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Iron, vitamin B 12 and folate

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Abstract

Iron, vitamin B12 and folate are required for essential metabolic functions. Deficiency states of these nutrients, either singly or in combination, are common clinical conditions. Clinically, they present with not only disordered haematopoiesis, but also widespread effects in other organs that can precede the appearance of haematological abnormalities. Investigation of suspected iron, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency should first be directed at establishing that the deficiency state exists, but this can be challenging because of the limitations of available biomarkers for evaluating tissue status. A careful assessment of clinical symptoms and signs is indispensable to guide appropriate requesting and interpretation of relevant laboratory tests. Every effort should be made to determine the cause of the nutritional deficiency and to treat it where possible. Correcting the deficiency with supplements is usually straightforward, provided adherence to treatment is ensured. Blood transfusion should be avoided unless symptoms dictate otherwise.

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... [140,141] Folate co-enzymes mediate two major interrelated metabolic cycles, which are responsible for the synthesis of thymidylate, purines, and methionine . [142] Since humans cannot synthesize folates, they depend on plants or animal-based food, or dietary supplements. Pulse crops, including lentils, cowpea, chickpea, and bean contain significant amounts of folates . ...
... [143] Folate deficiency is strongly linked to the development of neural tube defects in fetuses and to increase risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, childhood leukemia, and certain types of cancer . [142,143] One of the major causes of folate deficiency is the inadequate dietary intake, which comes along with old age, alcohol abuse, and poverty as risk factors . [142] The daily recommended folate intake varies between 200 and 400 µg for adults . ...
... [142,143] One of the major causes of folate deficiency is the inadequate dietary intake, which comes along with old age, alcohol abuse, and poverty as risk factors . [142] The daily recommended folate intake varies between 200 and 400 µg for adults . [142,144] During pulse germination, there is an increase in folate synthesis due to a demand for methyl groups, which participate in the pathways of cell division. ...
Article
Germination is a traditional process and a re-emerging trend in healthy foods, resulting a progressively increase in scientific research on their nutritional traits and phytochemical contents. This review examines the physiological and biochemical changes during the germination sensu stricto in pulses, taking into consideration the genotype, environmental conditions, hormone control, and the metabolic transition from seed to seedling. Germination sensu stricto is achieved as soon as elongation of the radicle, implies heterotrophy metabolism; further thermal processing is needed before consumption. In contrast, seedlings production requires a long period of imbibition and can provide a ready-to-eat food product. Furthermore, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and antinutritional compounds of pulses are described. Impacts of food processing, such as soaking, germination, and cooking, in nutritional and antinutritional values are also evaluated. The association of soaking, germination, and cooking increases the nutritional values of pulses by increasing protein/starch digestibility and vitamins content and by decreasing antinutritional compounds. The final plant-based product allows versatility in formulation to produce novel food products and/or ingredients with better nutritional content. This can encourage the scientific community, industry, and government to invest in research and development to increase germinated pulse-based food, to replace other products, or to develop new ones.
... Folate, otherwise known as vitamin B9, and its subsequent derivatives such as folic acid are found widely within vegetables, in particular dark green leafy vegetables, fruit, nuts, meat products, and dairy products [46]. Folate deficiency is commonly observed in specific patient populations, e.g., pregnant women or patients with chronic conditions or patients who are over the age of 65 [46]. ...
... Folate, otherwise known as vitamin B9, and its subsequent derivatives such as folic acid are found widely within vegetables, in particular dark green leafy vegetables, fruit, nuts, meat products, and dairy products [46]. Folate deficiency is commonly observed in specific patient populations, e.g., pregnant women or patients with chronic conditions or patients who are over the age of 65 [46]. ...
... Evidence in the literature supports that folate deficiency impairs the body's ability to mount an effective immune response [47]. As such its importance, many foods such as bread are fortified by the addition of folic acid to prevent deficiencies in the general population [46]. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak has manifested into a major public health concern across the globe, affecting particularly the most vulnerable population groups. Currently, there are various clinical trials being conducted to develop effective treatments. It is estimated that it could take one or more years before these drugs pass all safety tests and concrete results with regard to their effectiveness become available. In addition, despite the recent development of vaccines (licensed for use under conditional licenses) and the commencement of COVID-19 vaccination programs in several countries, there is still a need for safe and novel strategies that may reduce the symptomatology and/or prevent the severe complications associated with COVID-19. Natural compounds previously shown to have antiviral potential should be thoroughly considered and investigated for use in prophylactic treatment of COVID-19 due to their availability and safety. Recent Findings The current narrative review investigates whether there is evidence in the literature that supplementation with dietary minerals and vitamins may have a role in preventing infection with SARS-CoV-2 or in reducing COVID-19 symptomatology and disease progression. The current evidence from the literature supports that zinc and vitamin C have a potential in reducing the inflammatory response associated with SARS-CoV-2 while folate and vitamin D may have a role in antagonizing the entry of SARs-CoV-2 virus in host calls. Summary Thus, further research should be conducted that could lead to the development of nutritional supplements involving natural and widely available compounds such as zinc, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin D. The latter could be an effective, safe, and inexpensive way to either prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and/or lessen the burden of COVID-19 disease.
... Higher levels of total plasma polyphenol and serum folate [29] may reflect higher consumption of "green" dietary components, which were significantly associated with greater VAT loss (age-and sex-adjusted, p < 0.05 for all) (Fig. 3). After further adjusting for WC loss, total plasma polyphenol levels remained significantly associated with VAT loss (p = 0.018). ...
... We assessed adherence by the selfreported dietary intake assessment tool, which is subject to error, although the instrument has been validated [30]. Yet, we analyzed the serum folate levels, which can reflect green leaf consumption [29]. Total lean body mass or fat mass measurements were not available from our MRI analysis. ...
Article
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Background Mediterranean (MED) diet is a rich source of polyphenols, which benefit adiposity by several mechanisms. We explored the effect of the green-MED diet, twice fortified in dietary polyphenols and lower in red/processed meat, on visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Methods In the 18-month Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial PoLyphenols UnproceSsed (DIRECT-PLUS) weight-loss trial, 294 participants were randomized to (A) healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), (B) MED, or (C) green-MED diets, all combined with physical activity. Both isocaloric MED groups consumed 28 g/day of walnuts (+ 440 mg/day polyphenols). The green-MED group further consumed green tea (3–4 cups/day) and Wolffia globosa (duckweed strain) plant green shake (100 g frozen cubes/day) (+ 800mg/day polyphenols) and reduced red meat intake. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify the abdominal adipose tissues. Results Participants (age = 51 years; 88% men; body mass index = 31.2 kg/m ² ; 29% VAT) had an 89.8% retention rate and 79.3% completed eligible MRIs. While both MED diets reached similar moderate weight (MED: − 2.7%, green-MED: − 3.9%) and waist circumference (MED: − 4.7%, green-MED: − 5.7%) loss, the green-MED dieters doubled the VAT loss (HDG: − 4.2%, MED: − 6.0%, green-MED: − 14.1%; p < 0.05, independent of age, sex, waist circumference, or weight loss). Higher dietary consumption of green tea, walnuts, and Wolffia globosa ; lower red meat intake; higher total plasma polyphenols (mainly hippuric acid ), and elevated urine urolithin A polyphenol were significantly related to greater VAT loss ( p < 0.05, multivariate models). Conclusions A green-MED diet, enriched with plant-based polyphenols and lower in red/processed meat, may be a potent intervention to promote visceral adiposity regression. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03020186
... Mikronutrien atau vitamin yang dikatakan berperan pada proses pencegahan dan penyembuhan lesi mukosa oral adalah vitamin B 12 dan asam folat. 7,8 Tujuan laporan kasus ini menjelaskan mengenai terapi mikronutrien yang jarang dipaparkan dan dijadikan pusat perhatian sebagai tatalaksana Erythema Multiforme pada pasien dewasa muda dengan kondisi penurunan kualitas eritrosit. ...
... Reaksi ini merupakan langkah awal yang penting dalam proses konversi asam folat menjadi bentuk aktif secara metabolik yang diperlukan sebagai co-enzym pada sintesis timidin untuk DNA, fungsi kedua yaitu vitamin B 12 sebagai 5'-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin, atau co-enzym pada konversi dari co-enzym A L-methylmalonyl menjadi co-enzym A sucinil di dalam mitokondria. 7,8 Asam folat yang juga diberikan pada pasien ini, memiliki peran penting dalam sintesis asam nukleat, regenerasi methionine, reaksi balik, dan reaksi redoks yang diperlukan untuk metabolisme secara normal. Folat dibutuhkan dalam berbagai reaksi biokimia sintesis S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) untuk metilasi DNA, RNA, dan protein. ...
