ArticlePDF Available

A review on chemistry and pharmacology of Ajwa date fruit and pit


Abstract and Figures

Background Phoenix dactylifera is an instinctive plant, cultivated worldwide especially in Arab regions being an edible nutritious fruit. For this plant, Ajwa date fruit variety is distinguished among all varieties due to its richness of sugar, dietary fiber, essential mineral and vitamin contents. The unique phytochemical profile of Ajwa dates have potential to cure different diseases. Scope and Approach This manuscript provides an overview on pharmacological and nutritional aspects exclusively for Ajwa dates. The excellent phytochemicals profile placed Ajwa dates at top among other date varieties. Recently, new in vitro and in vivo studies prove the effectiveness of Ajwa dates. However, quantitative studies are need to understand the protective actions of Ajwa dates. Key Findings and Conclusions Ajwa fruit pits are also enriched with dietary fibers, lipids, minerals, and proteins. Ajwa dates are consumed not only for dietary purposes but also used for their medicinal effects against different ailments. Phytochemical studies have showed that Ajwa flesh and pits are enriched with certain phenolic and flavonoids, which have multiple effects on human health due to their strong antioxidant properties. Preclinical studies revealed that Ajwa dates have strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, hepato-protective, nephroprotective and anti-cancer activities.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A review on chemistry and pharmacology of Ajwa date fruit and pit
Sumaira Khalid
, Nauman Khalid
, Rao Sanaullah Khan
, Haroon Ahmed
Asif Ahmad
Institute of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, 3216, Australia
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development &Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
Department of Food Technology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46300, Pakistan
article info
Article history:
Received 6 October 2016
Received in revised form
12 December 2016
Accepted 21 February 2017
Available online 10 March 2017
Background: Phoenix dactylifera is an instinctive plant, cultivated worldwide especially in Arab regions
being an edible nutritious fruit. For this plant, Ajwa date fruit variety is distinguished among all varieties
due to its richness of sugar, dietary ber, essential mineral and vitamin contents. The unique phyto-
chemical prole of Ajwa dates have potential to cure different diseases.
Scope and Approach: This manuscript provides an overview on pharmacological and nutritional aspects
exclusively for Ajwa dates. The excellent phytochemicals prole placed Ajwa dates at top among other
date varieties. Recently, new in vitro and in vivo studies prove the effectiveness of Ajwa dates. However,
quantitative studies are need to understand the protective actions of Ajwa dates.
Key Findings and Conclusions: Ajwa fruit pits are also enriched with dietary bers, lipids, minerals, and
proteins. Ajwa dates are consumed not only for dietary purposes but also used for their medicinal effects
against different ailments. Phytochemical studies have showed that Ajwa esh and pits are enriched
with certain phenolic and avonoids, which have multiple effects on human health due to their strong
antioxidant properties. Preclinical studies revealed that Ajwa dates have strong antioxidant, anti-
inammatory, anti-mutagenic, hepato-protective, nephroprotective and anti-cancer activities.
©2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Traditionally fruits constitute a major part of human diet from
ancient time. Certain fruits acquire a special attention in daily
routine of certain population owing to their religious practices.
Fruits and vegetables have been recommended strongly by WHO
and other nutritional societies around the world for improving
general health and wellness of masses. In the wake of health and
wellness awareness from last two decades a signicant progress
has been made on the studies of bioactive compounds in plants
foods to nd their direct effects on human health and wellbeing
(Vayalil, 2012). In this regard date fruit is well-regarded for its
nutraceutical properties in Middle East and Africa. However, its
signicance in Western countries has not been explored yet owing
different culture and eating habits. Scientic community now has
realized its nutritional value in diet and has started to explore more
avenues for development in this category of fruits.
Date palm commonly known as Phoenix dactylifera is one of the
oldest (5500e3000 BCE) cultivated variety of date palm trees
having nutritional, environmental, economic and ornamental,
benets (Barreveld, 1993). Cultivation of date palm is thought to be
merged with cultural, environmental, religious and social devel-
opment of people living in hot and arid areas especially in Middle
East and Africa (Terral et al., 2012). Therefore, till now date palm is a
major cultivating crop of above described areas and these regions
are leading producers and exporters of date products worldwide
(Assirey, 2015). Date palm is monocotyledon tree that can grow to
an altitude of 1500 m in well-drained soils. Currently, date palm
tree is being cultivated mainly in areas of Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia,
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Pakistan, Morocco, Sudan and Oman (FAO,
2003). One of the major characteristics of date fruit is to be
*Corresponding author. Department for Management of Science and Technology
Development &Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh
City, Viet Nam.
E-mail address: (A. Ahmad).
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Trends in Food Science &Technology
journal homepage:
0924-2244/©2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e69
consumed as staple dietary food in different regions of the world
such as Arabian, Asian and some African countries (Barreveld,
1993). Another distinguishing characteristic of date fruit is that it
can be consumed at three different maturity stages such as Khalal,
Rutab and Tamar. However, newly ripened fresh dates are preferred
in many date producing countries. Dates are also commercially
available in dehydrated form, but dehydrated dates are prepared by
drying processing techniques to increase their shelf life but it re-
duces the nutritional value of these dates (Abdul-Hamid, Abas,
Ismail, Shaari, &Lajis, 2015). Taste, nutritional and phytochemical
properties of the dates vary depending upon its maturity stage and
the variety of dates. There are approximately 5000 date varieties
that are grown in different regions of the world. The most common
ones are Aseel, Zahidi, Majdool, Mabrook, Dhakki, Halawi, Lasht,
Deggla and Bamy (Eid, Al-Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-Concha, &
Spencer, J. P., 2013; Eid, Al-Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-Concha, &
Spencer, J. P.E., 2013).
Ajwa date fruits (Fig. 1) are soft and dry and this date fruit is
cultivated in the Al Madinah region of western Saudi Arabia. The
Ajwa date variety has great medicinal properties. The old testa-
ments, Hadithand Islamic literature pointed the benecial
properties of this date variety and it is believed that eating this date
variety will cure many chronic diseases and ailments. The Ajwa
date the most popular and expensive fruit that belongs only to the
holy city of Al Madinah Al Munawara and its adjoining areas in
Saudi Arabia (Zhang, Adosari, Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., Nair, &Nair,
2013; Zhang, Aldosari, Vidyasagar, P. S., Nair, &Nair, 2013). Ajwa
dates contain ample amount of dietary ber and have potential to
correct the digestion problems. Ajwa date works as natural
roughage to the body and stimulate the bowl movement and pro-
vide effective relief from constipation (Al-Shahib &Marshall, 2003).
Similarly, these dates contain high amounts of potassium and plays
an effective role in muscle contraction. The Ajwa fruit shape is
ovoid elongated and medium in size. The color is dark red in the
rutab stage and turns to dark brown in the tamer stage with
wrinkles (Fig. 1). The weights of Ajwa esh and seed increase
during the rutab stage and then decrease during the tamer stage
(Gasim, 1994). Ajwa date has a sugar content of 77% (0.5% sucrose,
34.5% glucose and 25.6% fructose) and high proportion of minerals
(3%) compared to other varieties of dates (1.5e2.7%), especially
calcium (1.22 g/100 g dry matter) (Gasim, 1994).
Ajwa dates are effective for lactating women, since they assist in
enriching breast milk with many effective nutrients. Furthermore,
several studies have shown that kids of mothers who eat Ajwa
dates regularly are less susceptible to diseases and infections (Al-
Farsi &Lee, 2008). The other huge advantage of consuming Ajwa
dates is that they comprise of high iron content. Iron is vital in red
blood cell production and they may also assist to treat and prevent
anemia (N. S. Hasan et al., 2010). Ajwa dates due to its high nutri-
tional and health benet properties can be considered as a potential
bioactive ingredient for developing health oriented food products
(Al-Farsi &Lee, 2008). Therefore, this review is focused on sum-
marizing the current research studies on nutritional importance,
phytochemical composition and health benets of Ajwa dates.
2. Nutritional signicance of Ajwa date fruit parts
It was suggested in the second American Institute for Cancer
Research (AICR) and World Cancer Research Fund International
(WCRF) expert committee report that people should overcome
their nutritional requirements through routine diet rather than
using dietary supplements for preventing cancer and other chronic
diseases (Stewart &Wild, 2015). Ajwa date fruit being a staple food
has provided nutrition to millions of people worldwide since
ancient times till now. Therefore, it is important to characterize the
nutritional prole of Ajwa dates in order to enhance its consump-
tion for preventing the onset of various diet related diseases. The
nutritional composition of Ajwa date esh and pit has been re-
ported by various researchers (Assirey, 2015; Hamad et al., 2015). It
was found that Ajwa esh contains 80% reducing sugars (Assirey,
2015; Khalid, Ahmad, Masud, Asad, &Sandhu, 2016) along with
other amino acids (Assirey, 2015), proteins and fats. While, Ajwa
date pits have higher percentage of proteins, crude fat and crude
ber in comparison to Ajwa esh (Khalid et al., 2016). Recently,
Khalid, et al. (2016) studied the proximate composition of Ajwa
date esh and pits (Table 1) and pointed richness of Ajwa esh in
moisture, ash, glucose, fructose, galactose and maltose. While, the
Ajwa pits are enriched with crude fat and ber and protein (Khalid
et al., 2016). Moreover, their study showed a positive correlation
(0.90 and 0.94) between crude ber and fat with crude protein in
Ajwa pits. Ajwa dates are also enriched with variety of minerals
especially potassium together with zinc and calcium (Assirey, 2015;
Gasim, 1994; Khalid et al., 2016). In this section, we briey highlight
the nutrient composition of Ajwa dates.
