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Formulation and production of multinutrient blocks for ruminants in the guinea savanna region of Nigeria

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... It is rich in soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and in minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium (Ramchurn and Raggoo, 2000). The proportion of molasses (8%) used in this study was different from those reported by Sansoucy et al. (1986); Garg et al. (1998); Ramchurn and Raggoo (2000); Mohammed et al. (2007); Aye and Adegun (2010); Adegun et al. (2011); Aduba et al. (2013); Mubi et al. (2013); Omoniyi et al. (2013). These researchers used high levels of molasses in their studies ranging from 10 to 60% and at different proportions. ...
... Together with the energy substrates supplied by dusa and rice bran for rumen micro-organisms, urea would be expected to improve feed conversion efficiency (Xie et al., 1997;Asaolu, 2012). The 3% inclusion of urea in this study is lower than what was reported by Mohammed et al. (2007); Ibrahim et al. (2011); Mubi et al. (2013); Omoniyi et al. (2013). These researchers used 5% urea in their formulae. ...
... Cotton seed cake in this study, was used at varying levels of 5 to 25% in the formulae. This is within the range of 23 to 25% reported by Mubi et al. (2013) but lower than 36% reported by Mohammed et al. (2007). Cotton seed cake used for this study had a CP and CF content of 17% and 14% respectively. ...
... The main components of cement are silica and quicklime, with lesser amounts of oxides of aluminum, magnesium, sulfur, iron and potassium [53]. Mubi et al. [54] reported that cement contained 26 ppm iron, 180 ppm manganese and 139 ppm magnesium. Therefore, cement not only acts as a curing agent but also provides minerals. ...
... A more accurate method to determine the hardness of LB is by penetrometer (Chattillon, NY, USA. GAUGE R. -CATL 719-20), which measures the pressure required to insert a rod into the LB to a predetermined depth [54]. Hardness is then calculated according to Equation (3) in Table 2. ...
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A lick block (LB) is a solidified mixture of molasses, urea, minerals, filler, coagulant and binder that is supplemented to livestock mainly in relatively extensive rearing systems. It provides nutrients, such as soluble sugars, proteins, minerals and vitamins to balance dietary intake and can improve rumen fermentation and facilitate digestion and absorption of nutrients. These supplements improve livestock production, reproduction and carcass quality. In addition, LB can partially replace concentrate, serve as a delivery vehicle for additives such as enzymes and drugs and mediate the distribution of grazing livestock. This paper classifies and analyzes representative research; discusses the types, ingredients and current status of the utilization of LB; and systematically reviews the processing technology, quality assessment, influencing factors of intake, action mechanism and application. This review can provide a basis for the development, popularization and application of novel LB products.
... To improve the performance of dairy animals, supply of sufficient nutrients is needed, and cattle feed block is one of the best and easiest means to achieve this. Feed supplement developed from combination of different agricultural by-products which are converted to useful source of nutrients for essential development of ruminant animals such as goats, sheep, cattle, buffaloes are commonly referred to as Urea -Molasses Multi-Nutrient Block (UMMB) (Mohammed et al., 2007;Mubi et al., 2013;Mshelizah, 2015;Dzidiya et al., 2015;Gadzama et al., 2016). Essential minerals such as fermentable energy from molasses, non-protein nitrogen usually from urea, calcium from bone meal, sodium and chloride from salt, other essential minerals and vitamins can be sourced from the combination of these supplements (Mohammed et al., 2007;Mubi et al., 2013). ...
... Feed supplement developed from combination of different agricultural by-products which are converted to useful source of nutrients for essential development of ruminant animals such as goats, sheep, cattle, buffaloes are commonly referred to as Urea -Molasses Multi-Nutrient Block (UMMB) (Mohammed et al., 2007;Mubi et al., 2013;Mshelizah, 2015;Dzidiya et al., 2015;Gadzama et al., 2016). Essential minerals such as fermentable energy from molasses, non-protein nitrogen usually from urea, calcium from bone meal, sodium and chloride from salt, other essential minerals and vitamins can be sourced from the combination of these supplements (Mohammed et al., 2007;Mubi et al., 2013). ...
