated positive affect-were positively associated with job performance via employee proactive goal regulation. In addition, the effects of leader proactive goal regulation on this mediation model were twofold. First, there was a direct effect on employee proactive goal regulation, which, in turn, positively related to job performance. Second, there was a moderating effect of leader proactive goal regulation such that employees delivered high job performance when their leaders were high in proactive goal regulation, regardless of employees' own levels of proactive goal regulation. This study highlights the importance of not only employee but also leader proactive goal regulation in connecting employees' proactive motivational states with job performance.
... Emotional arousal varies from one episode to the next, but also within each episode. If emotional arousal peaks beyond a certain threshold during a given episode, that episode prompts an action tendency (Fredrickson, 1998) and is thus likely to be remembered and acted upon. Based on this model, emotion acts as a 'switch' to determine if a given experiential episode influences memory and behavior. ...
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Recent advancements in mobile sensing and wearable technologies create new opportunities to improve our understanding of how people experience their environment. This understanding can inform urban design decisions. Currently, an important urban design issue is the adaptation of infrastructure to increasing cycle and e-bike use. Using data collected from 12 cyclists on a cycle highway between two municipalities in The Netherlands, we coupled location and wearable emotion data at a high spatiotemporal resolution to model and examine relationships between cyclists' emotional arousal (operationalized as skin conductance responses) and visual stimuli from the environment (operationalized as extent of visible land cover type). We specifically took a within-participants multilevel modeling approach to determine relationships between different types of viewable land cover area and emotional arousal, while controlling for speed, direction, distance to roads, and directional change. Surprisingly, our model suggests ride segments with views of larger natural, recreational, agricultural, and forested areas were more emotionally arousing for participants. Conversely, segments with views of larger developed areas were less arousing. The presented methodological framework, spatial-emotional analyses, and findings from multilevel modeling provide new opportunities for spatial, data-driven approaches to portable sensing and urban planning research. Furthermore, our findings have implications for design of infrastructure to optimize cycling experiences.
... SWB is considered to be a hallmark of mental health (Fredrickson, 1998). Impulsivity per se is a diagnostic criterion for a wide range of mental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline personality disorder, bulimia, antisocial personality disorder (APA 2013) and therefore is expected to be related to poorer SWB. ...
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p>The primary purpose of this study was to investigate associations between attention impulsivity, motor impulsivity and non-planning impulsivity measured according to the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS) and indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) measured by the Flourishing Scale (FS) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in students at selected private higher education institutions (N = 514, 52% women, 48% men). The aim of the current study was to explore the impact of gender on the aforementioned associations. Relationships between impulsivity and subjective well-being were examined taking into account the multifactoral structure of impulsiveness. The main findings of the study show that: (a) attention impulsivity predicted low prosperity and low levels of satisfaction with standard of living, health, personal achievements, safety and future security; (b) motor impulsivity showed bivariate but not unique relationships between prosperity and satisfaction with personal health, achievements and personal safety; (c) non-planning impulsivity was found to be uniquely associated with lower subjective prosperity and lower satisfaction with personal achievements and personal relationships; and (d) gender did not moderate the relationship between BIS components and SWB indexes. Impulsivity substrates explained between 4 and 17% of the variance in subjective well-being indexes. In sum, the results showed that the three components of impulsivity are distinct yet partially overlapping. Article visualizations: </p
... Consequently, people need to foster positive emotions in themselves and those who surround them, not only as an ends to themselves, but also as a means to achieving growth and improved long-term physical and psychological well-being. Fredrickson (1998Fredrickson ( , 2001 developed the "broaden and build theory of positive emotions," an alternative model of positive emotions that best captures their unique effects. This theory describes the form of positive emotions as a repertoire of thought. ...
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This article presents the findings of a study examining the impact of a positive thinking program in school on the educational climate that is influenced by the subjective well-being of students. The Positive Thinking in School (PTS) program is an intervention on positive thinking developed by the author, designed to be implemented in an Israeli elementary school over the course of an academic year. The program aims to improve the positive thinking of students. This, in turn, may promote their subjective well-being and can influence the positive climate in class. Participants included 93 students from four sixth grade classes (11-12 years-old) and two teachers. The classes were randomly assigned to either the study group (two classes) or the control group (two classes), which did not participate in the program. The study used self-report questionnaires examining motivation for learning, self-esteem, efficacy, and teacher's attitudes. Results indicate significant differences between the intervention and control groups. Students who participated in the intervention program showed an increase in their motivation for learning, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, while the control group showed a decrease. These findings shed light on the influence of positive thinking on students in terms of subjective well-being. They reveal that an intervention program that develops positive thinking may have a positive effect on students' functioning and a positive educational climate. These findings are of universal importance since the intervention program can be adapted to other populations and cultures around the world.
... Negli anni novanta esperimenti di laboratorio (Fredrickson, Levenson, 1998) avevano già dimostrato che sperimentare emozioni positive, sia ad alta che a bassa intensità, poteva placare i perduranti effetti cardiovascolari delle emozioni negative. In secondo luogo, in modo probabilmente connesso all'effetto di reversibilizzazione, le emozioni positive modificano anche il modo di pensare delle persone tramite un effetto di amplificazione cognitiva: Fredrickson (1998) ha sostenuto, e il suo gruppo di lavoro sostiene ancora (Kok et al 2013), che, mentre le emozioni negative aumentano l'attività autonomica e restringono il campo dell'attenzione per sostenere adattive tendenze all'azione, come ad esempio l'attacco e la fuga, le emozioni positive riducono l'attivazione allargando il campo d'attenzione, del pensiero e i repertori comportamentali esplorativi. Una larga gamma di studi, a cavallo tra gli anni ottanta e novanta, ha fornito evidenze su tali modificazioni, in particolare sull'induzione di modelli di pensiero inusuali (Isen et al, 1985), flessibili (Isen e Daubman, 1984) e creativi (Isen et al 1987); Kahn e Isen (1993) avevano anche dimostrato che le emozioni positive aumentano le preferenze delle persone per la varietà e allargano il loro ventaglio di scelte comportamentali accettabili. ...
