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Relationship between degrees of self-esteem and peer pressure in high school adolescents


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ABSTRACTThis study examines the relationship between adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure degrees according to their gender and socioeconomic status. The data were obtained from 500 high school students using the Self-efficacy Expectation Scale, developed by Rosenberg (1965) and adapted by Cuhadaroglu (1986) and Kıran-Esen (2006), and the “Peer Pressure Scale (PPS), developed by Kıran (2002). Findings show that when adolescents’ peer pressure degree is viewed according to their level of income, their self-esteem degree is higher with middle income level and vice versa with higher income level. Another finding is that adolescents with lower income level are exposed to further peer pressure than middle and high income level. Self-esteem degree is negatively affected by peer pressure. However, there is a positive correlation between their self-esteem degree and indirect peer pressure and further analysis shows that there’s a negative correlation between their status of being exposed to direct or indirect peer pressure. Adolescents with direct peer pressure perceive that indirect pressure is less than the others (PDF) Relationship between degrees of self-esteem and peer pressure in high school adolescents. Available from: [accessed Jan 09 2019].
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M. Uslu. Relationship between degrees of self-esteem and peer pressure in high school adolescents. International
Journal of Academic Research Part B; 2013; 5(3), 119-124. DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-3/B.19
Mustafa Uslu
Faculty of Occupational Education, Selcuk University, Konya (TURKEY)
DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-3/B.19
This study examines the relationship between adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure degrees
according to their gender and socioeconomic status. The data were obtained from 500 high school students using
the Self-efficacy Expectation Scale, developed by Rosenberg (1965) and adapted by Cuhadaroglu (1986) and
Kıran-Esen (2006), and the “Peer Pressure Scale (PPS), developed by Kıran (2002). Findings show that when
adolescents’ peer pressure degree is viewed according to their level of income, their self-esteem degree is higher
with middle income level and vice versa with higher income level. Another finding is that adolescents with lower
income level are exposed to further peer pressure than middle and high income level. Self-esteem degree is
negatively affected by peer pressure. However, there is a positive correlation between their self-esteem degree and
indirect peer pressure and further analysis shows that there’s a negative correlation between their status of being
exposed to direct or indirect peer pressure. Adolescents with direct peer pressure perceive that indirect pressure is
less than the others.
Key words: Self Esteem, Peer Pressure, Adolescence
One of the most important factors that affect adolescence is the social environment of the adolescents. In
this period, adolescents mostly communicate with peers. As children grow into preteens and then into teenagers,
they often become less dependent on the family and more dependent on their peers when it comes to making
choices and developing morals and values. Peer is a concept that is defined as being at the same age. Negative
emotional-social development in adolescents is defined as peer pressure, bullying or mobbing (in professional life).
In these three negative development types, aggression is a recurring case point encountered individually or as a
group (Adams, 1995; Dusek, 1987; Leymann, 1990; Vandekerckhove & Commers 2003). In terms of gender, it’s
been determined that %7 of females and %15 of males are bullies; similarly, %12 of girls and %13 of boys become
the victims of adolescence. It can easily be conferred that children who are bullies in school age will probably be
the same in their adolescence (Sourander et al., 2000). Brown & Eicher (1986) define peer pressure as a situation
that a person avoids doing something he doesn’t really want to do. Kaplan (1980) states peer pressure is an appeal
that recent or prospective group members feel towards a certain group.
Peer pressure can also be a good thing. Teens learn social norms from their peers. Socially awkward kids
can learn how to fit in and communicate well with others by observing and emulating other teenagers. Similarly,
self-confident teens can act as positive mentors and set good examples for others. A positive peer group that your
teen fits into well can help boost her self-esteem; it might prevent her from engaging in harmful or risky behaviors
(Burack, 1999). Although some authors ascribe peer groups some very valuable positive functions related to
adolescence (Beaty & Alexeyev, 2008; Due, Hansen, Merlo, Andersen & Holstein, 2007), the opinion about its
negative effects is dominant (Darcy, Deanna, & Vivek, 2000; Schnohr & Niclasen 2006; Ryan, 2000; Pitzer, 1999.
Halperin, 2001; Kiran-Esen, 2003).
Another important factor in adolescence is self-esteem and it’s easily affected by peer pressure. Individuals
develop an attitude towards an object they are aware of or event they come across. These attitudes become one of
the most important determiners of a person’s emotions, ideas and behaviors. People begin developing an attitude
towards their own individuality and towards others (Aktuğ, 2006).
Self-esteem is literally defined by how much value people put on themselves. It also means self-knowledge.
High self-esteem refers to a highly positive evaluation of the self. Low self-esteem refers to an unfavorable
definition of the self. Self-esteem also refers to a person’s belief about whether he or she is smart and pretty, for
instance, and it necessarily says nothing about whether the person really is smart or pretty. Rosenthal and
Jacobson (1968) showed that teachers’ false, unfounded beliefs about their students later became objective,
verifiable realities in the performance of those students. In other words, students’ definitions of themselves
generate as a self-fulfilling prophecy and, in the end, it becomes their reality against the World (Baumeister &
Leary, 1995) Adolescence is a time when identity development is particularly important (Baumeister and Leary,
1995; Livingstone, 2006). Leary and Downs (1995) think self-esteem to be an internal representation of social
acceptance and rejection and a psychological gauge monitoring the degree to which a person is included versus
excluded by others.
In terms of the literature related to self-esteem, findings in Kaya and Saçkes’s (2004) study show that self-
esteem is an important factor especially in adolescence. In this period, adolescents can feel themselves lonely and
think that there is nobody to help them to deal with their problems. Similarly, adolescence is a period in which
people decide on vital subjects for their life. In the light of the information above, it can be stated that self-esteem of
the adolescents may change or differ because of their relationship with peers ( Aktuğ, 2006).
Victims might incorporate harmful opinions into their self-concept, leading to a devaluation of their self-
esteem and further social withdrawal from peers (Salmivalli, Kaukiainen, Kaistaniemi, &Lagerspetz, 1999).
