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Abstract

The present study was aimed to map the impact of Training and Development practices on overall employee engagement and also with respect to different factors of employee engagement. These factors are Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Advocacy, Pride, Intention to Stay and Emotional Connect. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect primary data of 450 respondents. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant effect of Training and development on Job satisfaction, Organizational commitment, Advocacy, Pride, Intention to stay and overall employee engagement score. However, training and development had no effect on Emotional connect of the employees.
Asian J. Management; 8(1): January March, 2017
1
ISSN 0976-495X (Print) www.anvpublication.org
2321-5763 (Online)
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Enhancing Employee Engagement Through Training and Development
Dr. Shilpa Jain1*, Ms. Nitya Khurana2
1Assistant Professor, University School of Management Studies, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University,
New Delhi
2Research Scholar, University School of Management Studies, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University,
New Delhi
*Corresponding Author E-mail: shilpajain.usms@gmail.com, nityakhurana86@gmail.com
ABSTRACT:
The present study was aimed to map the impact of Training and Development practices on overall employee
engagement and also with respect to different factors of employee engagement. These factors are Job
Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Advocacy, Pride, Intention to Stay and Emotional Connect. A self
administered questionnaire was used to collect primary data of 450 respondents. The results of the study revealed
that there is a significant effect of Training and development on Job satisfaction, Organizational commitment,
Advocacy, Pride, Intention to stay and overall employee engagement score. However, training and development
had no effect on Emotional connect of the employees.
KEY WORDS: Employee Engagement, Training and Development, Job satisfaction, Organizational
commitment
INTRODUCTION:
"Highly engaged employees make the customer
experience. Disengaged employees break it."
--Timothy R. Clark
Employee Engagement is the employee’s commitment to
his or her organization and the eagerness to perform
beyond expectations, has become a target area for
management. Engagement does not only mean job
satisfaction, it is much more than that. Highly engaged
employees are dedicated and motivated in making the
organization a success. Engagement is “A feeling of
psychological connect with the organization emerging
out of pleasurable or positive emotional state leading to
job satisfaction, commitment, sense of pride towards the
Received on 24.11.2016 Modified on 17.12.2016
Accepted on 25.12.2016 © A&V Publicationsall right reserved
Asian J. Management; 2017; 8(1):56-64.
DOI:
organization, wanting to stay with the organization,
forming emotional connect and recommending others
also to work with the organization (Lather and Jain,
2014)”. The world's top-performing organizations
understand that employee engagement is an effort that
stimulates business outcomes. Employee Engagement is
arguably the most integral metric for organizations
in the 21st Century.
Encapsulated by the images of encounter, engagement is
connected with the active collaboration and investment
of a person, not solely parts into role performance. In the
context of organizations, engagement has a more explicit
meaning. Within the workplace these synergies clearly
reveal themselves in the contract of employment wherein
employees take a pledge to serve their employer, show
responsibility towards their job, and assume the
accountability of employment. Employees of the
organization invest their energies to comprehend and
embark these roles. And thus, they feel associated and
involved in the roles and responsibilities they perform. It
is precisely evident that whenever employees of the
Asian J. Management; 8(1): January March, 2017
2
organization are mentally and emotionally engaged they
push the organization to unmatchable heights.
The progressively aggressive business environment has
propelled the organizations to focus to the vital issue of
employee engagement in an attempt to explain the
underlying factors of employee motivation and
performance. According to Gallup (2005) engagement
was considered imminent, especially when the nature of
the job is universal and persuasive part of an employee’s
well-being, which not only alters the life of the employee
but also one’s mental and physical health Wrzesniewski,
Rozin, and Bennett (2002).
Kirke (2012) argued that engaged employee having the
needed knowledge, skills and proficiency is critical for
any organization seeking growth and success in business.
In the current dynamic business scenario, training and
development has gained significance in keeping
employees engaged and sustaining a competitive edge.
Appropriate training and development plans to nurture
talent can increases the level of engagement. It also
assists in enhancing employee performance by widening
the learning base of the employees which would
ultimately lead to better organizational performance.