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Resilienza e malattia Il fenomeno della resilienza viene studiato da molti anni e ne sono ben note le caratteristiche, la complessità e la multidimensionalità (Limardi et al., 2013; Earvolino-Ramirez, 2007; Gillespie, Chaboyer, Wallis, 2007). Mentre i primi studi tendevano a connotare la resilienza come una proprietà rara, posseduta da individui eccezionali, lavori successivi hanno suggerito possa trattarsi di una caratteristica ordinaria, derivante da tratti stabili di personalità e dall'azione dei sistemi adattivi di base, che non si manifesta nello stesso modo in tutti individui, né per lo stesso individuo nelle diverse situazioni di vita o nelle differenti età (Masten, 2014; Fitzpatrick, 2013; Herrenkol, 2013; Wekerle et al., 2013). A questo proposito è opportuno anche citare Masten (2001), che riduceva la resilienza ad uno stato di ordinary magic, mentre Oliverio Ferraris (2003, 2004) la definiva operativamente forza d'animo, denominazioni che, ancora oggi, possiedono il vantaggio di ricondurre il concetto nell'ambito dell'universalmente osservabile, nella comune quotidianità. In questa ottica naturale, per quello che riguarda gli aspetti clinici, in una recente revisione Stewart e Yuen (2011) rilevano che i fattori associati e predittivi di resilienza nelle malattie fisiche non sono diversi da quelli identificati negli studi sulla resilienza in altre forme di avversità, fatto questo che non sorprende dato che, a prescindere dalla tipologia di avversità, sono gli stessi fattori (genetici, ambientali, emozionali, di coping, in associazione con le esperienze passate) che contribuiscono allo sviluppo degli atteggiamenti resilienti (Herrenkol, 2013). La stessa revisione ha individuato associazioni con aspetti direttamente correlati alla malattia come la buona cura di sé, la migliore aderenza ai trattamenti, la migliore qualità della vita, la positiva percezione della malattia, una più elevata soglia del dolore probabilmente mediata dall'affettività positiva (Finan e Garland, 2014), nonché alcuni esiti prettamente organici come una migliore situazione immunitaria. Gli individui identificati come resilienti appaiono tendenzialmente in grado di mantenere o riguadagnare buoni livelli di benessere generale, riferiscono crescita personale e cambiamenti positivi del sé. Alcuni importanti limiti sono riferiti alle alte percezioni di autoefficacia e di controllo interno, altamente vantaggiose nelle malattie moderatamente gravi e, in qualche modo, controllabili, ma potenzialmente rischiose nelle patologie a prognosi incerta laddove valutazioni irrealistiche della situazione potrebbero generare vissuti di delusione e di disadattamento. Inoltre, pazienti con malattie che hanno un impatto grave sulla capacità fisica necessiteranno in ogni caso di un forte sostegno sociale, pertanto le variabili correlate all'auto padronanza e al controllo interno potrebbero essere per loro poco utili. In ogni caso, pur tenendo conto dei limiti descritti, sembra assodato che una grande forza d'animo consente a quasi tutte le tipologie di pazienti di affrontare più efficacemente e vivere meglio la loro malattia; molti saranno anche in grado di liberare capacità inespresse e di scoprire nuovi orizzonti di senso come beneficio della crescita interiore correlata al fronteggiamento della malattia (Stewart e Yuen, 2011).
... Also, event-related potential studies revealed that emotional information enhances early perceptual processes which can influence the speed of attentional capture. The P1, an early occipital visual component with a latency of 117ms (Smith, Cacioppo, Larson & Chartrand, 2003) (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2001Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005 (Williams, Mathews, & Macleod, 1996), and visual search (Öhman et al., 2001), it is much easier to observe the temporal changes in emotional information processing. ...
Article
Emotional information can easily capture our attention compared to neutral information. Evidences suggest that the amount of induced attentional capture is correlated with arousal levels of processed information. On the other hand, the speed (onset latency) of attentional capture seems to be determined by the valence of the emotional information. In this study, the speed of attentional capture between equally high arousing positive and negative stimuli was compared by using the emotion-induced blindness (EIB) procedure, which is suited for measuring temporal changes in attentional effects. In Experiment 1, either a positive or negative word distractor was presented among a rapid stream of neutral words, and a to-be-reported target animal word followed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 8 lags after distractor presentation. In Experiment 2, either a positive or negative distractor was presented among a rapid stream of opposite valence words. The overall results indicate that negative distractors induced a rapid attentional capture response occurring at lags 2 to 4, while positive distractors induced a late attentional capture response, which gradually increased and peaked at lag 5. In conclusion, the emotional valence of distractors determines the speed of attentional capture when compared emotional distractors have similar arousal levels.
... Another component of emotions is the action tendencies attached to specific emotions (Fredrickson, 1998). As Emmons (2007) states, gratitude is not only a response to kindness received, but is also a motivator of future benevolent actions on the part of the recipient. ...
