African plant Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. belonging to the family Bignoniaceae is widely distributed in the South, Central, and West Africa. Tree of K. africana is approximately 20 m long, either evergreen or deciduous depending on the rainfall condition in different part of the world. Due to its huge sausage or cucumber-like fruit, K. africana is commonly referred to as sausage or cucumber tree. Different parts of K. africana have been used for various medicinal purposes in different parts of the world. In India, K. africana is well known as Balmkheera. A very famous slogan is used in different parts of Uttar Pradesh (India) for K. africana as “Balamkheera jo bana de pet ko heera.” Different parts of this plant used by ethnic groups throughout the world for the treatment of common skin diseases such as fungal infections, psoriasis, eczema, boils, leprosy, syphilis, skin cancer gynecological complaints, constipation, tapeworm infection, jaundice, ulcers, sores, pneumonia, malaria, diabetes, and waist pain. Pharmacological activities of different extracts as well as isolated compounds
of the plant are reported as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, nematocidal, antiamebic, antiviral, antitrypanosomal, antiamebic, antimalarial, antidiarrheal, anticancer, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, and wound healing activity have been studied using different methods. In the present article, data have been collected on the ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of K. africana up to June 2017.