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Abstract

One important group to include in efforts to combat climate change is young people. This group comprises the future leaders of society, besides being citizens of today, and they will be the ones handling the future negative consequences of this global problem. This artcle provides an overview of some research about climate change communication and young people. The main aim is to gain a better understanding of how this group relates to and communicates about climate change in different contexts, and how to best promote knowledge, a sense of efficacy, and engagement concerning this problem. The focus is on young people who are between late childhood and young adulthood. Questions in focus are: How do media messages about climate change influence young people, and how do they themselves use media, for instance social networks, to engage with this issue? Can art-based and entertainment approaches to communication overcome the distant and complex character of climate change and make young people feel more empowered and engaged? Is it possible to communicate about climate change and raise awareness by promoting contact with nature and animals? How do young people cope with the negative emotions that are often evoked by information about this problem? In what way do young people communicate in everyday life with parents, peers, and teachers about climate change? Are participatory approaches to climate change communication a good way to prepare young people for future extreme climate events? Full text at: http://climatescience.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228620-e-408
Young People and Climate Change Communication
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Summary and Keywords
One important group to include in efforts to combat climate change is young people. This
group comprises the future leaders of society, besides being citizens of today, and they
will be the ones handling the future negative consequences of this global problem. This
article provides an overview of some research about climate change communication and
young people. The aim is to gain a better understanding of how this group relates to and
communicates about climate change in different contexts, and how to best promote
knowledge, a sense of efficacy, and engagement concerning this problem. The focus is on
young people who are between late childhood and young adulthood. Questions in focus
are: How do media messages about climate change influence young people, and how do
they themselves use media, for instance social networks, to engage with this issue? Can
art-based and entertainment approaches to communication overcome the distant and
complex character of climate change and make young people feel more empowered and
engaged? Is it possible to communicate about climate change and raise awareness by
promoting contact with nature and animals? How do young people cope with the negative
emotions that are often evoked by information about this problem? In what way do young
people communicate in everyday life with parents, peers, and teachers about climate
change? Are participatory approaches to climate change communication a good way to
prepare young people for future extreme climate events?
Keywords: children, adolescents, emerging adults, climate change, communication, education, media,
participatory approaches, socialization, coping
Introduction
The field of climate change communication research has boomed in recent years and the
main goal of this multidisciplinary field is to gain a better understanding of the climate
communication process in all its complexity (Moser, 2016). One important part in this effort
Young People and Climate Change Communication
Maria Ojala and Yuliya Lakew
Subject: Climate Change Communication Online Publication Date: Apr 2017
DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.408
Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science
Young People and Climate Change Communication
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is to understand how different subgroups of the population relate to and communicate
about the problem. In this regard, one group that is especially important to focus on, and
to include in communication efforts, comprises young people (see Corner et al., 2012).
The reason that young people are such an important group to include is manifold: (a) The
young of today are the future leaders, decision-makers, and researchers of tomorrow.
Thus, this group will have a great influence in the future, not only as laypeople, but also
in various occupational roles. (b) From an ethical perspective, it is vital to listen to and
learn from this group, as young people will most probably bear a larger burden of the
negative consequences of climate change than older people (White, 2011). (c) Young people
are, however, also consumers and citizens of today and are a part of the climate problem
through their ways of living. (d) In addition, if more participatory and deliberative
communication approaches are applied, different groups of young people could have
unique knowledge about local places, for instance, knowledge that ought to be included
in efforts to adapt to climate change (UNICEF, 2014). (e). There are researchers who argue
that climate change is not only a societal and environmental problem, but also a
psychological threat (Fritze, Blashki, Burke, & Wiseman, 2008; Searle & Gow, 2010; Swim et
al., 2011). In this regard, young people, especially children, are perhaps more vulnerable to
experiencing negative affect and low well-being in relation to climate change (Fritze et
al., 2008). (f) Finally, young people are unique in that many are involved in the formal
educational system and thus are relatively easy to reach with information about climate
change. In addition, values, worldviews, and identities are still not wholly internalized in
this age group, so young people, in general, are hopefully more open to new ways of
responding to this problem (Stevenson, Peterson, Bondell, Moore, & Carrier, 2014).
To summarize, young people are an important group to understand and to target when it
comes to communication about climate change. To reach this group one needs to
understand how this group and specific subgroups within this group relate to this global
challenge. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of how this group
relates to and communicates about climate change in different contexts, and how to best
promote knowledge, a sense of efficacy, and engagement concerning this problem.
Communication is seen as both a one-way process of transmission and a two-way
interaction (Ballantyne, 2016).
In this article, the term young people encompasses those people who are between about
11 years old and young adulthood, about 25 years of age. It is around late childhood and
the early teens that young people start to think in a more abstract way and therefore
become more interested in issues such as global problems (Evenshaug & Hallen, 2001;
Holden, 2007). Thus, this could be an ideal time to start communicating with children
about this issue (Chawla & Flanders Cushing, 2007). The upper limit is chosen because
young people today, especially in the western world, get married and have children at an
older age and continue their education far into their twenties. Therefore, the expression
“emerging adulthood,” a period between the late teens and mid-to-late twenties has been
coined (Arnett, 2000). This is a time for exploration, including creating an ideological part
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of one’s identity, where one’s connection to the larger society is developed. Hence, it is of
interest to include emerging adults. The more specific terms of children (11–12 years of
age), adolescents or youths (13–19 years of age), emerging adults (up to their mid- to late
twenties), and young people (when referring to this group broadly) will be used. The focus
in this chapter is mainly on young people living in the Western world. This is entirely due
to the fact that most research is conducted with this group.
Young People and Climate Change—A Brief
Overview
To communicate with young people about climate change in a constructive manner, it is
vital to understand that, despite their heterogeneity (see Stanes & Klocker, 2016), young
people as a group seem both to differ from and evince similarities with adults in their
ways of relating to climate change. This section will present some examples.
Climate Change Knowledge, Views, and Agency
Some studies show that age is inversely related to concern for climate change, that is,
young people seem to be more concerned and, also, sometimes have more knowledge
about this issue (European Commission, 2011; Flöttum, Dahl, & Rivenes, 2016; Gifford &
Comeau, 2011). Young people themselves think that new generations are more
environmentally aware than their predecessors, and a commitment to environmental
causes has become a part of the global identity of young people (Estévez, de Frutos, Ruth,
& Moya, 2014). At the same time, young people’s lifestyles are not more sustainable than
those of older groups (Gifford & Comeau, 2011; Mead, Roser-Renouf, Rimal, Flora,
Maibach, & Leiserowitz, 2012; Meneses & Palacio, 2005). Thus, the gap between values,
attitudes, and competence, on the one hand, and behavior, on the other, is perhaps
largest in this age group. However, more research that focuses specifically on this
question is needed.