Adolescents with low self-esteem are more frequently victimised than are adolescents with high self-esteem (Egan
& Perry, 1998; Grills & Ollendick, 2002). An explanation for this predictive relationship could be that adolescents
with feelings of low self-esteem attract negative attention from peers, provoking specific bullying behaviors from
others (Kaltiala-Heino, Rimpelä, Marttunen, Rimpelä, & Rantanen, 1999; Olweus, 1992; as cited in Overbeek,
2009). Some current findings present a mixed picture of the role that self-esteem and health locus of control play in
adolescent substance abuse. Kaplan (1980) found negative self-attitudes to be related to subsequent substance
abuse and other deviant behavior by adolescents. Dielman et a1. (1987) found self-esteem to show low, but
significant, negative correlations with adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. These correlations
ranged from -0.09 to -0.18 for a total self-esteem scale as well as for three subscales “School Adjustment”, “Self-
Confidence” and “Happiness”. In some other studies, however, no significant relationships have been found
between self-esteem and adolescent substance use. The “Susceptibility to Peer Pressure” index was significantly
and negatively correlated with self-esteem indices index. These correlations ranged from -0.09 to -0.29. In this
study, we aim to examine the impact of peer pressure on self esteem of adolescents and, for this purpose, the
following sub-problems are given:
1. Is there a positive or negative correlation between adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure in terms
of their gender?
2. Is there a difference between adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure in terms of their level of
3. Is there a positive correlation between self-esteem and peer pressure in terms of adolescents’ level of
This is a descriptive study which aims to find out whether there is a difference between adolescents’ self-
esteem and peer pressure degrees in terms of their gender and level of income. The sample of this study is 500
adolescents, after reaching 527 students,27 of them are excluded because of various errors in their answers. At
the end, 500 students between ages 15-17 form the sample group where 227 (%55,4) of which are male and 223
(%44,6) are female present. The research was carried out in 2012-2013 academic year in the fall term in High
school in Kayseri.
2.1. Research Instruments
2.1.1. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (Appendix D) is a 10-item Guttman Scale which was developed
by Rosenberg (1965) and adapted by Cuhadaroglu (1986). In the adaptation study, psychiatric interviews
conducted with high school students were used as the criteria for the RSES. Examining the correlation coefficient
between the scores of interviews and self-esteem scale revealed a good criterion coefficient of.71. On the other
hand, in a recent study conducted by Celik (2004), RSES was also found to be quite reliable in a university sample.
In Celik’s study, Cronbach Alpha coefficient for RSES was found to be.87 (n = 733).
2.1.2. Peer Pressure Scale (PPS)
Peer Pressure Scale (PPS), developed by ran (2002), is a five point Likert scale that has the goal of
measuring adolescents’ peer pressure. The Cronbach Alpha Coefficient calculated for the reliability of PPS is.90 for
the whole scale (34 items),.89 for the direct peer pressure subscale (19 items), and.82 for the indirect peer
pressure subscale (15 items). Also the retest reliability coefficient is;.82 for the whole scale,.74 for the direct peer
pressure subscale, and.79 for the indirect peer pressure subscale. Factor analysis is used, in the study of the
validity of structure. The total variance revealed by the two factors obtained is 40.527 %. A single score is
calculated from the scale. While High scores mean high peer- pressures, low scores show low ones.
Mean score, Standard deviation, N values and descriptive statistics related to t-test are as follows in Table
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Table 1. T-test results for adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure in terms of their gender.
Gender N mean Std. deviation t P
Self-esteem Female 223 20,29 8,45 -17,63* ,000
Male 277 32,63 7,18
Direct peer pressure Female 223 50,70 14,98 22,45* ,000
Male 277 29,00 5,25
Indirect peer pressure Female 223 21,18 7,07
Male 277 28,42 16,57
As can be seen from Table 1, x score of male adolescents is 32,63 and 20,29 for female adolescents
according to the scores from “The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale”. There is a significant difference between groups
in terms of t score (t=-17,63, p<,05). According to this finding, female adolescents have a lower self-esteem degree
than male adolescents. In terms of gender, direct peer pressure degree is 50,70 for females and 29,00 for males.
According to t value used in order to assess the significant difference of two groups, there is a significant difference
(t=-22,45, p<,05). Female adolescents are exposed to more direct peer pressure than male adolescents. Similarly,
the mean score of female adolescents is 21,18 and 28,42 for male adolescents in terms of indirect peer pressure
and there is a significant difference between two groups (t=-6,09,p<,05). Exposure to indirect peer pressure is
higher for male adolescents than female.
Findings dealing with the degrees of self-esteem and peer pressure in terms of adolescents’ level of income
is in Table 2.
Table 2. F-test results for adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure in terms of their level of income.
N mean Std. deviation F P
Low 144 26,53 8,21
93,45 ,000
290 24,45 9,29
66 40,18 3,83
Direct peer pressure
Low 144 38,92 21,38
33,57 ,000
290 41,55 11,14
66 25,56 2,94
Indirect peer pressure
Low 144 21,70 7,17
376,89 ,000
290 20,74 6,89
66 52,39 15,70
There is a significant difference between adolescents’ self-esteem degrees in terms of their level of income
(f=93,45, p<,05). According to “Peer Pressure Scale (PPS)”, direct peer pressure degree is found as f=33,57,
p<,05”, and indirect peer pressure degree as “f=376,89, p<,05”.
Tukey test results used to find out from which income level adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure
degrees take its source is given in Table 3.
Table 3. Tukey test results for adolescents’ self-esteem and
peer pressure in terms of their level of income
Dependent Variable (I) Income (J) Income Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig.
Self-esteem Low Normal 2,08* ,862 ,042
High -13,64
1,25 ,000
Normal High -15,73
1,15 ,000
Direct peer pressure Low Normal -2,62 1,45 ,170
High 13,36
2,12 ,000
Normal High 15,99
1,95 ,000
Indirect peer pressure Low Normal -13,36* 2,12 ,000
High -15,99* 1,95 ,000
Normal High -31,64* 1,17 ,000
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
Findings show that when adolescents’ peer pressure degree is viewed according to their level of income,
their self-esteem degree is higher with middle income level and vice versa with higher income level. Self-esteem
degree is negatively affected by peer pressure. However, there is a positive correlation between their self-esteem
degree and indirect peer pressure, and further analysis shows that there’s a negative correlation between their
statuses of being exposed to direct or indirect peer pressure. Adolescents with direct peer pressure perceive that
indirect pressure is less than the others.
Table 4 shows the findings for the status of adolescents’ exposure to peer pressure in terms of their level
of income.