Article
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ABSTRAK Pendahuluan: Eritema multiforme (EM) adalah penyakit peradangan akut yang merupakan reaksi hipersensitivitas pada mukokutan dan jarang ditemukan. Gambaran klinis EM berupa lesi erosi-ulseratif dan memiliki tendensi perdarahan. Kualitas eritrosit yang menurun dapat mempengaruhi proses penyembuhan penyakit ini, namun hal ini dapat diatasi dengan pemenuhan asupan mikronutrien. Tujuan laporan kasus ini untuk memaparkan hasil terapi suplementasi mikronutrien yang diberikan untuk tatalaksana EM pada pasien yang mengalami penurunan kualitas eritrosit. Laporan kasus: Seorang wanita berusia 21 tahun mengeluhkan perdarahan bibir dan sariawan dalam rongga mulut, terasa sakit sejak 3 minggu sebelumnya. Riwayat keluhan yang sama pernah dialami 7 tahun sebelumnya. Pemeriksaan ekstraoral memperlihatkan krusta hemoragik pada bibir, sedangkan hasil pemeriksaan intraoral menunjukkan ulserasi multipel pada hampir seluruh mukosa rongga mulut. Hasil pemeriksaan laboratorium menunjukkan adanya penurunan kualitas eritrosit berdasarkan parameter Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH), dan Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC); peningkatan jumlah eritrosit; dan eosinofil pada borderline atas, serta anti HSV-I IgG non-reaktif. Diagnosis pasien adalah eritema multiforme dengan riwayat stomatitis aftosa rekuren (SAR). Tatalaksana farmakologis diberikan asam folat dan vitamin B 12 sebagai suplementasi mikronutrien. Diberikan pula chlorhexidine digluconate 0,12% mouthrinse sebagai antiseptik, dan petroleum jelly untuk pelembab bibir. Lesi oral pasien sembuh setelah 2 minggu terapi. Simpulan: Suplementasi mikronutrien berperan penting dalam mempercepat penyembuhan lesi mukosa oral pada pasien eritema multiforme yang mengalami penurunan kualitas eritrosit. Mikronutrien berupa asam folat dan vitamin B 12 berperan penting dalam sintesis DNA eritrosit, pembelahan sel, dan perbaikan jaringan. Kata kunci: Mikronutrien, eritema multiforme, kualitas eritrosit. Micronutrient supplementation in erythema multiforme patients with decreased erythrocyte quality ABSTRACT Introduction: Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute inflammatory disease as a hypersensitivity reaction to mucocutaneous and is rarely found. The clinical feature of EM is an erosive-ulcerative lesion with a tendency of bleeding. Decreasing erythrocyte quality can affect its healing process, although able to be overcome by fulfilling the micronutrient intake. The purpose of this case report was to describe the results of micronutrient supplementation therapy given in the management of EM patients with decreasing erythrocyte quality. Case report: A 21-year-old woman complained of lip bleeding and oral thrush, which felt pain three weeks prior. A similar complaint history had been experienced in the previous seven years. Extraoral examination revealed haemorrhagic crusting on the lips, whereas intraoral examination showed multiple ulcerations of almost the entire oral mucosa. Laboratory examination results showed a decreasing erythrocyte quality based on the parameters of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH), and Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC); an increasing number of erythrocytes and eosinophils in the upper borderline, as well as non-reactive anti-HSV-I IgG. The patient was diagnosed with erythema multiforme with a history of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Pharmacological management was performed by given folic acid and vitamin B 12 as micronutrient supplementation. Also, given a 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate mouth rinse as an antiseptic and petroleum jelly for lip balm. The patient's oral lesions resolved after two weeks of therapy. Conclusion: Micronutrient supplementation plays an essential role in accelerating the oral mucosal lesions healing in erythema multiforme patients with decreasing erythrocyte quality. Micronutrients in folic acid and vitamin B 12 play an important role in erythrocyte DNA synthesis, cell division, and tissue repair.
... Vitamin B 12 plays a vital role in different types of body metabolic processes, such as DNA synthesis, one-carbon metabolism, and red blood cell formation (Sandeep et al. 2019). In general, the vitamin B 12 requirement of the human body is low (2.4 lg day -1 ) (Stabler and Allen 2004), but its deficiency leads to low haemoglobin levels, megaloblastic anemia, neurological dysfunction, sperms atrophy, dysfunction of the reproductive system in both male and females (Moll and Davis 2017;Tetsunori et al. 1992). Vitamin B 12 synthesized in the intestine is not sufficient for humans, and hence need to obtain vitamin B 12 through food. ...
... Chlorella biomass supplementation to the diet of vitamin B 12 deficient group led to lowering of the glucose levels to even lower than the control animals (Table 3). Iron and vitamin B 12 are interdependent (Moll and Davis 2017), and in B 12 deficient rats, a significant decrease of iron (25%) was observed. ...
Article
The sources of bioavailable vitamin B12 are limited, and most of them are animal-derived. Chlorella vulgaris, a freshwater microalga, is known for immune system boosting, nutraceutical properties and presence of a natural form of vitamin B12. The present study focused on the in vivo evaluation of the Chlorella biomass as a source of bioavailable vitamin B12 to alleviate the vitamin B12 deficiency status of Wistar rats. Experimental animals were evaluated for the vitamin B12 deficiency-related circulatory marker (serum vitamin B12) and functional markers (plasma homocysteine and urinary methylmalonic acid), haematological and histological changes. The results showed that an increase of 2.4-fold in urinary methylmalonic acid (13.01± 0.89 µmoles moles of creatinine-1), 2.6-fold in plasma homocysteine (17.18 ± 3.57 µmole L-1), and 48% decrease in serum vitamin B12 levels (252.69±1.46 pg mL-1) in vitamin B12 deficient group compared to control animals. The Chlorella biomass supplementation in the diet led to the restoration of the functional and circulatory markers, hematological parameters, and vitamin B12 content of kidney and liver to control levels. The Chlorella biomass supplementation increased the erythrocyte precursors and MAST cells in the bone marrow and also normalized the histological features of kidney, liver, and lung tissues. The results suggest that the vitamin B12 from the Chlorella biomass was bioavailable and facilitated the improvement of vitamin B12 status in deficient rats.
... Hence, cobalamin deficiency results in the perturbation of DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12, as a cofactor of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, is involved in the conversion of methylmalonyl-Co A to succinyl-CoA, which is a major intermediary of the tricarboxylic acid cycle [1,2]. ...
... The main complications of B12 deficiency are megaloblastic anaemia and neurological manifestations, such as sensory and motor disturbances, ataxia, cognitive decline leading to dementia and psychiatric disorders including mood and behaviour changes or psychosis. Despite the widespread belief that vitamin B12 deficiency is primarily associated with ineffective erythropoiesis, serious neurological complications often predominate and can frequently occur in the absence of anaemia [1][2][3]. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of the nervous system disorders associated with vitamin B12 deficiency remain largely unknown. ...
Article
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Cobalamin deficiency affects human physiology with sequelae ranging from mild fatigue to severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities. The cellular and molecular aspects of the nervous system disorders associated with hypovitaminosis B12 remain largely unknown. Growing evidence indicates that astrogliosis is an underlying component of a wide range of neuropathologies. Previously, we developed an in vitro model of cobalamin deficiency in normal human astrocytes (NHA) by culturing the cells with c-lactam of hydroxycobalamin (c-lactam OH-Cbl). We revealed a non-apoptotic activation of caspases (3/7, 8, 9) in cobalamin-deficient NHA, which may suggest astrogliosis. The aim of the current study was to experimentally verify this hypothesis. We indicated an increase in the cellular expression of two astrogliosis markers: glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin in cobalamin-deficient NHA using Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In the next step of the study, we revealed c-lactam OH-Cbl as a potential non-toxic vitamin B12 antagonist in an in vivo model using zebrafish embryos. We believe that the presented results will contribute to a better understanding of the cellular mechanism underlying neurologic pathology due to cobalamin deficiency and will serve as a foundation for further studies.
... The samples were centrifuged and stored at −80 • C. Serum vitamin B 12 was analyzed with a competitive Elektro Chemiluminescence-Immuno Assay "ECLIA" (Cobas 8000, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) using Intrinsic Factor as a binding protein. Serum folate was also measured by the ECLIA competitive approach and was used as a marker for green leaf consumption [22]. All biochemical analyses were performed at the laboratories of the University of Leipzig, Germany. ...
... It has to be noted that a significant trend in vitamin B 12 increase was observed between the intervention groups, even though the green-MED dieters were instructed to avoid red/processed meat and their diet was further fortified with Mankai shake and green tea. In addition, participants who reduced red meat had an increase in serum folate (a marker for green leafy vegetable consumption [22]), and in this study for Mankai consumption [17] had an increase in vitamin B 12 comparable to participants who increased red meat and had a decrease in serum folate levels. Reducing red meat consumption, especially processed meat products, has been a focus of attention in recent years, due to increasing evidence of the association between meat consumption and health risks [44]. ...
Article
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Background: Rare plants that contain corrinoid compounds mostly comprise cobalamin analogues, which may compete with cobalamin (vitamin B12 (B12)) metabolism. We examined the presence of B12 in a cultivated strain of an aquatic plant: Wolffia globosa (Mankai), and predicted functional pathways using gut-bioreactor, and the effects of long-term Mankai consumption as a partial meat substitute, on serum B12 concentrations. Methods: We used microbiological assay, liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and anoxic bioreactors for the B12 experiments. We explored the effect of a green Mediterranean/low-meat diet, containing 100 g of frozen Mankai shake/day, on serum B12 levels during the 18-month DIRECT-PLUS (ID:NCT03020186) weight-loss trial, compared with control and Mediterranean diet groups. Results: The B12 content of Mankai was consistent at different seasons (p = 0.76). Several cobalamin congeners (Hydroxocobalamin(OH-B12); 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin(Ado-B12); methylcobalamin(Me-B12); cyanocobalamin(CN-B12)) were identified in Mankai extracts, whereas no pseudo B12 was detected. A higher abundance of 16S-rRNA gene amplicon sequences associated with a genome containing a KEGG ortholog involved in microbial B12 metabolism were observed, compared with control bioreactors that lacked Mankai. Following the DIRECT-PLUS intervention (n = 294 participants; retention-rate = 89%; baseline B12 = 420.5 ± 187.8 pg/mL), serum B12 increased by 5.2% in control, 9.9% in Mediterranean, and 15.4% in Mankai-containing green Mediterranean/low-meat diets (p = 0.025 between extreme groups). Conclusions: Mankai plant contains bioactive B12 compounds and could serve as a B12 plant-based food source.
... The presence of these nutrients becomes very necessary to compensate the deficiencies (Kalantar-Zadeh et al., 2010). The main causes that lead to severe anemia are deficiency of hormone erythropoietin produced by kidneys that has a key role in the production of red blood cells, malnutrition, inflammation, iron deficiency and according to some recent studies Vitamin D deficiency (Moll and Davis, 2017). Intravenous supplements of iron can improve iron levels in hemodialytic patients. ...