2.1. Sugars
Ajwa date esh is a high-energy food due to rich sugar contents
that varies between 33.2 and 74.2%. Glucose and fructose (Table 2)
are the major reducing sugars, while sucrose as non-reducing share
the minor percentage in composition. The Ajwa pits contain low
amount of sugars varying between 7.2 and 7.6% (Assirey, 2015;
Khalid et al., 2016; C.-R.; Zhang, Aldosari, Vidyasagar, Shukla, &
Nair, 2015). The detail sugar contents of Ajwa esh and pit is pre-
sented in Table 1. The bulk of the soluble compounds in Ajwa date
fruit comprises of sugars both in aqueous and organic extracts.
Recently, proton and carbon NMR studies showed different
monosaccharides as mixture of
D- and
-glucopyranose, and
as well as mixtures of
-fructopyranose and
These different monosaccharides were identied both in aqueous
Fig. 1. Ajwa date fruit together with different ripening stages. The picture is obtained
with permission from Eid, Al-Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-Concha, &Spencer, J. P. (2013);
Eid, Al-Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-Concha, &Spencer, J. P.E. (2013), Copyright by ACS
2013 America Chemical Society.
Table 1
Carbohydrate found in Ajwa date esh and pits. The values are reported as %age dry
Ajwa date fruit Sugars Assirey, 2015 Khalid et al., 2016 Gasim, 1994
Flesh Glucose 51.3 54.5 51.2
Fructose 48.5 52.0 48.7
Maltose e22.5 e
Galactose e12.2 e
Sucrose 3.2 e3.1
Pits Glucose e20.1 e
Fructose e16.1 e
Maltose e6.1 e
Galactose e3.4 e
Sucrose e2.8
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e69 61
and methanolic extracts (Zhang et al., 2015). The reducing sugars
tend to increase in Ajwa date with different ripening stages. The %
age reducing sugars increased from 41.2 to 81.1 and sucrose content
increased from 1.3 to 3.1 during shift from Kimri to Tamre stage
(Gasim, 1994). In a recent study by Hamad et al. (2015) they noticed
high sucrose content of 25.6% that deviated the results from pre-
vious studies.
2.2. Amino acids
The amino acids analysis (Table 2a) Ajwa esh showed a higher
percentage of essential amino acids (Assirey, 2015; Hamad et al.,
2015). Among the variations, the major essential amino acids re-
ported were proline (86 mg/100 g), histidine (26 mg/100 g), leucine
(57 mg/100 g), glycine (83 mg/100 g), aspartic acid (186 mg/100 g),
glutathione (205 mg/100 g) and lysine (73 mg/100 g). Recently, Ali,
Alhaj, Al-Khalifa, and Brückner (2014) investigated the proteino-
genic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Ajwa dates using ion-
exchange chromatography and found ample amount of both pro-
teinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Ajwa date fruit.
The Ajwa date contains large of non-proteinogenic amino acids like
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-
carboxylic acid,
-amino-n-butyric acid, (2S,4R)-4-
-pipecolic acid and 2-aminoethanol. Traces of 5-
-alanine, (S)-
-aminoisobutyric acid
and L-allo-isoleucine was also presented in Ajwa dates (Ali et al.,
2014). These non-proteinogenic amino acids bind with the anti-
bodies and produce T lymphocytes, detoxify harmful chemicals in
liver and results in reduction of creatinine in the human body.
However, no literature was available on amino acid composition of
Ajwa date pits.
2.3. Minerals and vitamins
Dietary minerals are essential chemicals that are needed by the
human body for maintaining skeleton structure, cellular func-
tioning and biochemical reactions. Therefore, a certain amount of
these minerals is essential for optimum growth and maintenance of
human body. In this regards Ajwa date fruit (both esh and pits) can
be considered as the richest source of dietary minerals (Table 2b)
among all other date varieties (Assirey, 2015; Khalid et al., 2016). It
has been reported that variation among Ajwa date parts may come
as a result of variation in genetic makeup, soil mineral contents and
fertilizers effect. The date esh was found to be enriched in man-
ganese (0.4 mg/100 g), magnesium (1.5 mg/100 g), sodium (7.5 mg/
100 g) and potassium (4.8 mg/100 g). Whereas, Ajwa pits have
maximum concentrations of zinc (1.9 mg/100 g), potassium
(4.7 mg/100 g), phosphorous (2.7 mg/100 g) and calcium (2.3 mg/
100 g). The maturity stages effect the composition of minerals in
Ajwa date, mostly from Kimri to the Tamre stage (Gasim, 1994). The
Table 2
Amino acids and mineral composition of Ajwa dates. (a) Amino acid composition of Ajwa date esh from different studies. Ajwa date esh is rich in both essential and
non-essential amino acids. (b) Mineral contents of Ajwa date fruit and pit. The values are reported in %age dry matter.
Amino acids Assirey, 2015 (mg/100 g) DW
Hamad et al., 2015
mol/g) FW
Ali et al., 2014
(mg/g) DM
Alanine 82 9.2 0.75e1.16
Arginine 93 1.42 0.45e1.23
Asparagine 186 0.26 1.29e2.80
Cysteine e0.001 0.89e1.38
Glutamate 205 0.8 1.76e3.79
Glycine 83 65 1.04e1.98
Histidine 26 0.99 0.36e0.54
Isoleucine 44 0.15 0.55e0.80
Leucine 57 0.02 0.89e1.32
Lysine 73 7.3 0.75e1.14
Methionine 27 0.021 0.03e0.23
Phenylalanine 45 0.99 0.62e0.87
Proline 86 16 1.04e1.98
Serine 59 0.19 0.48e0.74
Threonine 53 e0.59e0.81
Tryptophan 44 0.027 e
Tyrosine e0.80 0.22e0.51
Valine 65 3.13 0.66e0.95
Ajwa Date Minerals Khalid et al., 2016
(mg/100 g)
Assirey, 2015
(mg/100 g)
Hamad et al., 2015
(mg/100 g)
Flesh Manganese 0.36e0.5 e0.31
Magnesium 1.5 e35.94
Sodium 7.5e8.1 7.5 7.01
Potassium 6.45 476.3 290.02
Zinc 0.46e0.52 e1.20
Phosphorus 1.9e2.3 27.0 53.82
Calcium 2.0 187.0 0.339
Iron 0.15e0.5 e0.15
Cadmium 0.001e0.005 e0.001
Copper 0.37e0.5 e0.37
Pits Zinc 1.91 e
Potassium 4.60 e
Phosphorus ee
Calcium 2.0 e
DM ¼Dry matter, FW ¼Fresh weight.
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e6962
nitrogen content decreases from 1.23% to 0.82%, phosphorus
(0.21e0.09%), potassium (1.30e0.65%), calcium (0.32e0.18%),
magnesium (0.27e0.20%), similar is the trend with other trace of
iron copper and zinc during shifting from Kimri to the Tamre stage.
However, the concentration of these minerals are high in compar-
ison to other cultivars like Beid, Burni, Rabeia and Safawi (Gasim,
Vitamins, such as
-carotene (provitamin A),
-ascorbic acid
(vitamin C), thiamine (vitamin B
), riboavin (vitamin B
) and
nicotinic acid (niacin) are known to be present in dates (M. A. Al-
Farsi &Lee, 2008; Al-Shahib &Marshall, 2003). Ajwa dates
contain high contents of provitamin A and vitamin C (Sawaya, Sa,
Black, Mashadi, &Al Muhammad, 1983).
2.4. Dietary ber
Dietary bers play an important role in human health. Low
amount of dietary ber can cause severe health problems such as
constipation, cancer and lowers cholesterol contents in human
body. Based on published reports Ajwa date esh and pits are
enriched source of total dietary ber (TDF), soluble dietary ber
(SDF) and insoluble dietary ber (IDF) (Assirey, 2015; Khalid et al.,
2016). Ajwa date esh has TDF contents ranging from 6.2 to 8.9%
while Ajwa pits have TDF contents in the range between 26.4 and
33.9%. Similarly, Ajwa esh has SDF varying from 6.2 to 13.5% while
pits have a range between 13.5 and 22.5%. In the same context Ajwa
esh has IDF varying from 3.2 to 4.6% whereas Ajwa pits have
variation between 11.2 and 12.8% (Khalid et al., 2016). The roasted
Ajwa date pit have SDF of 7.0%, IDF 72.1% and TDF of 79.2%, these
values are relative high in comparison to Ajwa date esh (Ahmed,
Arshad, Saeed, Ahmed, &Chatha, 2016).