Table 4. Correlation scores related to adolescents’ self-esteem and
exposure to peer pressure in terms of their level of income
Direct peer pressure Indirect peer pressure
Pearson Correlation -,613** ,396**
Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 ,000
N 500 500
Direct peer
Pearson Correlation - -,216**
Sig. (2-tailed) ,000
N 500
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 4 shows that there is a negative correlation between adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure
degrees (r= -.613, p<,01), and degrees of self-esteem is negatively affected because of self pressure levels. On the
other hand, there’s a negative correlation between adolescents’ self-esteem level and their indirect peer pressure
level (r=.396, p<,01). It is stated that when adolescents’ self-esteem level increases, their endurance towards
indirect peer pressure increases. There is a negative correlation between adolescents’ self-esteem level and their
exposure to indirect peer pressure level (r=-.216, p<,01). Adolescents who are exposed to direct peer pressure
perceive indirect peer pressure at a lower level.
It is found that female adolescents’ self-esteem degree is lower than male adolescents in terms of the
scores from The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). This finding is supported by the studies of Dukes and
Martinez (1994), Janet and Kristen (2001), Khanlou (2004). On the other hand, some researchers such as Ayyash-
Abdo and Alamuddin (2007), Hampton and Marshall (2000), Robins and Trzesiniewski (2002) state that self-
esteem doesn’t differ in terms of gender. Jindal and Pando (1982) found that female adolescents’ self-esteem level
is higher than male adolescents. According to the scores from Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) in terms of gender,
female adolescents have a higher level of peer pressure than male adolescents. While this finding is similar to the
study of De Rosier and Marcus (2005), there are some different points compared to the researches done by Kuik
Fast (2011), Robert Q. Valles (2007), Warden and McKinnon (2003). Female adolescents put more peer pressure
on their fellows, but male adolescents do it vice versa. In terms of indirect peer pressure level, male adolescents
put more indirect peer pressure than female adolescents.
It’s been stated that adolescents that are exposed to peer pressure are mostly males. Kampulainen
(1998) found some similar results. Woods (2004) stated that male to male peer pressure and female putting
pressure on both males and females cause male adolescents to be exposed to more peer pressure. Oral pressure,
as a way of indirect peer pressure, is used more by male adolescents (Stockdale at al. 2002; Nabuzoka, 2003)
According to adolescents’ self-esteem degree score in terms of their socioeconomic level, adolescents with
high level of income have a higher degree of self-esteem than middle-income and low-income adolescents. In the
light of this information, one can consider that socioeconomic advantages provided by parents give adolescents a
sense of security. This finding correlates with the studies of Anderson and Smith (2003) and Can (1986). Also,
degree of self-esteem increases when adolescents’ level of income is higher and adolescents with middle income
level are exposed to more direct peer pressure. This finding shows parallelism with the study of Stockdale at al.
(2002) When the correlation between adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure is examined, it’s found that there
is a negative correlation. This finding is parallel with the studies of Ryan (2000) and De Rosier and Markus (2005).
Self-esteem degree of adolescents decreases when they are exposed to peer pressure. Kapcı (2004) states that
not only children who are exposed to peer pressure but also the children who put pressure on the others are
negatively affected by that pressure. In terms of this situation, these children perceive themselves as nervous,
lonely and with low self-esteem. Peer pressure causes problems such as anxiety, depression, eating disorder and
psychosomatic symptoms. It has been found that there is a positive correlation between adolescents’ self-esteem
level and indirect peer pressure. Indirect peer pressure has a negative effect on adolescents’ self-esteem degree.
This result has similar points with Dacey and Traver’s (1996) study.
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The nation's future success lies with science and education!
Heydar Aliyev
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DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013
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Baku, Azerbaijan, 2013
Vol. 5. No. 3
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Academc Research" (IJAR-Azerbajan),
the bmonthly (January, March, May, July,
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DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013
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Vol. 5. No. 3. May, 2013
DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-3
1. T. El Haf, M. Benhamou, K. Elhasnaou, H. Kad
Fluctuaton spectra of supported membranes va long-flexble polymers
2. Manuel Alberto M. Ferrera, José Antóno Flpe, Marna Andrade
A note on partal dervatves equatons and utlty functons (revsted)
3. Abdulkadr Tuna
The nfluence of the 5E model on the elmnaton of msconceptons on the subject of trgonometry
4. A.V. Smolenc, E. Tatulescu, V.G. Gatan
Developng an RFID devce drver module for a data acquston system
5. Caner Gocer
Evaluaton of the problem ponts that form the thermal brdge n renforced concrete prefabrcated buldngs n terms
of heatng energy cost
6. Fars M. Al-Athar, Khaled K. Jaber
Bayesan estmaton for the symmetrc double Pareto dstrbuton wth mult-parameter Jeffreys pror nformaton
7. Sedat Kurugol, Cgdem Tekn
Wastes to be used ın manufacturıng of buıldıng materıals
8. A.Z.M. Badee, A.T. El-Akel, E.A. Moghazy, Abass I. Shereen
Effect of some treatments and dfferent dryng methods on the qualty and shelf-lfe of whole bolt fsh
9. Meltem Erol Duzbastılar
The usage frequency of the rhythm patterns ın Kreutzer's vıolın method
10. Iraky Khalfa, Amal Elsayed Aboutabl, Gamal S. Abdel Azz Barakat
An effcent contour based shape descrptor for santaton network ppes dgtal mages