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Locally produced urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) are prone to contamination, inadequate mixing, inefficient compaction during moulding due to the manual method of production. A machine for the production of UMMB was designed, constructed and evaluated. It comprised of a mixing and a moulding unit. The performance evaluation of the machine was carried out. The parameters investigated were density, compressive strength, bioyield force, moulding efficiency and drying time. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results revealed that moisture content was significant for all the parameters investigated. Hence, further investigation was conducted to ascertain how these parameters vary at moisture content levels of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% (db). It was observed that Density decreased with increase in moisture content. On the average, the machine had highest moulding efficiency of 89.89%, compressive strength of 4.38N/mm 2 , bioyield force of 47340N, density of 1058.2 kg/m 3 and shortest drying time of 6 hours. Full exploitation of the nutritional, industrial and commercial prospects of UMMB as feed supplements in ruminant nutrition is appropriate.
... Yanuartono et al. (2014) menunjukkan bahwa penjemuran selama 14-28 hari mampu membuat blok dengan bahan perekat semen menjadi keras. Laporan tersebut senada dengan laporan Mubi et al. (2013) yang menyatakan bahwa penjemuran blok dengan bahan perekat semen selama 30 hari dapat men ingkatkan kekerasannya. Namun demikian, Mohammed et al. (2007) menyatakan bahwa penjemuran selama tujuh hari telah cukup untuk membuat blok menjadi keras. ...
... Hasil penelitian oleh Mubi et al. (2013) menunjukkan sapi potong Rahaji breed yang dilepas di padang pengembalaan dan diberi tambahan UMMB menunjukkan adanya peningkatan bobot badan yang signifikan dibandingkan dengan kontrol tanpa penambahan UMMB. Hasil tersebut kemungkinan besar disebabkan oleh perbedaan pakan basal yang dikonsumsi. ...
Article
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The poor quality crop residues constitute the bulk of dry matter consumed by the ruminants. Like in most developing countries, including in Indonesia, feed shortage is the main constraint to their productivity. During the hot and dry seasons, the available feed resources are not enough in energy and digestion proteins, which are insufficient to maintenance requirements and reducing productivity throughout the year. The use of conventional feedstuffs such as rice brand, pollard, soybean cake, and groundnut cake to enhance production has become inappropriate. These supplements are in short supply owing to increasing demand from agricultural and industrial users. Their exorbitant prices and erratic supply made them too expensive for small-scale farmers to incorporate them into ruminant feeding. Urea Molasses Multinutrient Block (UMMB) is a convenient and inexpensive method of providing a range of nutrients to ruminants. Giving UMMB can improve low-quality feed digestion so in general can improve the performance of livestock such as milk production, weight, BCS and reproductive status. This article aims to evaluation the benefits of a UMMB for feed ruminants.
... However, the crude fiber content can be a limiting factor for feed consumption. Crude fiber will stay longer in the rumen and can suppress the feed consumption ( Mubi et al., 2013). Boushy and Poel (2000) stated crude fiber was also an indicator of the low digestibility of feed material. ...
... The method of DPWUMB production was the factor that affected the content of DPW-UMB. Our result was in line with Mubi et al., (2013) who stated molasses and sugar were sources of energy for ruminants. The molasses used in the formulation formula was less than 8% of dry matter and could increase microbial growth in the rumen. ...
Article
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The research evaluated the nutrient content of dried poultry waste urea-molasses block (DPW-UMB). The use of dried poultry waste in the manufacture of the urea-molasses block was as a substitution of urea and could improve the value added in dry season. The treatments used for research were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). Chemical analysis: the dried poultry waste were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ash, fat, and gross energy. The statically formulation diet composed with Microsoft Excel Ver. 2016. The results showed that the 20% manure layer chicken and 30% molasses T3 were better than T2 and T1 on nutrient content. The study concludes that DPW-UMB T3 are dried poultry waste containing sufficient levels of gross energy, crude protein, crude fiber, ash, and fat it could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients.
... The method during made of DPW-UMB is the factor to given the result of content DPW-UMB. The result matches with Mubi et al., (2013) stated molasses and sugar are sources of energy for ruminants. Molasses can increase microbial growth in the rumen. ...
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p> The research purpose was to determine nutrient content of dried of poultry waste urea molasses block (DPW-UMB). The research method was used completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments used for research were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). The data analysis was the analysis of variance (anova) and continued by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that treatments has significantly difference (P<0.01) on dry matter, crude protein, and ash. It could be concluded that dpw-umb contained sufficient levels of nutrients. it could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients. </p
... Proximate analysis results of feeds materials fed to these two breeds of goats agreed with the recommended standard values as reported by various scientists (Bunmi et al., 2012;Mubi et al., 2013;Afolabi et al., 2012;Aja et al., 2013;Lamidi and Ogunkunle, 2015;Dika, 2010). This proximate analysis results from the current study has shown that the nutritive value of these feeds materials being fed to these goats by the traditional husbandry management method is adequate, nutritionally. ...