Different employees have different meaning of
satisfaction. Some want that they are valued for
whatever job they doing while other, seek development
opportunities and diversity in their work profile.
Organizations now-a-days rely on training and
development as a one stop solution to address all these
different needs of the employee to promote employee
engagement. Organizations which invest in training and
development are considered more positively by
employees in comparison to those who don’t.
Carly (2012) profess the idea of many researchers who
had consistent thoughts that engaged employees are
more productive, and one of the best way to engage then
is by offering better training and development
opportunities. She also highlighted a few important areas
which are when focused upon enhances employee
engagement in the organization. These are:
Encouraging Innovation by creating an environment
of learning and innovation among employee so that
they feel connected to the organization.
Ensuring continuous improvements through training
and development.
Managing employee engagement as an integral
business process.
Focus on individual training and development plans.
Creating a culture of holistic thinking about
employee development and engagement.
Intensify on accelerating employee engagement and
satisfaction through training and development plans
rather than barely on business benefits.
Create an impression that the organization is seriously
concerned about their employees and is always ready to
invest its time and money for its employees.
Ensure proper feedback after training is imparted to
ascertain the level of satisfaction and engagement among
employees.
It is thus imperative that organizations should invest in
employees training and development activities to
improve employee engagement. With this premise the
present study was conducted to see the impact of training
and development on engagement among employees of
National Capital Region of India.
LITERATURE REVIEW:
Numerous researches are conducted across the globe to
map employee engagement and to understand its
linkages with other factors. Many international research
and consulting firms such as Hewitt Associates, Gallup,
BI Worldwide, and Tower Watson etc have undertaken
researches on engagement in Indian firms. Big
corporations of private sector and a few public sector
corporations are conducting this type of study with the
help of international consulting and research
organization.
The most crucial asset possessed by organizations is its
employees. They are considered as the intellectual
capital of the organization. Using, this intellectual
capital has now become a major source through which
organization’s gain competitive edge in this dynamic
business environment.
Khan et.al. (2016) construed that training and
development and job satisfaction are to important
parameters of employee performance. In their study they
made an attempt to study the effect of training and
development on performance of the employee through
job satisfaction. A sample of 105 employees from
telecom companies in Pakistan were collected and
analyzed. The results revealed that there is a positive
impact of training and development on job satisfaction
and performance of the employees. Thus they concluded
that by investing in training and development programs
job satisfaction among the employees will increase.
Hence the satisfied employees will perform their
assigned tasks responsibly and with best performance.
Nkosi (2015) conducted a research in a Local
Municipality located in Mpumalanga Province, South
Africa with a prime objective of analyzing the effect of
training on commitment of the employees, their
performance and retention. A total of 130 responses
were collected using convenience sampling. Data was
analyzed using regression analysis and it was found that
Asian J. Management; 8(1): January March, 2017
3
training had a significant impact on commitment of the
employees, their performance and retention.
Arunmozhi (2015) conducted a research on employee
engagement and involvement at ICICI bank, Chennai.
Responses were collected and analyzed from 300
employees. The statistical analysis revealed that that
there is a significant difference amongst the engaged and
disengaged employees with respect to employees who
underwent training and those employees who didn’t
undergo any training to enhance the work efficiency.
Results show that Employee engagement has a positive
correlation with performance of the employee, safety of
the officers and their retention. While, employee
engagement did not had any correlation with recognition
and incentive for job, and job satisfaction among the
employees.
Deloitte (2015) in its refreshed model of engagement
also highlighted training and development as growth
opportunity which supports in improving the employee
engagement in the organization apart from other factors
like meaningful work, hands on management, positive
work environment and trust in leadership.
Terera and Ngirande (2014) studied the impact of
training on employee job satisfaction and retention of
employees at a selected tertiary institution. They
collected data from 120 respondents using random
sampling. They concluded that although employee
satisfaction and retention have a significant positive
relationship however, there is no significant relationship
between training and retention of employees.