11. Savas Guner, Necp Guven, Mehmet Ata Gokalp, Abdurrahm Gozen, Seyyd Serf Unsal
Fracture n long bones stablzed by Ender nals n patents wth “Osteogeness Imperfecta”
12. Ncoleta Crstna Gatan
Defnng the vertcal ntegraton of data acqured for ll-defned protocols
13. Mert Aydogmus, Omer Senel, Erkal Arslanoglu, N. Atalay Guzel, Gul Baltac
Effect of varous ntensty loadngs upon proprocepton n elte badmnton players
14. Mudhafar M. Al-Jarrah
A mult-factor authentcaton scheme usng keystroke dynamcs and two-part passwords
12.06.2019 Internatonal Journal of Academc Research
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15. Erkan Aydntan, Burcu E. Zyrek
The effects of llusve focus surfaces on user crculaton
16. Omama M. Ashry, Maha G. Solman, Neveen H. Mahmoud, Manar A. Ebrahm
Immunostmulatory role of Panax gnseng n rradated bone marrow transplanted rats
17. Alper Cenk Gurkan
A comparatve study of statc and dynamc balance n hearng-mpared natonal basketball and taekwondo
18. Roxana Oana Darabont
Duplex ultrasound scannng n the evaluaton of renal artery stenoss: sgnfcance of extrarenal versus ntrarenal
flow parameters
19. Erkut Tutkun, Sevg Canbaz, Hayrettn Gumusdag, Resul Cekn, Yldz Peksen, Brol Gulman
A retrospectve study of foot problems among hgh school students n Turkey
20. Kelech M.N. Onugbo, D.C. Idonboyeobu
Effectve lghtnng protecton scheme employng attractve dstance method
21. Hayrettn Gumusdag, Csem Unlu, Guner Ccek, Alpaslan Kartal, Fath Evl
The Yo-Yo ntermttent recovery test as an assessesment of aerobc-anaerobc ftness and game-related endurance
n soccer
22. Z. Ngad, M. Benhamou, A. Salek, M.R. Kabr
Relablty approach to multple corrosons: comparson to experment
23. Esn Gullu, Abdullah Gullu, Guner Ccek, Faruk Yamaner, Osman Imamoglu, Hayrettn Gumusdag
The effects of aerobc exercses on cardovascular rsk factors of sedentary women
24. Serag A. Farag Zaed, Lamyaa EL. EL-Sdeek, Mohamed M. Deabes, Dalal H.M. Alkhalfah, Mohamed H. Elgammal
Comparng effect of Egyptan, Saud Araban coffee cup preparatons on Ochratoxn A and Acrylamde content
25. D. Turkan Kejanl, Aysel Ylmaz
A culture from rural area to Dyarbakr: the tandoor and ts urban ntegraton
26. Medhat Mostafa Abozd, Mohsen M.S. Asker
Chemcal composton, antoxdant and antmcrobal actvty of the essental ol of the thyme and rosemary
27. Erkut Tutkun
Melatonn admnstraton n rats wth acute swmmng exercse prevents lpd peroxdaton n muscle tssue
28. Sam A. Metwally, M. Abou-Ellal, B.H. Abo-Lela, K.A. Aboud
Effect of laser radaton on the growth, anatomcal and bochemcal genetc markers of Celosa argentea plants
29. Aydn Senturk
The effect of dfferent warm-up ntenstes on wngate anaerobc power and capacty scores
30. M. Blal Bagbanc
Investgaton of nstallaton systems and structural falures of Ottoman publc baths n Bursa, Turkey
31. M.H. Shagal, D. Kubmarawa, W.A. Mshela
Producton of medcated soap usng Sclerocarya brrea plant extract
32. Alpaslan Kartal
Bomechancal analyss of female basketball players wth ankle nstablty
12.06.2019 Internatonal Journal of Academc Research
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33. Blgehan Baydl
The effect of acute maxmal aerobc exercse on humoral mmune parameters on healthy young males
34. Obneche C.N. Ndukwe, Promse Nkwocha, Okechukwu Onyelucheya
Crude palm kernel ol bleachng wth Ohya clay: complcatons of lnearzed second order knetc model
35. Gokalp Oner, Mustafa Tas, Burcu Kasap, Mahmut Tuncay Ozgun
Pernatal and neonatal outcomes of cgarette smokng n pregnancy
36. Altay Colak
Physcal assessment of urban transformaton projects: a case study of Adana Aksantas TOKI Housng
37. Yakup Akf Afyon, Abdurrahman Boyac
Investgaton of the effects by compostely edted core-plyometrc exercses n sedentary man on some physcal
and motorc parameters
38. Turgay Ozgur, Bahar Odabas Ozgur, Sahn Ozen
Dversty of anaerobc and respratory threshold determnaton methods
39. Muteber Erbay
Effect of use of color on percepton: example of entrance area n healthcare buldngs
40. Turgay Ozgur
The effects of eıght weeks of aerobıc exercıse on MaxVO2 and ısokınetıc muscle strength ın obese women
41. Zuhal Turktas, Busra Karakaya
Method of producton and some characterstcs of the felt skkes produced n Konya
1. Donald Elder, Zhmng Lu, Robn A. Wells, Mchael F. Shaughnessy
Current educatonal concerns n 2013 and beyond
2. Abdulkadr Tuna
The examnaton of the sklls of Turksh prospecve mathematcs teachers to model fractonal operatons
3. Ahmet Atalay, A. Serdar Yucel
“CEO“ applcatons n modern sports management
4. Cetn Ozdlek
Examnaton of prmary and secondary school students attendance to sport events and ther depresson level
accordng to several varables
5. Aytekn Alpullu, Guven Erdl, Burcn Olcucu
Determnaton of mage percepton of the vstors travelng for watchng sports games
6. Máro Da Slva Costa, Amlcar Selores Ramos, Sofa Portela
The nfluence of the thrd sector organzatons n socal and envronmental responsblty of the Polo Industral De
Manaus’s companes
7. Osman Dalaman
A comparatve study to nvestgate the pre-servce classroom teachers’ patterns of makng use of ther lesure tme
8. Omer Beyhan
Product portfolo and content knowledge levels of prospectve teachers: a study for need assessment
9. Ilker Ozmutlu, A.Haktan Svrkaya, Alper Cenk Gurkan, Mehmet Dalklc
An nvestgaton nto secondary school students’ atttudes towards physcal educaton and sports lessons (the
12.06.2019 Internatonal Journal of Academc Research
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example of Kars provnce)
10. Bandar Khalaf Alharthey, Amran Rasl, Rosman Md. Yusoff, Basheer M. Al-Ghazal
Impact of nnovaton culture on human resources management practces
11. Zeynep Akkus, Kursad Sertbas, Selman Cutuk
Mult-varable analyss of physcal educaton and college students’ shyness levels (example of Sakarya unversty)
12. Ata Atun
Armenan populaton n Eastern Anatola around 1915: a bref hstory of Armenan hoaxes
13. Murat Sentuna
The level of awareness of the Turksh coaches about Modern Olympc Games
14. Chong Shyue Chuan, Lm Chee Seong, Sa Bk Ka
Assessng elderly fnancal satsfacton: evdence from urban Malaysans
15. Aysun Dogutas
School volence n Amercan schools: teachers perceptons
16. Zeha Yakar, Blge Can, Hatce Besler
Does the teachng program effect on pre-servce teachers’ self-regulaton?