Article
Chronic renal diseases are usually mentioned as decreased functioning of kidneys. The main symptoms includes in this disease are kidney damage, greater loss of albumin in urine and a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was aimed to determine the dietary knowledge about the patients that suffered in chronic renal failure along with various other impediments. A transverse study was performed for 4 months in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and dataof one hundred patients with chronic kidney failure and impediments were selected. A non-probability sampling method was used to conduct this study. Out of the total 100 patients, 36% of patients knew the renal diet. While, only 28% of patients knew about potassium, 16% about phosphorous and 20% about salt restrictions. Similarly, 57% knew about red meat and 56% knew about pulses restriction. The symptoms of studied disease was more prevalent in males as compared to females which showed gender as major factor for the renal failure. The majority of sufferers were unaware of the renal diet and electrolyte restriction in diet. Moreover, patients were also using excessive fluid against the advice of doctors. It was concluded there is need to conduct such studies to aware the necessity of appropriate dietary in control of chronic renal failure.
... Pregnancy is a stressful physiological condition that has negative effects on hemoglobin production [3,4]. Nutrients such as folic acid and iron that are needed for hemoglobin production, are equally utilized by the fetus for development [12][13][14]. This explains why the expected (average) hemoglobin level during pregnancy is lower compared to nonpregnant women. ...
Article
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Background: The WHO recommends pregnant women attend antenatal clinic at least three times during pregnancy; during the first, second and third trimesters. During these visits, an array of clinical and laboratory tests is conducted. The information obtained plays an important role not only in the management and care of pregnancy, but also guides policies targeted at addressing pregnancy-induced health challenges. This study therefore presents laboratory and clinical information of pregnant women at their first antenatal visits. Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design which retrospectively reviewed laboratory and clinical data of pregnant women attending their first antenatal clinic (ANC) at the Comboni Hospital, Volta region, Ghana. The data reviewed included information on hemoglobin level, hemoglobin phenotype, malaria diagnostics, Human Immunodeficiency Virus test (HIV), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) test, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) test, Syphilis test, blood pressure, age, urine glucose, and urine protein. The hemoglobin level was assayed with a hemoglobinometer. Qualitative lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay techniques were used to diagnose the HIV, HCV, HBV, syphilis, and malaria status of the pregnant women. Urine dipstick was used assay for the urine protein and urine glucose, whilst the methemoglobin test was used for the G6PD deficiency and alkaline hemoglobin electrophoresis for hemoglobin phenotype. Data on demographic, anthropometric and vital signs such as age, weight and blood pressure were also collected. Descriptive statistics were performed. Frequency and percentages were used to describe the categorical variables and means and standard deviations used to describe the continuous variables. Results: Hemoglobin S(Hb S) was found in 12.8% of the women with 73.4% having hemoglobin levels below 11.5g/dl. On G6PD deficiency, 1.6% and 0.8% were partially and fully defective respectively. Also, urine protein (1.2%) and glucose (0.4%) were detected. The prevalence of HBV, HCV and malaria were 4.4%, 3.6% and 2.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Anemia in pregnancy was high among the study sample. Malaria and hepatitis infections were observed in the study sample. Policies on maternal health should be targeted at providing better nutritional options, that can enhance the hemoglobin level during pregnancy. Pregnant women should benefit from enhanced surveillance for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis.
... Some of these compounds have significance biological activity including antioxidant capacities that may be responsible for the ob- Iron is a mineral that plays an essential role in many bodily functions, including oxygen transport, energy production, DNA synthesis, and body detoxification. 26 The significant presence of iron in these plants could play a major role in their antianemic properties, knowing the critical role of iron in RBC and Hb oxygen transport. ...
Article
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Introduction With the use of recent therapeutic data, several methods for finding medications from untapped natural materials continue to advance research and development. The antioxidant and antianemic effects of ethanol leaf extracts of Telfairia occidentalis and Mucuna poggei in phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in Wister albino rats were investigated. Method A total of 54 male albino rats were randomly assigned to nine experimental groups (n = 6). Anemia was induced in groups 2 to 9 with 10 mg/kg body weight of phenylhydrazine. Group 1 (normal control) rats were administered normal saline only. Group 2 (anemic control) rats were untreated. Group 3 (standard controls) rats were treated with a standard multivitamin, groups 4, 5, and 6 rats were treated with varying doses of M. poggei leaf extract respectively, while groups 7, 8, and 9 rats were treated with similar doses of T. occidentalis leaf extract by oral intubation for 21 days. Results Earlier, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated eighteen (18) and twenty-nine (29) active compounds present in M. poggei and T. occidentalis, respectively. More so, T. occidentalis and M. poggei were studied for their inhibitory potentials against 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl-free radicals, nitric oxide, phosphomolybdenum, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. M. poggei and T. occidentalis also showed the following trend of minerals Mg > Ca > Fe > Na > Zn > Mn > K and Mg > Fe > Ca > Na > K > Mn > Zn, respectively. The results also showed that the packed cell volume, red blood cells, and hemoglobin significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in anemic control rats compared with normal controls and were significantly (p < 0.05) increased on treatment with the leaf extracts. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and glutathione levels significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in anemic control, compared with normal. However, these significantly (p < 0.05) increased on treatment with the leaf extracts in a dose-independent manner. Malondialdehyde levels took the reverse trend. Conclusion This study indicated that leaf extracts of M. poggei and T. occidentalis can be used in the management of anemia and oxidative stress-related complications
... Potassium and Na play an important role in maintaining osmotic pressure and in the transmission of nervous impulses, and Mg is a cofactor in more than 300 enzymatic reactions. Trace elements (Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn, Mo) are also needed for the proper functioning of the organism but are required in smaller quantities [91][92][93][94][95]. These trace elements are involved in numerous biological processes: Fe is involved in oxygen transport, Co is an element forming part of cobalamin or vitamin B12, and Mo, Mn, Zn or Cu are components in many enzymes [96][97][98]. ...
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The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the acidity, microbiological and colour characteristics, fatty (FA) and amino (AA) acid profiles, biogenic amine (BA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations, and macro- and microelement contents in non-treated (non-fermented) and fermented wholemeal cereal flours of ‘Gaja’ (traditional wheat) and new breed lines DS8888-3-6 (waxy wheat), DS8548-7 (blue wheat) and DS8535-2 (purple wheat). Independent fermentations were undertaken with selected strains of Pediococcus acidilactici, Liquorilactobacillus uvarum and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum. The results revealed that all the wholemeal cereal flours of the analysed wheat varieties are suitable for fermentation with the selected strains because all the fermented samples showed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viable counts higher than 8.00 log10 CFU/g and desirable low pH values. In most of the cases, fermentation increased the concentration of essential amino acids in the wholemeal cereal samples, and the LAB strain used for fermentation proved to be a significant factor in all the essential amino acid content of wholemeal wheat (p ≤ 0.0001). When comparing the non-fermented samples, the highest GABA content was found in ‘Gaja’ and waxy wheat samples (2.47 µmol/g, on average), and, in all the cases, fermentation significantly increased GABA concentration in the wholemeal cereals. On the other hand, total levels of biogenic amines in wholemeal samples ranged from 22.7 to 416 mg/kg. The wheat variety was a significant factor in all the analysed macro- and microelement contents (p ≤ 0.0001) in the wholemeal cereals. Furthermore, fermentation showed to be a significant factor in most of the FA content of the wholemeal cereal samples. Finally, fermentation can also contribute to improving the biological and functional value of wholemeal wheat flours (by increasing essential amino acids and GABA concentrations); however, safety parameters (e.g., biogenic amines) also should be taken into consideration when optimizing the most appropriate technological parameters.
... This assumption is justified, because various cultured meat developers across the world are currently investing in the culturing of cells of cattle, pigs and poultry (Post, 2018) and because cultured meat can be tailored, as it is possible to decide the quality and quantity of fat and micronutrients. However, it is important to highlight that certain nutrients present in conventional meats that are synthetized by gut microorganisms (for example, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids) (Jenkins et al., 2008;Moll and Davis, 2017) are likely to be absent in cultured meat unless supplemented. The supplementation of such nutrients is not accounted for in this study. ...
... Co is a component of the vitamin B 12 molecule (cobalamin), and acts as a catalyst in several biological processes, including the transfer of methyl (-CH 3 ) groups into DNA. Furthermore, vitamin B 12 is absorbed by proteins in the meal and has a role in the distribution of vitamins in the digestive system [69,70]. According to the current analysis, the maximum concentration of Co was observed in dal fry of F p , while the lowest concentration was found in karahi gosht of F p . ...
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The current work is aimed to assess the impact of macronutrient and mineral contents in food products of packaged food, restaurant food, and street food in Hyderabad. The estimated daily intake of macronutrients and minerals, followed by the toxic risk assessment of microminerals by consuming studied food dishes, was also conducted. The collected products were freeze-dried and standard procedures for measuring macronutrients were followed. At the same time, the acid digestion method was used to prepare the solution for detecting minerals by atomic absorption spectrometry. The resulting data indicated that all the food dishes supplied 134–454 kcals/100 g. The chicken/meat and pulse food dishes of all three categories were enriched with protein except bhindi masala. All the food dishes have a massive variation in fat contents and differ based on the used quantity of hydrogenated oil during their preparations. A significant difference in the macro- and microminerals in studied food products was observed. However, all food dishes are a good supplementary source of fundamental nutrients, supplying the recommended daily allowances for adults. The estimated hazardous index (Ih) of microminerals in some street and restaurant food products (based on a survey) showed possible toxicity risk, especially for the workers of automechanic workshops (Ih > 1.00). Thus, it is concluded that the contaminated (cheap) raw materials and unhygienic conditions for preparing street and restaurant foods and hawking places (atmospheric pollution) are the significant sources of micromineral contamination. Graphical abstract
... Common causes of mouth ulcers are nutritional deficiencies (especially Fe, B12, and C), poor oral hygiene, and infections. On the other hand, microbial biofilms, overexpression of inflammatory cytokines, and high levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS, RNS) activate the inflammatory phase, inhibiting progression to the proliferation and reepithelialization stages [23][24][25]. It was proposed that for effective treatment, multi-therapeutic strategies should be applied to treat wound ulcers. ...