Although consciousness about this problem seem to be quite high at least among some
groups of young people, there are still misunderstandings related to scientific knowledge
when it comes to, for example, the difference between climate change and the hole in the
ozone layer (Leiserowitz, Smith, & Marlon, 2011; Shepardson, Niyogi, Choi, &
Charusombat, 2011; Shepardson, Niyogi, Choi, & Charusombat, 2009; Sternäng &
Lundholm, 2012; Taber & Taylor, 2009). Thus, the knowledge young people have about this
problem seems to be somewhat superficial.
There is also a huge gap between young people’s view of the global future, including
problems such as climate change, which is often quite bleak and pessimistic, and their
view of their personal future, which is often quite optimistic (Eckersley, 1999; Holden, 2006;
1
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Threadgold, 2012). Thus, climate change is perceived as distant and separate from their
own lives (Ballantyne, Wibeck, & Neset, 2016). This makes it important to explore how
young people can engage with this problem in a personally relevant way.
Young people have less power to influence this issue than adults; the majority of
teenagers cannot vote and still live at home, where they are dependent upon their
parents when it comes to lifestyle choices. In accordance, studies point out a rather low
sense of environmental efficacy among teenagers (Ballantyne et al. 2016; Hibberd &
Nguyen, 2013; Özdem, Dal, Öztürk, Sönmez, & Alper, 2014; Pruneau, Liboiron, Vrain,
Gravel, Bourque, & Langis, 2001). In a study by Pruneau et al. (2001), adolescents showed
less confidence than adults in the possibility of mobilizing people to decrease their impact
on the climate. A Swedish study revealed a limited sense of agency among adolescents, as
they externalize responsibility for action to parents, politicians, and the international
community and perceive climate change as something that does not directly relate to
them (Ballantyne, Wibeck, & Neset, 2016). British youths expressed the view that the
climate change issue did not play a major role in their day-to-day life (Hibberd & Nguyen,
2013). They did recognize the possibility of people fixing the problem but lacked a sense of
empowerment to engage with it. Thus, the gap between interest in and the possibility,
real as well as perceived, of influencing the situation is perhaps largest in this group.
Emotions and Coping in Relation to Climate Change
It could be argued that putting too much responsibility for handling climate change on
young people’s shoulders could lead to distress among this group, due to the gap
between what one would like to do and what one has the means to do (see Fritze et al.,
2008) For instance, both children and adolescents who use problem-focused strategies to
cope with this threat, that is, focusing on what they themselves can do at an individual
level, on the one hand, feel a stronger sense of self-efficacy, but, on the other hand, are
also more inclined to experience general negative affect than those young people who do
not cope in this way to the same extent (Ojala, 2012A, 2013). Thus, feeling that you can
influence the situation and experiencing a high degree of well-being is not always the
same thing, perhaps because the young are aware that these kinds of problem cannot be
solved solely at an individual level.
When it comes to age differences in the group young people, there is some Swedish
research emphasizing that, since education about environmental problems is quite
common in the pre-school and early years of education, high-school students are already
bored when it comes to climate change (Österlind, 2012; SNASI, 2005). There are also
studies showing that “climate change denial” is present not only in groups of adults but
also among young people (Corner et al., 2015; Klöckner, Beisenkamp, & Hallmann, 2010;
Leiserowitz et al., 2011; Ojala, 2015A; Stevenson et al., 2014). A suggested solution to this
predicament is to not shy away from value dimensions in educational efforts, but to focus
instead on complexity and value conflicts (Öhman & Öhman, 2013; see also Österlind, 2012).
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However, research about democratic education at the college level in the United States
rather indicates that such an approach can overestimate emerging adults’ ability to deal
with uncertainty and complexity and thereby risk creating increased feelings of
helplessness and hopelessness (Colby, Beaumont, Ehrlich, & Corngold, 2007). This is
backed up by studies showing that adolescents and emerging adults feel more
hopelessness and pessimism concerning climate change than children (Eckersley, 1999;
Ojala, 2012B; Holden, 2006). At least one study has found that children are actually higher in
self-efficacy concerning this issue than adults (Devine-Wright, Devine-Wright, & Fleming,
2004).
At the same time, as young people are seen as more vulnerable than adults when it comes
to climate change, it is important to realize that studies show that young people actively
cope in different ways by de-emphasizing the problem, distancing themselves from
negative emotions felt, putting trust in various societal actors, and getting involved in
different organizations (Ojala, 2012B; Pettersson, 2014). These are strategies that are more
or less constructive when it comes to engagement and well-being (Ojala, 2012A, 2013, 2015B).
Hence, taking account of emotions is not enough when communicating about climate
change; one must also take into account different ways of regulating emotions/coping.
Young People, the Media, and Climate Change
Due to the remote reality of climate change, the media are one of the main sources of
information both for adults (Olausson, 2009) and a younger audience (Özdem, Dal, Öztürk,
Sönmez, & Alper, 2014). Therefore, this section looks at how messages about climate
change communicated through the traditional mass media influence young people, but
also how young people use one-line media to communicate about this issue.
What Is in the Message?
Not only do the media provide factual scientific information about climate change, they
also influence young people’s understanding of the crisis as well as their sense of self-
efficacy and willingness to engage. In a Swedish study, Ballantyne et al. (2016), analyzed
high-school students’ associations with climate change. The most common understanding
of the crisis was expressed through such words as greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide.
Interestingly, those associations somewhat mirror the Swedish mainstream media
portrayal of climate change (Olausson, 2009).
A number of media-content studies have pointed out that media representation of climate
change assumes a few predictable shapes, focusing merely on debaters and their claims,
which leads to an exaggerated sense of uncertainty (Brulle, 2010), and scaremongering
(Hulme, 2007). Such negative information by the media evokes emotional responses and
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could lead to disengagement from the crisis among young people across the world, which
studies with emerging adults in South Africa (El Zoghbi & El Ansari, 2014) and the United
Kingdom (Hibberd & Nguyen, 2013) indicate. El Zoghbi and El Ansari (2014) suggest that
fear-inducing coverage evokes emotional response strategies to handle the crisis
psychologically. Climate images in media can perhaps force young people to distance
themselves from the climate situation through denial of its reality or externalization of
responsibility.