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Gratitude is a universal phenomenon that is experienced and expressed differently by individuals. The differences in experience and expression of gratitude are based on a number of factors, important among them is gender. There are very few studies that have explored gender differences using quantitative methods in gratitude interventions. However, this phenomenon can best be understood by employing qualitative methods like Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), as it is concerned with trying to understand any phenomenon, from the participant's point of view. There is a paucity of research in this area. Therefore, we tried to explore experience, expression, and effects of gratitude among males and females using IPA. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was administered on 20 students (10 males and 10 females) and it was subjected to IPA. Three themes that emerged from the analysis were Experience of gratitude, Expression of gratitude and Effects of experiencing and expressing gratitude. These themes were further classified under several subthemes. Though there were similarities between males and females for many subthemes but there were some differences also. Feeling grateful towards strangers and sharing grateful experiences with others were subthemes that emerged only in female participants. Using grateful experiences as a coping strategy was a subtheme that emerged dominantly among male participants. The findings of the present study are explained with the help of available literature.
... Accordingly, this pattern points to the potential value of promoting strategies to teach adults experiencing chronic negative mood ways to use their emotions in a positive and constructive manner (e.g., using "negative" emotions to rise up to threats, sharing "negative" emotions to promote relations with others; Graham et al., 2008;Nesse, 1991). Thus, beyond the benefits of chronic positive emotions (Fredrickson, 1998), chronic negative emotions might also confer psychological benefits, at least to those who use it to energize themselves into action (Matthews & Fellner, 2012). ...
Article
We examined the role of negative affectivity and trait emotional intelligence as predictors of suicide risk (viz., depressive symptoms & suicidal behaviors) in adults. A convenience sample of 456 adult volunteers participated in the present study based on using student-recruited sampling methodology. All participants completed a survey including self-report measures assessing for negative affectivity, trait emotional intelligence, depressive symptoms , and suicidal behaviors. Overall, results of conducting a set of hierarchical regression analyses indicated support for the role of negative affectivity and trait emotional intelligence as predictors of suicide risk. We found evidence for a Negative Affectivity × Trait Emotional Intelligence interaction effect in predicting both de-pressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Importantly, for both outcomes, we found evidence for the use of emotions as a buffer. Specifically, the Negative Affectivity × Emotional Use interaction term was found to be significant in predicting suicide risk, indicating that among adults experiencing chronic negative mood, those who used emotions more, compared to those who used emotion less, reported less risk of suicide. Some implications for understanding the role of trait emotional intelligence, specifically using emotions, as a suicide protective factor are discussed.
... On the one hand, positive emotions (e.g. joy, interest, and contentment) have been defined as transient mental states that feel subjectively pleasant (Fredrickson, 1998). Some studies have identified positive feelings, such as excitement, happiness, pleasure, interest, and relaxation, as tourism-related emotions (Kim, Lee, & Sirgy, 2016). ...
... As to PAEs, Fredrickson (1998) and Fredrickson and Branigan (2005) found that they broaden the thought-action repertoire, leading individuals to think about actions that will allow them to feel positive emotions again. While developing this repertoire of actions, individuals will have the impression that they can do something in favor of the objective, increasing PBC. ...
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Prior research concerning anticipated emotions (AEs) identified the influence of negative anticipated emotions (NAEs) on the regulation of effortful behaviors, but few studies were able to demonstrate the role of positive anticipated emotions (PAEs). We address this gap by examining the influence of not only NAEs but also PAEs on behavioral intentions in the context of climate change and the roles of perceived behavioral control and behavioral engagement in this relationship. Using a sample of 516 respondents and structural equation modeling, we find that perceived behavioral control partially mediates the influence of AEs on behavioral intentions. Moreover, pro-environmental behavioral engagement moderates the relationship between AEs and behavioral intentions such that the effects of PAEs on behavioral intentions are stronger in the engaged groups and the effects of NAEs on behavioral intentions are stronger in the low/non-engaged group. Highly engaged individuals use both PAEs and NAEs to regulate their future behaviors.
... The perception of a video as entertaining might foster knowledge acquisition. 38 A positive affective state helps encoding and storing information 39,40 and thus may in turn facilitate knowledge acquisition. Based on these assumptions, we posed an open research question to examine whether there is an impact of presentation format on knowledge acquisition. ...
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Background: Inter-professional collaboration (IPC) is an important prerequisite for successful patient care. Even though inter-professional education (IPE) is increasingly common in undergraduate medical education, few IPE approaches explicitly address the IPC among medical students and students of psychology. IPE videos can be used to give learners the opportunity to gather relevant knowledge from different professional perspectives. So far it has been unclear whether it is enough when the topic of the video itself is inter-professional or if it is necessary for experts from different professions explicitly to appear in the video. Methods: In an online experiment, medical students watched 1 of 2 videos about Parkinson's disease (PD) and the care of PD patients. The information was either provided by protagonists from only 1 profession (ie, physicians; mono-professional condition) or provided by protagonists from 2 different professions (ie, physicians and a psychologist; inter-professional condition). Attitude toward inter-professional interaction and learning, evaluation of the entertaining and illustrative character of the video, attitude toward physicians and psychologists, importance of IPC, evaluation of psychological treatment support, and knowledge acquisition served as dependent variables. Results: The analysis was based on 140 participants (74 in the mono-, 66 in the inter-professional condition). We found that the inter-professional video was perceived to be more entertaining than the mono-professional video (t (138) = -2.227; P = .028; d = 0.38). The inter-professional video was also considered to be more illustrative (t (138) = -6.269; P < .001; d = 1.06). Moreover, participants improved their attitude toward physicians by watching the video (F (1,138) = 4.860, P < .001, η 2 p = 0.11), but they did not change their attitude toward psychologists (P = .146). Participants who watched the inter-professional video considered IPC to be more important than participants who watched the mono-professional video (t (138) = -7.954; P < .001; d = 1.354). Finally, the inter-professional video led to better performance in the knowledge test (t (138) = -2.285; P = .024; d = 0.04). Conclusion: Inter-professional videos showing explicitly the appearance of experts from different professions come along with several advantages. We discuss the implications of their application in educational practice. Trial registration: The study was pre-registered on the pre-registration platform AsPredicted (aspredicted.org) before we began data collection (registration number: #33143). The pre-registration document can be accessed via the following link: https://aspredicted.org/blind.php?x=gd5hd8.