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Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava L leaves and phenytoin as a standard agent on the induced oral mucosal wound. Methods Hundred seventy Sprague Dawley rats were grouped in 5 clusters randomly. Oral mucosal wounds were induced in all rats except for the control group. Phenytoin and guajava leaf extract were used as a mouthwash. Twelve rats from the 5 groups were euthanized on day 7th and 10th, and 10 rats from each group were sacrificed on the 14th day. Interleukin-6 and total antioxidant capacity were determined in the serum. The tissues were evaluated for pathological and stereological assessments. Phytochemical analyses were performed on the hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava L to determine the antioxidant potency. Results Total phenolic content test and DPPH analysis demonstrated the high potential of antioxidant capacity of Psidium guajava L. Decreasing IL-6 and increasing TAC were seen in the guajava hydroalcoholic extract and phenytoin groups. The difference of IL-6 between the wound treated guajava group and the wounded group was significant. The wound treated guajava group and wound treated phenytoin group on the 14th day increased the number of fibroblast cells and volume density of sub-mucosae effectively to the same thickness to be considered as a healed sub-mucosae layer. The volume density of the epithelium changes showed statistically significant different responses based on gender. Conclusion In conclusion, hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava L leaves might exert theraputic effects on oral mucositis.
... Zinc is required for different biological functions including DNA synthesis, cell division and gene expression. It is required for activity of many enzymes in biological systems [78]. Whole paddy rice is fortified with 50-400 mg/kg which resulted in 1.3-4.5 times increase in zinc concentration as compared to unfortified rice [79,80]. ...
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The choices of consumer towards food have been changed. Consumer prefers to eat food which is not only safe but also nutritious. Now a day, they like to eat the food which promote their health and help in minimizing nutrition related health hazards. Rice is a staple food in many countries, but most emerging issue is that rice is deficit in minerals. Rice ranks second among cereals in dietary uses around the world. Rice is deficit in iron (Fe) zinc (Zn) and these are important micronutrients for infants, men and women. Fortification of rice with iron and zinc would help to minimize nutrient deficient disorders among humans. Present study is aimed to introduce nutrients rich rice for consumers and also to encourage food-fortification organizations for diverting their focus on rice fortification. In south Asian countries, micronutrient deficiency especially Fe and Zn deficiency is very common. The rice because of its use as a staple food can be utilized as a carrier medium for transporting micronutrients from plants sources to human beings. Hence, rice fortification with microminerals can prove as a miracle for the virtual eradication of nutrition related diseases in humans.
... Iron (Fe) is a transition metal and a trace element that is indispensable for all human cell life in a myriad of physiological processes in the body [1][2][3]. It is an essential component of numerous proteins (hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and enzymes) participating in vital metabolic functions such as oxygen transport, oxidative energy production, mitochondrial respiration, harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) inactivation, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and repair [4]. An impressive illustration of this crucial role of Fe was made by Muckenthaler et al. [5], according to which more than two quadrillion Fe atoms are required every second to produce 200 billion red blood cells every day by a human to environmental migration and ecological toxicology) through chelation, complexation, and adsorption reactions [38]. ...
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Mushrooms fortified with iron (Fe) can offer a promising alternative to counter the worldwide deficiency problem. However, the factors that may influence the efficiency of fortification have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three Fe forms (FeCl3 6H2O, FeSO4 7H2O, or FeHBED) in three concentrations (5, 10, or 50 mM) for three mushroom species (Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, or Pholiota nameko) on their chemical composition, phenolic compounds, and organic acid production. The most effective metal accumulation of all the investigated species was for the 50 mM addition. FeCl3 6H2O was the most favorable additive for P. eryngii and P. nameko (up to 145 and 185% Fe more than in the control, respectively) and FeHBED for P. ostreatus (up to 108% Fe more than in control). Additionally, P. nameko showed the highest Fe accumulation among studied species (89.2 ± 7.51 mg kg−1 DW). The creation of phenolic acids was generally inhibited by Fe salt supplementation. However, an increasing effect on phenolic acid concentration was observed for P. ostreatus cultivated at 5 mM FeCl3 6H2O and for P. eryngii cultivated at 5 mM FeCl3 6H2O and 5 mM FeSO4 7H2O. In the case of organic acids, a similar situation was observed. For P. ostreatus, FeSO4 7H2O and FeHBED salts increased the formation of the determined organic acids in fruiting bodies. P. eryngii and P. nameko were characterized by a much lower content of organic acids in the systems supplemented with Fe. Based on the obtained results, we recommend starting fortification by preliminarily indicating which form of the element is preferred for the species of interest for supplementation. It also seems that using an additive concentration of 50 mM or higher is most effective.
... Grade of recommendation A e Strong consensus 98% Table 9 Causes of Folate deficiency [471,473]. In case of dietary deficiency or chronic hemodialysis, 1e5 mg folic acid per day may be given orally. ...
Article
Background Trace elements and vitamins, named together micronutrients (MNs), are essential for human metabolism. Recent research has shown the importance of MNs in common pathologies, with significant deficiencies impacting the outcome. Objective This guideline aims to provide information for daily clinical nutrition practice regarding assessment of MN status, monitoring, and prescription. It proposes a consensus terminology, since many words are used imprecisely, resulting in confusion. This is particularly true for the words ‘deficiency’, “repletion”, “complement”, and ‘supplement’. Methods The expert group attempted to apply the 2015 standard operating procedures (SOP) for ESPEN which focuses on disease. However, this approach could not be applied due to the multiple diseases requiring clinical nutrition resulting in one text for each MN, rather than for diseases. An extensive search of the literature was conducted in the databases Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and CINAHL. The search focused on physiological data, historical evidence (published before PubMed release in 1996), and observational and/or randomized trials. For each MN, the main functions, optimal analytical methods, impact of inflammation, potential toxicity, and provision during enteral or parenteral nutrition were addressed. The SOP wording was applied for strength of recommendations. Results There was a limited number of interventional trials, preventing meta-analysis and leading to a low level of evidence. The recommendations underwent a consensus process, which resulted in a percentage of agreement (%): strong consensus required of >90% of votes. Altogether the guideline proposes sets of recommendations for 26 MNs, resulting in 170 single recommendations. Critical MNs were identified with deficiencies being present in numerous acute and chronic diseases. Monitoring and management strategies are proposed. Conclusion This guideline should enable addressing suboptimal and deficient status of a bundle of MNs in at-risk diseases. In particular, it offers practical advice on MN provision and monitoring during nutritional support.
... Iron is an essential micro mineral which is an important component of many proteins that participate in vital metabolic functions such as oxygen transport, oxidative energy production, mitochondrial respiration, inactivation of harmful oxygen radicals, and DNA synthesis (Moll & Davis, 2017). Cassava leaves contain a significant amount of iron in the ranges between 15.2 and 26.6 mg/100 g depending on maturity; the mature the leaves are, the higher the iron contents (Ravindran & Ravindran, 1988). ...
Article
Cassava leaves serves as a source of alternative proteins for people in developing countries who could not easily access the available protein sources. However, its use is limited by the presence of toxic compounds, particularly cyanogenic glycosides. Thus, use of appropriate processing technique is indispensable to reduce the toxic compounds to a safer limit before utilization of cassava leaf. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, and their co‐culture on nutritional contents and antinutritional factors of cassava leaf during fermentation. A 4 × 5 factorial experimental design was used to determine the effect of fermentation setups and time on chemical composition, antinutritional contents, in vitro protein digestibility and mineral contents of cassava leaf. During 48 h of fermentation, a significant change (p < 0.05) in moisture, protein, fiber, fat, and ash contents were observed. Protein content was improved by 34.91%, while in vitro digestibility of protein was improved by 28.07% during 48 h of L. plantarum fermentation. Cyanide, oxalate, tannin, and phytate contents were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) for all fermentation setups. The highest reduction in cyanide (97.17%) and oxalate (86.44%) was achieved under L. plantarum fermentation. The highest reduction in tannin (93.25%) and phytate (91.11%) was achieved under co‐culture fermentation of cassava leaf. A significant (p < 0.05) reduction of mineral contents except iron was observed during 48 h of fermentation. A significant (p < 0.0001) strong negative correlation was found between protein with cyanide (−0.8164), oxalate (−0.7991), phytate (−0.7851), and tannin (−0.6906). In vitro digestibility of protein also showed a strong significant (p < 0.0001) negative correlation with phytate (−0.9628), oxalate (−0.9407), cyanide (−0.9305), and tannin (−0.8493). Application of L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae in cassava leaf fermentation showed significant improvement of nutritional qualities by reducing the antinutritional factors and toxic compounds. Fermentation of cassava leaf using these strains ascertain utilization of cassava leaf for human consumption to tackle protein energy malnutrition. Both starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and their co‐culture significantly reduced cyanogenic glycosides. L. plantarum strain showed the highest reduction of cyanogenic glycosides and oxalate contents of cassava leaf, while co‐culture (L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae) showed the highest reduction of phytate and tannin.
... branched-chain amino acids, and odd-chain fatty acids. [1][2][3][4] Further, B12 is required for the normal function and regeneration of the nervous system through the formation of myelin sheath. 5 B12 can only be synthesized by certain microorganisms, including normal flora bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. ...