2.5. Lipids
The Ajwa date lipids are regarded as oleic-linoleic lipids. The
total lipid yield is about 8.9% and dominating triacylglycerol (TAG)
species include dilinoleoyl-1-oleoylsn-glycerol (OLL) and 1,2-
dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol (OOL) (Galeb et al., 2012). Ajwa
date has good lipid quality indices with acid value of 1.5 mg KOH/g,
iodine value of 59.9 g I
/100 g. The free fatty acid %age of Ajwa date
is about 3.1% (Galeb et al., 2012). The total saturated fatty acid
(SFAs) constitutes about 21.2% while the total unsaturated fatty acid
constitutes 75.26% of Ajwa date seed. Palmitic acid (10.3%), myristic
acid (5.6%), lauric acid (3.2%) and steric acid (2.1%) are the dominant
SFAs in Ajwa date seeds. USFAs comprises oleic acid (66.1%), linoleic
acid (8.3%) and linoleic acid (0.86%) (Galeb et al., 2012). The Ajwa
seed oil composition is of superior quality in comparison to other
date varieties like Barni and can be used as vehicle for transversal
enhancer in pharmaceutical industry (Galeb et al., 2012).
3. Phytochemicals in Ajwa date fruit
Phytochemicals having strong antioxidant activities are inter-
cellular plant metabolites which have potential health benets
such as prevention of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular maladies
(M. Al-Farsi &Lee, 2008). Ajwa date fruit is enriched with poly-
phenols, avonoids including rutin, catechins, iso-avonoids, ste-
rols, lignans which are important for lowering cholesterol level and
thus reducing cardiovascular related illnesses (Hamad et al., 2015;
Samad, Hashim, Simarani, &Yaacob, 2016). The quantities of
these phenolic and antioxidant compounds may vary in different
Ajwa fruit parts depending on genetic makeup, experimental
conditions for analysis and extent of hydration (Al-Laith, 2009; Al-
Turki, Shahba, &Stushnoff, 2010; Amor
os et al., 2009). Similarly,
extraction procedure, status of fruit (Fresh or dried) and the solvent
used for extraction can affect the quality and quantity of phyto-
chemicals in dates (Al-Farsi, Alasalvar, Morris, Baron, &Shahidi,
2005). This section reviews the phytochemical contents of Ajwa
3.1. Phenolic compounds
The phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites, catego-
rized by the presence of monophenolic or polyphenolic aromatic
carbon rings with hydroxyl group attached to functional carbon.
However, their nature, formulation and distribution in date palm
fruit is dependent on date palm variety, growing conditions and
extraction procedures (Al-Laith, 2009; Al-Turki et al., 2010; Amor
et al., 2009). The total phenolic content of Ajwa fruit varied be-
tween 245 and 455 mg/100 g. However, the extraction solvent plays
a signicant role. The contents are always higher in aqueous extract
in comparison to alcoholic extracts (Hamad et al., 2015; Saleh,
Tawk, &Abu-Tarboush, 2011). The higher phenolic contents in
aqueous solution might be due to polarity of aqueous solution and
further depends on method of extraction. The phenolic composi-
tion of Ajwa dates include rutin (0.65e0.85 mg/100 g), catechin
(0.73 mg/100 g) and caffeic acid (0.57e1.84 mg/100) (Ahmed et al.,
2016; Hamad et al., 2015; Saleh et al., 2011). The phenolic content of
Ajwa date(10 mg/100 g-290 mg/100 g) also varied according to the
ripening stage. The Ajwa date contain higher polyphenol content at
kimri stage (290 mg/100 g) followed by khalal (150 mg/100 g),
rutab (20 mg/100 g) and tamr (10 mg/100 g) stage (Eid, Al-Awadi,
Vauzour, Oruna-Concha, &Spencer, J. P., 2013; Eid, Al-Awadi,
Vauzour, Oruna-Concha, &Spencer, J. P.E., 2013).
Hamad, et al. (2015) found p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and
ferulic acid derivatives were the most dominant phenolic com-
pounds in Ajwa dates. Similarly, Eid, Al-Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-
Concha, &Spencer, J. P. (2013); Eid, Al-Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-
Concha, &Spencer, J. P.E. (2013) found protocatechuic acid,
hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, isovanillic acid,
chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, caffeic acid, hydrox-
ycinnamic acid and chlorogenic acid as the main phenolic com-
pounds and acid with different ripening stages of Ajwa date.
Ahmed et al. (2016) pointed gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic
acid, syringic acid, p-coumeric acid, m-coumeric acid and ferulic
acid as dominant phenols and acids in roasted Ajwa pits. Table 3a
shows composition of different phenolic compounds present in
Ajwa date.
3.2. Flavonoids and minor components
Polyphenolic avonoids are the most abundant phenolic com-
pounds found in Ajwa dates with pervasive dispersal. These poly-
phenolic compounds are mainly present within fruit skins in high
concentrations with immense health benets such as antioxidant
and free radical scavenging activities. These are effective in mini-
mizing chronic and cardiovascular diseases with positive effect
against proliferation of damaged cells (Eid et al., 2014). These a-
vonoids can be classied in different sub-classes such as avones,
avonols, iso-avones and anthocyanins. Ajwa date fruit is
enriched with active avonoids including quercetin, isoquercetin,
luteolin, apgenin, and rutin (Hamad et al., 2015; Ragab, Elkablawy,
Sheik, &Baraka, 2013). Hamad et al. (2015) determined total
avonoid content of Ajwa date fruit around 2.79 mg/100 g. The
detailed avonoid composition of Ajwa date is presented in
Table 3b. The Ajwa date pit contains quercetin (1.35 mg/100 g) as
the dominant avonoid (Ahmed et al., 2016). The most common
avonoids found in plantae kingdom are avonols. Ajwa date esh
and pits are enriched with avonols which occur commonly as O-
glycosides. However, concentrations of these compounds
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e69 63
Table 3
Phenolic and avonoids composition of Ajwa dates. (a) Phenolic composition of Ajwa date fruit and pit from different literature. (b) Flavonoids composition of Ajwa date fruit
from different literature.
Phenolic acid Structure Quantity
(mg/100 g DW)
Caffeic acid 0.026e0.050 Hamad et al. (2015)
Saleh et al. (2011)
Ragab et al. (2013)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
Ferullic acid 2.52e3.20 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
Protocatechuic acid 1.27e2.20 Hamad et al. (2015)
Saleh et al. (2011)
Catechin 0.50e0.80 Hamad et al. (2015)
Saleh et al. (2011)
Ragab et al. (2013)
Gallic acid 13.90e14.10 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
p-coumanic acid 3.08e3.50 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
Chlorogenic acid 0.18e0.20 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
Resorcinol acid 0.03e0.05 Hamad et al. (2015)
Total phenols 22.10e455.80 Hamad et al. (2015)
Saleh et al. (2011)
Flavonoids Structure Quantity (mg/100 g DW) References
Quercetin 1.21 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
Luteolin 0.04 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e6964
extensively varied between esh and pits of Ajwa fruit (Ahmed
et al., 2016; Hamad et al., 2015). Recently, chrysoeriol-7-O-(2,6-
dirhamnosyl)-glucoside (Fig. 2a) have been identied in Ajwa
date fruit (Zhang, Adosari, Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., 2013; Zhang,
Aldosari, Vidyasagar, P. S., 2013). Eid, Al-Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-
Concha, &Spencer, J. P. (2013); Eid, Al-Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-
Concha, &Spencer, J. P.E. (2013) studied the avonoid composi-
tion of Ajwa dates at different ripening stages and found signicant
quantities of quercetin, myricetin, naringenin, apigenin, luteolin
and kaempferol using LC-MS/MS techniques.
The other minor components in Ajwa date fruit include tri-
terpenoids like lupeol and lup-20(29)-en-3-one (Fig. 2b and c) and
steroids like
-glucoside and
-O-palmitate (Fig. 2def) and phthalates
like bis(2-ethylheptyl) phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate
(Fig. 2g and h) (Zhang, Adosari, Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., 2013; Zhang,
Aldosari, Vidyasagar, P. S., 2013). These bioactive compounds of
Ajwa date contribute towards anti-inammatory and antioxidant
properties. The Ajwa date also contain signicant amount of
anthocyanidins and are present mostly in kimri stage (Eid, Al-
Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-Concha, &Spencer, J. P., 2013; Eid, Al-
Awadi, Vauzour, Oruna-Concha, &Spencer, J. P.E., 2013). The Ajwa
date contain few important organic acids like succinic acid, oxalic
acid, malic acid, citric acid, isobutyric acid and formic acid. These
acids further improves the functionality of Ajwa dates (Hamad
et al., 2015).
4. Biological and pharmacological activities of Ajwa date
The efcacy of drugs usage has been decreased due to the
emergence of resistance and tolerance in the existing drugs.