... The method during made of DPW-UMB is the factor to given the result of content DPW-UMB. The result matches with Mubi et al., (2013) stated molasses and sugar are sources of energy for ruminants. Molasses can increase microbial growth in the rumen. ...
Article
Full-text available
The research purpose was to determine nutrient content of dried of poultry waste urea molasses block (DPW-UMB). The research method was used completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments used for research were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). The data analysis was the analysis of variance (anova) and continued by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that treatments has significantly difference (P<0.01) on dry matter, crude protein, and ash. The result of nutrients will stimulate the process of rumination and rumen contractions, which in turn will improve the fermentation process the fiber feed. It could be concluded that DPW-UMB contained sufficient levels of nutrients. It could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients. Kata kunci: Manure, DPW-UMB, Urea, Molasses Evaluasi Kandungan Nutrien Kotoran Ayam Kering Molasses Blok (Kamblok) Secara In-Vitro ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kandungan nutrisi dari kotoran ayam kering molasses blok (KAMBLOK) secara in-vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Perlakuan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah P1 (10% kotoran ayam kering dan 25% molasses), P2 (15% kotoran ayam kering dan 30% molasses), P3 (20 % kotoran ayam kering dan 30% molasses). Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan. Hasil menunjukan perlakuan berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01) terhadap bahan kering, protein kasar, dan abu. Hasil daripada ini dapat menstimulasi dan meningkatkan proses ruminansi. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah kamblok dapat digunakan sebagai pakan potensial untuk suplementasi
... The method during made of DPW-UMB is the factor to given the result of content DPW-UMB. The result matches with Mubi et al., (2013) stated molasses and sugar are sources of energy for ruminants. Molasses can increase microbial growth in the rumen. ...
Article
Full-text available
The research purpose was to determine the nutrient content of dried poultry waste molasses block (DPW-UMB). The use of dried poultry waste in the manufacture of the urea-molasses block was as a substitute of urea and could improve the value added in dry season. The treatments used for research were T1 (15% manure layer chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (10% manure layer chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure layer chicken and 30% molasses). Chemical analysis: the dried of poultry waste were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, and gross energy. The statistical formulation diet composed with Microsoft Excel Ver. 2016. The results showed that the 20% manure layer chicken and 30% molasses (T3) were better than T2 and T1 on nutrient content with 92.04% Dry Matter (DM), 13.34% Crude Protein (CP), 13.39% Crude Fiber (CF), 37.16% ash, 3.44% fat, but low in Gross Energy (GE) (2631.63 kcal/kg). It could be concluded that dpw-umb T3 were dried of poultry waste contained sufficient levels of gross energy, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, and fat it could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients.
... The hardness of mineral blocks in which cement was used as the binder was good at 2 weeks. This is in line with the findings of Mubiet al. [22] who obtained good hardness at 2 weeks when Hassoun technique [23] was employed in multi-nutrient production using cement as binder. Blocks that set well ensure safe transportation without breakage [24]. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate weight gain and cold carcass yield in sheep supplemented with multinutrient blocks (MNB) fattening phase in the transition period between the dry season and the rainy season. A completely randomized design, in which 16 castrated Colombian hair sheep creoles, managed in rotational grazing (RG) and randomly distributed in four treatments were used as follows: T0: RG; T1: RG + MNB soy based; T2: RG + MNB cotton cake based; and T3: RG + MNB urea based. An analysis of variance was used to determine whether there was a difference between average daily gain and cold carcass yield. For daily gain no significant difference (p>0.05) between treatments was found, but if difference (p≤0.05) was found for cold carcass yield. To sell live animals is not necessary supplementation with multinutrient blocks in the transition period between the rainy and dry season.
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The study was conducted to formulate economic complete feeds from local feed resources for camel calves. Camels fed on complete rations had higher DM intake, digestibility of proximate components except fibre contents. Camel calves on these diets could meet the protein and energy requirements.
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Six demonstration trials, one with dry Shami cows and five with Awassi sheep were carried out to compare the performance of animals fed poor quality roughages with or without urea-blocks (UB). Feeding UB did not increase intake of straw in cows or sheep. Cows with UB gained weight (265 g/day) and those without lost weight (-265 g/d). Sheep with UB performed better that those without them. In the trials with sheep grazing cereal stubbles, the animals were in positive energy balance in only one trial. Response to UB was greater when the basic diet was composed of only poor quality roughages, improving the efficiency of feed utilization. It is concluded that UB composed of urea, salt, poultry excreta, olive cake, wheat bran and other agro-industrial by-products can be widely used for upgrading the nutritional value for ruminants of poor quality roughages available in most developing countries.
