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Abstract

In the last years, the development of 3D technologies applied to the field of Cultural Heritage (CH) has led to results of the utmost importance from the point of view of preservation, valorisation, communication and fruition of our assets. In particular, we experienced many interdisciplinary projects in which, thanks to the cooperation of different fields of research, incredible results have been obtained, through the technological collaboration of computer graphics and documentation, of industrial engineering and preservation and access of CH. This paper aims at drawing attention to the actual technologies in use for solid printing (digital fabrication) used for the realization of material copies, therefore tangible, of three-dimensional digital virtual models. Even though ulterior developments to these technologies are possibilities to be expected, the process of 3D printing has gradually gained levels of accuracy, which can nowadays be deemed as satisfying. This is even more true in the industrial field (from the manufacturing industry to the design industry), but also in other fields, such as the medical one, for example, for the realization of artificial limbs, and the CH field, which can benefit from new instruments for the restoration and preservation of cultural assets in museums. The metric characteristics of precision and accuracy of the model printed with 3D technology are the fundaments for everything concerning Geomatics, and have to be related with the same characteristics of the digital model obtained through the survey analysis. In other terms, the precision of the printed product must be evaluated in relation to the precision of the instruments used in the analysis. Thus, in the CH field there is the possibility of new systems of access, cataloguing and study, where the models, both virtual and tangible, represent the fundament of visualization and analysis of the form (also from the metric point of view) of each artefact of artistic and historical interest.

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... Additive manufacturing (AM) has been widely employed in different applications to produce complex functional parts using a range of engineering materials [47]. Many reviews have been conducted on the AM techniques with specific information [15,16,48,49]. Here, we briefly outline the AM techniques that have been commonly used in fabricating a variety of energy-absorbing structures in the open literature. ...
... Fused deposition modeling (FDM), also known as fused filament fabrication (FFF), is the most widely used AM technique, which was developed by Scott Crump at the end of the 1980s and commercialized in the 1990s by Stratasys [47,49]. Typically, the FDM system consists of a fabrication platform, a print bed, a material spool, an extrusion nozzle, and a drive wheel, as illustrated in Figure 3(a). ...
... Another attempt to suppress the shear bands in the deformation process is to use the heat treatment method [57]. The printed parts are post-processed through a one-hour solution 49 treatment at 520°C and a six-hour water quench and artificial aging at 160°C . The deformation mode of heat-treated samples is shown in Figure 20(b). ...
... One of the common obstacles emphasized in these studies is the unavailability of sensorial access through touch. Consequently, a group of studies in the literature on the accessibility of museums to people who are BPS has focused on the elimination of this problem [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. ...
... Corresponding to the user's touch on his or her own device, this online art gallery provides verbal descriptions with three main modes-overview, object, and part mode-that allow the user to enjoy artworks from anywhere. On a somewhat different note, Balletti et al. [18], Montusiewicz et al. [19], and Neumüller et al. [20] discussed the possibilities of 3D printing in the field of tangible cultural heritage. Balletti et al. [18] presented a wide range of applications of 3D printing technologies in this field, and they supported reducing the costs and the time spent reproducing all types of cultural heritage, including archeological finds, sculptures, architectural elements, paintings, and artworks. ...
... On a somewhat different note, Balletti et al. [18], Montusiewicz et al. [19], and Neumüller et al. [20] discussed the possibilities of 3D printing in the field of tangible cultural heritage. Balletti et al. [18] presented a wide range of applications of 3D printing technologies in this field, and they supported reducing the costs and the time spent reproducing all types of cultural heritage, including archeological finds, sculptures, architectural elements, paintings, and artworks. They further suggested using 3D printed replicas to set up alternative museum exhibitions, such as tactile museum tours for visitors who are BPS. ...
Article
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... Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as Three-Dimensional Printing (3D printing), is an innovative approach to the production of parts with complex geometry and internal structures. This innovative technology was invented and patented in 1984 by Charles Hull in a process known as stereolithography (SLA), the first commercial rapid prototyping technology from 3D Systems [1,2]. SLA technology was followed by subsequent developments such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), Solid Ground Curing (SGC) from Cubital, and Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) from Helisys in 1991. ...
... The hardness values were in the range of 1382 to 2428 HV10 (depending on the internal infill). The obtained values were recalculated to SI units using Equation (1). ...