Nawaz et.al. (2014) conducted a study in Pakistan to
examine the relationship among training, empowerment,
employee engagement and creativity. The results of their
study exhibits that there exists a positive relationship
between training and employee engagement. They
validated the social exchange theory which states that
organizations which invest in the employee training and
empowerment are likely to build a sense of commitment
among the employees. And this commitment ultimately
leads to employee engagement which further enhances
creativity of the employees.
Vasudevan (2013) conducted a study to understand the
effect of training on job satisfaction, work commitment
and job performance. Responses were collected from
180 employees of Malaysia. Correlation and regression
analysis were used to establish the relationship between
the variables. The results of the study revealed that
different parameter of training like training need
analysis, training commitment, Content of the training,
delivery approaches and training evaluation were
positively correlated and had a significant impact on job
satisfaction, work commitment and performance.
Gamage and Imbulana (2013) conducted a research to
study the impact of training and development on
performance of the employees. The parameters on which
the performance of employees was judged were
absenteeism, productivity and job satisfaction. The study
was conducted on call center employees in Sri Lanka.
They collected a sample of 226 respondents. The results
showed that training and development had significant
positive relationship with productivity of the employee
and job satisfaction. However, there exists a significant
negative relationship between training and development
and absenteeism.
Costen and Salazar (2011) in an attempt to understand
the effect of training and development on job satisfaction
of the employees, their loyalty and intention to stay with
the organization in lodging industry in the United States.
Results of the study revealed that job satisfaction, loyalty
and intention to stay are higher among employees who
receive proper training and development in different
areas to develop new skills.
Owoyemi, Oyelere, Elegbede and Gbajumo-Sherif
(2011) construed that employee commitment towards
organization can be enhanced through training. They
collected 250 responses from employees and
management staff of a financial firm in Nigeria. On
regressing the data it was revealed that there is a
significant positive impact of different levels of training
on employee commitment. And thus they concluded that
on increasing the training in the organization the level of
employee commitment towards their organization will
improve.
Hewitt (2011) defined six categories which drives
engagement in an organization. These were: People
which includes senior leadership, manager, coworkers,
customers; Total rewards which includes pay, benefits,
recognition; Company practices which includes
practices: policies and people practices, performance
assessment, company reputation; Work which includes
work, resources, processes; Opportunities which
includes career opportunities, learning and development
and Quality of Life which includes work life balance.
Bulut and Culha (2010) conducted a study to examine
the effect of training on employee commitment taking
into consideration the emotional and affective responses
of employees towards their organization. A sample of
298 respondents was collected from 4 star and 5 star
hotels operating in Izmir, Turkey. The finding of their
study shows that there is positive impact of all the
Asian J. Management; 8(1): January March, 2017
4
different dimensions of training on employee
commitment.
Dessler and Varkkey (2009) construed that the selecting
employees carefully does not assure effective
performance. They emphasized that performance and
potential are two different parameters. Employees
having potential does not guarantee performance unless
they know how and what is to be done. Trainings resort
to this problem. It helps in developing the basic skills
among the employees that are needed to perform their
jobs. They accentuated the significance of training, as a
continuous attempt to enhance the employee
performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitude
and increasing skills, in employee engagement and
involvement.
Irmer and Jorgensen (2009) in their model of employee
engagement proposed that Learning and Development,
Reward and Recognition, Job Design, Leadership and
Work Environment are key drivers to Emotional
Engagement, Rational Engagement, Discretionary
Efforts, and Intention to Stay.
Chiang, Back and Canter (2005) conducted a study in
hotel industry to explore the impact of training on
training quality and increasing training satisfaction, job
satisfaction, and intention to stay. The results of the
study revealed that there was a positive impact of
training on job satisfaction and training satisfaction.
They also construed that job satisfaction progressively
led to intention to stay. Also, there existed an indirect
effect of training quality on intention to stay which was
mediated by job satisfaction.