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Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), an annual tropical tuber crop, was nutritionally evaluated as a foliage for ruminants, especially dairy cattle. Cultivation of cassava biomass to produce hay is based on a first harvest of the foliage at three months after planting, followed every two months thereafter until one year. Inter-cropping of leguminous fodder as food-feed between rows of cassava, such as Leucaena leucocephala or cowpea (Vigna unculata), enriches soil fertility and provides additional fodder. Cassava hay contained 20 to 25% crude protein in the dry matter with good profile of amino acids. Feeding trials with cattle revealed high levels of DM intake (3.2% of BW) and high DM digestibility (71%). The hay contains tannin-protein complexes which could act as rumen by - pass protein for digestion in the small intestine. As cassava hay contains condensed tannins, it could have subsequent impact on changing rumen ecology particularly changing rumen microbes population. Therefore, supplementation with cassava hay at 1-2 kg/hd/d to dairy cattle could markedly reduce concentrate requirements, and increase milk yield and composition. Moreover, cassava hay supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate which could possibly enhance milk quality and milk storage, especially in small holder-dairy farming. Condensed tannins contained in cassava hay have also been shown to potentially reduce gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and therefore could act as an anthelmintic agent. Cassava hay is therefore an excellent multi-nutrient source for animals, especially for dairy cattle during the long dry season, and has the potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production systems in the tropics.
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The potential economic benefits of combining strategic anthelmintic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes and nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks were examined in Boer goats, raised under extensive grazing conditions in the summer rainfall area of South Africa. Eight groups of nine goats were monitored over a 14- month period from August 2002 to October 2003. Nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses was carried out in the summer (wet season), from December 2002 to February 2003, and, or, the winter (dry season), from June 2003 to August 2003. All of the goats received symptomatic treatment for Haemonchus contortus infection when it was considered necessary as determined by clinical examination of the ocular mucous membranes for anaemia (according to the FAMACHA© system). Four of the groups received a strategic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes in the middle of the summer (28th January 2003) while four did not. Under the climatic and extensive grazing conditions encountered during the trial, supplementation in the winter had the greatest economic benefit. Provided the nematode challenge is low and individual goats are treated when symptoms of nematode infection are noted, winter supplementation with urea-molasses blocks is recommended for extensively reared goats in the summer rainfall area.
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Productivity of ruminant animals during the dry season, on smallholder farms in Kenya, is constraint by low availability and poor quality of the feeds (crop residues). The current study was conducted on smallholder farms in Nakuru, Koibatek and Trans Nzoia Districts in 2003 over 2-year period preceded by a 6 - week feed survey. The objective of the feed survey was to inventorize feed resources available on smallholder resource - poor farms and delineate factors limiting their optimization for enhanced dairy production. Other farm bio-data including livestock population (ruminants and poultry) and structure per farm were also collected. This paper confines its discussion on both qualitative and quantitative information gathered during the survey with special focus on poultry manure vis a vis litter and compares the results with reports other research works. During the survey, composite samples of feed resources being utilized at farm level (including poultry manure) were collected for dry matter (DM) determination and proximate analysis at the National Animal Husbandry Research Centre (NAHRC/Naivasha/Kenya. Results obtained, strongly indicated that, poultry manure has great potential for use during the dry season as a source of rumen degradable protein or non-protein nitrogen (NPN) in ruminant nutrition. Though heterogeneity was observed in the many reports reviewed and compared with the current study, the general consensus was that poultry manure/litter contains high level of crude protein (15 to 38%), fiber (11 - 52%), and rich in minerals (Ca: 0.81 - 6.13%; P: 0.56 - 3.92; K: 0.73 - 5.17), dry matter (61 - 95%). It is because of these nutrients that poultry manure has been deliberately mixed into ruminant livestock diets. Its Organic matter digestibility (OMD) ranges from 60 to 65, crude protein (CP) - 69.9, crude fibre (CF) - 29.9 and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) - 71.4%. Past research studies recorded in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and IVOMD of 76.1 and 72.7%, respectively. Other reports also showed that, beef cattle fed poultry manure based diets recorded body weight gains ranging from 0.91 to 1.31 kg/d. Dairy goats supplemented with poultry manure registered 10.15% higher milk production compared to those on barley based diets (621 and 558 kg, respectively). Based on the available research information, it is conclude in this study that poultry manure can be successfully included in ruminant diets. The constraint, as revealed in the current study is that smallholder farmers do not own large chicken flock sizes (majority own less 30 birds) to guarantee sufficient supply of manure for ruminant feeding. It is this particular factor that is being attributed to the low poultry manure reported in the current study (regular users - 19%; occasional users - 17% and none users - 64%). Where available, poultry manure is very cheap. Since it is cheaply available (not readily) at farm level, poultry manure offers a cost effective option for meeting dairy cattle protein requirements. However, some precaution must be taken to minimize nitrogen loss (which occurs in the form of NH<sub>3</sub>, N<sub>2</sub>O and N<sub>2</sub>) and accumulation of pathogens ( Salmonella and E. coli ).