Therefore, an increasing trend to replace the synthetic drugs with
natural products (plants sources) has been observed in pharma-
ceutical industry. These natural sources are enriched with phyto-
chemicals which have higher disease preventing characteristics
(Chirumbolo, 2012). Ajwa date is used traditionally and historically
against different diseases due to its anti-inammatory, hepa-toxic,
anti-cancer and most importantly against cardiac function
improvement (Table 4)(Al-Yahya et al., 2015; Hussain Mallhi, Qadir,
Ali, Ahmad, &Khan, 2014; Ragab et al., 2013). In the following
sections pharmacological properties of Ajwa esh and pit is
4.1. Antioxidant activity
Ajwa date fruits are widely consumed in the Arabian countries
and the strong antioxidant activity is due to higher phenolics,
melatonin, carotenoids and vitamins contents (Al-Farsi et al., 2005;
Al-Farsi &Lee, 2008; Chaira et al., 2009). The antioxidant activity of
Ajwa fruit have mostly been evaluated in aqueous and alcoholic
extracts. The antioxidants in Ajwa fruit are mostly hydrophilic and
poses strong antioxidant activity in lipid membrane system (Al-
Farsi et al., 2005). Saleh et al. (2011) pointed strong antioxidant
activity of Ajwa fruit aqueous extract in comparison to alcoholic
extracts. The MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenylte-
trazolium Bromide) assay with ethyl acetate, methanolic, and water
extracts of Ajwa dates at 250
g/mL inhibited lipid peroxidation by
88, 70, and 91% (Zhang, Adosari, Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., 2013; Zhang,
Aldosari, Vidyasagar, P. S., 2013). The rabbit experimental modeling
with ethanolic extract of Ajwa dates showed increased levels of
serum antioxidant enzymes together with reduction in lipid hy-
droperoxides in lead intoxicated rabbits (Ragab et al., 2013). The
possible pathway through which Ajwa dates exert antioxidant ef-
fect is the suppression of free radicals, that in turn reduces the
proliferation of disease. Other studies have conrmed these strong
antioxidant effect of Ajwa dates (Ahmed et al., 2016; Al-Yahya et al.,
2015; Zhang et al., 2015). Recently, Al-Yahya et al. (2015) evaluated
that Ajwa date extracts prevents the depletion of vital antioxidants
like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and carnitine
acyltransferase. In a recent study with different extracts of Ajwa
fruit and pit by Arshad, Jelani, Haroon, and Masood (2015) showed
strong antioxidant with 74.19
g/mL of gallic acid equivalents in
methanolic extracts. Moreover, they pointed strong radical scav-
enging activity in DPPH and lipid peroxidation assays in acetone
Table 3 (continued )
Flavonoids Structure Quantity (mg/100 g DW) References
Rutin 0.86 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
Saleh et al. (2011)
Iso-quercetin 0.41 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
Apigenin 0.26 Hamad et al. (2015)
Ahmed et al. (2016)
Total Flavonoids 2.78 Hamad et al. (2015)
(Ahmed et al. (2016))
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e69 65
extracts of Ajwa dates. However, they mentioned remarkable
radical scavenging activity of aqueous extracts of Ajwa pits in
comparison to other solvents (Arshad et al., 2015).
4.2. Antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial activities
Jassim and Naji (2010) investigated the antiviral activity of
acetone extracted ajwa date pit against Pseudomonas phage. The
results showed antiviral activity with MIC <10
g/mL. The factors
like concentration exponent, phage inactivation kinetics and deci-
mal reduction time strongly depicting antiviral potential of pit
extract. The Ajwa date extract might be an inexpensive way to
protect patient from viral infections by inhibiting the infectivity of
phage lysis and future reserach should be carried out to determine
the potenial of extracts for HIV treatment (Jassim &Naji, 2010).
It was reported that aqeuous, methanol and acetone extracts of
leaves and pits of Ajwa dates inhibited the growth of F. solani, F.
oxysporum, Alternaria spp., A. alternata, Fusarium sp.,A.avus and
Trichoderma sp. The leave extract showed inhibitory activity of
51.5% against A. Alternata, while the inhibitory activity of 29.4%,
38.5% and 6.3% was observed against F. solani, F. Fusarium and
F. oxysporium. The Ajwa pits also showed inhibitory activity of 40.9%
against A. Alternata and 38.5% against F. Fusarium, mild activity was
also observed against F. solani and F. oxysporium. Moreover, the
trend of activity was as methanolic pits extract >methanolic leaves
extract >acetone pits extract >acetone leaves extract (Bokhari &
Fig. 2. Different phytochemicals present in Ajwa date fruit. The phytochemicals diversity ranged from triterpenoids to steroids and to phthalates.
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e6966
Perveen, 2012). The antifungal activity of Ajwa date in dichlor-
omethanalic extract was also reported by Boulenouar, Marouf, and
Cheriti (2011).
Bacterial resistance is one of the major challenge against anti-
microbial drugs. To overcome the problem of resistance, the use of
natural products and their constituents is a good approach to
control the infection as they are inexpensive and also having no
side effects (Al-Daihan &Bhat, 2010). The Ajwa date and its con-
stituents play a signicant effect in the treatment of bacterial dis-
eases. The methanol and acetone extracts of the Ajwa dates pits
reasonably inhibited the growth of Gram positive and Gram
negative bacteria (Aamir, Kumari, Khan, &Medam, 2013; Jassim &
Naji, 2010). Ajwa dates inhibits the activity of Escherichia coli and
Klebsiella pneumonia and also inhibit the reducing effect of meth-
ylprednisolone (Aamir et al., 2013). Methanolic extract of Ajwa
dates are also effective against enteric diseases, since it suppresses
the activity of Enterococcus fecalis (Aamir et al., 2013). The meth-
anolic extract of Ajwa date is effective against Escherichia coli,Ba-
cillus cereus,Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens (Samad
et al., 2016).
4.3. Anti-inammatory activity
Inammation is one of the important physiological defense
mechanisms against various factors such as infection, burn, toxic
chemicals, allergens and other stimuli (Sharma, Dubey, Sati, &
Sanadya, 2011). Excessive production of free radicals from acti-
vated inammatory leukocytes causes many problems like diabetes
and arthritis (Zhang et al., 2015). The disturbance in inammatory
mechanism results in development and progression of various
disorders. Transcription factors (LOX and NF-kB) play an important
role in the inammation, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. So the
critical step in the prevention of disease is the proper regulation of
transcription factors. Previous studies have shown that constitu-
ents of plants such as avonoids and phenolics act as excellent anti-
inammatory agents (Talhouk, Karam, Fostok, El-Jouni, &Barbour,
2007). It was investigated that methanolic and aqueous extract
Ajwa date possess anti-inammatory properties in albino rats by
increasing levels of COX 1 and 2 enzymes. The ethyl acetate,
methanolic, and water extracts of Ajwa dates inhibit the lipid
peroxidation cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX2. These
studies have also shown that Ajwa date constituents such as
polyphenols, ber, steroids and minerals possess anti-
inammatory effects (Zhang, Adosari, Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., 2013;
Zhang, Aldosari, Vidyasagar, P. S., 2013; Zhang et al., 2015; C.
Zhang, Aldosari, Vidyasagar, Shukla, &Nair, 2014). lyophilized
extract of Ajwa dates at concentration of 250
g/mL downregulates
the expression of pro-inammatory cytokines like IL-6, IL-10 and
together with apoptotic markers like caspase-3 and Bax in
both ex vivo and in vivo models (Al-Yahya et al., 2015). Similarly,
lyophilized extract of Ajwa dates at concentration of 250
(Fig. 1) reduces edema, myonecrosis and inltration of inamma-
tory cells in cardiomyocytes architecture and shows strong car-
dioprotective effects in rodent model (Al-Yahya et al., 2015). Abdul-
Hamid et al. (2015) showed strong nitric oxide (NO) inhibiting ac-
tivity of different extracts of Ajwa dates using NMR approach. Their
study demonstrated that extraction solvent is the critical factor that
affects the NO inhibiting activity of Ajwa date extract. Moreover,
freeze dried and methanol extracts of Ajwa dates shows the
remarkable NO inhibiting activity in comparison to other extracts
(Abdul-Hamid et al., 2015).
4.4. Nephrotoxic and hepatoprotective activities
Nephrotoxicity is a usual side effect of many antibiotic drugs
whose amelioration is necessary. Ochratoxin is a mycotoxin
generated by these antibiotics can affect the human kidney leading
to kidney failure (Kalantaripour, Shekaari, Basiri, &Najar, 2012).
Awatef Ali, Susan Abdu, and Sasha Alansari (2011a, b) investigated
the potential anti-toxic effect of Ajwa dates in rabbits against
ochratoxin. Oral dosage of ochratoxin signicantly increased the
serum creatinine and urea level in rabbits and damaged the prox-
imal tubules. On the other hand, Ajwa date extracts reduced the
serum creatinine and urea levels. However, combination of Ajwa
date extract with ochratoxin reduces the severity of lesions (Ali
et al., 2011a; Ali et al., 2011b). Bakr Abdu (2011) demonstrated
the therapeutic effect of Ajwa date aqueous extract against the
hepatotoxicity induced by ochratoxin A in rats. The treatment
signicantly reduces the bilirubin and ALT enzyme activity in rats
pretreated with Ajwa date aqueous extract. Another study reported
the positive effects of Ajwa fruit and pit in gentamicin treated
nephrotoxicity rat model. The in-cooperation of Ajwa fruit with
Table 4
Health benets of Ajwa date fruit and pit from different literatures. The activities were observed in different extraction solvents and using both in vitro and in vivo approaches.
Observations and references
Antioxidant activity Scavenges free radical activity and reduces lipid peroxidation and prevented depletion of CAT, SOD, NP-SH antioxidants (Al-Yahya et al., 2015;
Saleh et al., 2011; Zhang, Adosari, Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., 2013; Zhang, Aldosari, Vidyasagar, P. S., 2013; Zhang et al., 2015).