Robinson et. al. (2003) identified Training and
development, performance appraisal, communication,
equal opportunities and fair treatment, pay and benefits,
health and safety, cooperation, Family friendliness and
Job satisfaction as the main factors that lead to a feeling
of valued and involvement which in turn enhances
engagement in their IES (Institute of employment
studies) engagement model.
Roehl and Swerdlow (1999) conducted a research to
analyse the attitude of Hotel employee towards training
and its relationship with employee commitment. Factors
like satisfaction, morale, quality of management and
awareness to rules, had an indirect effect on training and
employee commitment was also taken into
consideration. The study was conducted in United States.
The findings of the study suggested that training is
substantial to the benefit of franchise lodging
organizations because it not only has a direct positive
relationship with perception of supervisor quality,
morale and awareness of rules but also a significant
indirect effect on organizational commitment.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
The objectives of conducting this study are:
To study the impact of training and development on
employee engagement.
To study the impact of training and development on,
different parameters of employee engagement, that is,
Job satisfaction, Organizational commitment, Intention
to stay, Pride, Advocacy and Emotional Connect.
SAMPLE:
The study was conducted on working professional of
different organizations in National Capital Region of
India. A sample of 450 employees was collected and
analyzed using regression analysis. There were 295
males and 155 females whose age group ranges from 18
years to more than 55years. The sample was collected
from employees at different levels of management.
Hence, the sample included responses from 211 entry
level managers, 180 middle level managers and 59
senior level managers (Table 1).
Table 1 Respondent profile
Gender
Male
Female
295
155
Marital
Status
Single
Married
210
240
Age Group
Young adults:
(18-35 years)
Mid. Age
adults
(36-55 years)
Senior adults
(55years and
above)
277
144
29
Level of
Management
Entry level
Manager
Middle level
Manager
Senior level
Manager
211
180
59
Sector of
Employment
Public
Private
86
364
Tools Used
Training and Development:
A 7 itemed questionnaire was constructed to measure the
training and development practices in the organization.
The validity of the questionnaire was established by
confirmatory factor analysis. The cronbach alpha
reliability score was calculated as 0.831. .
Employee Engagement Scale:
A 26 itemed employee engagement scale developed by
Lather and Jain (2014) was used to measure Employee
Engagement. The scale had six dimensions of employee
engagement, that is, organizational commitment, job
satisfaction, advocate, intent to stay, pride and emotional
connect. The reliability score of various dimensions were
Asian J. Management; 8(1): January March, 2017
5
Job Satisfaction (.870), Organizational Commitment
(.858), Advocate (.831), Pride (.891), Intent to Stay
(.806), and Emotional Connect (.784).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:
Correlation coefficients were calculated for various
factors of Employee Engagement of the overall sample.
The results reveal that there is a significant positive
correlation between Training and development and Job
Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Advocacy,
Pride, Intent to stay and overall employee Engagement.
While there is insignificant correlation between Training
and Development and Emotional connect (Table 2).
Table 2. Pearson Correlation of Training and Development with
various factors of Employee Engagement.
Sig.
Job Satisfaction
.000
Organizational
Commitment
.000
Advocacy
.000
Pride
.000
Intent to stay
.000
Emotional Connect
.187
Employee Engagement
.000
The training and development score of the respondents
was regressed with different employee engagement
factors. The results indicated that there is a significant
impact of Training and development on job satisfaction
and it contributes to 35.7% (Adjusted R2= .357) change
in the level of job satisfaction. It means that
organizations seeking improvement in the job
satisfaction of its employees can invest in training and
development programs. Similarly, there is a significant
impact of training and development on Organizational
Commitment contributing to 23.9% (Adjusted R2= .239);
Advocacy contributing to 21.1% (Adjusted R2= .211);
Pride contributing to 25.2% (Adjusted R2= .252); and
Intent to Stay contributing to 25.5% (Adjusted R2=
.255). However, the results clearly indicated that
Training and development practices do not have an
impact on the Emotional Connect of the employees
(Adjusted R2= .000). This means that emotional connect
is a variable which is more intrinsic in nature and is
related to the inner emotions of an employee with the
organization and is certainly not affected by any change
in the extrinsic variable like training and development
(Table 3).