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The objectives of this studies was to select an ideal anthelmintic which was incorporated in blocks, to know the efficacy of medicated urea molasses mineral block (MUMMB) against gastrointestinal nematode parasites in naturally infested indigenous dairy cows and its cost benefit analysis. To fulfill these objectives naturally infested 72 indigenous dairy cows with gastrointestinal nematode parasites were selected for this study. The cows were offered normal diet added with 250 gm differents block/ cow/ day. Comparative stability trials were carried out with three anthelmintic (albendazole, fenbendazole and thiophanate) on 48 dairy cows. After comparative anthelmintic efficacy trails all three anthelmintic separately mixed with molasses-mixture and kept in laboratory under normal environmental conditions up to 4 months. After 4 months comparative efficacy trails of those anthelmintic incorporated in molasses mixture were done against naturally infested gastrointestinal nematodes parasites in dairy cows. Efficacy of medicated blocks against gastrointestinal nematodiasis was evaluated by examining faecal EPG reduction throughout the licking period, which was compared with pre-treatment EPG value. In this study three types of blocks such as medicated urea-molasses-mineral block(MUMMB<sub>a</sub>, 0.3gm fenbendazole/kg block), medicated-urea-molasses-mineral blocks (MUMMB<sub>b</sub>, 0.4gm fenbendazole/kg block) and urea-molasses blocks(UMMB) were prepared. cost benefit analysis of the medicated blocks licks was calculated based on the present cost of ratio components and milk sale value. Fenbendazole was found to be stable in blocks and was selected for the preparation of medicated blocks. Medicated blocks MUMMB<sub>a</sub> offered to lick by naturally infested dairy cows with gastrointestinal nematode parasites showed EPG reduction from 976.26�98.04 to 70.88�20.99 and when medicated blocks MUMMB<sub>b</sub>, offered to lick by naturally infested dairy cows with gastrointestinal nematodes parasites, showed EPG reduction from 958.33�102.06 to zero within seven days. The same result still remained during the experiment. Whereas UMMB also reduced EPG about 13.44%. The cost benefit analysis showed that marginally there was increase in the feed cost in medicated block licks group but it was profitable under consideration to milk sale. Prolonged low level administration of fenbendazole through medicated-urea-molasses-mineral blocks were found to have therapeutic and prophylactic effect against naturally infested gastrointestinal nematode parasites of dairy cows. Use of MUMMB instead of UMMB was proved to be better for parasites of dairy cows under the village condition of Bangladesh where balanced ration for dairy cows also was a major scarcity and was found to be cost effective.
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The objective of this study is to provide a brief overview of the small ruminant population of Tamil Nadu. Simple percentage analysis and compound growth rate were used on the secondary data collected for the reference period. Thus the study shows changing trend of increasing growth of small ruminant population in fertile tract compared to dry tract of this state. Necessary policy measures may be advocated for the multiplication of small ruminants by including them as a component in the integrated farming system of Tamil Nadu.
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This paper reports digestibility coefficients and growth and conversion parameters in rabbits fed with commercial rabbit pellets supplemented by 15 or 30 g daily of multi-nutrient mini-blocks (MNB). The treatments consisted of a control (commercial rabbit pellets), a treatment using 15 g/day MNB + pellets ad libitum and another using 30 g/day of MNB + pellets ad libitum. Eighteen rabbits were kept in individual cages and were randomly allocated to the three treatments. The parameters investigated were digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), protein, ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and energy during a period of 11 days. Subsequently, growth rates were measured over a 55 day period. Compared to the pellets, the MNB had a higher amount of ash and fibre but were lower in crude protein and energy. Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was highest for rabbits supplemented with 30 g MNB followed by those with 15 g MNB. The crude protein and ether extract digestibility did not differ significantly. There was a difference (P<0.05) in the NDF digestibility in favour of the diets with supplementary MNB. In the growth trial, rabbits in treatments MNB15 and MNB30 had higher (P<0.05) dry matter (DM) intake (127 ± 18.8 and 125 ± 9.86 g/head/day, respectively) than those on the control treatment (104 ± 11.4 g/head/day). The average weight gains for rabbits fed only pellets was 14.8 ± 5.82 g/head/day, significantly less than for the MNB15 and MNB30 treatments (23.4 ± 3.5 and 26.4 ± 6.3 g/head/day, respectively). There were no differences in feed conversion among the treatments. The beneficial effect of the multi-nutrient blocks was reflected in the improved growth rate, reduction in the time required to reach slaughter live weight and lower cost of production.