Anti-microbial activity Methanolic extract of Ajwa dates inhibits the growth of E.coli,S. marcescens,B. cereus and S. aureus (Samad et al., 2016).
Methanolic Ajwa extracts have showed 22e41% inhibition to COX-I enzyme and 48e52% inhibition to Cox-II enzyme in albino rats (Zhang, Adosari,
Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., 2013; Zhang, Aldosari, Vidyasagar, P. S., 2013).
Antitoxic effect Strong inhibitory effect against lead acetate toxicity in rabbits with signicant restoration of SGPT, SGOT, ALP,TD, SOD and GPx levels (Ragab et al.,
Protection against ochratoxin A-toxicity in albino rats with decreased levels of serum creatinine and urea levels in kidney (Ali et al., 2011b, 2011a).
Effect on male fertility Increased progressive sperms motility and decreased non-progressive immortal sperms morphology (Wahyudi, Retno, &Andi, 2015).
Effect on
Protective effect and ameliorated lesions of Ochratoxin nephrotoxicity (Ali et al., 2011b, 2011a; Ali et al., 2011b, 2011a).
Antitumor activity Methanolic Ajwa extracts showed marginal cells proliferation inhibitory effect against gastric, prostrate, colon, breast and lung tumor cell lines
(Zhang, Adosari, Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., 2013; Zhang, Aldosari, Vidyasagar, P. S., 2013).
Hypolipidemic effect Ajwa liquid extracts reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and increased HDL-C levels in Wister rats (Al-Yahya et al., 2015).
Antidiabetic effect Ajwa pits showed restoration of liver and kidney functions and signicantly reduces glucose levels in induced diabetic a rats (Hasan &Mohieldein,
Positive effects by lowering hepatic marker enzymes (SGPT and SGOT) and correct albumin levels (Sheikh et al., 2014).
Effect on gastric
Signicant increase in bowl movement and stool frequency while reduction in human fecal water and colon cancer risk (Eid et al., 2014; Eid et al.,
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e69 67
food (50% (w/w)) or pit with water (2:1 (w/v)) signicantly
decrease the plasma creatinine and urea concentrations (Al-
Qarawi, Abdel-Rahman, Mousa, Ali, &El-Mougy, 2008). Feeding
Ajwa date extract (300 mg/kg/day for 14 days) signicantly
inhibited the depletion of antioxidants in albino rats when induced
with lead acetate toxicity (Ragab et al., 2013). Similar results are
also reported with carbon tetrachloride (CCl
) induced toxicity in
rat model by Sheikh, Elsaed, Samman, Sheikh, and Ladin (2014).
4.5. Antidiabetic activity
The plants play a major role to treat the diabetes and its
complication including diabetic retinopathy via modulation of
metabolic and molecular pathways (Gupta et al., 2011). The phy-
tochemicals have ability to control the functions of pancreatic tis-
sues by enhancing the production of insulin and reduce the
absorption of glucose in the intestinal wall. The antidiabetic activity
in Ajwa extracts might be due to saponins, phenol, steroids and
avonoids, which play a major role in stopping diabetes (Hussain
Mallhi et al., 2014). The phenolic compounds reducing effect of
glucosidase enzymes, that effect the absorption of glucose in small
intestine and kidneys. Moreover, the phenolic compounds also
modulate the secretion of insulin in human body. The strong
antioxidant prole of Ajwa fruit can plays a strong antidiabetic role
by scavenging the free radicals (Zhang et al., 2015). Aqueous Ajwa
seed extract in concentration of 100 g/L brings a reduction in blood
glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Moreover,
prolong use of Ajwa seed extract restores the function of liver and
kidneys and balance the oxidative stress conditions in streptozo-
tocin induced diabetic rats (Hasan &Mohieldein, 2016).
4.6. Anticancer activity
It has been reported that aqueous and methanolic extracts of
Ajwa dates at concentration of 100
g/mL inhibited the marginal
cell proliferation against human gastric, lung, breast and colon cell
lines (. Zhang et al., 2015). These benecial anti-tumor effect of
Ajwa dates are due to the presence of avonoids especially quer-
cetin, steroids and polyphenols (Hussain Mallhi et al., 2014). The
bioactives of Ajwa dates increase the activities of antioxidant en-
zymes such as SOD, GST, and catalase in body which inhibits the
proliferation of damaged cells there by reducing the chances of
mutagenesis. Ajwa dates have a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory effect
(Zhang, Adosari, Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., 2013; Zhang, Aldosari,
Vidyasagar, P. S., 2013) that is similar to commercial anti-
inammatory drugs like aspirin, ibuprofen, celebrex and nap-
roxen. Ajwa date extract and Ajwa polyphenols are effective on
inhibiting the growth of colon adenocarcinoma cell growth and
also maintain bowel health (Eid et al., 2014). Moreover, Ajwa date
extract also maintain and resist changes in microbiota (Eid et al.,
5. Conclusion
The data analysis from the last few decades suggests that ajwa
date fruit has a potential to become an essential food ingredient for
developing new bioactive functional food products targeted at
various physiological functions of human body. This review has
provided a guideline to proceed further in establishing the efcacy
of various observed medicinal effects including anti-cancer, gastro-
protective, hepato-protective and nephro-protective activities.
These observed pharmacological properties are attributed to the
presence of high concentrations of phtyochemicals and minerals
stangled diverse chemical structures. These pharmacological ef-
fects can be tried and tested in neutraceuticals and functional foods
development in pharmaceuticals and food manufacturing industry.
This will provide an opportunity for the food companies to develop
radically innovative functional food products. This will further
enable the food companies to compete in the global health and
wellness market by introducing these bioactive functional food
Aamir, J., Kumari, A., Khan, M. N., & Medam, S. K. (2013). Evaluation of the
combinational antimicrobial effect of Annona Squamosa and Phoenix Dactyli-
fera seeds methanolic extract on standard microbial strains. International
Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2,68e73.
Abdul-Hamid, N. A., Abas, F., Ismail, I. S., Shaari, K., & Lajis, N. H. (2015). Inuence of
different drying treatments and extraction solvents on the metabolite prole
and nitric oxide inhibitory activity of Ajwa Dates. Journal of Food Science, 80,
Ahmed, A., Arshad, M. U., Saeed, F., Ahmed, R. S., & Chatha, S. A. S. (2016). Nutri-
tional probing and HPLC proling of roasted date pit powder. Pakistan Journal of
Nutrition, 15, 229.
Al-Daihan, S., & Bhat, R. S. (2010). Antibacterial activities of extracts of leaf, fruit,
seed and bark of phoenix dactylifera. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(42),
Al-Farsi, M., Alasalvar, C., Morris, A., Baron, M., & Shahidi, F. (2005). Comparison of
antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics of three native
fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 7592e7599.
Al-Farsi, M. A., & Lee, C. Y. (2008). Nutritional and functional properties of dates: A
review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48,877e887.
Al-Laith, A. A. (2009). Degradation kinetics of the antioxidant activity in date palm
(Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit as affected by maturity stages. Arab Gulf Journal of
Scientic Research, 27,16e25.
Al-Qarawi, A., Abdel-Rahman, H., Mousa, H., Ali, B., & El-Mougy, S. (2008). Neph-
roprotective action of Phoenix dactylifera. in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxi-
city. Pharmaceutical Biology, 46,227e230.
Al-Shahib, W., & Marshall, R. J. (2003). The fruit of the date palm: Its possible use as
the best food for the future? Int J Food Sci Nutr, 54,247e259.
Al-Turki, S., Shahba, M. A., & Stushnoff, C. (2010). Diversity of antioxidant properties
and phenolic content of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits as affected by
cultivar and location. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 8, 253e260.
Al-Yahya, M., Raish, M., AlSaid, M. S., Ahmad, A., Mothana, R. A., Al-Sohaibani, M.,
et al. (2015). Ajwadates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) extract ameliorates
isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy through downregulation of oxidative,
inammatory and apoptotic molecules in rodent model. Phytomedicine.http://
Ali, A., Abdu, S., & Alansari, S. (2011a). Biosafty of ajwa date against biotoxicty of
ochratoxin (A) on proximal renal tubules of male rat. Kidney Research Journal, 1,
Ali, A., Abdu, S., & Alansari, S. (2011b). Renoprotective effect of date fruit extract on
ochratoxin (a) induced-oxidative stress in distal tubules of rat: A light and
electron microscopic study. Kidney Research Journal, 1,13e23.
Ali, H. S. M., Alhaj, O. A., Al-Khalifa, A. S., & Brückner, H. (2014). Determination and
stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi
Arabian date fruits. Amino acids, 46, 2241e2257.
os, A., Pretel, M., Almansa, M., Botella, M., Zapata, P., & Serrano, M. (2009).
Antioxidant and nutritional properties of date fruit from Elche grove as affected
by maturation and phenotypic variability of date palm. Food Science and Tech-
nology International, 15,65e72.
Arshad, F. K., Jelani, S., Haroon, R., & Masood, H. b. (2015). A relative in vitro eval-
uation of antioxidant potential prole of extracts from pits of Phoenix dacty-
lifera L. (Ajwa and Zahedi Dates). International Journal of Advanced Information
Science and Technology, 35,28e37.