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... Aerospace [2,3], automotive [3], manufacturing, treatment [4][5][6], research, architecture [7,8], art [9], food [10][11][12], and apparel [13][14][15] are some of the applications of AM technology. ...
... 8. It is necessary to evaluate the impact of specimen geometry, printing parameters, and printing patterns on printing time and specimen defects. 9. The ability to undertake post-printing procedures such as forming and machining, as well as the consequences of these operations on the features of 3D printed CFRCs, is further intriguing topics for wider use of these composites. ...
Preprint
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The main objective of this study is to review existing research on the application of fused deposition modeling (FDM) for 3D printing of continuous fiber reinforced composites (CFRCs). An overview of additive manufacturing (AM) technology production techniques is provided first, followed by a look into FDM technology. The articles on CFRC printing were then summarized. The type of reinforcing material and matrix utilized, the research subject, the mechanical properties investigated, and the sample dimensions are all listed. Various pre-processing, processing, and post-processing conditions, as well as their impact on CFRC mechanical properties, were also discussed.
... Here, 3D-printed reproductions of ceramic plates were placed in front of the original artifacts, allowing the visitors to experience the weight, dimension, and topography of the object in front of them and thus interact with the artwork indirectly. Furthermore, as 3D printing provides a way of handling an artwork without having to use (thus damage) its materials while being easily adjustable as it is based on a digital model-it might be an interesting technology to make art more accessible for people who cannot rely on sight only [10,12,31]. Hoy toca el Prado (Touch the Prado today) exhibition was hosted in Madrid in 2015 and 2021 CE permanently installed Feeling van Gogh exhibition at the van Gogh museum (Amsterdam) used 3D prints of paintings to let the visitor explore their collection through touch. ...
Chapter
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... Practitioners have had access to new methodological avenues to solve specific case studies when the usage of other systems could add additional risks during treatment. 3D printings have been applied in various specific ways [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. The results achieved by multiple teams have demonstrated the effectiveness of this technology in the service of cultural heritage conservation and restoration. ...
Article
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... These can be used for virtual analysis and conservation or visualization in Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, and Virtual Reality. In parallel, prototyping techniques have also seen considerable development, making it possible to produce physical copies of 3D models with high reliability and low cost (Balletti et al., 2017). The physical reproduction of digital twins is a resource for the definition of material models on which to perform formal analyses, introduce physical substitutions, or initiate those contact study operations not permitted in original works. ...
Article
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... Even for the highest quality and most important data, proper processing is a key factor (Balletti et al., 2017;Goh et al., 2021;Luo et al., 2020). Starting in the physical domain with the acquisition of data, now comes the turn of the cyber domain to process and take advantage of it; in this section, the main topic is artificial intelligence, as can be seen in Table 11. ...
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... 3D printing can be used in various subject areas, with one of the more prominent being cultural heritage (CH). In recent years, the accuracy of 3D printing has increased considerably so it is feasible to present more visually pleasing and accurate results in the field of CH [10]. There are many ways of preserving historical artefacts for future generations, with 3D printing being one of them, and especially significant for creating tangible models [11]. ...
Article
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... Technologies are now financially affordable, and quality is increasing. The decline in price [2] and the increasing accuracy of 3D printing technologies [3] are now providing new ways to represent and analyse cultural heritage. This "digital cultural heritage", also referred to as "heritage information resource" [4], can extend the life of heritage and become accessible to everyone. ...
Article
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The paper presents an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of the FormaViva collection of wooden sculptures exhibited outdoors in a natural environment near the Božidar Jakac Art Museum in Kostanjevica na Krki in Slovenia. The study focuses on 3D graphic representations of sculptures created with photogrammetry and 3D modelling. The results are photorealistic renderings, interactive presentations, 3D printed reproductions, jewellery, and interpretive animations. The research results show that graphic documentation techniques on 3D models allow for a more detailed investigation of the original structural identity of the sculpture. By incorporating 3D and interactive technologies, we are expanding the usability of cultural heritage objects. By using interpretive techniques that have led to jewellery and interpretive animations in our research, we not only breathe new life into the sculptures, but also enrich the stories of the sculptures with our own experiences of the sculptural work.