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Multi-nutritional blocks (molasses /urea) were manufactured and fed to Holstein cattle in a stable located in Iztapalapa in the East of Mexico City. The aim was to improve low milk yield and poor corporal conformation caused by unbalanced feeding. Total milk production of the stable increased from 358 litres/day to 418 litres/day, with a slight indication of improved corporal conformation.
Article
Seven tests were carried out from June to November 1993 to make urea-blocks (UB) using a variety of agricultural by-products and binders. In a factorial arrangement of the treatments, two binders (slaked lime and cement) at three levels (0, 5 and 10%), were studied in test 1. In test 2, the effect of level of screened poultry litter (25, 35, 45, 55%) on the quality of UB was examined. In test 3, the influence of ground barley grain and of chopped barley straw (0.5-2 cm) on UB characteristics was studied. In a fourth test the effect of level of water (4 vs. 6 litres per 10 kg mix) on the characteristics of UB formulae with or without ground barley grain or chopped straw was examined. In another test (test 5), the effect of level of brewers grain (0, 50 and 65%) and of binder on UB characteristics was studied. Finally, in another two tests the characteristics of UB made of different levels (0, 50 and 65%) of tomato pulp (test 6) and crude olive cake (COLC) (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 78%) (test 7) were studied. Slaked lime was effective in replacing cement for UB making (trial 1). Combination of the two binders gave harder blocks (UB3 vs. UB5). Lime gave harder UB than cement (UB3 vs. UB7). Ten percent cement or lime alone gave soft blocks whereas 5% of each gave blocks of good hardness (H) and compactness (C). Test 2 showed that combination of PL with wheat bran along with binders, salt and urea gave UB of poor H and C. Contrary, in test 3 incorporation and of ground barley grain gave better quality UB. Increasing the level of water from 40 to 60 l per 100 kg mixture did not affect the H but improved the C of blocks. Incorporation of brewers grain improved UB block quality. Tomato pulp incorporation gave UB that could be easily transported but were of low density and spongy. On the other hand, COLC gave UB of good H and C. It is concluded that UB can be made of a variety of by-products without any molasses and that lime can replace most of the cement.
Article
Two trials were carried out to study the effect of urea block (UB) feeding on the performance of young growing Friesian heifers. In another trial with mature, dry Chios ewes the value of UB as supplement to straw offered ad libitum was compared with other supplements (concentrate-C, lucerne hay-LH and urea-treated straw-UTS offered ad libitum). All supplements were offered along with ad libitum untreated straw (US). Treatment of straw was made by spraying the bales of straw with 10% (w/v) urea solution at the rate of 400 littres per tonne of straw while making the stack. The DM degradability of untreated straw incubated (48 h) into the rumen of 3 Chios ewes and 3 Damascus goats fed the five experimental diets ( US, UTS, US+C, US+LH, US+UB) was also determined. In trial 1 with Friesian heifers partial replacement of the concentrate mixture with UB resulted in a non-significant difference in weight gain (C 324 vs UB 269 g/head/day). Feeding Friesian heifers UB ad libitum (trial 2) resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in weight gain compared to the control (C 657 vs UB 849 g/head/day) diet. In the trial with Chios ewes all animals were loosing weight (US 99, UTS 64, US+UB 51, US+C 56, US+LH 40 g/head/day); the difference was significant only between US and the other three supplemented groups (US+C, US+LH, US+UB). DM degradability of US incubated into the rumen of sheep and goats on the five diets was: US, no supplement=50%, UTS=52%, US+C=52%, US+UB=55%, US+LH=58% ; goats had greater DM degradability than ewes (55 vs 51%).