Assirey, E. A. R. (2015). Nutritional composition of fruit of 10 date palm (Phoenix
dactylifera L.) cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Taibah University for
Science, 9,75e79.
Bakr Abdu, S. (2011). The protective role of ajwa date against the hepatotoxicity
induced by ochratoxin a. Egyptian Journal of Natural Toxins, 8,1e15.
Barreveld, W. (1993). Date palm products. Agricultural services bulletin no. 101. Rome:
Bokhari, N. A., & Perveen, K. (2012). In vitro inhibition potential of Phoenix dacty-
lifera L. extracts on the growth of pathogenic fungi. Journal of Medicinal Plants
Research, 6, 1083e1088.
Boulenouar, N., Marouf, A., & Cheriti, A. (2011). Antifungal activity and phyto-
chemical screening of extracts from Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars. Natural
Product Research, 25, 1999e2002.
Chaira, N., Smaali, M. I., Martinez-Tom
e, M., Mrabet, A., Murcia, M. A., & Ferchichi, A.
(2009). Simple phenolic composition, avonoid contents and antioxidant ca-
pacities in water-methanol extracts of Tunisian common date cultivars
(Phoenix dactylifera L.). International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 60,
Chirumbolo, S. (2012). Plant phytochemicals as new potential drugs for immune
disorders and cancer therapy: Really a promising path? Journal of the Science of
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e6968
Food and Agriculture, 92, 1573e1577.
Eid, N. M., Al-Awadi, B., Vauzour, D., Oruna-Concha, M. J., & Spencer, J. P. (2013a).
Effect of cultivar type and ripening on the polyphenol content of date palm
fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61,2453e2460.
Eid, N. M. S., Al-Awadi, B., Vauzour, D., Oruna-Concha, M. J., & Spencer, J. P. E.
(2013b). Effect of cultivar type and ripening on the polyphenol content of date
palm fruit. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 61, 2453e2460.
Eid, N., Enani, S., Walton, G., Corona, G., Costabile, A., Gibson, G., et al. (2014). The
impact of date palm fruits and their component polyphenols, on gut microbial
ecology, bacterial metabolites and colon cancer cell proliferation. Journal of
Nutritional Science, 3, e46.
Eid, N., Osmanova, H., Natchez, C., Walton, G., Costabile, A., Gibson, G., et al. (2015).
Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal
health: A randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study. British
Journal of Nutrition, 114, 1226e1236.
FAO. (2003). The marketing potential of date palm fruits in the European market.
FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 6. In Pascal Liu
(Ed.), Raw materials, tropical and horticultural products service commodities and
trade division. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Galeb, H. A., Salimon, J., Eid, E. E. M., Nacer, N. E., Saari, N., & Saadi, S. (2012). The
impact of single and double hydrogen bonds on crystallization and melting
regimes of Ajwa and Barni lipids. Food Research International, 48,657e666.
Gasim, A. A. A. (1994). Changes in sugar quality and mineral elements during fruit
development in ve date palm cultivars in AI-Madinah AI-Munawwarah.
Journal of King Abdul Aziz University, Science, 6,29e36.
Gupta, S. K., Kumar, B., Nag, T. C., Agrawal, S. S., Agrawal, R., Agrawal, P., et al. (2011).
Curcumin prevents experimental diabetic retinopathy in rats through its hy-
poglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inammatory mechanisms. Journal of Ocular
Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 27,123e130.
Hamad, I., AbdElgawad, H., Al Jaouni, S., Zinta, G., Asard, H., Hassan, S., et al. (2015).
Metabolic analysis of various date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars
from Saudi Arabia to assess their nutritional quality. Molecules, 20,
Hasan, N. S., Amom, Z. H., Nor, A. I., Mokhtarrudin, N., Esa, N. M., & Azlan, A. (2010).
Nutritional composition and in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant properties of
various dates extracts (Phoenix dactylifera L.) from Libya. Asian Journal of Clinical
Nutrition, 2, 208e214.
Hasan, M., & Mohieldein, A. (2016). In vivo evaluation of anti diabetic, hypolipi-
demic, antioxidative activities of Saudi date seed extract on streptozotocin
induced diabetic rats. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 10, FF06.
Hussain Mallhi, T., Qadir, M. I., Ali, M., Ahmad, B., & Khan, Y. H. (2014). Ajwa date
(Phoenix dactylifera): An emerging plant in pharmacological research. Pakistan
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 27.
Jassim, S. A., & Naji, M. A. (2010). In vitro evaluation of the antiviral activity of an
extract of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pits on a Pseudomonas phage.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7,57e62.
Kalantaripour, T. P., Shekaari, M. S., Basiri, M., & Najar, A. G. (2012). Cere-
broprotective effect of date seed extract (Phoenix dactylifera) on focal cerebral
ischemia in male rats. Journal of Biological Sciences,1e6.
Khalid, S., Ahmad, A., Masud, T., Asad, M. J., & Sandhu, M. (2016). Nutritional
assessment of ajwa date esh and pits in comparison to local varieties. Journal
of Plant and Animal Sciences, 26(4), 1072e1080.
Ragab, A. R., Elkablawy, M. A., Sheik, B. Y., & Baraka, H. N. (2013). Antioxidant and
tissue-protective studies on ajwa Extract: Dates from Al-Madinah Al-Mon-
warah, Saudia Arabia. Journal of Environmental &Analytical Toxicology, 2013.
Saleh, E. A., Tawk, M. S., & Abu-Tarboush, H. M. (2011). Phenolic contents and
antioxidant activity of various date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits from
Saudi Arabia. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2,1134e114 1.
Samad, M. A., Hashim, S. H., Simarani, K., & Yaacob, J. S. (2016). Antibacterial
properties and effects of fruit chilling and extract storage on antioxidant ac-
tivity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of four Date Palm (Phoenix
dactylifera) Cultivars. Molecules, 21,419.
Sawaya, W., Sa, W., Black, L., Mashadi, A., & Al Muhammad, M. (1983). Physical and
chemical characterisation of the major date varieties grown in Saudi Arabia, 2:
Sugars, tannins, vitamins A and C. Date Palm Journal, 2,183e196 .
Sharma, G. N., Dubey, S. K., Sati, N., & Sanadya, J. (2011). Anti-inammatory activity
and total avonoid content of Aegle marmelos seeds. International Journal of
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 3,214e218.
Sheikh, B. Y., Elsaed, W. M., Samman, A. H., Sheikh, B. Y., & Ladin, A.-M. M. B. (2014).
Ajwa dates as a protective agent against liver toxicity in rat. European Scientic
Journal, 3, 258e368.
Stewart, B., & Wild, C. P. (2015). World cancer report 2014. International Agency for
Research on Cancer, WHO.
Talhouk, R., Karam, C., Fostok, S., El-Jouni, W., & Barbour, E. (2007). Anti-inam-
matory bioactivities in plant extracts. Journal of medicinal food, 10,1e10.
Terral, J. F., Newton, C., Ivorra, S., Gros-Balthazard, M., de Morais, C. T., Picq, S., et al.
(2012). Insights into the historical biogeography of the date palm (Phoenix
dactylifera L.) using geometric morphometry of modern and ancient seeds.
Journal of Biogeography, 39, 929e941.
Vayalil, P. K. (2012). Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An emerging medicinal
food. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 52, 249e271.
Wahyudi, S., Retno, R. A., & Andi, R. (2015). Effect of Dates (Phoenix Dactilyfera L)on
male infertility. Althea Medical Journal, 2(1), 82e86.
Zhang, C.-R., Adosari, S. A., Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., Nair, K. M., & Nair, M. G. (2013a).
Antioxidant and anti-inammatory assays conrm bioactive compounds in
ajwa date fruit. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 61, 5834e5840.
Zhang, C.-R., Aldosari, S. A., Vidyasagar, P. S., Nair, K. M., & Nair, M. G. (2013b).
Antioxidant and anti-inammatory assays conrm bioactive compounds in
Ajwa date fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 5834e5840.
Zhang, C., Aldosari, S., Vidyasagar, P., Shukla, P., & Nair, M. (2014). Antioxidant,
antiinammatory and antitumor activities of 29 varieties of date fruits. Planta
Medica, 80, PE11.
Zhang, C.-R., Aldosari, S. A., Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., Shukla, P., & Nair, M. G. (2015).
Health-benets of date fruits produced in Saudi Arabia based on in vitro anti-
oxidant, anti-inammatory and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory as-
says. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences.
S. Khalid et al. / Trends in Food Science &Technology 63 (2017) 60e69 69
... Medicinal purposes of Ajwa dates are diverse owing to its phytochemical and nutritive components, eg, polyphenols as gallic acid and flavonoids as quercetin. 10 Gallic acid mitigated diclofenac-induced liver toxicity by modulating oxidative stress and suppressing IL-1β gene expression in male rats. 11 Similarly, quercetin exerted protective effects against diclofenac-induced liver toxicity through mitigation of inflammatory response and oxidative stress. ...