... Because of this, it has been possible to considerably reduce manipulations on the item, adequately plan each treatment, and reproduce additional or missing elements to complement various restorations. This is all possible while ensuring maximum respect and minimum intervention upon the work [11][12][13]. Throughout the course of 3D printing, several factors influence the manufacturing process regarding the mechanical characteristics of the object. ...
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Three-dimensional models of anatomy in wax preserved in university museums are rare artifacts of extraordinary technical complexity. In recent years, interest in them has increased among scholars who consider them primary sources of heritage value to approach material culture and the history of science. The fragility of the sculptural material and the inadequate exhibition and storage conditions of many of these collections have caused the formation of pathologies whose conservation treatment is a great challenge for the restorer. In this regard, new 3D digital technologies have created a great impact on the documentation and analysis of interventions in the field of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. This research aims to demonstrate the technical possibilities offered by 3D digital systems as support tools in curative conservation strategies to mechanically stabilize fragmented sculptural parts. For this case study, we chose an 18th-century obstetric anatomical model made by the Madrid Court sculptor Juan Cháez, and the modeler Luigi Franceschi who belonged to the anatomical cabinet of the Royal College of Surgery of San Carlos in Madrid. In this work, we demonstrate the digitization process carried out employing structured light scanners, digital modeling, and 3D printing. The aim is to create auxiliary structures suitable to support the various original pieces to be adhered while guaranteeing their exact position during the adhesive curing process as well as the volumetric reintegration of faults. In addition tensile and three point bending tests for the mechanical characterization of the selected thermoplastic impression materials are described. Finally, the qualities considered suitable for the most appropriate material for the purpose of the study are detailed. Promising results were obtained since the structures have made it possible to perform fragment adhesions in highly complex areas of the sculpture, ensuring maximum precision, safety, and efficiency during the process.
... The topic of georeferencing terrestrial laser scanning or photogrammetric data is widely exposed in [17], here different georeferencing methods are described concluding topographic instrumentation is the most accurate compared to other methods based on virtual models with tie points or the use of low-cost GPS. Finally, how the technologies are used for solid printing in Cultural Heritage are described in [18], which concludes that in 3D models printed, the metric characteristics of precision and accuracy must be evaluated in relation to the precision of the instrumentation used in the data acquisition of the object. ...
Article
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The generation of 3D models through Terrestrial Laser Scanning has proved valuable tools for the study, documentation and recreation of archaeological remains. In this context, it is described how to generate a physical model to provide not only to researchers but also as teaching material for teachers for university students, facilitating their access and study. As a practical case, this article describes the acquisition, processing and management of archaeological data in the archaeological site of Cástulo, Jaén, in South Spain. We expound on how to get the 3D-printed model of the Muslim tower, showing how it is possible to generate a scale and very reliable reproduction of the structure, being also a valuable and tangible material in teaching cultural heritage.
... However, technology has emerged and digitization procedure together with artificial intelligence and 3D technologies can be used to restore [62], redesign, and regenerate objects. The possibility for rapid prototyping of such objects inspired and intrigued research [63][64][65]. ...
Article
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Is culture considered to be our past, our roots, ancient ruins, or an old piece of art? Culture is all the factors that define who we are, how we act and interact in our world, in our daily activities, in our personal and public relations, in our life. Culture is all the things we are not obliged to do. However, today, we live in a mixed environment, an environment that is a combination of “offline” and the online, digital world. In this mixed environment, it is technology that defines our behaviour, technology that unites people in a large world, that finally, defines a status of “monoculture”. In this article, we examine the role of technology, and especially big data, in relation to the culture. We present the advances that led to paradigm shifts in the research area of cultural informatics, and forecast the future of culture as will be defined in this mixed world.
... Additive printing of 3D models from photogrammetry and SfM has been explored before for archeological materials which have been used primarily for educational and preservation purposes (Balletti, et al., 2017;Bonora, et al., 2021;Howland, et al., 2014). The medical field has also used 3D printing of 3D models from SfM and photogrammetry for both education purposes and prosthetics (Erolin, 2019;Haleem and Javaid, 2019;Ismail, et al., 2020;Petriceks, et al., 2018;Shafiee and Atala, 2016;Turchini, et al., 2018). ...