... Meaning is a multidimensional phenomenon that can be conceptualized as a set of values, actions, and goals that interact to create a sustained life purpose [12]. A sense of meaning has been associated with academic achievement, creativity, learning, motivation, character growth, and life satisfaction [13]- [16]. Previous studies indicated that meaning could be taught in schools [17]. ...
... On the other hand, positive affect broadens attentional focus (Fredrickson and Branigan, 2005), and the experience of awe fosters creativity (Rudd et al., 2018). According to the broaden-and-build model of positive affect (Fredrickson, 1998), the purpose of happiness is to facilitate learning new skills through creative endeavors and play behaviorskills that might be adaptive in some relevant survival-related context. In short, when not engaged in some kind of immediate survival-related task, instead of doing nothing, one is better off building skills for the future. ...
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Purpose The paper introduces a new model, the evolutionary-existential model of organizational decision-making. The purpose of the model is to provide an empirical framework for understanding the context for decision-making under conditions of existential threat to organizations, such as the global COVID-19 pandemic during the year 2020. Design/methodology/approach The model is built on an extensive interdisciplinary literature review, drawing from research in social psychology, management, behavioral economics, evolutionary psychology and consumer behavior. In general, the authors follow Bargal's (2006) call for action research in the spirit of Lewin (1951). Findings According to the model, organizational decision-making during the pandemic threat is influenced by (1) existential threat and (2) an unprecedented macroenvironmental context for decision-making. The authors argue that these psychological and macroenvironmental forces may lead to suboptimal decision-making, based on (1) their basic cognitive architecture and (2) specific evolutionary triggers activated by the pandemic. The authors highlight how the interaction between these inputs and the decision context manifest in various social psychological phenomena that are known to impact judgments and decisions. Practical implications Simply put, the magnitude and the urgency of the global pandemic call for new and integrative ways of understanding organizational decision-making. Originality/value The model is new. Although the authors draw on prior research and theory, the model is uniquely interdisciplinary; further, the authors are able to make specific and unique predictions about the inputs, decision context and their social–psychological consequences for decision-making.
... Par exemple, au regard des résultats mis récemment en évidence par Gillet, Vallerand, Lafrenière et Bureau (2013) auprès d'étudiants réalisant une tâche d'anagrammes, il se peut que les formes de motivation autonome aient une influence positive sur la performance sportive car ces types de motivation sont à l'origine d'un accroissement des émotions positives ressenties au cours de la pratique (cf. la théorie de l'élargissement constructif des émotions positives proposée par Fredrickson, 1998Fredrickson, , 2001. ...
... In other words, both sense of competence and sense of relatedness or belongingness actually serve as protective factors against suicide ideation. One of the underlying reasons behind those protecting effects is that positive emotions (e.g., sense of competence and sense of relatedness) serve to broaden the repertoire of adaptive behaviors and foster skills that serve to decrease suicidal behavior (Fredrickson, 1998;Fredrickson and Losada, 2005). Our findings were supported by some indirect empirical evidence. ...
... On the one hand, positive emotions (e.g., joy, interest, and contentment) have been defined as transient mental states that feel subjectively pleasant (Fredrickson, 1998). Some studies have identified positive feelings, such as excitement, happiness, pleasure, interest, and relaxation, as tourismrelated emotions (D. ...
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This study aimed to explore tourists’ general local food preferences, whether tasting local food was one of their major motivations for undertaking a recent trip, the emotions they associated with the experience, and what constituted a memorable local food experience. Data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire. Based on the survey responses of 210 tourists, almost all the respondents were Indian nationals. The majority of the respondents could be categorized as food neophiliacs, since they exhibited a tendency to seek new food tastes while traveling. For more than half the respondents, tasting local food was one of the main motivations for taking particular trips and was considered a primary activity. Experiencing novelty and local culture were the main motivations for tasting local food. In connecting local food consumption memories with emotions, respondents experienced the positive emotions of joy and love. This article proposes a new conceptual framework for memorable local food experiences, which comprises several components: taste, socializing with friends and family members, novelty, authenticity, ambience, affordable price, and interacting with locals. The findings provided little evidence of special occasions, hospitality, or food souvenirs contributing to a memorable food experience, as claimed by previous studies, suggesting that such factors are not inevitable components of all tourist food experiences.
... Emotion of the consumers comes up from the experiences of consuming and using the product, both during and after the consumption, and that kind of emotion will determine the consumers' purchase decision and the action after purchase (Babin and Attaway, 2000). Some researchers discover theories which generalize and support positive emotion that describes the forms and functions of positive emotion subset (Fredrickson, 1998). According to this theory, positive emotion assists people to build eternal resources, develop the way of thinking and behaving, also to obtain the highest level and flexible repertory (Cohn et al., 2009). ...