The present study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilising bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea) shoot shell (BSS) in ruminants. Chemical composition, rumen degradability and some antinutritional compounds were determined for fresh and boiled BSSs to evaluate its feed value and safety. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were allocated to four groups and used to investigate the response in growth rate to supplementing ammoniated rice straw with fresh shell (phase 1) or silage of boiled BSS (phase 2). All animals were offered ammoniated straw ad libitum with 1kg of cotton seed meal (phase 1) or 0.5 kg of cotton seed meal and 0.5 kg of concentrate mixture (phase 2) per head per day. The BSS was supplemented at levels of 0, 3, 6 or 9 kg/d (phase 1) and 0, 5, 10 or 15 kg/d (phase 2) (as fed basis). The BSS was very high in moisture content, and its contents of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were 13-16% DM and 6 5-76% DM, respectively; boiling resulting in higher moisture and protein. No hydrocyanic acid was detected in both BSSs and content of tannins was negligible. Rumen degradability of BSS was reasonably high, and with boiling the rapidly degradable fraction decreased, and potentially degradable component increased. Silage of the boiled BSS was slightly lower in both rapidly and slowly degraded fractions than the fresh BSS. Animals consumed all supplemented BSSs without any adverse health problems. Intake of ammoniated straw decreased with the increasing levels of BSS, but total intake was higher in almost all supplementary groups than in the non-BSS. Heifers had a higher growth rate in phase 1 with fresh BSS than in phase 2 with ensiled shell, and daily weight gains were 622, 629, 744 or 690 g in phase 1, and 578, 575, 677 or 635 g in phase 2 at four BSS levels, respectively. For both phases growth rate was significantly higher for the animals in groups 3 and 4 than those in groups 1 and 2 (p<0.01), with little difference between groups 1 and 2 (p>0.05) but significant difference between groups 3 and 4 (p<0.05). Supplementation with BSS also resulted in an improved feed conversion rate, with the least concentrate consumption in group 3 for both phases. It is concluded that the BSS has a high potential nutritional value as indicated by its medium protein content, reasonably high rumen degradability, and that inclusion of BSS in ammoniated rice straw diet is not only safe to animals, but also may improve growth rate of ruminants and feed conversion rate. It may be disadvantageous to use high amounts of BSS in ammoniated straw diets. (Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 2000. Vol. 13, No. 10 : 1388-1393).
Article
The development of urea-molasses mineral block technology (UMMB) in the Philippines and the use of UMMB in Mt. Pinatubo affected areas were discussed. It also highlights significant researches on the technology and proves that the UMMB supplement has beneficial effects in improving the efficiency of livestock production. Efforts of the government on the technology transfer and adoption to attain sustainability were also described. INTRODUCTION The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 brought severe damages to both people and livestock in the provinces of Bataan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales. The massive ashfall and th e subsequent lahar flow have covered vast areas of crop lands and have resulted in shortage of feed and fodders to livestock. As one of the emergency measures to save the livestock in the area, the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI), produced and distributed UMMB in the affected areas. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) saw this activity and granted BAI a financial assistance to mechanise its production, improve the formula and increase the production to cover wide areas of distribution to benefit many smallholder farmers in the affected area. In the early eighties, several nutritional studies were conducted at Central Luzon Stat e University (CLSU) which revealed that grasses particularly in Central Luzon areas wer e deficient in protein, energy, and in micro and macro elements needed for animal nourishment. During prolonged drought periods, both quantity and quality of grasses was affected . Similarly, during dry season (December to May), the protein content of grasses declines to as low as 3.5 percent and is not sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of large and small ruminants. It was in this light where abundant and locally available feed resources wer e utilised in the development of technology on feed supplementation. Thus, the Urea-Molasses Mineral Block Technology for the Philippines was developed.
Article
Fifteen Barbari goats (average BW 13kg) were randomly divided into three groups of five animals each. All animals were fed complete diets consisting of natural grass hay and concentrate mixture in the ratio of 60:40 on the DM basis. In the concentrate mixture, 15% (T2) or 30% (T3) CP of mustard cake was replaced with Leucaena leaf meal (LLM). The diet of the control group (T1) was offered as such, whereas T2 and T3 diets were offered in the form of blocks. The bulk density of the complete feed block was 550–600kg/m3. Densification of complete diets increased the bulk density 3.2–3.9 times. Total VFA concentration in the rumen was similar in the three groups. Ammonia N concentration was significantly (P
Article
DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ANIMAL FEED SUPPLEMENTATION PACKAGES FOR IMPROVING MEAT AND MILK PRODUCTION IN RUMINANT LIVESTOCK USING LOCALLY AVAILABLE FEED RESOURCES. Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67 ± 32 days) than those in the control group (73 ± 36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation.