17. Burcn Olcucu
The effect of physcal educaton wth coordnaton on the development of certan motor characterstcs of 5-6 years
old chldren
18. Mohammad Abd alrahman Al -Thnebat
An analytcal evaluatve study of the Islamc culture questons artcle n ntermedate unversty degree (dploma) for
the years 2005 to 2011 n the Hashemte Kngdom of Jordan
19. Mustafa Uslu
Relatonshp between degrees of self-esteem and peer pressure n hgh school adolescents
Abstract: Ths study examnes the relatonshp between adolescents’ self-esteem and peer pressure degrees accordng to ther
gender and socoeconomc status. The data were obtaned from 500 hgh school students usng the Self-effcacy Expectaton
Scale, developed by Rosenberg (1965) and adapted by Cuhadaroglu (1986) and Kıran-Esen (2006), and the “Peer Pressure
Scale (PPS), developed by Kıran (2002). Fndngs show that when adolescents’ peer pressure degree s vewed accordng to
ther level of ncome, ther self-esteem degree s hgher wth mddle ncome level and vce versa wth hgher ncome level.
Another fndng s that adolescents wth lower ncome level are exposed to further peer pressure than mddle and hgh ncome
level. Self-esteem degree s negatvely affected by peer pressure. However, there s a postve correlaton between ther self-
esteem degree and ndrect peer pressure and further analyss shows that there’s a negatve correlaton between ther status of
beng exposed to drect or ndrect peer pressure. Adolescents wth drect peer pressure perceve that ndrect pressure s less
than the others.
Keywords: Self Esteem, Peer Pressure, Adolescence
Pages: 119-124
Cte ths artcle:
M. Uslu. Relatonshp between degrees of self-esteem and peer pressure n hgh school adolescents. Internatonal Journal of
Academc Research Part B; 2013; 5(3), 119-124.
20. Mehmet Dalklc, Hudaverd Mamak, Alper Cenk Gurkan, Izzet Ucan, Ilker Ozmutlu
Elementary students' partıcıpatıon ın sports actıvıtıes that are effectıve at the level of the socıo-cultural factors and
communıcatıon skılls
21. Hamt Ozen, Suleyman Karatas
An aplcaton of chaos theory to educatonal admnstrator’s behavor: Overwhelmng the cheatng crss on an
22. Arumugam Seetharaman, Swat Bajaj, John Ruddolph Raj, A.S. Saravanan
A consumers’ percepton of Wal-Mart n Inda
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23. Zekerya Bngol
The formaton strategy of toursm development n Medterranean Regon
24. Atla Yldrm, Al Unal, Abdullah Surucu
Incvl behavours at school: scale development
25. Enver Sar, Levent Yayc
The effect of the soluton-focused decson-makng tranng program on the vglant decson-makng of unversty
26. Wojcech Majka
A crtque of scentfc objectvsm
27. Hatce Srn, Erkan Faruk Srn
Research on the organzatonal commtment of the nstructors n terms of job satsfacton, and organzatonal
alenaton: school of physcal educaton and sports sample
28. Hamt Yokus
The relatonshp between the fear of negatve evaluaton and the achevement n specal apttude test n musc of
prospectve musc teacher canddates
29. Hayrettn Gumusdag
The nfluence of trat and state compettve anxety on aggresson: a study on professonal football players
30. Funda Kurak Acc
Hstorcal settlement of Trabzon nner castle
31. Kadr Blen
Effects of the hstory of scence course on preservce teachers’ knowledge and opnons about the nature of
32. R. Ferudun Dorak, Murat Ozsaker, Nlgun Vurgun
Identfcaton levels and motves: a case of among Turksh soccer spectators and fans
33. Mustafa Durmusceleb
Examnng canddate teachers’ learnng styles by some varables
34. Mustafa Toprak, Ahmet Cezm Savas
Effectve classroom management and faces: a search for relatonshp
35. Yasn Ozkara
The profle of pre-servce teachers’ tendences towards lkng of chldren
36. Salm Al Idrus
Entrepreneurshp course n State Islamc Hgher Educatons (SIHEs) of East Java: a learnng strategy perspectve
37. Ahmet Hakan Hancer
The correlaton between the scentfc process and creatve thnkng sklls of the preservce teachers
38. Ahmet Cezm Savas, Izzet Dos
A new school paradgm: “learnng school” from teachers perspectve
39. Rafał Kasperowcz
Energy consumpton, electrcty prces and ndustral producton n Poland
40. Denz Ayse Yazıcıoglu
Increasng the level of relablty of the lvng room cost-estmatng software used n the feasablty stage
41. Edwn Agus Bunarto
The nfluence of local fnancal performance, economc growth and nvestment growth toward the welfare of socety
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42. Mahmut Sagr, Izzet Dos
Perceptons of prospectve teachers who have taken professonal teachng knowledge courses about supervson
43. Pnar Guzel, Selhan Ozbey
Promoton of olympc values based on olympc soldarty programs
44. Al Mohammad Farhan Abdul Azz Al Zoub
Consoldaton of debt as consequence of jont and several lablty n the relatonshp between jont debtors and the
credtor “A comparatve study between the Jordanan law and the French law”
45. Coskun Arslan
An examnaton of the mpacts of group gudance based on communcatve sklls on conflct communcaton
46. Łukasz Nawrot
Research gap n toursm economcs – RES nvestments and nnovatons
47. Ilker Ozmutlu
Examnaton of communcaton sklls levels of students attendng to schools of physcal educaton and sports
48. Johna Horne, Mchael F. Shaughnessy
The response to nterventon program and gfted students: how can t facltate and expedte educatonal excellence
for ffted students n the regular educaton settng?