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The growth of business in food & beverage makes the effort in this industry turn out to be more strictly competitive. Ice cream becomes one of the products which mayinterest new entrepreneurs in food & beverage. The newcomers put much effort tocreate the authenticity and difference from others in order to seize the attention of icecream lovers from the prior merchants. This research aims at investigating theinfluence of perceived authenticity towards people’s purchase intention from therestaurant image and positive emotion in Zangrandi Cafe on Yos Sudarso Street,Surabaya. The research took 150 customers as the samples who fulfilled therequirements such as not less than 17 years old, having tasted the ice cream inZangrandi Cafe on Yos Sudarso Street, Surabaya, having tried the ice cream inZangrandi Cafe on Yos Sudarso Street, Surabaya once in the last 3 months at least.The data gathering method used in this research is purposive sampling. Meanwhile,Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is employed as a data analyzing technique.The results show that (1) Perceived Authenticity positively and significantly bringsinfluence towards Restaurant Image, (2) Perceived Authenticity positively andsignificantly brings influence towards Positive Emotion, (3) Restaurant Imagepositively and significantly brings influence towards Positive Emotion, (4) RestaurantImage positively and significantly brings influence towards Purchase Intention, (5)Positive Emotion positively and significantly brings influence towards PurchaseIntention, (6) also Perceived Authenticity positively and significantly brings influencetowards Purchase Intention.
... What mindset contributes to this type of integrative thinking? To answer this question, we considered the beliefs people hold about the nature of interest, as interest can intrinsically motivate people to learn about new topics and fields (see Fredrickson, 1998;O'Keefe & Harackiewicz, 2017;Renninger & Hidi, 2015;Silvia, 2006). If people are open to the possibility that they could experience interest, and potentially see some value, in topics outside of their well-established interests, they may be more likely to explore those outside areas and see how they connect with their established interests. ...
Article
Innovations often arise when people bridge seemingly disparate areas of knowledge, such as the arts and sciences. What leads people to make connections that others might miss? We examined the role of implicit theories of interest-the belief that interests are relatively fixed (a fixed theory of interest) or developed (a growth theory of interest) among people with established interests either in the area of arts or sciences. A stronger growth theory predicted that participants spontaneously noticed more stimuli from the area outside their interests (Studies 2 and 3) and generated better integrative ideas (Study 1). Furthermore, they were more likely to generate ideas that bridged the arts and sciences (Study 2), which was also found after inducing fixed or growth theories, establishing causality (Study 3). Finally,perceived utility of the outside area mediated this relation (Study 4). These results suggest that a growth theory may be important for integrative thinking and innovation across traditional disciplinary boundaries.
... Positive emotions increase the cognitive flexibility of entrepreneurs thereby helping them to think creatively and be innovative (Baron, 2004). Such mental resources broaden the individual's thought-action repertoire (Fredrickson, 1998), thereby facilitating outof-the box thinking and preparing them to face the challenges associated with exploiting new opportunities (Baron, 2008). In summary, hedonic well-being provides a clear sense of direction that enables individuals to overcome ambiguous situations and uncertainties associated with exploiting entrepreneurial opportunities and instils in them a feeling of being in control over the situation (Mullins & Forlani, 2005). ...
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In this article, we empirically test a theory-based model that delineates the indirect effect of societal-level well-being, through societal-level self-expression values, on individual entrepreneurship. Using 881636 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) from 44 countries and supplementing with country-level data from the World Values Survey (WVS), our results from multilevel cross-cultural analyses demonstrate that societal-level well-being - hedonic and eudaimonic - are positively related to societal-level self-expression values, and that self-expression values mediate the relation between both types of well-being and likelihood of individuals engaging in entrepreneurship. Hence, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being are distal whereas self-expression values are more proximal influencers of individual entrepreneurship. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
... For example, Fredrickson et al. (2000) found that positive emotions can reverse the negative cardiovascular effects caused by anxiety. The experience of positive affect may support humans to broaden their skills and resources, by inspiring exploratory thinking and responses, while the experience of negative affect prompts survival-oriented behaviours (Fredrickson, 1998). As a result, happy people are more likely to engage in healthy behaviours and practices, which, in turn, influence their mental and physical health. ...
Thesis
People have been intrigued by happiness and what it means to live a good and meaningful life for millennia. Researchers have become increasingly interested in studying the sources of happiness and which strategies are effective in leading to long-lasting and increased subjective wellbeing. Growing evidence shows that intentional engagement in kind activities and behaviours, such as performing acts of kindness, showing generosity or expressing gratitude, can have a significant effect on increasing and sustaining happiness. The rapid adoption and integration of technology in everyday life has provided a unique potential for developing persuasive interventions and digital behaviour change systems as tools for stimulating and enhancing pro-social behaviours and attitudes. Persuasive technologies have been shown to be effective in motivating people to adopt and maintain healthy behaviours and could play a key role in designing effective interventions that increase subjective wellbeing. This thesis investigates how persuasive technology can encourage engagement in meaningful, achievable and enjoyable kind activities that prevent mental health problems and improve subjective wellbeing. The primary research contribution of this thesis is studying the design of an adaptive behaviour change intervention and evaluating its effectiveness in encouraging people to participate in kind activities and behaviours. We developed "Be Kind", an online intervention that personalises persuasive messages to motivate engagement in meaningful, achievable and enjoyable activities, which improve subjective wellbeing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention in motivating behaviour change, influencing behavioural intention and improving subjective wellbeing. The results suggest that the intervention has a positive effect on people’s behaviour and leads to increased happiness. We investigated the actual persuasiveness of Cialdini’s persuasion principles, which formed the foundation for personalising the intervention. Our findings differ from work investigating perceived persuasiveness, indicating that what people perceive to be more persuasive is not necessarily what will persuade them to engage in a certain behaviour. Moreover, we explored how people’s susceptibility to different persuasive principles varies over a longer period of time. Exploring personalisation of persuasive technologies and understanding actual persuasiveness is relevant to a wide variety of other domains. Our research will provide new insights and contribute as a foundation for the development of technology supporting people’s wellbeing, having implications for future work on personalising persuasive strategies and designing digital behaviour change interventions.