Article
A study on the formulation and production of multi-nutrient blocks for feeding ruminants using local feed ingredients was conducted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm in October, 2004. Two formulations (Fl and F2) were developed where Fl had molasses while F2 had no molasses. Other feed ingredients used included salt 5 %; Urea 5%; cement 15%; poultry litter 25%; cotton seed cake 15% while wheat offal was 25 and 35%, respectively. Molasses was 10% in F<SUB>1</SUB> and zero percent in F<SUB>2</SUB>. Composition of feed ingredients for dry matter ranges from 94.50 to 95.20% in wheat offal; crude protein ranged from 2.90% in molasses to 17.00% in cotton seed cake. Ether extract values ranged from 4.00% in wheat offal to 6.00% in cotton seed cake. Crude fibre ranged from 13.00% in wheat offal to 20.00% in poultry litter. Nitrogen free extract ranged from 23.00% in molasses to 64.20% in wheat offal. Ash values ranged from 3.00% in wheat offal to 6.00% in poultry litter. Calcium values ranged from 0.14% in wheat offal to 2.50% in poultry litter. Sodium was 39.34% in salt; chlorine was 60.00% in salt; nitrogen was 46.00% in urea; iron was 21.45 ppm in cement; manganese was 179 ppm in cement; magnesium 13000 ppm in cement, respectively. Formulation Fl had higher values and this might be due to the presence of molasses which improved the nutrient value, compactness and hardness. The cost effectiveness of the two formulations showed N 43:00 and N 21:00 for a 1.30 kg block this amount could be able afforded by farmers to purchase the blocks and supplement their animals to improve livestock production in the semi-arid region of Nigeria.
Article
The goal of this study was to develop a molasses-urea block (MUB) for purposes of supplementing trace minerals to domestic ruminant livestock in Oman. To accomplish this, the utility of molasses and date syrup as fermentable energy sources, of straw, date flakes and wheat bran as fibre sources, and of cement and lime as binders were evaluated. The proportion of cement needed for adequate hardening of the block was also studied. Molasses- and date syrup-based blocks hardened equally well. However, the higher cost of date syrup precluded its use. Wheat straw yielded a low-density block that hardened slowly. Date fibre retained moisture and hardened extremely slowly. Wheat bran-based blocks hardened quickly and yielded dense blocks. Hence, wheat bran was judged to be the superior source of fibre. Lime did not effectively bind the blocks. A cement content of 15% allowed hardening of the blocks within 2-3 weeks. A level of 10% cement in the block reduced the hardening rate by about 50%. Sheep and goats consumed both the straw- and wheat bran-based blocks but at different rates. Consumption of the straw-based block by sheep ranged from 50 to 179 g/head per day, whereas the denser wheat bran-based block was consumed at a rate of 8-20 g/head per day. Consumption of the straw-based block by goats was low (8 g/head per day) compared to that of wheat bran-based blocks (16-24 g/head per day). On the basis of the intake of the bran-based block by sheep, a block was designed that would provide approximately 50% of an animal's trace mineral requirements per day. This block consisted of 45% molasses, 10% urea, 5% trace minerals, 2.5% NaCl, 22.5% wheat bran and 15% cement. Sheep consuming this block gained more weight than sheep fed a conventional mineral block or sheep receiving no mineral supplementation. MUBs are inexpensive (9.5 US cents/kg). We conclude that MUBs have utility for providing trace elements in ruminant diets.
Article
The effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks (UMB) on the growth and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of dairy weaner calves grazing on the same pasture was investigated on a farm in Thika District, central Kenya. Twenty-six female calves, with an average age of 9 months, were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg/kg body weight) and assigned into two groups: animals in group I were fed urea-molasses blocks (UMB) prepared using a cold process and those in group II were the controls. The UMB were given in the evening, when the animals returned from grazing, and were consumed during the night at a rate of 550 g/head per day. Supplementation was undertaken on three occasions for three consecutive months, between July and August 1999, and between January and March and July and September 2000. The body weights of the calves and the faecal egg counts were measured monthly and larval cultures were performed on positive faecal samples from each group. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the cumulative weight gains of the two groups of calves from September onwards. The UMB group averaged (+/- SD) 311.2 +/- 14.9 g/day over the study period, while the control group averaged 235.7 +/- 23.5 g/day; the UMB group also reached breeding weight earlier (p < 0.05) than the control group. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the faecal egg counts between the groups, the predominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes in faecal cultures being Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Other nematodes were Cooperia spp., Bunostomum spp. and Oesophagostomum spp.
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