However, there are some empirical studies indicating that visual information may have an
impact on a young audience that is slightly different than the research reviewed above
suggests. In an experiment Beattie, Sale, and McGuire (2011) analyzed how clips from the
2006 film An Inconvenient Truth affected university students’ emotions and attitudes
towards the issue. Watching several clips from the film produced a strong emotional
response. Participants felt more empowered and motivated to do something to help
mitigate the consequences right after watching the clips. The researchers could not say
how enduring this effect would be, however. Ballantyne et al. (2016) analyzed how climate
visualization affects young audiences’ understanding of the phenomenon. Visual
representations helped students to understand complex aspects and had an overall
positive influence on their reception of the message.
The tone of the media coverage is only one of many factors that influence young people’s
attitudes towards the issue. Other features of climate change reporting that could impede
young people’s engagement include the complexity and jargon of the information
provided (El Zoghbi & El Ansari, 2014), lack of media coverage in general and relevant and
engaging messages in particular, abundance of conflicting messages (Hibberd & Nguyen,
2013), and celebratization of climate change (Hibberd & Nguyen, 2013). While reception
studies point out that media are partly to blame for young people’s disengagement, no
evidence was found that news consumption had a direct effect on the level of climate
change skepticism expressed by adolescents (Ojala, 2015A).
Very few studies have empirically explored media influence on young people’s everyday
environmental behavior or environmental activism. Skogen and Strandbu (2000) found that
intellectual TV viewing (unlike commercial TV viewing) strongly predicted environmental
concern and the likelihood of organization membership among Norwegian youth. Östman
(2014) proposed a more detailed account of how the media influence young people’s
environmental behavior. In his study, Swedish adolescents were more likely to engage in
pro-environmental behavior when they discussed what they heard on the news from both
online and offline sources with their parents and friends.
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How Do They Process Information?
Although the information youths receive from the media is quite similar in tone and
content, not everyone responds to the information in the same way. Sadler, Chambers,
and Zeidler (2004) analyzed how adolescents process and evaluate information with
conflicting evidence about global warming. The results showed that prior beliefs play a
major role in evaluating which position was the most convincing to them. Later studies
confirm the idea that existing beliefs and prior attitudes predefine how young people
process conflicting information (Corner, Whitmarsh, & Xenias, 2012). Corner et al. (2012)
found that individuals with skeptical attitudes about climate change assimilate new
information in line with their existing attitudes. However, skeptics did not perceive the
skeptical science-based editorials as more convincing than pro-climate change editorials.
This suggests that this biasing influence of prior attitudes may be less powerful “when
the information under consideration is based on (relatively objective) facts and figures
rather than political opinion and conjecture” (Corner et al., 2012, p. 475).
The personal relevance of information is another important factor. When presented with
different opinions, adolescents are drawn more to a position that explains consequences
to which they can relate. Moreover, personal relevance plays a greater role in their
evaluation of information than the actual scientific knowledge that supports it (Sadler,
Chambers, & Zeidler, 2004). Yang, Kahlor, and Griffin’s (2014) study on American and
Chinese youth also highlighted that respondents who viewed climate change as
personally relevant were willing not only to pay attention to information about the issue
but also to engage in conversations and exchange information about this topic. Those who
considered it as a distant and incomprehensible risk, however, did not see a reason to
share information on this issue. The lack of agency among Turkish adolescents was also
connected with their perception of climate change as a global issue rather than a local
and relatable one (Özdem et al., 2014).
Online Media
The idea that young people often choose digital media as an alternative way to engage
politically has firmly established itself in the political communication field. Despite the
growing evidence of young people’s alternative engagement choices, research on the role
of digital media in climate change communication is rather sparse. To explore how young
people make sense of climate change in the global flow of information, Rye (2013) studied
Norwegian secondary-school students and their engagement with Internet for
schoolwork. Climate change is often seen by youth as a distant reality that does not
overlap with their everyday lives. Although the digital media have the potential to shrink
time and space, Rye’s (2013) study showed that adolescents’ new digital spaces are largely
local or national, as they have a limited capacity to evaluate the trustworthiness of distant
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information sources. Thus, students mainly use national sources to access information
from distant places, and most of the global flows are out of their reach.
Sense of place indeed plays an important role concerning how online information is
interpreted. Adams and Gynnild (2013) explored how university students in the United
States and Norway respond to environmental messages using short online videos and an
interactive Internet tool, an “ecological footprint calculator.” The scholars emphasized
the importance of place-based identity for the interpretations of the content—the better
information was tailored to the social and geographical context to which the students
could relate and identify, the more responsive they were to it. Adams and Gynnild (2013)
concluded that a key to successful online communications is to permit users to
interactively self-locate in ways that let it reflect their sense of “home” and minimally
evoke national identity, so that the outcome is felt to be meaningful in their interpretative
community.
Nevertheless, digital media not only provide access to more information about climate
change, but also facilitate different forms of engagement. In their study on American
teenagers, Allen, Wicks, and Schulte (2013) focused on online peer persuasion to be more
environmental. The results showed that political interest, political consumerism, the use
of purchasing power to support causes and organization, and environmental news
consumption had the greatest influence on adolescents’ behavior online rather than
environment-related beliefs and attitudes. Andersson and Öhman (2016) also found that
communicating about climate change in social media, in this case an online community,
seemed to enable young people to develop a sophisticated and complex conversation
around this issues.
A study by Robelia, Greenhow, and Burton (2011) highlighted that social networks may also
provide the motivation for young people to behave in more environmentally friendly ways.
This study focused on the Facebook application “Hot Dish,” which was launched to enable
students to post climate change news stories from other websites and comment on them.
The users of the application were a self-selected group of environmentally oriented
people who already behaved responsibly in everyday life. Nevertheless, a post-survey
showed participation in online discussions resulted in increased pro-environmental
habits. Although the study design only allowed participants to talk about short-term
effects, the findings demonstrated that peer role modeling through interaction motivated
the young to learn more about climate change and to do more to limit its impact.
Sunstein (2007), however, warns that new media can lead to enhanced fractionalization,
where users block themselves off from issues that are experienced as boring or
emotionally upsetting, potentially leading to lower levels of engagement around climate
change among young people who are not interested.