... On the other hand, regarding the impact of positive emotions on cognition, it has been observed that experiencing emotions such as joy, surprise or happiness promotes mental states that help to solve problems and achieve goals (Fredrickson, 2001;Stuss & Levine, 2002). Concretely, positive emotions would favor the working memory (Gray, 2001), verbal fluency (Carvalho & Ready, 2010), taking perspective on a problem (Herrington et al., 2005), information processing and the ability to connect thoughts and ideas in an integrated and flexible way (Fredrickson, 1998;Fredrickson & Losada, 2005;Herrington et al., 2005), among other cognitive skills (Mueller, 2011). ...
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Feeling positive emotions seems to favour an adaptive cardiovascular response (greater heart rate variability, HRV), associated with improved cognitive performance. This study aims to test whether the induction of a positive emotional state produce such cardiovascular response and therefore, enhance coping and performance in Tower of Hanoi (ToH). Forty-two Participants were randomly distributed into two groups (Experimental and Control). Experimental group was subjected to the evocation of a memory of success, while control group was subjected to an attentional task before performing ToH. Heart Rate Variability (HRV), activity of the zygomatic major muscle (ZEMG) and emotions were measured. Emotional induction increased ZEMG activity, feelings of emotional valence and HRV, but the performance in ToH was not different from control. Experiencing positive emotions seems to favour an adaptive psychophysiological response when faced with a complex cognitive task. These results are discussed in relation to clinical practice and health.
... According to the Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions [26], positive emotions enlarge an individual's momentary thought-action repositories, which then construct resources that facilitate bondbuilding. This theory explains the associations between positive emotions and prosocial behaviour. ...
... Η βίωση και άλλων θετικών συναισθημάτων οδηγεί σε νέα γνωσιακή διεύρυνση που παράγει νέα θετικά συναισθήματα με αποτέλεσμα να δημιουργείται μια ατέρμονα ανελισσόμενη αλυσίδα διεύρυνσης και βίωσης θετικών συναισθημάτων. Επιπλέον, τα θετικά συναισθήματα φαίνεται να αναιρούν τις αρνητικές συνέπειες που σχετίζονται με τη βίωση αρνητικών συναισθημάτων και να λειτουργούν προστατευτικά για το άτομο απέναντι στην αντιμετώπιση στρεσσογόνων καταστάσεων στο μέλλον (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001. Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002. ...
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Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a well-established, evidence-based psychotherapy. Although it is the therapy of choice for both depression and anxiety disorders, many patients remain symptomatic after termination of their treatment, while relapses are not uncommon in the long-term follow-ups. Over time, different techniques have beenproposed in order to enrich cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy and increase its effectiveness. From the field of Positive Psychology, three psychotherapeutic strategies, Well-Being Therapy, Hope Therapy and Quality of Life Therapy, have been applied as additional ingredients in cognitive-behavioral packages. They are applied either as relapse prevention or as therapeutic strategies, in patients with affective and anxiety disorders who failed to respond to standard psychotherapeutic treatments. This paper presents the clinical and conceptual framework, as well as the structure and application of each strategy. Their potential clinical usefulness and results of preliminary validation studies are presented. Finally, their contribution in enriching the effectiveness of CBT is discussed.
... The loan officer will formulate his representations based not only on this knowledge, but also on his affective state at the time he examines the data in the report. If he is in a positive state, his assessment will most likely be positive, whereas it will be negative in a negative state [29]. ...
... In regard to this matter, a single study further highlighted that the scales of emotion from psychological discipline with specific context have often failed to capture the richness of tourists as well as the characteristics of destinations. Apart from that, it is crucial to note that existing emotion scales tend to ignore the complexity of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 1998) that are commonly related to travel experiences (Nawijn et al., 2013). ...
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The aim of this conceptual article is to propose a comprehensive model that explains the impact of different relational variables on tourists’ behavioral intention (i.e., revisit intention and recommendation intention) and the relationship between those relational variables. Based on the existing studies and findings, the proposed model is strongly related with destination personality, self-congruity as well as tourists’ emotional experience and behavioral intention. Particularly, self-congruity performed as a potential mediator between destination personality and behavioral intention; meanwhile, the model incorporated tourists’ emotional experience as a potential moderator between self-congruity and behavioral intention. This conceptual article makes significant contributions to tourism literature by proposing an integrated model. It serves as a reference for tourism marketing practitioners who can derive insights into the potential economic advantages such as tourists’ loyalty and tourists’ behavioral benefits in the form of revisit intention and recommendation intention which can result from the effective implementation of marketing strategies.
... What's more, positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions [6,7], promote adaptive social functioning [8,9], and help to prevent and treat psychological symptoms [10]. Different positive emotions have been proposed to have different functional roles [11,12]. For instance, amusement is a self-based emotion associated with something funny, whereas romance is a feeling on the basis of the interpersonal relationship. ...