Article
Background In Africa, little is known about the epidemiological significance of vitamin B12 deficiency. Objective To analyze regional and country-specific trends (1990-2017) in vitamin B12 supply in Africa and estimate the prevalence of inadequate intake. Methods National food balance data compiled by Food and Agriculture Organization for 45 African countries were used. Per capita food supplies for 95 commodities were transformed into B12 contents (µg/capita/day) assuming no fortification and B12 density was determined per 1000 kcal. Estimated Average Requirement cut point method was used for estimating the prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Over the period, the mean per capita B12 supply in Africa significantly increased by 12.7% from 2.02 to 2.27 µg/capita/day (z = 5.27, P < .001). However, the B12 density remained below the reference goal of 0.8 µg/1000 kcal. In 2017, the B12 supplies (µg/capita/day) in Northern (3.52), Central (3.15), and Southern Africa (2.99) were considerably higher than Western (2.10) and Eastern Africa (1.36) regions. The supply in upper-middle- or high-income countries (3.21) was also substantially higher than low- (1.58) and low-middle-income (2.58) countries. In 2017, the B12 supplies ranged from 5.95 in Mauritius to 0.66 in Ethiopia. Similarly, the nutrient density extended from 1.88 in Gambia to 0.28 in Ethiopia. In Africa, the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake declined from 48.1% in 1990 to 29.9% in 2007 and resurged to 40.6% in 2017. In 2017, the prevalence of inadequate intake was nearly universal (>90%) in 4 countries and exceeded 50% in 8 more countries. Conclusion Many African countries have major deficits in vitamin B12 supply.
... Approximately, 3500 kg cyanocobalamin, 2000 kg hydroxycobalamin, 1000 kg of coenzyme B 12 and a small amount of methylcobalamin is supplied to the pharmaceutical industry; the reminder goes to the animal feed industry. For swine and poultry feeds, 10-15 mg vitamin B 12 is added per ton of feed, since animal protein can be replaced with lessexpensive vegetable protein is fortified with vitamin B 12 (Green et al., 2017;Moll and Davis, 2017). ...
... 10 VB9 and VB12 partially degrade during cooking and storage of foods that leads to the loss of their biological activity. 11,12 Hence, NPs will lead to enhancement of their chemical stability under storage and processing conditions. A few studies reported the encapsulation of VB9 and VB12 alone. ...
... are not only rich in essential amino acids, but also in vitamins 24 . Vitamins have important functions in animals, including essential metabolism 25 . It is noteworthy that the vitamin content after fermentation varies widely among fungal species 26 . ...
Article
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Four Pleurotus spp. fungi ( P. diamor, P. eryngii, P. sajor-caju, P. citrinopileatus ) were compared for their potential to improve nutritional value of corn stover as ruminant feed. Corn stover was inoculated with the fungi under solid-state conditions and their results showed that P. sajor-caju and P. eryngii were better than the other two species of Pleurotus with respect to decreasing the acid detergent lignin (ADL) (8.99 vs 9.88 vs 10.16 vs 10.46). In contrast, P. eryngii had lower ability to degrade cellulose (13.38%). Corn stover treated with P. citrinopileatus had the highest crude protein (CP) content (7.65%), whereas treatment with P. sajor-caju resulted in the highest increase in essential amino acids (55.11%). Although fungal pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass does not always result in high-quality feed, overall, P. eryngii and P. sajor-caju improved the nutritive value of corn stover as a ruminant feed.
... FA has an important role in the preservation of body homeostasis and is involved in the remethylation step with vitamin B12 in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine (7). Topotecan (Topo) is an inhibitor of topoisomerase I, a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat ovarian and small cell lung cancer. ...
... Since vitamin B12 replacement would increase erythrocyte synthesis, it can cause depletion of iron and/or folic acid. 12 However, since the patients under treatment were excluded from our study, this hypothesis cannot be used. Continuation of growth is important, especially in children. ...
Article
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Background In this study, the aim was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D, vitamin B12, ferritin, and folate deficiencies in adolescence to clarify the need for early diagnosis and therapy. Methods The medical records of adolescents between 10 and 18 years of age between 01 September 2018 and 28 February 2019 as healthy with non-specific complaints, or due to well-child care visits, were analyzed retrospectively. Results A total of 1847/2507 (73.6%) adolescents were included in the study. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 25.7% (n: 178/691). Vitamin B12 deficiency prevalence was 69.2% (n: 753/1088). The prevalence of anemia and ferritin deficiency was 4.8% and 13.26%. The prevalence of folate deficiency was 37.9% (n: 413/1088). VDD prevalence was statistically significantly higher in females than males (F/M:116/62). VB12D prevalence, the number and mean age of females with hemoglobin deficiency, and low ferritin levels was found to be statistically significantly higher in females than males. Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate deficiency and low ferritin levels was found to be high among adolescents. In particular, adolescents admitting with non-specific complaints and for control purposes in big cities must be considered to be at risk for the deficiency of these vitamins and low level of ferritin.
... Cobalamin is essential for homeostasis of homocysteine in intracellular conversion to active coenzyme methylcobalamin in the methylation of homocysteine to methionine in the cytosol [34]. The active form of folate is converted due to this reaction, where the metabolically active form of folate is the coenzyme for the synthesis of thymidine for DNA [35]. Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplements have the property of reducing homocysteine levels and the harmful effects of its elevation [2]. ...
Chapter
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a non-essential sulfur-containing amino acid that is derived from the metabolism of methionine, an essential amino acid [1, 2]. Homocysteine is present in the plasma of healthy individuals (3–10 μM) and physiologically is produced in all cells but when homocysteine is elevated in plasma hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCy) is occurred. Hyperhomocysteinemia, which is common in the elderly, is caused by rare genetic mutations (cystathionine-β-synthase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase). The amount of homocysteine in mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is 10–100 μM and in severe hyperhomocysteinemia is 100–200 μM [2]. Several factors can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia. It can be an inborn error, due to inherited metabolic disorders, or acquired [1]. Deficiencies of the cofactors vitamins B6, folate, and B12, drugs that interfere with cofactor metabolism, disorders such as hypothyroidism, renal failure, neurological and cardiovascular diseases, aging, and lifestyle factors such as diet, physical inactivity, alcohol, and smoking are among the acquired causes of moderate elevation of plasma homocysteine [3]. Homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder and is associated with the accumulation of homocysteine and methionine in biological fluids and high urinary homocysteine excretion. The disease is a congenital disorder in the metabolism of amino acid, which is usually caused by a deficiency in the activity of the cystathionine ß-synthase enzyme. Transsulfuration of homocysteine to cystathionine is catalyzed by the cystathionine ß-synthase with the help of its cofactor pyridoxine. Two different forms of cystathionine ß-synthase deficiency have existed including pyridoxine-responsive and pyridoxine-nonresponsive. Mutations inactivating the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase enzymes are other genetic defects that might increase plasma homocysteine concentrations [3].
... are not only rich in essential amino acids, but also in vitamins [23] . Vitamins have important functions in animals, including essential metabolism [24] . It is noteworthy that the vitamin content after fermentation varies widely among fungal species [25] . ...
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Four Pleurotus spp. fungi (P. diamor, P. eryngii, P. sajor-caju, P. citrinopileatus) were compared for their potential to improve nutritional value of corn stover as ruminant feed. Corn stover was inoculated with the fungi under solid-state conditions and their results show that P. sajor-caju and P. eryngii were better than the other two fungi for decreasing the acid detergent lignin (ADL) (8.99 vs 9.88 vs 10.16 vs 10.46). In contrast, P. eryngii had lower ability to degrade cellulose (13.38%). Corn stover treated with P. citrinopileatus had the highest crude protein (CP) content (7.65%), whereas treatment with P. sajor-caju resulted in the highest increase in essential amino acids. Although fungal pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass does not always result in high-quality feed, overall, P. eryngii and P. sajor-caju improved the nutritive value of corn stover as a ruminant feed.
... This extreme inflammation and rapid oxidation leads to an upload of lipid profile, which in- 15 turn leads to tightening of arterial wall . A low protein diet is recommended for CRF patients but long term restriction can bring a rise in nutritional deficiencies 16,17 and muscle wasting . Recent studies suggest that 0.6-.8g ...
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Chronic renal disease is generally referred as impaired functioning of kidneys. Occurrence of kidney damage, increased loss of albumin in urine and a decreased glomerular filtration (GFR) rate are the clinical manifestations of chronic renal disease. It is a major health issue worldwide and the rate of this disease is increasing day by day. To find out the dietary patterns of patients suffering from chronic renal failure with complications. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital for a period of 4 months from Feb 2019- May 2019 and 100 patients of chronic renal failure with complications (hypertensive and diabetic) were selected by non-probability sampling to conduct the study. Results showed that 70 participants were males and 30 participants were females. The mean of age and BMI was (51.22 ± 12.9 years) and (21.79 ± 4.794 kg/m2). 24% patients were having family history of renal failure. All patients were from urban areas. 57% patients were consuming meat and meat products on daily basis. 53% patients were consuming fruits and vegetables 1-2 times a week. 12% participants were consuming dairy once a month. 48% patients were consuming miscellaneous foods 1-2 times a week. Chronic renal failure was more prevalent in males as compared to females. All patients were diabetic and hypertensive. More than half of the participants were from middle socio-economic status. Majority of patients were consuming proteins on daily basis.
... 27 28 Serum folate was measured by the ECLIA competitive approach and was used as a marker for green leaf consumption. 29 We used plasma samples to assess polyphenol levels. All outcomes, including laboratory methodology and microbiome analysis, are further detailed in online supplemental methods 6. ...
Article
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Objective To examine the effectiveness of green-Mediterranean (MED) diet, further restricted in red/processed meat, and enriched with green plants and polyphenols on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), reflected by intrahepatic fat (IHF) loss. Design For the DIRECT-PLUS 18-month randomized clinical trial, we assigned 294 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidaemia into healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), MED and green-MED weight-loss diet groups, all accompanied by physical activity. Both isocaloric MED groups consumed 28 g/day walnuts (+440 mg/day polyphenols provided). The green-MED group further consumed green tea (3–4 cups/day) and Mankai (a Wolffia globosa aquatic plant strain; 100 g/day frozen cubes) green shake (+1240 mg/day total polyphenols provided). IHF% 18-month changes were quantified continuously by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Results Participants (age=51 years; 88% men; body mass index=31.3 kg/m ² ; median IHF%=6.6%; mean=10.2%; 62% with NAFLD) had 89.8% 18-month retention-rate, and 78% had eligible follow-up MRS. Overall, NAFLD prevalence declined to: 54.8% (HDG), 47.9% (MED) and 31.5% (green-MED), p=0.012 between groups. Despite similar moderate weight-loss in both MED groups, green-MED group achieved almost double IHF% loss (−38.9% proportionally), as compared with MED (−19.6% proportionally; p=0.035 weight loss adjusted) and HDG (−12.2% proportionally; p<0.001). After 18 months, both MED groups had significantly higher total plasma polyphenol levels versus HDG, with higher detection of Naringenin and 2-5-dihydroxybenzoic-acid in green-MED. Greater IHF% loss was independently associated with increased Mankai and walnuts intake, decreased red/processed meat consumption, improved serum folate and adipokines/lipids biomarkers, changes in microbiome composition (beta-diversity) and specific bacteria (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion The new suggested strategy of green-Mediterranean diet, amplified with green plant-based proteins/polyphenols as Mankai, green tea, and walnuts, and restricted in red/processed meat can double IHF loss than other healthy nutritional strategies and reduce NAFLD in half. Trial registration number NCT03020186 .