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Communication Through Art-Based
Approaches and Entertainment
Climate change is seen as a distant and abstract phenomenon by many people living in
the Western world, both young and old. Therefore, researchers and practitioners have
explored how to engage young people with this distant and complex issue through art-
based and entertainment approaches.
Art-Based Approaches
One way to communicate climate change, to make young people more interested in and
knowledgeable about this issue, is through art-based approaches, such as drama,
literature, music, and pictures. Researchers in drama education have argued that using
theatre projects is a good way to make climate change more salient and more relevant
and interesting, thereby increasing motivation among young people (Buirski, 2013;
Lehtonen, 2012; Österlind, 2012). In addition, it is also possible to envision and create
alternative futures in these projects, which is especially important if the goal is
transformative learning with a focus on preparing for change of an unsustainable present
(Lehtonen, 2012). In process drama, where young people collaborate with, for instance,
teachers and different experts in all parts of the theatre project—from taking decisions
together, to writing the script, to playing the different characters on stage—they also
develop skills and attitudes that are pivotal for engaging with complex problems such as
climate change, both at a life-style level and as citizens (McNaughton, 2006). In addition,
Österlind (2012) argued that drama pedagogy is an especially potent way to deal with the
emotional dimension of climate change educationally. This approach overcomes the
dilemma between, on the one hand, students who are bored by this issue, and, on the
other hand, students who can become frightened because of the more apocalyptic
dimensions of this problem. Emotions are an integral part of drama education and should
be dealt with specifically through the whole learning process.
However, there are hardly any empirical studies that are designed in a way that allows
the researchers to say something about the effects of these projects, on the learning
process or on the outcome of the projects. In a literature review, Österlind (2012)
compared three case studies about climate change education—one about whole-class
teaching, one about interdisciplinary group work, and one about process drama—and she
contended that the last approach dealt with emotions in a better way and the children got
more involved and enjoyed the learning process more. The study was merely an
illustration, however, and the design precludes drawing any real conclusions. There are
also some qualitative in-depth case studies evaluating drama education about sustainable
development, including problems such as climate change, indicating that these
approaches help the children involved gain knowledge and positive attitudes, give them
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opportunities to practice and develop skills essential to behave pro-environmentally
(McNaughton, 2006), and help young people become more hopeful about the future
(Lehtonen, 2012). Still, studies are needed that focus specifically on climate change and
that are designed to capture the effects of these teaching approaches in a more
systematic empirical way.
When it comes to art and literature as ways to communicate with young people about
climate change, there are hardly any studies. However, art is used in different research
studies to evaluate educational programs and to capture young people’s views about
global futures and problems (Baker, Loxton, & Sherren, 2013; Chadborn, Gavin, Springett,
& Robinson, 2013). This seems to be an especially effective way to reach younger children
and give them an opportunity to communicate their views. Literature is claimed by
educational philosophers, such as Martha Nussbaum (2002) for one, to be a way to
motivate young people to take the perspectives of other people living far away or even in
the future. However, research in this field is mostly critical research about how
sustainability and climate change are framed in texts aimed at young people (Ideland &
Malmberg, 2015; Larsson, 2012). One exception is a study with children from Zimbabwe that
used poetry as a way for children to communicate their concerns about climate change
(Makwanya & Dick, 2014). The researcher emphasized that children become more
empowered by this participatory poetry approach, but no structured evaluation was done.
A doctoral dissertation investigated learning for sustainable development, including
climate change, among English children, through music education. This approach
included listening to, composing, and performing music. The researcher argued that
some groups of the young people involved benefitted from the approach since they
became more active and enthusiastic in the learning process (Cheng, 2015). However, just
as in the study about poetry, no investigation of outcomes of the approach was performed.
Hence, both qualitative and quantitative studies are needed that evaluate the learning
processes involved and the outcomes of art-based approaches on young people’s
perception and engagement around climate change.
Entertainment and Visualization as Ways to Communicate
In the United States, Flora, Saphir, Lappé, Roser-Renouf, Maibach, and Leiserowitz (2013)
evaluated an entertainment-educational program/gathering based on multi-sensory
learning and aimed at all high-school grade levels. The program was led by young adult
educators who provided information about climate change—causes, potential effects,
what one can do—in a “fast-paced performance.” This performance included music,
compelling graphics that tell a story, and background music. The extent to which the
program influenced climate knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions among the
young was investigated through pre- and post-surveys. Especially knowledge of climate
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science, but also self-efficacy, pro-environmental intention and behaviors (short term),
and positive engagement increased significantly after attending the program/gathering.
There are also some studies that investigate if one can motivate young people to take part
in climate change mitigation through new technology that include entertainment aspects
or/and that use capturing visualization (Ballantyne et al., 2016; Feldpausch-Parker,
O’Byrne, Endres, & Peterson, 2012; Schrot, Angel, Sheppard, & Dulic, 2014; Walsh, Jenkins,
& Cordero, 2016). Walsh et al. (2016) studied what impact a “Green Ninja Energy” tracker
had on youth’s engagement with climate change and energy-saving behaviors. The Green
Ninja is a humorous superhero that in different ways shows youths how to live in a more
sustainable and climate-friendly manner. The youths entered their home’s energy data
into online software, allowing them to keep track of their energy use. Through focus
group interviews, they found out that the most highly motivating aspect was the ability to
concretely connect energy use with economic costs. Agency connected to energy-saving
behaviors increased due to more knowledge about what to do, but the feeling of being
able to influence climate change did not intensify.
Feldpausch-Parker et al. (2012) developed a video game that used a melodramatic frame,
CO as the villain, and humans as heroes, to teach children and young adolescents about
climate change and how to participate in mitigation. Pre- and post-game surveys showed
that basic knowledge about climate change increased significantly. The young also
indicated that they enjoyed playing the game and would like to do it again. In a similar
manner, Schrot et al. (2014) investigated the effect of a visualization and simulation game
on communication and action concerning climate change among a group of emerging
adults. The participants filled in pre-/post-questionnaires, and the analyses revealed that
the only statistically significant results were that concern about local impacts of climate
change increased and that the young adults put more responsibility on local authorities
than before the game. Attitudes, self-reported knowledge, and support for general climate
change actions, however, did not increase, which could perhaps be explained by the small
sample size. Thus, both these studies showed that games that use visualization
techniques to a certain extent have an effect on young people’s relation to climate
change, albeit in different domains.