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Compared with the widely studied negative emotions in which different classes are easy to distinguish, nowadays less attention is paid to the recognition of positive emotions that are not fully independent. In this paper, we propose to recognize multiple continuous positive emotions that exhibit statistical dependencies using multi-target regression  by analyzing brain activities when an individual watches emotional film clips  and explore the neural representation of different positive emotions. Thirty-seven participants volunteered to participate in our study, in which their brain activities were recorded when watching five selected film clips (corresponding to five positive emotions: amusement, happiness, romance, tenderness and warmth). First, 150 well-known power features extracted from Electroencephalography (EEG) signals and 105 multimedia content analysis features were collected as the pool of candidate features. Second, based on the collected features, we propose to use a linear model (linear regression) and a nonlinear model (long short-term memory network, LSTM) to predict the percentage of five positive emotions. Then, percentage values were converted to ranking numbers and Kendall rank correlation coefficients were calculated. Our results showed that (1) ensemble of regressor chains (ERC) using LSTM as unit regressor obtained both the best regression results (with lowest RMSE=8.325 and highest R 2 =0.346) and the best Kendall rank correlation coefficient (0.165) on EEG features merely, and (2) selective features from alpha frequency bands of EEG signals could represent different positive emotions. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of selective EEG features on recognizing different positive emotions.
... Entrepreneurship research has been discussing mental health as a resource that improves entrepreneurs' ability to perform tasks along the entrepreneurial process (for an overview see Hatak & Zhou, 2019). First, mental health can help entrepreneurs broaden the range of ideas they have for their business (Fredrickson, 1998;Stephan, 2018) and strengthen the focus on opportunities (Gielnik, Zacher & Frese, 2012) such as those for firm growth (Rietveld, Bailey, Hessels & van der Zwan, 2016). Second, mental health is a prerequisite for learning (Colquitt, LePine & Noe, 2000), with absorption of direct and vicarious experience and transforming that experience into knowledge affecting opportunity recognition and exploitation. ...
Chapter
This chapter provides a stock-take on mental health in entrepreneurship, outlining the progress that research has made in considering mental health in the entrepreneurial process. Conceptually, the chapter focuses on the individual entrepreneur as the unit of analysis. Empirically, it describes the streams of research suggesting that mental health is a resource in the entrepreneurial process, together with a stream of research that focuses on mental health conditions as a strength in entrepreneurship. The chapter concludes by highlighting a number of unsolved issues and interesting pathways for future research on entrepreneurial mental health.
... Emotions are subjective, psychological and expressive, and can be short and long term. According to Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, people's daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time and have an impact on a variety of life outcomes such as better physical health, longevity, higher incomes and satisfaction with life (Fredrickson et al., 2008). From our dataset, we identified two variables that came the closest in representing emotions, namely 'Nobody cares about me' and 'Feelings of depression' (GCRO, 2016). ...
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As countries across the globe pursue economic development, the improvement of individual and societal well-being has increasingly become an overarching goal. In the global South, in particular, high levels of poverty, inequality and deteriorating social fabrics remain significant challenges. Programmes and projects for addressing these challenges have had some, but limited, impact. This occasional paper analyses well-being in Gauteng province from a capability perspective, using a standard ‘capability approach’ consistent with Amartya Sen’s first conceptualisation, which was then operationalised by Martha Nussbaum. Earlier research on poverty and inequality in the Gauteng City-Region was mainly based on objective characteristics of well-being such as income, employment, housing and schooling. Using data from the Gauteng City-Region Observatory’s Quality of Life Survey IV for 2015/16, our capability approach provides a more holistic view of well-being by focusing on both objective and subjective aspects simultaneously. The results confirm the well-known heterogeneity in human conditions among South African demographic groups, namely that capability achievements vary across race, age, gender, income level and location. However, we observe broader (in both subjective and objective dimensions) levels of deprivation that are otherwise masked in the earlier studies. In light of these findings, the paper recommends that policies are directly targeted towards improving those capability indicators where historically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups show marked deprivation. In addition, given the spatial heterogeneities in capability achievements, we recommend localised interventions in capabilities that are lagging in certain areas of the province.
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This research examines the role of advertising images in promoting experiential offerings. In particular, it investigates the congruence effect between the emotional responses evoked by advertising images and experiential offerings on consumers’ purchase likelihood in the tourism context. This congruence effect is tested in a series of four experimental studies using different advertising stimuli and manipulations of perceived certainty associated with the offerings. The findings show that advertising images eliciting awe have a more positive impact on purchase likelihood when combined with an experiential offering communicating a low level of certainty, whereas advertising images eliciting contentment have a more positive impact on purchase likelihood when combined with an experiential offering communicating a high level of certainty. Both the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
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Adolescent girls are the future leaders of the world. They are desperately needed and increasingly in pain. Adolescent youth are facing a mental health epidemic caused by many complex factors. High-achieving settings are now considered a high-risk factor for adolescents, along with youth experiencing trauma, discrimination, and poverty. These students face immense pressure to excel, social isolation, and limited relationships. Positive Psychology provides a pathway for school environments to build structures that support adolescent well-being. Specifically, this paper will focus on how cooperative games and play are a pathway to increase well-being and build leadership competencies in adolescent girls.
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[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of Ego-Resiliency (ER) on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and factors promoting it among community-dwelling elderly. [Participants and Methods] Three-hundred and fifty-seven community-dwelling elderly who participated in community activities were divided into high-score ER and low-score ER groups. Collected data were basic attributes, Frenchay Activities Index (FAI) and societal supports. [Results] The significant factors identified as being associated with the ER score were shopping, going out, walking, hobby, reading, jobs, support from family members, and support from friends. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using these 8 items, and the factors associated with high-ER scores were: hobby, jobs, support from family, and support from friends. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the higher the ER, a personal skill for coping with stress, the higher the level of interpersonal skill building through working on hobbies and other experiences related to growth.