49. Zelha Tras, Coskun Arslan, Erdal Hamarta
An examnaton of reslence n unversty students n terms of self-esteem and socal self-effcacy
50. Agneszka Jagoda
Deskllng as the dark sde of the work specalzaton
51. Hamt Yokus
The pano and ts educaton: comparson of lesson content of musc preceptorshp program and pano and ts
52. Jeanne Pnkney, Mchael F. Shaughnessy
Teachng crtcal thnkng sklls: a modern mandate
53. Murat Pektas, Bahattn Denz Altunoglu, Cgdem Eks
An nvestgaton of envronmental lteracy concepts n Turksh elementary scence textbooks
54. Justyna Tanaś
Dfferentaton of suburbanzaton processes n Poznan agglomeraton
55. Gurbuz Ocak, Hasan Kzlkaya, Serkan Boyraz
Evaluaton of 6th grade Englsh currculum n terms of speakng sklls and dentfyng causes of speakng problems
students face
56. Katarzyna Anna Nawrot
EU-Chna economc relatons at the begnnng of the 5th generaton of the Chnese leaders
57. Semra Guven
Determnng vocatonal educaton undergraduate students’ educatonal needs for entrepreneurshp
58. Adam Plachcak
The basc deas of the Brtsh Thrd Way
59. Nese Ozkal
The relatonshp between achevement goal orentatons and self regulated learnng strateges of secondary school
students n socal studes courses
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60. Sona Huderek-Glapska, Radosław Trojanek
The mpact of arcraft nose on house prces
61. Selhan Ozbey
The ffth attempt to host the Olympad; Istanbul's bd for 2020 Summer Games
62. Anetta Zelnska
Sustanable development and eco-development versus natural valuable areas
63. Maja Prudzenca
A case study of factors of the publc-socal partnershp based on a non-proft organsaton CDI Europe
64. Cagla Pnar Utkutug, Aybge Demrc
Effects of cgarette packng warnngs on ntentons to qut cgarette: an expermental research on Turksh warnngs
65. Amneh Zakarah Al-sarayreh
The assessment estmatons for teachers of naton and socal educaton for the basc ffth grade n Al Karak
66. Mustafa Ozturk
Geography student teachers’ atttudes towards the EU and Europeans n Turkey
67. Agneszka Becla, Stansław Czaja
Problems of quanttatve dentfcaton of the term nformaton socety and knowledge-based economy (on the bass
of Poland)
68. Ismet Ergn
Secondary educaton 11th grade pyhscs lesson’s new currculum mplementaton’s effect n academc success
69. Agneszka Becla
Informatve determnants for the development of small and medum-szed enterprses n Poland after jonng
European Unon 2004-2012
70. Recep Ozkan, Mevlut Pala
The nvestgaton of the ablty classroom applcaton at prmary schools n terms of dfferent varables
71. Slávka Hlásna, Maran Horváth, Onur Köksal
Selected legslatve components of legal guarantees appled to approprate qualty of lfe n the Slovak Republc
72. Zartasha Aamr, Saqb Gulzar, Fatma Uzma, Saqlan Aslam Khan
Factors affectng the captal structure n energy sector of Pakstan
73. Elf Anda, Semra Güven
Hgh school teachers’ vews on the effects of etwnnng projects as a learnng envronment
74. Elżbeta Babula, Urszula Mrzygłód
Economc determnants of happness among European natons
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Beynəlxalq Elmi Araşdırmalar Jurnalı (BEAJ)
ISSN: 2075-4124 | DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013
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... In general behavior, teenagers may also perceive peer pressure as a constructive power. Students interaction with its peers could help enhance their capability and increase their academic performance in school performance in school because they could seek help from their peers that could seek help from peers that could serve as a motivation than working alone (Uslu, 2013). Even the presence of positive peer relationships can enhance the overall atmosphere of the classroom and encourage higher levels of both class particular and academic achievement (Spavin, 2007). ...
... Peer pressure could easily affect the self-esteem of students that important factor adolescence. Individual adopt attitudes towards a certain aspect that they encountered or they are aware (Uslu, 2013). Adolescents have a general sense that their friends may not value them or that a feeling of inferiority among friends may cause them to feel stressful. ...
Full-text available
Aim: This paper seeks to understand whether or not adolescents’ success and failure are determined by their peers and whether or not adolescents are pressured by their friends.Method: Chandigarh, India, public and private institution cross-sectional study. Chandigarh’s eighth, ninth, and tenth graders provided the samples. One thousand students from each of the city of Chandigarh’s 20 public and 20 private schools provided a total of 50 samples. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 was used for the data entry. Frequency tables, charts, and cross tables were used in the analysis. The chi-square test and the correlation coefficient were used to determine the degree of significance between the variables.Findings: Adolescents can’t imagine life without their peers, who play a pivotal role in shaping their identities and behaviors. Close friends share a special bond based on their interests, passions, and worries. Adolescents will resort to strategies to gain their peers’ respect and acceptance. They are constantly influenced by their peers and adopt their attitudes, behaviors, and practices. Involvement in social circles is crucial, but it comes with a heavy price: one’s social standing among their contemporaries can determine success or failure. They are constantly pressured to conform to the norms of their peers and are often teased or picked on if they don’t. Adolescents are especially vulnerable to the effects of peer pressure because their success or failure often depends on their peers.Implications/Novel Contribution: Adolescents will be able to use the findings to better understand the impact of peer pressure on decision-making. Thanks to the findings, parents will be better equipped to help their children overcome behavioral and social difficulties. They also give their kids the space and direction they need to become independent, responsible adults.
... Young people are therefore sensitive to the main tenets of socio-cultural conceptions, for instance engaging with others encourages behavioural patterns like dozing off or drinking during lectures (Bonein & Denont, 2013). Due to their propensity for communicating more with their peers at this age, children's social aspects may have an impact on them.In particular, when it comes to making choices and adopting moral principles, youngsters as they get older rely more on their friends than their relatives (Uslu, 2013).One's development is influenced by how effectively they interact and communicate with others in their social environment. Since it is believed that a student's academic success is correlated with the support they receive from their parents, teachers, and classmates (Chen, 2008). ...
Full-text available
This research work started out with the expectation that peer pressure at the university level is complex and multi-layered and that their influences on academic achievement would be essential and perhaps varied as well, partly with different motivational results from different peer relationships. Peers seem to be a permanent and integral part of university contexts, whose effects on overall development are largely influential. This is evidently seen at large among university students as there is a higher need for social acceptance in them. For the proposed study a sample of 200 students were selected by Stratified Random sampling technique from the different departments at the University of Kashmir. To get the data from the target population an instrument measuring peer pressure developed by Singh and Saini(2010) was used. The collected data were analyzed by applying ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. Significant difference among students of diverse subject backgrounds on peer pressure was found. Post Hoc Tukey HSD (beta) results confirmed that behavioral science students significantly differ from Science stream students on peer pressure.