Because climate change can be difficult to make sense of, Ballantyne et al. (2016) used
information and communications technology (ICT)-based climate visualization, in a 2012
movie called A Warmer World, to address this challenge among a group of adolescents.
The movie, with the help of different kinds of visualizations, provided information about
causes and impacts of climate change as well as mitigation options, emphasizing the need
to adapt. Through focus groups, the researchers explored how the young made meaning
of the messages. These results were compared with mind-maps about climate change
done before the movie was broadcasted. The study showed that, when asked directly, the
young people perceived that they had a better understanding after they viewed the film,
and they also perceived personal responsibility as an important aspect. However, a
deeper analysis revealed that the young people clung to previous preconceptions such as
doomsday scenarios and felt low agency, aspects that go against the intention of the film.
2
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The conclusion was that ICT visualization can make climate change aspects more
concrete, but this is not enough; one also needs to include young people in more
participatory practices to increase feelings of agency.
Nature and Animal Contact as a Way of
Communicating Climate Change
At the same time as many young people perceive climate change as an ethical issue
(Flöttum et al., 2016; Markowitz, 2012; Mäkiniemi & Vainio, 2013), studies among adults show
that to emphasize the moral dimension, that is, effects on other creatures, can increase
pro-environmental engagement (Schultz, 2000; Swim & Bloodhart, 2014). Therefore, this
section focuses on whether nature and animal contact (natural and mediated) can
function as a way to communicate the urgency of climate change to young people.
Botanical Gardens and Nature Contact
Some studies indicate that environmental education in botanical and school gardens can
increase young people’s environmental awareness (Conlon Morgan, Hamilton, Bentley, &
Myrie, 2009; Waliczek & Zajicek, 1999). For instance, young people who took part in the
“Brooklyn Botanic Garden’s Project Green Reach,” a garden-based youth-education
program, described in qualitative interviews that they became more environmentally
aware and appreciated nature more after the program (Conlon Morgan et al., 2009). In
accordance, a quantitative study in the United States showed that some positive attitudes
toward environmental issues grew significantly stronger after a school-garden program
among the youths involved (Waliczek & Zajicek, 1999).
The studies reviewed above did not focus on climate change, however. One exception is a
quantitative German study on adolescents (Sellman & Bogner, 2013A, 2013B). Sellman and
Bogner investigated whether a one-day educational program about climate change taking
place in a botanical garden would influence young people’s knowledge about this issue as
well as their environmental attitudes and connectedness with nature, in both a short- and
long-term perspective. Botanical gardens provide a unique opportunity to educate about
the complexity of climate change and its consequences for ecosystems and plants in a
concrete manner. The study had a pre-post design with a control group, and the
intervention included moments where the young people were able to interact with each
other. The results showed that knowledge about climate change increased and
environmentally unfriendly attitudes become less prominent after the intervention in both
a short- and long-term perspective (Sellman & Bogner, 2013A, 2013B). Connectedness with
nature increased only directly after the intervention, but not in a long-term perspective
(Sellman & Bogner, 2013B). Thus, these results show that a short educational program
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including nature contact can have an effect on both attitudes and knowledge in relation
to climate change.
Zoos and Animal Contact
Coming in contact with animals through visits to zoos, for instance, could perhaps also be
a way for young people to become engaged in the environment and the climate. Fraser
(2009) asked parents why they were taking their children to the zoo, and he found out that
promoting environmental values among their children was one important theme.
However, yet again research focusing on youths and learning about climate change
through visits to zoos is very rare. One report about a project where adolescents worked
as facilitators of learning about climate change at two zoos in the United States showed
that working as a facilitator strengthened the young people’s conviction that climate
change is happening and also increased their pro-environmental behaviors (Matiasek et
al., 2013). In addition, Otieno, Spada, Liebler, Ludemann, Deil, and Renkl (2014) found that,
when emerging adults read brochures about one local effect of climate change—invasive
species—which was framed in a sensational style, they experienced more negative
emotions but also learned more than a group who got information framed in a more
neutral style. However, their knowledge was also more one-sidedly negative, which could
be due to their higher level of negative emotions. These studies indicate, in different
ways, that animals can be used to increase climate change concern and knowledge
among young people.
Communication About Climate Change With
Parents, Friends, and Teachers
Besides media and more staged communication efforts, young people also communicate
about climate change together with, for example, friends, parents, and teachers, which
could influence their own engagement. In addition to direct communication with others
about this issue, important socialization agents can communicate their views about
environmental issues in a non-verbal way through how they act. Through interacting with
these agents, young people develop descriptive norms about how to relate to these issues
(Cialdini, 2007). Thus, both direct verbal communication with young people and modeling
(communication through action) can perhaps explain how socialization agents transmit
their views on climate change to others. In addition, this section focuses on studies
exploring reverse, reciprocal, and complex influences in young people’s communication
with parents, friends, and teachers.
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Unidirectional Influence
Traditionally socialization research adhered to a unidirectional transmission paradigm,
where parents and other authority figures influence their children’s attitudes and
behavior. A number of studies performed in different countries such as the United States,
Denmark, Belgium, Austria, and Germany, have confirmed that the immediate family,
foremost parents, matters when it comes to young people’s general environmental
attitudes and concerns as well as pro-environmental behavior (Allen et al., 2013; Grønhøj,
2007; Grønhøj & Thøgersen, 2009). In some cases the investigated pro-environmental
behaviors, such as energy use, are of direct relevance for climate change (Boudet, Ardoin,
Flora, Armel, Desai, & Robinson, 2014; Grønhøj & Thøgersen, 2009, 2012; Kleinschafer &
Morrison, 2014). In addition, some of these studies focused directly on communication with
parents about environmental issues, not only social norms or parents’ views about these
matters (Boudet et al., 2014; Meeusen, 2014). For instance, Meeusen (2014) found that both
fathers and mothers were important socialization agents when it comes to their children’s
environmental concern, and that communication about the environment mediated the
influence of parents’ own concern on their children’s concern.