... Hamad et al found p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid derivatives were the most dominant phenolic compounds in Ajwa dates. [10][11][12] Ajwa date fruit is also rich in active flavonoids including quercetin, isoquercetin, luteolin, apigenin, and rutin. 32 Both gallic acid 11 and quercetin 12 proved effective in treating diclofenac toxicity. ...
... Our data agreed with Khalid et al who reported that more than 50% of the polyphenols in ADFE is gallic acid and more than 50% of the flavonoids in ADFE is quercetin. [10][11][12]32 In this study, acute diclofenac toxicity caused significantly (p<0.001) increased serum oxidants, ie ATD caused increased serum MDA and H 2 O 2 concentration denoting increased oxidative stress. ...
Full-text available
Background: Studies regarding treatment of acute toxicity with diclofenac (ATD) are quite few. Diclofenac is commonly prescribed in neurology, psychiatry, and general medicine practice. This study investigated possible colon-protective effects exerted by Ajwa date fruit extract (ADFE), a prophetic medicine remedy native to Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia against ATD. Phytochemicals in ADFE as gallic acid and quercetin have reported protective effects against ATD. Methods: Total phenols and flavonoids in ADFE were estimated as equivalents to gallic acid and quercetin. Four experimental groups were allocated each of six rats: control group, ATD group received a single dose of 150 mg diclofenac intraperitoneally, toxicity prevention group received a single dose of ADFE orally followed 4 hours later by diclofenac injection, and toxicity treatment group received a similar diclofenac dose followed 4 hours later by a single dose of ADFE. Four days later, animals were sacrificed. Histological and biochemical examinations were done. Results: ADFE has a total phenolic content of 331.7 gallic acid equivalent/gram extract and a total flavonoid content of 70.23 quercetin equivalent/gram. ATD significantly increased oxidative stress markers as serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Serum MDA and H2O2 were significantly scavenged by ADFE. ATD significantly (p<0.001) decreased antioxidant power as serum total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity. That was reversed by ADFE in both prevention and treatment groups. Histologically, ATD caused complete destruction of colonic crypts architecture, patchy loss of the crypts, loss of the surface epithelium, absent goblet cells and submucosal exudate, heavy infiltration of the lamina propria and submucosa with inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes and eosinophils. There were mucosal haemorrhages and submucosal dilated congested blood vessels. All that was prevented and treated using ADFE. Conclusion: ADFE is rich in quercetin and gallic acid equivalents that exert potent antitoxic effects. ADFE is strongly recommended for preventive and therapeutic colon effects against ATD.
... One fruit that is recommended for consumption is the Ajwah date palm. Ajwah date is a fruit that is widely cultivated in the Al Madinah region of western Saudi Arabia which has nutraceutical properties for human health (Khalid et al., 2017). The nutritional content of dates includes carbohydrates, glucose, fructose, sucrose, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, folate, protein, iron, vitamin A, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B6), niacin (B3), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6) and folic acid (B9) (Al-alawi et al., 2017) ...
... Based on previous studies showed that the largest component of carbohydrates in Ajwa dates is sugar amounting to 77% consisting of 0.5% sucrose, 34.5% glucose and 25.6% fructose. The total sugar content in 100 grams of Ajwah is 74.3 g which is included in the high category (Khalid et al., 2017), but based on the results of the study AlGeffari et al ( 2016) shows that the levels of the Ajwah date palm glycemic index are relatively low (55,9). The results of the study showed that the consumption of ajwah dates did not cause a significant increase in the glycemic response and concentration of blood glucose levels. ...
... These can be used in the promotion and protection of human health due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [6]. In general, date fruits are a good source of minerals and amino acids, and they have been used for the treatment of chronic illnesses and diseases [7]. It has been reported that the consumption of date fruit is associated with a reduction of high blood pressure and oxidative stress. ...
... During the extraction of carotenoids and other bioactive compounds, temperature and pressure were observed to be the main variables affecting the extract yield [28]. The relationship of SFE pressure and temperature for the extract yields from flesh of four different date fruits can be presented by response surface plots ( Figure 2) obtained using regression analysis data and according to the models presented in Equations (4)- (7). As can be observed from data in Table 1 and Figure 2, the yields of extracts first increased with increasing temperature at fixed pressure and the maximal yields were obtained at an SFE temperature of 52.50 °C and pressure of 27.50 MPs. ...
Full-text available
Saudi Arabia is one of the major producers of date (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit. Date fruit flesh is considered a healthy food due to the presence of natural antioxidants. Green and innovative supercritical fluid (SFE, 52.5 °C temperature, 27.50 MPa pressure, 5 mL CO2/min flow rate) and subcritical (SubCO2, 250 extraction cycles, 29 °C temperature, 6.8 MPa, 12 h, ethanol solvent) extraction techniques were used to produce flesh extracts from four Saudi date fruits (Sukari (SKFE), Ambara (AMFE), Majdool (MJFE) and Sagai (SGFE)), and extracts prepared using 6 h Soxhlet extraction at 70 °C for 16 h using n-hexane as solvent, were taken as control. SFE produced the highest (p < 0.05) extract yields, whereas the SubCO2 method recovered significantly higher (p < 0.05) amounts of phytochemicals. Total phenolics (186.37–447.31 mg GAE/100 g), total flavonoids (82.12–215.28 mg QE/100 g), total anthocyanins (0.41–1.34 mg/100 g), and total carotenoid (1.24–2.85 mg BCE/100 g) were quantified in all the flesh extracts. The biological properties evaluation showed that flesh extracts had high antioxidant (17.79–45.08 µg AAE/mL), antiradical (191.36–34.66 µg/mL DPPH IC50), ferric-reducing (2.18–5.01 mmol TE/100 g) and ABTS-scavenging (444.75–883.96 µmol TE/100 g) activities. SubCO2 was the best technique and Majdool the best date variety, in terms of both phytochemicals and biological properties.
... Dates with nutrition benefit it is also a great source of antioxidant. It provides various health benefits and prevents man chronic diseases (Khalid et al., 2017). Most of the studies carried out in Iran, Algeria, the USA, Bahrain, and Oman confirmed the antioxidant potential of date palm. ...
Full-text available
Date or date palm is botanically called Phoenix dactylifera and belongs to flowering plant species in the palm family. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and flavonoids. These act as antioxidants and protect the body from free radical damage and improve fertility levels in males. Date palm pollen is rich in steroidal compounds like estriol, estrone, triterpene, and estradiol and all these are structural precursors such as immature gonadotropic and a-amyrin structures. This review aims to provide in-depth perceptiveness regarding the nutritional and phytochemical composition of date palm pollen and dates and reveal their impact on health. In this review, to sum up, the impact of date palm pollen and dates on different fertility parameters (sperm count, motility, morphology, overall semen volume as well as sex hormones level) and how it can correct infertility or improve infertility level. Date palm pollen, along with dates, has anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, nephron-protective, neuroprotective, antimicrobial, and antioxidant potential.
... Date palms are considered as a cheap and energy-rich food source due to its rich nutritional components such as carbohydrates (including soluble sugars), proteins, lipids and certain essential minerals and vitamins [16]. Moreover, dates have high polyphenols and functional dietary fiber contents which help maintain the digestive tract [17,18]. ...
Full-text available
Increasing body immunity is very necessary after the Covid-19 pandemic. One of the efforts that can be made to increase the body's immunity is to consume functional foods with immunostimulant activity, such as processed snakehead fish products in the form of nuggets, and "parkusel" juice made from a mixture of bitter melon, dates and celery. The purpose of community service is to provide knowledge and skills to housewives and the community at the Veteran ABRI Housing Complex in Medan Estate, Deli Serdang Regency, in making functional food products in the form of snakehead fish nuggets and Perkusel juice. The community service method used is the counseling method with leafet aids and training in making snakehead fish nuggets and perkusel juice. The results of the activity showed that there was an increase in the knowledge of the community participants in community service activities about nutritious snack products that can increase body immunity by 71% in the good value category.
... In milled and brown rice, the most prominent proteins are glutelin, albumin, and globulin, while prolamin is present in all rice fractions in small quantities. The amount of protein content in brown rice is 7.1-8.3%, in milled rice 6.3-7.1%, and bran 11-15%, which is comparable to red kidney beans (Hayat et al., 2014) and Ajwa dates (Khalid et al., 2016;Khalid et al., 2017 [3-6%], milled rice [2-7%], and rice bran [1-5%]) (Amagliani et al., 2017). In another study, an analysis of rice was performed to check its nutritional profile. ...
... The iron content in honey is 0.42 mg/100g. Vitamin C is 0.5 mg and vitamin B complex is 2.34 mg 26 . Iron functions in the synthesis of hemoglobin. ...
Full-text available
Pregnancy is a physiological change in women. There are changes in the body during pregnancy, one of which is in the blood vessel system. These changes make the volume of plasma in the blood increase, this results in dilution of the blood. From these changes, pregnant women are prone to anemia, where the condition of the body lacks blood. Globally, the incidence of anemia reaches 29.9% in women of childbearing age or more than half a billion women aged 15-49 years have anemia. With a prevalence of 29.6% in non-pregnant women of childbearing age and 36.5% in pregnant women of childbearing age. Anemia in pregnancy has several effects such as premature birth and postpartum hemorrhage. So anemia during pregnancy requires serious treatment. There are pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for anemia. One of the non-pharmacological treatments that can be done is using dates and honey. Dates and honey contain iron, vitamin C, vitamin B complex and folic acid which are needed in the formation of blood cells. In this case, the researcher conducted a search for evidence of foreign literature traced through electronic media facilities with keyword guidance. There were 6 relevant articles, each of which represented an effect of giving dates and honey in cases of anemia during pregnancy, especially in pregnant women who have anemia.