... Females are said to exhibit higher conformity to peer influence than males. Affirming to the above assertion, Uslu (2013) in his study reveals in terms of gender, female students have a higher level of peer pressure than their male counterparts. In the same vain Boujlaleh (2006) reports that girls are the most influenced by peers and suffer from pressure which is sometimes more than the pressure faced by boys. ...
Examination malpractice has become a global cankerworm that has eaten so deep into our educational system and posing a serious threat to total development of students in our educational system. In search of solution to this anti-educational behavior, experts have attributed it to many factors including peer influence on the assumption that birds of a feather flock together and on the axiom; ‘show me your friends and I will tell you who you are’. This study therefore examined the peer group influence and gender as correlates of Library and Information Science students’ attitude towards examination malpractice and it implication for all round development of students. The study applied a correctional research design with a population sample of 259 LIS randomly selected from seven public universities in Nigeria offering degree programs in library and Information Science. The study was guided by three research questions and hypotheses respectively while the principle instrument used to elicit responses from the respondents was a structured question on peer group and library and information science students’ attitude towards examination malpractice’ whereas, the data obtained were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) (Pearson r) which basically was used to establish the relationship between peer group influence and Library and Information Science students attitude towards examination malpractice. The outcome of this study revealed that library and information science students generally have negative attitude towards examination malpractice and frown at it. The result also shows that both male and female students’ attitude towards this canker-worm was same. In the end, it was recommended among others that parents, university management and heads of library schools should regularly organize school programs promoting healthy peer relationship and upholding students’ value of negative attitude towards examination malpractice as discovered by this study for all round development of students.
... social pressure, awkwardness, or rejection) is most common among females (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004, 2012 and among individuals who report lower self-esteem (Cooper et al., 2016b;Stewart & Devine, 2000). These findings may also reflect literature suggesting that individuals with low levels of self-esteem may be more prone to conformity (Uslu, 2013), such as in situations where they experience peer pressure to drink alcohol. Perhaps female students with higher self-esteem, as compared to those lower in self-esteem, are more likely to identify and engage in protective behavioral strategies (e.g., drinking water in between alcoholic drinks) while around others who are drinking, which leads to consuming less alcohol (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2012). ...
Over the past two decades, rates of alcohol use among female students have risen to meet or even surpass those seen among males. Yet, little is known about factors that play a role in the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption for female college students. The present study examines self-esteem as a moderator in the association between categories of drinking motives and alcohol use in a sample of female college students. Participants included 196 female undergraduates who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the preceding month (Mage= 19.5 years, 88.8% White) at a northeastern public university. Participants completed an online questionnaire assessing self-esteem, drinking motives, and past month alcohol use. Self-esteem was significantly negatively correlated with coping (r=-.40, p<.001) and conformity motives (r=-.22, p=.002) but not enhancement or social motives. Main effects predicting alcohol use were detected for enhancement (b = 1.49, p<.001), coping (b = 1.73, p<.001), and social motives (b = 1.34, p<.001), but not conformity motives or self-esteem. The interaction of conformity motives and self-esteem was significant (b=-0.17, p=.04). Simple slopes analyses revealed that conformity motives were significantly positively related to alcohol consumption for at low (b = 1.53, p=.001), but not high levels (b=-0.39, p=.61) of self-esteem. No other interactions were significant. Assisting female college students with increasing their self-esteem may be an effective component of intervention programs targeting alcohol consumption, particularly among those who report drinking to fit in.
... Adolescence social environment could affect teenagers in their adolescence, because mostly in this period teenagers tend to communicate more by their peers. As children grow and reach adolescence, teenagers become more dependent on their peers than their family especially in making choices and enhancing their moral values in life (Uslu, 2013). Human development is affected by its socialization with other people in the environment. ...
... Self-esteem literally implies how much value people put on their self-concept. It also implies one's subjective evaluation of self-worth or a person's belief about whether he or she is smart and pretty [30], [31]. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs and emotions such as pride, despair, and shame [17].Literature has revealed that self-esteem of young adults may be affected by peer relationships, media, models etc. [32]. ...
Full-text available
Despite the social threats and devastating consequences of indecent dressing on students, female undergraduates in Universities in Anambra State still indulge in it without cognizance of acceptable dressing ethics. In view of the dangers it portends, this study examined body image and self-esteem as culpable factors which predispose undergraduates to indecent dressing. Using correlation research design for the study, two research questions were posed whereas two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. In the method section, we utilized multi-stage sampling technique to manage the 21,532 population female undergraduates in Universities in Anambra State. After sample reduction, a sample of 1,250 female undergraduate students was selected from two public universities in Anambra State. During the survey, opinion of the female undergraduates was elicited using Body Image and Self-Esteem Questionnaire (BISEQ) and Indecent Dressing Scale (IDS). Reliability of both instruments was determined using Cronbach Alpha method and alpha coefficients of 0.71 and 0.69 were obtained for BISEQ and IDS respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation for answering research questions and Regression statistical analysis for testing the hypotheses. The results indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between body image and indecent dressing among undergraduate students in universities in Anambra State. There is a positive and significant relationship between self-esteem and indecent dressing among undergraduate students in universities in Anambra State. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that policies should be made and implemented against indecent dressing in universities.
... Individual and social environment may influence career choices, as individuals interact more with their peers, mostly in this phase. As children grow and hit puberty, adolescents tend to be more reliant on their peers than their parents, particularly as they make decisions and develop their fundamental goals in life (Uslu, 2013). ...
Full-text available
This study was an attempt to explore the effect of peer attachment on career decision making among undergraduate students. A sample of 528 undergraduate students of the education department was selected from public and private universities of Lahore through a stratified random sampling technique. The questionnaire used for data collection was comprised of demographic information, career decision making self-efficacy developed by Betz, Klein and Taylor (1996) and inventory of peer and parental attachment developed by Armsden and Greenberg (1987) and revised by Gullone and Robinson (2005). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between variables. An independent sample t-test was applied to determine the difference between the groups. The results showed that peer attachment has a significant effect on CDMSF.