When it comes to research that is specifically about socialization and climate change,
there are fewer studies. Stevenson and colleagues found in a study performed in the
United States that climate change concern among adolescents was predicted both by
frequency of discussion with, and perceived level of acceptance of global climate change
among, parents (Stevenson et al., 2016). Likewise, Ojala, in studies with adolescents in
Sweden, found that the more the young discussed climate change with their parents, the
less inclined they were to de-emphasize the seriousness of this problem (Ojala, 2013), and
that the more the young perceived their parents as being skeptical concerning the
seriousness of climate change, the more they were skeptical themselves (Ojala, 2015A). The
adolescents who were most inclined to discuss climate change a lot with their parents
(and peers) also used more constructive coping strategies concerning climate change,
such as problem-focused coping (for instance, searching for information) and meaning-
focused coping; strategies that in turn related positively to self-efficacy concerning this
problem (Ojala, 2013). In line with this, Mead et al. (2012) found that the more a group of
American youths discussed climate change in the family, the higher their risk perception
was, the more they searched for information about climate change, and the more
response efficacy they experienced. To summarize, both direct communication and social
norms related to the family seem to matter when it comes to how young people engage
with climate change.
In addition to family influence, youth researchers point out that during adolescence peer
influence becomes more and more important (Amnå, Ekström, Kerr, & Stattin, 2009;
Dostie-Goulet, 2009). In support of this, studies have found that communicating and
interacting with peers seem to influence young people’s relation to both climate change
(Öhman & Öhman, 2013; Ojala, 2013, 2015A; Senbel, Ngo, & Blair, 2014; Stevenson et al., 2016)
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and broader environmental issues (Boudet et al., 2014; Gotschi, Vogel, Lindenthal, &
Larcher, 2009). However, studies performed in Sweden and the United States indicate that
parents still seem to be the more important socialization agents for adolescents when it
comes to climate change (Ojala, 2013, 2015A; Stevenson et al., 2016). It should be noted that
most of the studies on communication with family and friends are cross-sectional in
design, the exception being Ojala’s study (2015A), which is longitudinal although in a quite
short time perspective (one year).
Besides being a way of communicating, often non-verbally, interest and values in relation
to climate change, social norms of what is “cool,” and what the proper ways of expressing
emotions are could also influence whether and how one communicates about this issue
(Geiger & Swim, 2016; Norgaard, 2011). Norgaard (2011) found in a Norwegian study that
adolescents in particular felt the pressure to always remain “cool” and not communicate
about this issue. In this regard, Ojala (2012B) found that Swedish children, adolescents,
and emerging adults who were worried about climate change did not seek social support
to any major extent, that is, they did not talk about their worries with their parents, for
instance. In addition, Yang et al. (2014) explored why undergraduate students in the
United States and China choose, or not, to share information about climate change with
others. Concerns about one’s reputation or social standing among peers seemed to drive
information sharing. When getting information about climate change is a socially popular
and responsible thing to do, young people are more willing to engage in such a behavior.
Finally, communication with teachers about climate change could perhaps also have an
effect on young people. In a Swedish quantitative study on adolescents, those who
perceived their teachers as communicating in a more solution-oriented and positive way
were more inclined to feel constructive hope, based on trust and positive reappraisal,
about climate change; a hope that was positively related to perceived efficacy and pro-
environmental behavior (Ojala, 2015B). If the adolescents perceived that their teachers
talked about societal problems in a gloom-and-doom way, they were more inclined to feel
hope based on denial; a kind of hope that was negatively related to efficacy and
engagement. In addition, Busch (2016) found that U.S. teachers framed climate change in
two main ways: they used a science discourse or a social discourse. The science framing
was more common, and the author argues that this could have a negative effect on young
people’s engagement concerning this issue. However, no effect study was conducted.
Reverse, Reciprocal, and Complex Influences
Recently, research on youth socialization has taken a new turn, highlighting the centrality
of communication at home, at school, among peers, and through the media in its totality
rather than as a sequence (McDevitt, 2006; McDevitt & Chaffee, 2002). This turn also
emphasizes mutual parent-child influences in socialization (Kuczynski & Parkin, 2007).
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However, very few studies have addressed reverse or reciprocal family influences when it
comes to environmental issues. One study showed that children can influence household
practices through discussions with parents about the environmental issues learnt in
school (Ballantyne, Fien, & Packer, 2001). Another study carried out by Easterling, Miller,
and Weinberger (1995) suggested that children’s environmental concerns can be a catalyst
for parents’ environmental learning and re-socialization. Grønhøj (2007) also found some
instances of reciprocal and reverse influence in everyday household practices like
electricity consumption, a behavior that is directly related to climate change.
Swedish research indicates that, to understand how young people communicate about
climate change with friends in all its complexity, on the one hand, researchers need to use
qualitative approaches where they observe these conversations in vivo and, on the other
hand, these studies need to be conducted in different contexts (Andersson & Öhman, 2016;
Öhman & Öhman, 2013). In a school context, these discussions were more consensus
oriented, which is not solely positive, although most arguments were climate friendly,
since in order to deal with a complex issue such as climate change it is valuable for
youths to learn how to deal with different, sometimes clashing, opinions (Öhman &
Öhman, 2013). However, in an online community context, the young people involved in the
conversation about climate change seemed to be freer to voice a broader dimension of
values and attitudes (Andersson & Öhman, 2016). According to the authors, the
conversation was complex and sophisticated, and they argue that the results therefore
have implications for formal climate change education. Educators need to ponder how to
promote pluralistic learning without ending up in unconstructive conflicts (see also Wals,
2010). However, the different results could, to a certain extent, be due to the fact that the
study in a school context included only youths going to a school with a focus on
sustainability and that most probably are quite similar in value-orientation.
In recent years, researchers have started to focus more on the intricate interaction
between different spheres of communication among young people. Östman (2014) showed
that the media influence young people’s behaviors foremost through communication with
parents and friends. Satchwell (2013) revealed a complex interaction between family and
school in influencing young people’s knowledge about climate change. Yanascavage (2012)
demonstrated that education about climate change in school had an impact on how young
people communicate about this issue in other settings. Communication in the classroom
offers a “seedbed,” but it is in interaction with friends and parents that values and norms
evolve about “the good citizen” (Hayward, Selboe, & Plew, 2015). In this regard, Collins
(2015) demonstrated a complex interaction between youths and their parents—including
contestations, negotiations, and compromises—when it comes to household sustainability.
What all these studies indicate is that, for communication efforts around climate change
to work, there is a need to understand the complex social contexts, interactions, and
practices that young people are part of.
