The Spanish and Portuguese Empires in America

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At every stage of European overseas expansion there were one or more colonial powers which overshadowed the rest. In the modern period these were Britainand France; before 1815 Spain and Portugal. Their primacy lay not only in the fact that they were the discoverers, but that they worked out four of the five models for effective colonization which were typical of the first colonial empires and were copied by other colonizing powers.

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... Barrera-Osorio, 2006; Nieto Olarte, 2009; Sandman, 2008; Turnbull, 1996 ), Portuondo highlights the role of administration in directing the philosophical inquiry of nature in the field and, thus, re-evaluates Spain's role in fostering a scientific revolution in the early modern Atlantic . Equally impressive is the edited volume covering science in the Spanish and Portuguese empires before 1800 (Bleichmar et al., 2009). Intended for specialists and non-specialists alike, the book is a major resource for scholars looking for a global overview. ...
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In the first of three reports outlining the current state of historical geography, I review recently published work from three research themes: the geographic imagination (maps and cartography), geographies of knowledge, and society-nature geographies. I argue that these themes build upon important and dynamic, or vital, traditions within the subfield.
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In the flowering of Red-Green Thought over the past two decades, metabolic rift thinking is surely one of its most colorful varieties. The metabolic rift has captured the imagination of critical environmental scholars, becoming a shorthand for capitalism’s troubled relations in the web of life. This article pursues an entwined critique and reconstruction: of metabolic rift thinking and the possibilities for a post-Cartesian perspective on historical change, the world-ecology conversation. Far from dismissing metabolic rift thinking, my intention is to affirm its dialectical core. At stake is not merely the mode of explanation within environmental sociology. The impasse of metabolic rift thinking is suggestive of wider problems across the environmental social sciences, now confronted by a double challenge. One of course is the widespread—and reasonable—sense of urgency to evolve modes of thought appropriate to an era of deepening biospheric instability. The second is the widely recognized—but inadequately internalized—understanding that humans are part of nature.
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The dispute over the nature of the New World that took place in Europe towards the end of the 18th century not only confronted the defenders of what was considered the privileged nature of the New World and its inhabitants to those who proposed a degenerate image of America, but also encouraged the reevaluation of the criteria that had been used so far to assess the reliability of the sources. The loss of credibility experienced by Spanish chroniclers, whose first impressions on the newly discovered lands were now judged as implausible and unreal, enabled the development of new ways of perceiving the nature of America, as can be observed in the works of former Capuchin Antoine-Joseph Pernety. In open opposition to the harshest criticisms on the nature of America made by Cornelius De Pauw, Pernety used his own experience in America and that of fellow travelers to praise its fauna, flora and its inhabitants. In light of the above, this article analyzes the historical context and the mechanisms by which Pernety argues against De Pauw and, in so doing, deconstructs the postulates defended by the latter. Special emphasis will be made on a fragment of his Dissertation on America and Americans, published in 1770 and translated into Spanish for the first time in this article.
Histoire de l’Expansion coloniale des Peuples Européens: Portugal et Espagne
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The Spanish Empire in America
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