The rapid development of technology has penetrated almost all sectors of the society and makes any form of resistance almost impossible. The incorporation of digital technology into adolescent's daily life, as well as its impact on their cognitive, emotional, and social development, is growing by the day. They can use technology to play, explore, and learn in a variety of ways. This is because their brains are so adaptable, these learning opportunities represent a vital growth stage throughout this time period, which helps and encourages them to improve their communication skills and knowledge. No one will deny the numerous benefits that accrue from digital technology usage such as the internet and social network, which is an instant hit site that launches individuals into the world beyond imagination. A growing number of adolescents believe that happiness is linked to direct and indirect interactions with digital environments and technology that facilitate and mediate communication. This study investigated the effects of digital technology on adolescents in Nigeria.
Full-text available
The study focused on peer pressure as a contemporary issue in teenage upbringing.
Full-text available
The study focused on peer pressure as a contemporary issue in teenage upbringing. To help attained the above objective, descriptive survey research design was adopted. Taro Yamane formula was used to determine the sample size of the study, while to determine the proportion of the sample size, the proportionate sampling formula was used. Structured questionnaire were distributed to the sampled size of the study. Therefore, data obtained were analyzed using frequency, percentage and cumulative percentage. The result obtained were; the negative effects of peer pressure in teenage upbringing include smoking, alcoholism, immoral behaviours, sexual abuse and drug addiction while the positive effects of peer pressure in teenage upbringing include; it leads to good academic result among the peer group; positive family background of peers, affects their behaviour in general; peer pressure can help someone improve on his/her health; leads to change in behaviour from bad to good; brings about growth building; leads to hard work at job; and leads to encouragement of one another. Based on the result obtained, it was suggested that proper parental monitoring can reduce the negative influence of peer pressure on teenage upbringing; there should be cordial relationship between parent and their teenage child; and parents should endeavor to instill discipline in children.
Full-text available
This study aimed to explore the prevalence of obsessions and compulsions in Pakistani community. 80 Patients (40 Males and 40 Females) who satisfied DSM-IV T R criteria for obsessive compulsive disorder were included in the study. Prevalence of different types and forms of obsessions and compulsions was assessed using the literature review, DSM IV TR criteria, patient clinical file and a self designed Checklist. The most frequent Obsessions were found to be dirt and contamination, fear of losing & insecurity, Checking, Religious thoughts, arrangement & order. Compulsions found in research were washing & cleaning, checking, arrangement & ordering, hoarding. No major gender based differences regarding obsessions and compulsions were found. Obsessions and compulsions are common in the adult OCD patients. The particular types of OCD are important for clarifying etiology of disorder and improving treatment outcomes.
Full-text available
In this research the difference in the students’ smoking according to their peer pressure levels and gender is examined. This study is executed in 2001-2002 academic year on 718 2nd grade high school students (311 girls and 407 boys) between ages 15-17 who are impartially selected by cluster sampling and random sampling techniques. A Peer Pressure Scale, developed by the author, is used to determine the peer pressure. Information about the frequency of students’ smoking is calculated according to the answers of students. The relations between variables and the difference between scores are analyzed by chi-square test. The results show that, there is a significant relation (p< 0.05) between peer pressure levels and smoking. It is, however, determined that gender does not bring about a meaningful differentiation on adolescents’ smoking. Existence of a relation between smoking and peer pressure among adolescents makes it necessary for the schools’ psychological counseling and guidance services to cover studies about decreasing peer pressure.
Full-text available
Examining the extent, nature, and scope of peer group influence on academic outcomes is an important direction for future research to enrich our understanding of adolescent motivation, engagement, and achievement. Conceptual and methodological issues involved in studying peer groups are discussed. Existing research that addresses the influence of peer groups on academic outcomes is reviewed. Processes of how peer groups socialize achievement beliefs and behaviors are considered. Promising directions for future research are discussed.
Full-text available
Two samples, consisting of a total of 1,027 6th–12th graders from separate communities, were given measures of peer conformity dispositions (willingness to accede to peer pressure), perceptions of peer pressure, and self-reported frequency of behavior concerning 2 major aspects of teenage life: peer involvement (degree of socializing with friends) and misconduct (drug/alcohol use, sexual intercourse, and minor delinquent behavior). Results indicate that Ss perceived less peer pressure toward misconduct than peer involvement and also were comparatively less willing to follow peers in misconduct. Nevertheless, perceived peer pressure and conformity disposition accounted for more of the variance in self-reported misconduct than in self-reported peer involvement. Age differences were modest and varied among measures and samples. The samples also differed in the magnitude of perceived pressures and conformity dispositions as well as in the degree to which these variables were associated with self-reported behavior. It is concluded that the findings reveal a complexity in adolescent conformity that bears elaboration in future research. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The purposes of this study were three fold. First, it examined value differences between Americans and Chinese people with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Second, it assessed the impact of culture and gender on life satisfaction. Third, it explored patterns of correlates of life satisfaction in the two groups. The results indicated that Americans and Chinese people with SCI differed significantly in the values of family integrity and separation from ingroups. Although Americans were more satisfied with their lives than the Chinese, culture-related values did not appear to influence life satisfaction. Also, gender was not consistently related to life satisfaction in the two groups. In addition, Americans differed from the Chinese in the patterns of the correlates of life satisfaction. For the Americans, there were four variables (perceived health status, self-efficacy, self-reliance, and marital status) that significantly correlated with life satisfaction. However, for the Chinese, only self-efficacy and perceived health status were related to life satisfaction. Implications of these findings for rehabilitation practitioners and future studies are discussed.
In this article the concept of mobbing is introduced. Mobbing means harassing, ganging up on someone, or psychologically terrorizing others at work. Although mobbing is a very old phenomenon, it was not described and systematically researched until the early 1980s. The article begins with a case example, some historical notes, and a definition of mobbing, and then regards mobbing in the context of medical and psychological stress research. Several stages in the development of mobbing are described, based on about 800 case studies. Some epidemiological findings from a representative sample of the Swedish work population are reported. Causes and consequences of mobbing are discussed, and conclusions for prevention and intervention are drawn.
Administered the Rorschach test to 60 high- and low-achieving Indian students, aged 14+ yrs. Results indicate that low-achieving boys had a high level of general anxiety; low-achievers, irrespective of sex, were more anxious than high-achievers. Girls in general, irrespective of achievement level, possessed more anxiety than boys. High-achieving girls had more anxiety only concerning their bodily functions, whereas they did not differ significantly from the other groups in the personality disposition of general anxiety. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)