Table 3. Regression Analysis of Training and Development on various factors of Employee Engagement.
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
F (Sig.)
R Square
Adjusted R
Square
B
Std.
Error
Beta
t
Sig.
Job Satisfaction
250.712
(.000)
0.359
0.357
0.703
0.044
0.599
15.834
.000
Organizational
Commitment
142.297
(.000)
0.241
0.239
0.356
0.03
0.491
11.929
.000
Advocacy
120.762
(.000)
0.212
0.211
0.227
0.021
0.461
10.989
.000
Pride
152.555
(.000)
0.254
0.252
0.254
0.021
0.504
12.351
.000
Intent to stay
154.944
(.000)
0.257
0.255
0.391
0.031
0.507
12.448
.000
Emotional Connect
.794
(.373)
0.002
.000
0.023
0.026
0.042
0.891
.373
Employee
Engagement
237.531
(.000)
0.346
0.345
1.954
0.127
0.589
15.412
.000
On regressing the training and development score with
the overall employee engagement score, it was evident
that there is a significant impact of Training and
development on employee engagement which
contributes to 34.5% (Adjusted R2= .345). This means
that organizations can enhance the level of employee
engagement by invest in suitable training and
development programs.
CONCLUSION:
As evident from the results of the present study
individual bring in organizations their own deep rooted
psyche. This is developed out of their socialization in
life. That is why training and development did not have
any impact on the emotional connect of the employees
with their organization. While, the results of this study
clearly shows that there a significant impact of training
and development practices on job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, advocacy, intent to stay,
pride and the overall employee engagement. Thus, we
can say that there are many factors through which
employee engagement can be improved in an
organization and out of these factors, training and
development is one important factor. Organizations
which invest in their employee’s development are likely
to have better engaged employees.
Asian J. Management; 8(1): January March, 2017
6
MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS:
The results of the present study clearly depicts that
managers can enhance the employee engagement in their
organisation by taking the following steps:
Mangers should not only identify critical skills
required by each employee to perform their assign
tasks but also find out whether employee needs
trainings in those critical skills.
Managers should make sure that employees of the
organisation receive trainings in time whenever they
are needed.
Managers should periodically discuss the individual
development plans with each employee.
Organizations must assign the head of the HR
department with the responsibility of assisting and
advising on Training and development activities and
procedures for each unit.
Managers of each unit in the organization should
ensure that Training and development activities are
performed.
And lastly, Managers must use appropriate
measurement tools determine the status and
performance of training and development activities.
LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH:
The study is limited to a sample of 450 employees of
Delhi/NCR. The finding of this study therefore may not
have universal applicability to other organizations. Also,
since the study is conducted in India, its applicability is
limited to other countries.
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Employee training is a learning experience that brings about a permanent change in employee behavior in the sense of increased productivity. Training is mainly concerned with the improvement and up gradation of the skills and knowledge of the employees which ultimately adds into the job performance by enhancing employee engagement. Training and development is the key element to enhance employee engagement. Employees if, are provided with ample training to manage their stress at work or at home are more productive and engaged to their job. Moreover Training and developing employees for error management and/or error avoidance whether indoor or outdoor does have relationship with employee engagement. Revenge motive can be reduced by training employees in stress management, ethical training and conflict management. A clear direction should be provided about ethics through training the individuals to enhance their engagement towards their job performance. Risk of conflict can also be reduced and avoided if employees are positively trained both for EE and Organizational performance. The study focuses upon the impact of training on employee engagement by exclusively spotlighting Stress Management (SM), Error Management (EM), Ethics and Conflict Management (CM). Training heaving said factors if addressed puts a significant effect on the employee engagement for the ultimate wellbeing of the organization. Thus by providing the right type of training and development the employee engagement can be affected in either way. The questionnaire contained total of 28 items for six independent and one dependent variable using a five point likert scale and the data was collected from a sample of 226 employees using a random selection method from three telecommunication companies of Pakistan.
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