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Recent research has indicated strong relations between people's appraisals of their circumstances and their emotional states. The present study examined these relations across a range of unpleasant situations in which subjects experienced complex emotional blends. Subjects recalled unpleasant experiences from their pasts that were associated with particular appraisals and described their appraisals and emotions during these experiences. Situations defined by particular appraisals along the human agency or situational control dimensions were reliably associated with different levels of anger, sadness, and guilt, as predicted. However, predicted differences in emotion were not observed for situations selected for appraisals along the certainty or attention dimensions. Most subjects reported experiencing blends of two or more emotions, and correlation/regression analyses indicated that even in the context of these blends, patterns of appraisal similar to those observed previously (Smith & Ellsworth, 1985, 1987) characterized the experience of the individual emotions. The regressions further indicated that appraisals along some dimensions were more important to the experience of particular emotions than were appraisals along other dimensions. These central appraisals are compared with the adaptive functions their associated emotions are believed to serve, and the implications of these findings are discussed. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45362/1/11031_2004_Article_BF00993115.pdf
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Pleasant experience appears to be less emotionally differentiated than unpleasant experience. For instance, theories of emotion typically posit the existence of six or seven unpleasant emotions but often posit only one or two pleasant emotions. The present study is an attempt to systematically examine the differentiation of pleasant emotional experience. Subjects were asked to recall pleasant experiences that were associated with particular situational appraisals—appraisals of effort, agency, and certainty were systematically manipulated—and to describe their appraisals and emotions during these experiences. The results indicated that positive emotions, and their associated appraisals, are somewhat less differentiated than negative emotions, but nonetheless provided evidence of considerable differentiation among six pleasantly toned emotions (interest, hope/confidence, challenge, tranquillity, playfulness, and love). Each of these latter emotions was experienced differentially across the appraisal conditions, and was characterised by a distinct pattern of appraisal.
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This article presents a framework for the organization of affective processes, including the affective traits, moods, and emotions. Section 1 introduces the levels-of-analysis approach, defines the three levels of affect, presents criteria for ordering these levels hierarchically in terms of simple and complex temporally driven processes, and examines the interrelations among the various levels of affect, including an in-depth analysis of affective trait-emotion relationships. Section 2 offers an application of the hierarchical view to research on affect-cognition interactions, including a brief review of affect congruency effects and a discussion of the conceptual and empirical challenges to such research necessitated by consideration of the differences among the levels of affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The studies of emotion function and emotional disorders complement one another. In this article, the authors outline relations between the social functions of emotion and four psychological disorders. The authors first present a social-functional account of emotion and argue that emotions help coordinate social interactions through their informative, evocative, and incentive functions. They then review evidence concerning the emotional and social problems related to depression, schizophrenia, social anxiety, and borderline personality disorder and consider how the emotional disturbances related to these disorders disrupt interactions and relationships, thus contributing further to the maintenance of the disorder. They conclude by discussing research strategies relevant to the study of emotion, social interaction, and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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according to appraisal theories of emotion, emotions consist of patterned processes of appraisal of one's relation to the environment along specified dimensions, such as novelty, valence, certainty, control, attribution of agency, and consistency with social norms, along with associated physiological responses and action tendencies / the appraisal perspective may provide a useful approach to the problem of accounting both for cross-cultural similarities and for cross-cultural differences in emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite important advances in and growing applications of psychophysiology, there has existed no single book that covers the diverse elements of psychophysiology at a level of scholarship that is informative to the specialist while also covering these topics at a level of discourse that is accessible to the nonspecialist. A major objective in creating this book, therefore, was to provide sufficiently comprehensive discussions of physical, social, and inferential elements of psychophysiology to interest and inform the specialist; and sufficiently clear and explicit coverage that the potential and excitement of psychophysiology becomes apparent, and its principles and methods become more accessible, to graduate students and scientists interested but not yet well-versed in psychophysiology. Part I is divided into two sections. it begins with a description of the psychophysiological enterprise, a brief history of the field, and conceptual frameworks for linking psychophysiological data and psychological/behavioral constructs. The chapters in Part II elaborate upon these foundations by highlighting principles of human behavior that have emerged from psychophysiological analyses. The chapters in Part III provide detailed overviews of the major physiological systems that are currently actively investigated in the psychophysiological literature. Although each chapter on physiological systems discusses issues related to the extraction, analysis, and interpretation of physiological data, there are several important issues in psychophysiology that are sufficiently complex and general that they warrant tutorials of their own. Part IV, on issues in the analysis of psychophysiological signals, is included for this purpose. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The emerging field of emotion regulation studies how individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express them. This review takes an evolutionary perspective and characterizes emotion in terms of response tendencies. Emotion regulation is defined and distinguished from coping, mood regulation, defense, and affect regulation. In the increasingly specialized discipline of psychology, the field of emotion regulation cuts across traditional boundaries and provides common ground. According to a process model of emotion regulation, emotion may be regulated at five points in the emotion generative process: (a) selection of the situation, (b) modification of the situation, (c) deployment of attention, (d) change of cognitions, and (e) modulation of responses. The field of emotion regulation promises new insights into age-old questions about how people manage their emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
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Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for controlling the display of emotion, and in behavioral consequences.
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The arguments advanced by Eriksen (see 31: 2414) to explain the subception effect by means other than those earlier advanced by Lazarus and McCleary are examined. Various experimental tests of factors which might modify the interpretation of subception experiments are presented. It is held that an interpretation should not be discarded simply because another can explain the data equally well. The matter of interpretation should be cast into the general conceptual framework being employed by the theorist.