... Vitamin B12 deficiency is most prevalent in the elderly, children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and vegetarians [31][32][33][34] . The most significant diagnostic characteristics and symptoms related to a deficiency of B-12 are fatigue, memory impairment, skin pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, glossitis, and severe hematological, neurological, and psychiatric disorders [35][36][37][38][39][40][41] . ...
... Most of these elements, acts as cofactor of enzymes [59]. Iron as a part of hemoglobin plays an important role in O 2 transport, mitochondrial respiration, and acts as cofactor of collagen-synthesizing enzyme [60,61]. Zn is a part of Cu/Zn SOD enzyme, which curtails oxidative stress [62]. ...
Article
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Fluoride (F) is an essential trace element, but chronic exposure beyond the permissible limit (1.5 ppm) effectuates dental and skeletal fluorosis. Although 200 million people across the world are suffering from toxic manifestations of F, till now proper treatment is not available. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of calciumand vitamin D supplementation for alleviation of fluorosis. Swiss albinomice were divided into 6 groups; group I—control group (received drinking water ˂ 0.5 ppmF; within the permissible limit), group II—treated with 15 ppm of sodium fluoride (NaF) for 4 months, group III—treated with 15 ppm of NaF for 8 months through drinking water. Group IV—orally treated with 15 ppm NaF for 4 months, thereafter received only drinking water for next 4 months, group V—orally treated with 15 ppm NaF for 4 months, thereafter received drinking water supplemented with calcium and vitamin D (2.5-g calcium kg−1 diet and 1000 IU vitamin D kg−1 diet) for next 4 months, and group VI was treated with 15 ppm of NaF through drinking water as well as supplemented with calcium and vitamin D for 4 months. NaF treatment caused dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and alteration of bone’s metal profile. Substitution of NaF-containing water with normal drinking water reduced the severity of fluorosis but supplementation of calcium and vitamin D effectively alleviated dental and skeletal fluorosis, reduced F deposition, and retained elemental homeostasis of the bone. Our findings strongly support that calcium and vitamin D act as redeemer of fluorosis.
... Most of these elements, acts as cofactor of enzymes [59]. Iron as a part of hemoglobin plays an important role in O 2 transport, mitochondrial respiration, and acts as cofactor of collagen-synthesizing enzyme [60,61]. Zn is a part of Cu/Zn SOD enzyme, which curtails oxidative stress [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fluoride (F) is an essential trace element, but chronic exposure beyond the permissible limit (1.5 ppm) effectuates dental and skeletal fluorosis. Although 200 million people across the world are suffering from toxic manifestations of F, till now proper treatment is not available. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of calciumand vitamin D supplementation for alleviation of fluorosis. Swiss albinomice were divided into 6 groups; group I—control group (received drinking water ˂ 0.5 ppmF; within the permissible limit), group II—treated with 15 ppm of sodium fluoride (NaF) for 4 months, group III—treated with 15 ppm of NaF for 8 months through drinking water. Group IV—orally treated with 15 ppm NaF for 4 months, thereafter received only drinking water for next 4 months, group V—orally treated with 15 ppm NaF for 4 months, thereafter received drinking water supplemented with calcium and vitamin D (2.5-g calcium kg−1 diet and 1000 IU vitamin D kg−1 diet) for next 4 months, and group VI was treated with 15 ppm of NaF through drinking water as well as supplemented with calcium and vitamin D for 4 months. NaF treatment caused dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and alteration of bone’s metal profile. Substitution of NaF-containing water with normal drinking water reduced the severity of fluorosis but supplementation of calcium and vitamin D effectively alleviated dental and skeletal fluorosis, reduced F deposition, and retained elemental homeostasis of the bone. Our findings strongly support that calcium and vitamin D act as redeemer of fluorosis.
Chapter
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Article
Background Childhood cancer risk is associated with maternal health during pregnancy. Anemia in pregnancy is a common condition, especially in low-income countries, but a possible association between maternal anemia and childhood cancer has not been widely studied. Methods We examined the relation in a population-based study in Denmark (N = 6420 cancer cases, 160,485 controls). Cases were taken from the Danish Cancer Registry, and controls were selected from national records. We obtained maternal anemia diagnoses from the National Patient and Medical Births registries. In a separate analysis within the years available (births 1995–2014), we examined cancer risks among mothers taking prescribed vitamin supplements, using data from the National Prescription Register. We estimated the risks of childhood cancer using conditional logistic regression. Results The risks of neuroblastoma [odds ratio (OR= 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 3.22] and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (OR= 1.46, 95% CI 1.09, 1.97) were increased in children born to mothers with anemia in pregnancy. There was a two-fold increased risk for bone tumors (OR= 2.59, 95% CI: 1.42, 4.72), particularly osteosarcoma (OR= 3.54, 95% CI 1.60, 7.82). With regards to prescribed supplement use, mothers prescribed supplements for B12 and folate deficiency anemia (OR= 4.03, 95% CI 1.91, 8.50) had an increased risk for cancer in offspring. Conclusion Our results suggest that screening for anemia in pregnancy and vitamin supplementation may be an actionable strategy to prevent some cases of childhood cancer.
Article
Vitamin B12 deficiency is known to be very common amongst the vegan population and can cause hyperhomocysteinemia due to various hematologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a global epidemic caused by malabsorption and inadequate consumption. Vitamin B12 deficiency has the greatest impact on the blood and nervous system. Elevated Methylmalonic Acid (MMA) and/or total homocysteine levels are sensitive indications of vitamin B12 deficiency and have been linked to clinical problems. Hematological parameters like erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit, Mean Cell Volume (MCV), blood values such as plasma B12 and the metabolite MMA are only a few examples. A total of 398 subjects, aged 30-50 years were selected from Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat. Fourty two percent of the subjects were suffering from vitamin B12 deficiency. The subjects were screened for their vitamin B12 status and several biochemical parameters like homocysteine, iron, hemoglobin, total RBC, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Total RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC levels, and homocysteine concentration of the subjects were found to be significantly (P ? 0.05) associated with the vitamin B12 status of the subjects. A positive and significant (P ? 0.05) relationship was observed between serum vitamin B12 and iron levels (r = 0.127, P ? 0.05) of the subjects. In conclusion, vitamin B12 status was significantly associated with total RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC levels and homocysteine concentration
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Although nanotechnology has revolutionized fields such as medicine, genetics, biology, bioengineering, mechanics, and chemistry, its increasing application in the food industry is relatively recent in comparison. Nanotechnology is being used to discover new methods for creating new flavors, extending food shelf life, and improving food protection and nutritional value. Nanotechnology in the food industry is now being explored for intelligent nutrient delivery systems, “smart” foods, contaminant detection nanodevices and nanosensors, advanced food processing, antimicrobial chemicals, encapsulation, and green nanomaterials. This new three-volume set, Nanotechnology Horizons in Food Process Engineering, addresses a multitude of topical issues and new developments in the field. Volume 1 focuses food preservation, food packaging and sustainable agriculture, while Volume 2 looks at nanotechnology in food process engineering, applications of biomaterials in food products, and the use of modern nanotechnology for human health. The third volume explores the newest trends in nanotechnology for food applications and their application for improving food delivery systems. Together, these three volumes provide a comprehensive and in- depth look at the emerging status of nanotechnology in the food processing industry, explaining the benefits and drawbacks of various methodologies that will aid in the improvement and development of food product sourcing and food hygiene monitoring methods.
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Baby food from jars is made of meat, vegetables or fruits, and might be a valuable source of essential elements such as Na or K. However, these infant products could also be a source of toxic elements such as Al or Cd, which are dangerous to infants. In total, 45 samples of various kinds of baby food in jars (meat, vegetables, fruit and mixed) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP OES) with the aim of evaluating the daily intake of essential elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mo, Mn) and dietary exposure to toxic elements (Al, Cd, Pb, B, Ba, V, Sr, Li, Ni). Mixed jars registered the highest concentrations of Na, Ca, Zn, Fe. Al (8.22 ± 8.97 mg/kg wet weight) stands out in vegetable jars. In total, 130 g/day of mixed jars fulfills daily Zn and Ca requirements. These consumption scenarios (130 g/day, 250 g/day) supposed high Mn intakes (40 times higher than the recommended value), which could pose a risk to infants’ health. Pb, Ni, Cd and Al intakes exceed the maximum values. It is recommended to avoid the daily consumption of these products since it can pose a risk to the health of infants. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Nitric acid (PubChem: CID 944).