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Participatory Approaches to Climate Change
Communication
This section emphasizes the importance of involving young people in active forms of
learning to enhance their knowledge about climate change and the value of including
them in mitigation efforts. The studies reviewed are focused on adaptation to future
climate change and the importance of including young people in participatory approaches
to communication.
Adapting to a Changing Climate
When it comes to adaption to future changes and potential catastrophes related to
climate change, young people have traditionally been seen as an especially vulnerable
group that needs to be protected. However, in recent years, this discourse has been
complemented with a view of young people as active agents who are important to include
in participatory approaches to prevent, prepare, and adjust to future extreme events
(Hart, Fisher, & Kimiagar, 2014; Haynes & Tanner, 2015; Tanner, 2010). It is argued that this
will better prepare them for the future. Their right to participate is also emphasized, and
not least, young people have unique knowledge and competences that could be invaluable
in attempts to adapt to future climate change. Sites for involving young people could be
schools, various organizations, and other community settings (Hart et al., 2014).
Some examples of how this participatory approach to communication can benefit
adjustment to climate change are enumerated here. Walker, Whittle, Medd, Burningham,
Moran-Ellis, and Tapsell, (2012) found that children’s narratives about floods can be
valuable to include in efforts to deal with potential future flooding. Haynes and Tanner
(2015) evaluated, in an action-research program, whether a “participatory video” where
different actors interacted in the process of filming, editing, and finally broadcasting the
film could be a method to include youths in the Philippines in climate change adaptation
and disaster reduction. In this way, messages can be sent without using writing and
reading. The program led to the youths involved receiving more knowledge, feeling more
empowered, and also giving voice to slightly different aspects than adults, such as the
social causes of disasters. The researchers also emphasized that the inclusion of the
young benefitted the whole community in a number of ways. In this regard, Tanner (2010),
based in studies in El Salvador and the Philippines, argued that it is important to
understand that young people are risk communicators in themselves, influencing others,
and that there is a need for more studies to understand the complex communication
processes taking place in and among households, communities, and families.
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Conclusion
This section presents some conclusions. First, studies of young people are still relatively
rare in the field of climate change communication in a narrow sense. Thus, there is a
need for more studies with this age group. To take one concrete example: Many argue
that art-based approaches are an especially fruitful way to communicate climate change
to young people; however, there are hardly any studies that rigorously evaluate the
learning processes involved in these approaches, and there is even less research that
quantitatively measures the outcome of these approaches. Perhaps this has to do with the
fact that those who conduct these art-based interventions are mainly researchers from
the humanities who are not used to dealing with quantitative studies. Thus,
multidisciplinary collaboration is needed in this field.
Second, when designing communication programs to reach young people, it seems easier
to increase their knowledge about climate change than to reach this group at a deeper
level and to make them more engaged around this issue and more confident about their
ability to contribute. This is a challenge that can perhaps be solved by involving young
people more in participatory approaches when it comes to mitigation efforts, not only
regarding adaptation (Ballantyne et al., 2016; see also Devine-Wright et al., 2004).
Third, the role that the mass media play in young people’s climate change awareness and
engagement differs across media channels and across different audiences. For example,
studies provide empirical evidence that media messages are processed differently by
skeptical and non-skeptical youth (Corner et al., 2012). However, more research is needed
to identify other relevant individual differences that can help explain which groups of
young people are more susceptible to media influence and which individuals remain out
of the reach of the media. In addition, although studies show the positive influence of
online spaces on young people’s motivation and engagement (e.g., Andersson & Öhman,
2016), it is also important to gain a greater understanding of potential negative
consequences (Sunstein, 2007).
Fourth, young people seem not to talk and communicate much about climate change,
even though they in fact care and are worried (Leombruni, 2015; Norgaard, 2011; Ojala,
2012B). However, when they do talk with friends and family, it can be something positive
for engagement (Mead et al., 2012; Ojala, 2013; Stevenson et al., 2016). Thus, there is a need
to promote communication across different groups in everyday life around this issue.
Here, the new media and communication online could play constructive roles, especially
if they are integrated into a school context, as Andersson and Öhman (2016) have
suggested.
Another theme involves thoughts about how to communicate about this issue without
scaring young people. Studies reveal a rather mixed pattern when it comes to the
constructive or unconstructive role of negative emotions evoked by communicating about
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this issue. Another way to approach this issue is to acknowledge that young people are
not passive victims of negative emotions; they instead actively cope with these emotions
in different ways, and these coping strategies ought to be taken into account in
communication efforts (see Ojala, 2012B).
An additional aspect that is vital to consider is that young people do not make meaning
regarding this issue only as individuals but also as parts of different groups, such as peer
groups and family. Although friends become more important in adolescence, parents still
seem to be very important socialization agents. Grønhøj and Thøgersen (2012) argue that
parents should be made more aware of their role in promoting environmental awareness
in their children. Perhaps the individual should not be the main focus in communication
efforts but rather the whole household (see Collins, 2015) and other social networks that
young people belong to.
Finally, the review indicates that young people have a rather bleak and distant vision of
the global future. A “hot” field in social science in general is anticipation as a driving
force for societies and individuals (Poli, 2010; Seligman, Railton, Baumeister, & Sripada,
2013). Researchers have also started to perceive future dimensions as important when it
comes to climate change engagement (Milfont & Demarque, 2015). Concerning to
communicate about future dimensions and climate change, it could be valuable to learn
from an educational researcher such as David Hicks (2014), who has long argued for the
need to discuss probable, preferable, and possible global futures in a critical, realistic,
but also hopeful way with young people (see also Climate Outreach & Information
Network, 2014).
Acknowledgement
The writing of the article has been partly supported by The Swedish Research Council
Formas, under Grant 2010-1152 to the first author.
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Notes:
(1.) Yet, there also exist studies about young people and parents showing that parents
have a higher degree of broad environmental concern (Grønhøj & Thøgersen, 2009;
Leppanen, Haahle, Lensu, & Kuitunen, 2012)
Maria Ojala
Uppsala Universitet
Yuliya Lakew
Örebro University
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... 11 Cette définition implique qu'il n'est pas nécessaire de subir directement les effets des changements climatiques pour évaluer la situation planétaire globale comme stressante ou menaçante. L'information -émanant des médias, des échanges interpersonnels ou des milieux éducatifs -filtrée par nos pensées et visions du monde, suffit pour alimenter la détresse et l'anxiété (Nabi et Wirth, 2008 ;Ojala et Lakew, 2017 ;Reser et Swim, 2011 ;Smith et Joffe, 2013). À la lumière de ce constat, une réflexion approfondie apparaît nécessaire à l'égard du rôle des systèmes médiatiques et éducatifs dans la prévalence du phénomène d'écoanxiété -et, plus précisément, sur les types de narratifs utilisés. ...