... Carotenoids are a varied collection of approximately 600 structurally related isoprenoids produced by plants, fungi, and bacteria that have been demonstrated to be beneficial to human health and disease prevention. The total carotenoid content in the date fruit decreases when it gets ripening from khalaal to the tamar stage (Khalid et al., 2017) [45] . Chemical structure of carotenoids is explained in figure 3. The carotenoid breakdown is caused by moisture loss during maturity and is unrelated to the ripening fruits' gradual darkening. ...
Full-text available
The effect of three drying methods (sun, hot air oven and cabinet drier) on the chemical, functional and microbial properties of date our was comparatively studied. The ash of the two date varieties (amber and sukkari) were washed, dried at 65 o C, milled and sieved to obtain fine flour, and thereafter analyzed. Proximate analysis revealed that hot air oven-dried amber date powder exhibited signicantly (p < 0.05) higher ash (2.64%), fat (5.35%), crude protein (10.50%), crude bre (8.57%) while cabinet dried amber date exhibited the highest sugar (0.125%) and vitamin C (0.024mg/100g) content. Oven-dried amber date powder exhibited higher water absorption (1.10ml/g) and solubility (66.60%). Microbial analysis showed that hot air oven-dried amber and sukaari dates had the lowest total viable count (1.19×10 5 g/CFU/ml and 9.45×10 4 g/CFU/ml, respectively). Thus, the results suggest that hot air oven drying can be appropriately used to obtain date our with good functionality, microbial property and chemical composition.
Full-text available
Ever since the beginnings of agriculture, cereals have provided unlimited health benefits to mankind as a staple food in our diet. Cereals are rich in complex carbohydrates that provide us ample energy, and help to prevent many diseases like constipation, colon disorders, and high blood sugar levels. They enrich our overall health with abundant proteins, fats, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and enzymes. In every part of the world cereals are consumed for breakfast, lunch or dinner. Cereal Grains: Composition, Nutritional Attributes, and Potential Applications provides an overview of cereals including their properties, chemical composition, applications, postharvest losses, storage, and quality. Various well-versed researchers across the globe share their knowledge and experience covering cover cereal’s role in food security, allergens in grains, phytochemical profile, industrial applications, health benefits, global standard of cereals, and recent advances in cereal processing. Key Features: Contains comprehensive information on general composition & properties of cereals. Discusses the recent advances in cereal technology Provides brief knowledge on bioactive characterization of cereal grains Contain brief information on future aspect of grain quality and allergens in cereal grains This handbook is a valuable resource for students, researchers, and industrial practitioners who wish to enhance their knowledge and insights on cereal science. Researchers, scientists and other members working in various cereal processing industries and other horticultural departments will also find the comprehensive information relevant to their work.
Full-text available
Nature has miraculously blessed many plants with such phyto-chemical profile that is valuable for mankind in various ways. Some plant materials considered waste, contain valued phyto-chemicals advantageous for humans. One such material is date pit. In present research study, date pits from three geographically different date varieties (Ajwa from Saudi Arabia, Hallawi from Iran and Aseel from Pakistan) were selected and their pits were roasted and ground into powder. The aim of this study was to determine chemical & mineral profile, dietary fibre, total phenolics, total flavonoids and total antioxidant activity of roasted date pits. Ajwa contained higher amounts of crude proteins, crude fats and crude fiber. The date pits of Ajwa varieties were also containing the higher amounts of dietary fiber especially insoluble fiber. Furthermore phenolic profiling of roasted date pits detected 10 different phenolic compounds through HPLC studies. The date pits contain higher amounts of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. However, their highest amounts were recorded in Ajwa i.e., 175.13±7.45, 82.88±3.87 and 61.46±2.81 mg/kg, respectively. The data collected from the current investigation recommend Ajwa date pits to be considered as a functional food ingredient owing to potentially excellent source of natural antioxidants.
Full-text available
Introduction: Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. In folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. The date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene. Aim: This study intended to evaluate the anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities of date seed extract in diabetes-induced rats. Materials and methods: Total of seven groups of rats, consisting of control rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100g/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat. To evaluate the anti-diabetic property, glucose and weight was analysed weekly and at the end of eight week all rats were sacrificed. To evaluate the hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were estimated. Liver enzymes and kidney function tests were performed. Moreover to verify the glycaemic effect; glycated haemoglobin and serum insulin was performed. Results: Aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100 gm/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat brings a significant reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in comparison of control rats. There were significant differences in the investigated clinical chemistry and oxidative stress parameters between control and diabetic rats with both seed extract of Ajwa and Sukkari dates. Conclusion: Present study verifies the antidiabetic property, of aqueous seed extracts of two different varieties of dates namely Ajwa and Sukkari of Kingdom of Saudi on streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats. Prolong treatments with the extract restores the function of liver and kidney and balance the oxidative stress condition in diabetic treated rats.
Full-text available
Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at -20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.
Full-text available
Background: Infertility can be caused by prolonged use of paracetamol that leads to a decrease in the sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. Dates (Phoenix Dactilyfera L) have natural antioxidant effects through several mechanisms, such as neutralizing free radicals, against NO, OH, and H2O2, and also preventing lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dates on sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in the Laboratory of Cell Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, during October–November 2012. Twenty two infertile male wistar rats were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A was given 72 mg paracetamol/rat/day orally and group B was given 72 mg paracetamol/rat/day orally and 80% dates infusion/rat/day orally for 28 days and on the 29th day, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were measured. Results were analyzed using unpaired t-testor Mann Whitney test. Result: In the control group, 502.73(100.66) sperm concentrations were compared to 397.55(143.07) in the treatment group. However, the sperm concentration mean in the treatment group was not significantly decreased (p>0.05) compared to the control group. The percentage of progressive sperm motility in the treatment group increased significantly compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the percentage of nonprogressive immotal sperm morphology was not significantly decreased. The percentage of normal sperm in the treatment group increased significantly (p
Full-text available
Date Fruits are consumed in Arab areas for a long time as a part of essential diet. Phoenix dactylifera belongs to family Arecaceae and its leaves, barks, pits, fruits and pollens have anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiulcertavie, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antidiarheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential. Besides these, Dates also increase level of estrogen, testosterone, RBCs, Hb, PCV, reticulocytes and platelet counts. It can also cure lead induced heamotoxicity, side effects of methylprednisolon, male and female infertility. It has also cerebroprotective, neuroprotective and haemopoietic activity. Phoenix dactylifera can be used for number of complications if further evaluated and isolated. The present paper is an overview of pharmacological properties of Phoenix dactylifera reported in literature.
Full-text available
Date fruits are reported to exhibit health-beneficial effects in addition to its nutritional value. Fruits collected from commercial date palm trees were sequentially extracted with water and methanol. All varieties of date fruits contained sugars, phenolics, triterpenoids, triglycerides, fatty acids and steroids, where sugars were the predominant components. Water and methanolic extracts of date fruits were assayed for antioxidant, antiinflammatory and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. In MTT antioxidant assay, methanolic extracts at 250 μg/mL exhibited moderate activity with absorbance values between 0.14 and 0.41. Water and methanolic extracts at 100 μg/mL inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 50–67% and 58–82%, respectively. In antiinflammatory assay using cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and -2), water and methanolic extracts at 100 μg/mL showed COX-1 enzyme inhibition by 26–36% and 33–41%, and COX-2 by 45–48% and 48–52%, respectively. At 100 μg/mL concentrations, methanolic extracts of all date fruits showed marginal cell proliferation inhibitory activity against human gastric, prostate, colon, breast and lung tumor cell lines. The bioassay results suggest that varietal difference is not a significant factor among the 29 date fruits studied when compared for health-beneficial effects resulting from non-nutritional components present in it.
The study was designed to characterize ajwa flesh and pits and make their comparison with locally available date cultivars. Correlation between proximate characteristics and within different minerals was analyzed while cluster analysis technique was used to evaluate similarity between sugar contents of date varieties. The results indicated ajwa flesh as richest source of moisture (22.8 %), ash (3.22 %), glucose (54.5%), fructose (52.03%), maltose (22.5%), and galactose (12.2%) contents while ajwa pits have highest amounts of crude fat (7.8%), crude fiber(51%), TDF(53.9%), IDF(34.6), and SDF(19.5%). Highly significant correlation of crude fat with crude fiber and crude protein was observed while crude protein also exhibited positive correlation with crude fiber. Date flesh was found better source of mineral as compared to pits whereas potassium was found rich in both parts. Highly significant negative correlation of Na and positive correlation of Zn and Ca with all other minerals was observed. Cluster analysis of sugar suggests highest similarity of fructose, maltose and galactose and least similarity of sucrose under cluster III and cluster I. The work identifies variability among flesh and pits of ajwa date and local date varieties for their nutritional traits that can be used in fortification of different food products. © 2016, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.