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Shellfish, in particular bivalves, are an often-overlooked source of vitamin B12 (B12) in the human diet although they have significantly higher tissue levels of B12 than other animal meat or fish sources, including all vertebrates. However, the origins and key metabolic processes involving B12 in bivalves remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the distribution of B12 in tissues of several adult Australian bivalve species and assessed hypotheses concerning their B12 utilisation and principal uptake, specifically whether it is derived from diet or gut microbiome. Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, and Goolwa cockles, Plebidonax deltoides (‘pipis’), are both high in B12 (28.0–49.4 μg/100 g total per individual). Vitamin B12 tissue distribution, particularly in oysters, varied significantly, with higher amounts in the adductor muscle (44.0–96.7 μg/100 g), and other tissues, such as gonads, were relatively low (12.7–35.9 μg/100 g). In comparison, concentrations of B12 in the adductor muscle and roe of Southern Australian scallops, Pecten fumatus, were appreciably lower (3.4–10.8 μg/100 g). We also demonstrated that microalgal feed commonly grown in aquaculture can be supplemented directly with B12, resulting in an enriched feed. However, the B12-enriched diet did not transfer to a significant increase in oyster larval B12 concentrations, contradicting our theory that vitamin uptake through feed was a primary B12 source. Vitamin B12 concentrations across oyster larval life stages showed a significant decrease post metamorphosis, which indicates a higher utilisation of B12 during this life event. Our findings also provide insight into B12 uptake and tissue distribution in bivalve species, which can aid the aquaculture industry in promotion of bivalves as a valuable source of dietary B12 for human consumers, while also suggesting ways to optimise vitamin supplementation in bivalve hatchery production.
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From the ancient period, Green leafy vegetables (GLV) are part of the daily diet and were believed to have several health beneficial properties. Later it has been proved that GLV has outstanding nutritional value and can be used for medicinal benefits. GLV is particularly rich in minerals like iron, calcium, and zinc. These are also rich in vitamins like beta carotene, vitamin E, K, B and vitamin C. In addition, some anti-nutritional elements in GLV can be reduced if it is grown properly and processed properly before consumption. Tropical countries have a wide variety of these green plants such as Red Spinach, Amaranth, Malabar Spinach, Taro Leaf, Fenugreek leaf, Bengal Gram Leaves, Radish Leaves, Mustard Leaves, and many more. This review focuses on listing this wide range of GLVs (in total 54 underutilized GLVs) and their compositions in a comparative manner. GLV also possesses medicinal activities due to its rich bioactive and nutritional potential. Different processing techniques may alter the nutritional and bioactive potential of the GLVs significantly. The GLVs have been considered a food fortification agent, though not explored widely. All of these findings suggest that increasing GLV consumption could provide nutritional requirements necessary for proper growth as well as adequate protection against diseases caused by malnutrition.
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Background Previous studies have linked the Mediterranean diet (MED) with improved cardiometabolic health, showing preliminary evidence for a mediating role of the gut microbiome. We recently suggested the Green-Mediterranean (Green-MED) diet as an improved version of the healthy MED diet, with increased consumption of plant-based foods and reduced meat intake. Here, we investigated the effects of MED interventions on the gut microbiota and cardiometabolic markers, and the interplay between the two, during the initial weight loss phase of the DIRECT-PLUS trial. Methods In the DIRECT-PLUS study, 294 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia were prospectively randomized to one of three intervention groups: healthy dietary guidelines (standard science-based nutritional counseling), MED, and Green-MED. Both isocaloric MED and Green-MED groups were supplemented with 28g/day walnuts. The Green-MED group was further provided with daily polyphenol-rich green tea and Mankai aquatic plant (new plant introduced to a western population). Gut microbiota was profiled by 16S rRNA for all stool samples and shotgun sequencing for a select subset of samples. Results Both MED diets induced substantial changes in the community structure of the gut microbiome, with the Green-MED diet leading to more prominent compositional changes, largely driven by the low abundant, “non-core,” microorganisms. The Green-MED diet was associated with specific microbial changes, including enrichments in the genus Prevotella and enzymatic functions involved in branched-chain amino acid degradation, and reductions in the genus Bifidobacterium and enzymatic functions responsible for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. The MED and Green-MED diets were also associated with stepwise beneficial changes in body weight and cardiometabolic biomarkers, concomitantly with the increased plant intake and reduced meat intake. Furthermore, while the level of adherence to the Green-MED diet and its specific green dietary components was associated with the magnitude of changes in microbiome composition, changes in gut microbial features appeared to mediate the association between adherence to the Green-MED and body weight and cardiometabolic risk reduction. Conclusions Our findings support a mediating role of the gut microbiome in the beneficial effects of the Green-MED diet enriched with Mankai and green tea on cardiometabolic risk factors. Trial registration The study was registered on ClinicalTrial.gov ( NCT03020186 ) on January 13, 2017.
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Cereals and their derivatives are basic foods in the human diet and a source of minerals, but the content of elements may vary depending on the type of cereal or its processing. The levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, and Mn have been determined in 126 samples of cereals and cereal derivatives (rice, corn gofio , corn flour, wheat flour, corn, and wheat) commercialized and consumed in Cape Verde using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after a wet microwave digestion process. Some elements stand out in products such as corn gofio (K), wheat (Mg), and wheat flour (Fe). Negative correlations were found between Mo-Na and Na-Zn that could suggest interference between these elements. Bearing in mind the dietary intake evaluation and the guideline values provided by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) or FAO (Food Authority Organization), the consumption of wheat (100 g/day) provides a notable contribution of Mo, Mn, Fe, and Mg. Considering the nutritional value of the analyzed essential and trace elements, the consumption of different cereals and their derivatives should be promoted.
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Background and purpose: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an anesthetic widely used in operating rooms. Chronic exposure to N2O causes decrease in mental performance, peripheral neuropathy, and polyneuropathy. The aim of this study was to compare neurological complications caused by N2O exposure between operating room staff and other hospital staff. Materials and methods: In this multicenter cohort study, operating room staff (n=110) and non-operating room staff (n= 224) in Arak Valiasr Hospital and Isfahan Al-zahra Hospital were randomly selected and individually matched. Both groups were examined for neuropathic symptoms and their medical history was recorded. Clinical neurological exams such as Romberg test were used in both groups. Patients with neuropathic sign and symptoms were referred to a neurology clinic to confirm any diagnosis. Results: The two groups were significantly different in ataxia, numbness, weakness and paresthesia of upper and lower limb, Romberg test score, and levels of Vitamin B12 (P
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There is growing interest in applying bioluminescence for imaging varies biological processes in life sciences due to its high resolution, selectivity, and signal/noise ratio (no need of external light excitation). Among the diverse bioluminescence systems, firefly luciferin–luciferase system is considered to be the most popular one for bioimaging applications both in vitro and in vivo. The general design strategy of this system is to cage luciferin (i.e., free luciferin is protected with distinctive functional groups). When the protecting moieties are removed by their corresponding analytes, bioluminescence signal turns “on”, enabling people to understand their biological processes. Considering that D ‐luciferin‐luciferase bioluminescence imaging system is now becoming a hot and cuttingedge research topic, in this minireview, we briefly explain the bioluminescence mechanism and summarize the biological moleculeresponsive, D ‐luciferin‐based bioluminescence imaging probes. Moreover, the attempts to optimize the photochemical properties of D ‐luciferin are also introduced. Current challenges and future perspectives for activity‐based luciferase‐luciferin bioluminescence system are also outlooked. With the understanding of the structure−property relationship and working mechanisms of these bioluminescence probes, we hope that this minireview might provide effective guidance for the development of bioluminescence imaging probes and even their clinical translations.
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Background Research to date suggests that nickel affects not only the metabolism of vitamin B12 but also folates and thus may affect hematopoiesis processes. Objective The aim of the study was to examine the relationship of nickel (Ni) status to red blood cell (RBC) parameters and serum vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine concentrations in the course of normal pregnancy and in pregnant women with anemia. Methods The study included fifty-three pregnant women recruited to the study from the Lower Silesia region of Poland, 17% of whom developed anemia. Nickel concentration was determined in urine, whole blood and food samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. At the same time as the food and urine samples were taken, blood was also collected for the determination of RBC parameters and serum vitamin B12, homocysteine and folate concentrations. Results The median reported Ni intake, and the urinary and whole blood nickel contents for the studied pregnant women for the first trimester were respectively – 162.46 µg/day, 3.98 µg/L and 3.32 µg/L; for the second trimester – 110.48 µg/day, 6.86 µg/L and 1.04 µg/L; and for the third trimester – 132.20 µg/day, 3.41 µg/L and 0.70 µg/L. With regard to Ni concentration in whole blood (p = 0.0204) and in urine (p = 0.0003), the differences in the values for individual trimesters were statistically significant. The whole blood Ni level was significantly higher (9.28 vs 3.62 μg/L, p = 0.0114), while the concentration of homosysteine was significantly lower (4.09 vs 5.04 μmol/L, p = 0.0165) in pregnant women with anemia compared to those without anemia. The whole blood Ni concentration was negatively correlated with almost all RBC parameters in non-anemic pregnant women. Conclusions Ni status changes with the development of normal pregnancy, and in the case of anemia, an increase in Ni concentration in whole blood is observed. The demonstrated correlations between the Ni status in pregnant women and RBC parameters as well as serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations suggest that nickel is associated with the methionine–folate cycle, iron homeostasis and bacterial synthesis of vitamin B12 in humans.
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Inflammation is a natural clinical repair response of body’s immune system to protect its tissues from various noxious stimuli that continues to remodel throughout the lifecycle because of interactions between genes, lifestyles, and environments. There is a link between inflammation, elevated plasma homocysteine levels and cardiometabolic diseases. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed through which homocysteine can modulate the inflammatory response, though the exact mechanism is not clearly understood. The serum homocysteine concentration is considered as an independent risk factor for many disease conditions including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate consumption of anthocyanins is associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, a clear relationship between anthocyanin and homocysteine has not yet been developed. Anthocyanins are water soluble blue, red, and purple pigments, present in the vacuolar sap of the epidermal tissues of plant parts. As therapeutic agents, they are well-accepted in folk medicine worldwide and are linked to a myriad of health benefits. Anthocyanins impart an amazing role in lessening inflammation in body tissues. The molecular mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory activities include inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenase and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, inhibition of NF-kB and activating protein-1 (AP-1) and activation of phase II antioxidant detoxifying enzymes, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. This chapter discusses the interrelationship between hyperhomocysteinemia, inflammation and anthocyanins, as well as the mechanisms of action and anti-inflammatory role of anthocyanins in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.