... De manière générale, à tous âges, une stratégie porteuse consiste à intégrer une diversité appropriée de représentations de l'environnement dans l'action éducative, afin d'éviter de ne s'en tenir qu'à « l'environnement-problème » (Sauvé, 2002) du point de vue affectif. Parler de ses émotions avec d'autres personnes peut également créer un « sens partagé » à l'égard des problématiques socioécologiques (Ojala et Lakew, 2017). Cela dit, étant donné le caractère délicat de ce type d'interventions, Pihkala (2020b) invite les organisations et les pairs à soutenir adéquatement les enseignant.e.s tout au long du processus. ...
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Le vocable « écoanxiété » a récemment fait son entrée dans le discours médiatique, celui des mouvements sociaux et au sein des milieux éducatifs. Si le milieu de la recherche n'est pas en reste, trop peu d'écrits, particulièrement en français, se sont penchés sur le phénomène que le terme « écoanxiété » tente de saisir et sa prise en compte en éducation. En vue de contribuer à combler cet écart, cet article mobilise des perspectives ancrées en psychologie et en sociologie critique, fondées sur une recension d’écrits et les résultats d’une recherche empirique exploratoire. Il a pour objectifs 1) de clarifier les contours de cette notion, 2) d’exposer certaines stratégies de régulation de l’écoanxiété et les enjeux qui y sont associés, et 3) de fournir des pistes de réflexion pour l’intervention en éducation relative à l’environnement (ERE).
... Other forms of inaccuracy, such as scientific inaccuracy, need to be addressed as well. Providing accurate information and debunking misinformation regarding climate change is on scholars agendas (Ojala & Lakew, 2017;van der Linden et al., 2017) as existing misinformation minimizes scientific evidence of the climate crisis (Harvey et al., 2017). Finally, the availability of children's books about the climate suggests that there is a desire to develop children's understanding about climate science and action, which highlights the importance of investigating various forms of children's media on the topic, including books. ...
... The current study differs in that it examines the patterns throughout a set of picturebooks. The lack of attention to climate change picturebooks is surprising due to the global risk that climate change poses to human health (Costello et al., 2009), the calls to motivate children to act on this issue (Gibbons, 2014;Lee et al., 2020;Ojala & Lakew, 2017), the persistent misconceptions about the causes and solutions reported by children (Boyes & Stanisstreet, 1993;Lee et al., 2020), and the lack of understanding of environmental risk perceptions among young students (Stevenson et al., 2014). This study is the first to date to conduct a thematic analysis of climate change picturebooks. ...
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Children are crucial to the future of climate change leadership, and even as youth, they have the ability to make a difference in achieving climate equity. Explorations of children’s climate change literature is limited, despite the push from experts to involve children in climate change education and action. A thematic analysis of picturebooks books on the topic was conducted. Data were identified from online websites and accessibility was confirmed via academic and internet search engines. Findings suggest that children’s books about climate change lack informational material and overlook the human consequences of the climate crisis. Implications for environmental health communication are discussed.
... Climate change and its impact on Earth is a primary issue of concern for young people today (Ojala & Bengtsson, 2019;Ojala & Lakew, 2017;Strife, 2012). This is evident in youth actions such as school strikes and protest marches, known as Fridays for Future (Bouilanne et al., 2020;Thackeray et al., 2020), which have been prominently reported by media worldwide (Marris, 2019;Warren, 2019). ...
... Sellmann and Bogner [48] pointed out that connectedness to nature only increased directly after a one-day intervention in a botanical garden, but not in a long-term perspective. In line with this argument, [50] suggested that contact with nature can act as a way to communicate the urgency of CC to young people. Wang et al. [51] suggested that individuals with a higher degree of connectedness to nature are more concerned about the natural environment, more aware of the dangers of CC, and believe more strongly that CC is a reality. ...
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Educational gardens are powerful outdoor learning environments to address the subject of climate change and foster climate action. Using an online questionnaire, this study examines the influence of the main sociodemographic and academic factors, and the role of connectedness to nature, on the perception of educational gardens as contexts of climate change education (CCE) among Spanish preservice teachers (PSTs). The sample consisted of 889 PSTs enrolled in 9 university campuses of Spain. The statistical analyses performed evidenced that women are more likely to use educational gardens than men and that there is a progressive decrease in the positive perception of PSTs about the usefulness of gardens for CCE as the educational level at which they are being trained increases. Statistics also revealed that the variable connectedness to nature and the rating of the importance of educational gardens in CCE are not significantly related. Nevertheless, the Mann–Whitney U test indicated that PSTs who scored higher on connection to nature wished to broaden their knowledge of sustainable agriculture and, thus, connectedness to nature could be considered a predictor of environmental attitudes, each influencing the other. Based on these findings, recommendations for PSTs’ training in the CCE context are provided.
... La participation des citoyens et la démocratie directe sont les pierres angulaires de la construction de communautés durables (POWELL, 2012). C'est pourquoi l'implication des jeunes citoyens est cruciale car ils seront à la fois les futurs dirigeants de la société et les premières victimes du réchauffement climatique (OJALA et LAKEW, 2017). Le mouvement de protestation pour le changement climatique initié par Greta Thunberg, une écolière suédoise, en 2018, a pris de l'ampleur dans le monde. ...
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Teaching the Global Dimension specifically responds to concerns such as inequality, justice, environment and conflict in chapters written by leading educationalists in the field. It explores both the theory and practice of 'global education' today and provides: A framework for understanding global issues. A model identifying the key elements of good practice. Insight into young people's concerns for the world and the future tried and tested strategies for handling controversial global issues more confidently in the classroom key concepts for planning appropriate learning experiences a range of case studies which demonstrate the different ways in which a global dimension can be developed. Inspiring, thought-provoking and highly practical, this book shows how teachers at any stage in their career can effectively and successfully bring a global dimension to the taught curriculum. © 2007 Selection and editorial matter, David Hicks and Cathie Holden. All rights reserved.
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An analysis of why people with knowledge about climate change often fail to translate that knowledge into action. © 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.