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Dietary proteins metabolism involves the production of homocysteine which result from methionine as a sulfur-containing amino acid. Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine are associated with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, Previous studies indicate that plasma homocysteine can be used as a tumor marker and can be considered as a risk factor for cancer. The levels of homocysteine in the plasma is highly controlled by diet and several strategies were suggested for lowering plasma homocysteine. In this chapter, homocysteine biosynthesis and metabolism were explained. Diseases associated with hyperhomocysteinemia were discussed with special emphasis on cancer. Various natural products and dietary interventions were evaluated for their anticancer effects through lowering plasma homocysteine. This chapter will provide a solid ground for researchers to understand the link between hyperhomocysteinemia and cancer and the possible role of diet and natural product in lowering plasma homocysteine.
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The number of individuals partaking in veganism has increased sharply in the last decade. Therefore, it is critical to look at the implications of vegan diets for public health. Although there are multiple health benefits of a vegan diet, studies have also linked the diet with deficiencies in various micronutrients. This study focuses on vitamin B12, because of its critical role in DNA synthesis and methylation. In light of these connections, we conduct a critical review of recent scientific literature to understand the effects of a B12 deficient diet on the genome and epigenome, and whether it can give rise to cancer. We observe that a B12 deficiency leads to increased uracil misincorporation, leading to impaired DNA synthesis and genomic instability. The deficiency also leads to global hypomethylation of DNA, a hallmark of early carcinogenesis. The findings of this study highlight the need for increased awareness among vegans to ensure adequate B12 intake through supplementation or consumption of fortified products as a preventative measure. Additionally, the biofortification of staple crops and an improved version of fermented products with increased B12 content could be developed when inadequate intake seems otherwise inevitable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Production of rice, a major staple food crop, should be maintained both quantitatively and qualitatively to assure global food security. In recent decades, various natural (biogeochemical weathering of rocks) and anthropogenic (increased application of agrochemicals, solid and liquid waste discharges from domestic and industrial areas, vehicular pollution, etc.) activities have deteriorated soil and water resources by contributing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to the environment. Shortage of land resources and requirements of the ever-increasing human population has led to increasing global trend of rice cultivation in contaminated soils, causing accumulation of various PTEs such as arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) in rice crop, especially in the grains. Rice plants uptake and accumulate PTEs leading to their entry into the food chain. Consumption of rice contaminated with PTEs disturbs the human metabolism as PTEs interfere with different physiological/molecular mechanisms causing various health problems such as weak bones; skin problems; respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, reproductive, and hepatic disorders; and cancer. Possible non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks have been determined in some studies by following the guidelines provided by various governmental or non-governmental agencies. Considering these facts, the present study was conducted to give a broader perspective on rice contamination with various potentially toxic elements, their bioconcentration in rice, associated health risks in human beings, and strategies for bioremediation of soil and water resources to eliminate PTEs.
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There are numerous scientific publications about the folate content of several types of beers available in commercial trade, but there is limited information about the effect of raw materials and technological steps of brewing on folate content. In this study the aim was to investigate different raw materials and the evolution of folate content during laboratory and pilot scale brewing. For the determination of folate content of different malts, three types of barley malts (Pilsner, Caramel, and Coloring), wheat malt, rye malt, and oat malt were analysed. For the study of the evolution of folate content during the brewing process, worts were produced on laboratory and pilot scale. Among malts, Pilsner type barley malt had the highest folate content (44.7 μg/100 g d.m.). During brewing the protein rest seemed to dissolve the majority of the folate content, and with the increasing temperature of the β- and α-amylase rests there was a further dissolution. Filtration and sparging did not have negative effect on folate concentration related to the extract content of the wort. Hop boiling had no negative effect on folate content, folate seemed to be stable during the one-hour boiling. Natural folate of barley malt seemed to be stable through the technological steps of brewing, offering the possibility to produce a foodstuff with high natural folate content.
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Rice is a staple food consumed by almost half of the world’s population. However, in a natural environment, like any other plant, rice is exposed to various abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, and high temperature, which in turn affect its yield. Therefore, to meet the demand of the world’s growing population, it is imperative for scientists to come up with novel strategies of combating these abiotic stresses. Over the years, transgenic rice showing improved performance under stresses such as salinity, drought, and cold have been developed using genetic engineering approaches. Additionally, scientists have also developed rice that has higher nutrient content such as, golden rice, folate-biofortified rice, iron-fortified rice, and zinc-fortified rice. In this chapter, we discuss how plants respond to heat, cold, salinity, drought, and flooding stress with an emphasis on the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance. Further, we also present a few representative success stories where attempts have been made towards improving the nutritional value or for enhancing stress tolerance in rice. This information may help in promoting the interdisciplinary studies designed to assess the stress-responsive genes and their role under various abiotic stresses along with a target of improving the nutritional value in rice.
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The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-based advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. Specifically, the BOND program provides state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutrients in body tissues at the individual and population level. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review represents the second in the series of reviews and covers all relevant aspects of folate biology and biomarkers. The article is organized to provide the reader with a full appreciation of folate's history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers (serum folate, RBC folate, and plasma homocysteine concentrations) and their interpretation across a range of clinical and population-based uses. The article also includes a list of priority research needs for advancing the area of folate biomarkers related to nutritional health status and development.
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Iron is an essential trace element for multicellular organisms and nearly all microorganisms. Although iron is abundant in the environment, common forms of iron are minimally soluble and therefore poorly accessible to biological organisms. Microorganisms entering a mammalian host face multiple mechanisms that further restrict their ability to obtain iron and thereby limit their pathogenicity. Iron levels also modulate host defence, as iron content in macrophages regulates their cytokine production. Here, we review recent advances that highlight the role of systemic and cellular iron-regulating mechanisms in protecting hosts from infection, emphasizing aspects that are applicable to human health and disease.
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The clinical picture is the most important factor in assessing the significance of test results assessing cobalamin status because there is no 'gold standard' test to define deficiency. Serum cobalamin currently remains the first-line test, with additional second-line plasma methylmalonic acid to help clarify uncertainties of underlying biochemical/functional deficiencies. Serum holotranscobalamin has the potential as a first-line test, but an indeterminate 'grey area' may still exist. Plasma homocysteine may be helpful as a second-line test, but is less specific than methylmalonic acid. The availability of these second-line tests is currently limited. Definitive cut-off points to define clinical and subclinical deficiency states are not possible, given the variety of methodologies used and technical issues, and local reference ranges should be established. In the presence of discordance between the test result and strong clinical features of deficiency, treatment should not be delayed to avoid neurological impairment. Treatment of cobalamin deficiency is recommended in line with the British National Formulary. Oral therapy may be suitable and acceptable provided appropriate doses are taken and compliance is not an issue. Serum folate offers equivalent diagnostic capability to red cell folate and is the first-line test of choice to assess folate status.
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In the past two decades, sensitive biochemical tests have uncovered cobalamin deficiency much more frequently than ever before. Almost all cases involve mild, biochemical changes without clinical manifestations (subclinical cobalamin deficiency; SCCD), whose health impact is unclear. Because the causes of SCCD are most often unknown, nonmalabsorptive, and seldom documented, controversy and confusion surround the diagnostic criteria and, inevitably, consequences and management of SCCD. To complicate matters, our grasp of the rarer clinical deficiency, usually a serious, progressive medical disease rooted in severe malabsorption, has receded as absorption testing has disappeared. Reexamining the accumulation of assumptions and misperceptions about cobalamin deficiency and distinguishing SCCD from clinical deficiency is long overdue. The biology of cobalamin provides an important starting point: cobalamin stores exceed daily losses so greatly and binding proteins regulate absorption so effectively that deficiency achieves clinical expression only after years of severe, relentless malabsorption. Dietary insufficiency, mild, partial malabsorption, and other incomplete, intermittent causes can usually produce only SCCD. Thus, the most fundamental difference between the two deficiencies is the relentlessness of the underlying cause, which determines prognosis and health impact. Inattention to absorptive status has exacerbated the limitations of biochemical testing. All the biochemical tests are highly sensitive but specificity is poor, no diagnostic gold standard exists, and diagnostic cutpoints fluctuate excessively. To limit the adverse diagnostic consequences, the diagnosis of SCCD, whose need for treatment is unclear, should be deferred unless at least two tests are abnormal. Indeed, cobalamin biology indicates that the absorption system, while enhancing cobalamin access, also sets a strict upper limit, which suggests that cobalamin excess is undesirable. Solving cobalamin deficiency requires balanced assessment of the different imperatives of clinical and public health concerns, better rationalization of diagnostic testing, consistent definitions of normality in relation to SCCD, and rational cutpoint selection.
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Background: Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cobalt-containing compound synthesized by bacteria and an essential nutrient in mammals, which take it up from diet. The absorption and distribution of dietary vitamin B12 to the organism is a complex process involving several gene products including carrier proteins, plasma membrane receptors and transporters. Disturbed cellular entry, transit or egress of vitamin B12 may lead to low vitamin B12 status or deficiency and eventually hematological and neurological disorders. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the causes leading to vitamin B12 deficiency including decreased intake, impaired absorption and increased requirements. Under physiological conditions, vitamin B12 bound to the gastric intrinsic factor is internalized in the ileum by a highly specific receptor complex composed by Cubilin (Cubn) and Amnionless (Amn). Following exit of vitamin B12 from the ileum, general cellular uptake from the circulation requires the transcobalamin receptor CD320 whereas kidney reabsorption of cobalamin depends on Megalin (Lrp2). Whereas malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, selective pediatric, nondietary-induced B12 deficiency is generally due to inherited disorders including the Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome and the much rarer intrinsic factor deficiency. Biochemical, clinical and genetic research on these disorders considerably improved our knowledge of vitamin B12 absorption. This review describes basic and recent findings on the intestinal handling of vitamin B12 and its importance in health and disease.