Article
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... In order to ensure the accuracy of the homogenization method employed in this work, 5 micro-architecture unit cells per centimetre were used, together with linear filtering of the design variables according to Eq. (22) with r e = 3.2. With a minimum diameter setting of 0.05, the minimum feature size is 100 µm, which corresponds to the accuracy limit of the current generation of SLM machines [74]. While SLM technology is still improving, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for use with readily available machines by constraining the minimum feature size, for both material and gaps to 200 µm. ...
Article
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Recent advances in 3D printable micro-architected materials offer unprecedented possibilities for the development of highly tailored orthopaedic implants. These devices, which are typically made from fully solid materials, significantly alter load transmission to the surrounding bone tissue, potentially leading to interface instability and bone resorption. In this work, we present computational methods to synthesize three dimensional (3D), patient-specific, implants with heterogeneous micro-architecture. Our method simultaneously minimizes the risks of load-induced interface fracture and peri-prosthetic bone remodelling, while taking into account functional and manufacturing constraints. We first develop a novel parametric micro-architecture with desirable functional attributes and a wide range of effective mechanical properties, including both positive and negative Poisson’s ratios. We then present formulations which optimize the spatial configuration of micro-architecture parameters in order to simultaneously minimize the risk of load-induced interface fracture and post-operative bone remodelling. To that end, a novel bone remodelling objective is devised, taking into account both bone apposition and resorption, predicted via a model based on strain–energy density. The interface fracture objective is defined as the maximum value of the multi-axial Hoffman failure criterion along the interface. The procedure is applied to the design of 3D titanium hip implants with prescribed conventional geometries and compared, in silico, to both a conventional solid implant and a homogeneous low-stiffness lattice design. The optimized implant results in a performance improvement of 64.0% in terms of bone remodelling, and 13.2% in terms of interface fracture risk, compared to a conventional solid implant design.
... Correspondingly, the safety, reliability, accuracy, stability and other requirements of mechanical equipment are needed, which also puts forward higher requirements for effective fault diagnosis. 3D printing technique is developing rapidly because of its manufacturing advantages [1,2]. The forming precision of 3D printing in the actual production process plays an important role in improving the quality of products [3]. ...
Article
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... Different from TO, in the last years, AM techniques have been widely used in the cultural heritage sector as new techniques, that complement the manual methods, for the conservation and restoration of artifacts. In fact, many are the applications of the different AM technologies that mainly concern the realization of scale reproductions, integration of missing or damaged parts, accurate prints for aesthetic restorations, etc. [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. ...
Article
In the Cultural Heritage field, the choice of materials and exhibit structures is essential to properly house and support artifacts without causing damage or deterioration. This problem is even more evident in the case of finds made of stone for which, due to their weight, a proper selection and dimensioning of the relative supports is required. In fact, without adequate support, this can result in stress concentrations that could compromise the artifact's state of conservation. As a consequence, more often such exhibition supports are customized items, that are designed and manufactured to meet specific functional and artistic setup needs. In this context, the paper presents a design approach that combines topology optimization and additive manufacturing techniques to develop customized support structures which undertake the twofold purpose of preserving the artifact and making it available for the exhibition in the museum. The proposed approach has been assessed through the case study of a sandstone Ionic capital hosted in the Brettii & Enotri Museum in Cosenza (Italy). The proposed approach is therefore meant as a guideline for the design of customized exhibit supports especially in the case of sandstone artifacts with a complex shape or a conservation condition that requires specific attention.
... A wide range of rapid prototyping techniques is used to create physical representations of tangible heritage [487]. This comprises additive manufacturing techniques that add layers of material to a 3D structure and subtractive techniques shaping a 3D structure by removing material [281,[488][489][490]. ...
Article
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Digital 3D modelling and visualization technologies have been widely applied to support research in the humanities since the 1980s. Since technological backgrounds, project opportunities, and methodological considerations for application are widely discussed in the literature, one of the next tasks is to validate these techniques within a wider scientific community and establish them in the culture of academic disciplines. This article resulted from a postdoctoral thesis and is intended to provide a comprehensive overview on the use of digital 3D technologies in the humanities with regards to (1) scenarios, user communities, and epistemic challenges; (2) technologies, UX design, and workflows; and (3) framework conditions as legislation, infrastructures, and teaching programs. Although the results are of relevance for 3D modelling in all humanities disciplines, the focus of our studies is on modelling of past architectural and cultural landscape objects via interpretative 3D reconstruction methods.
... In recent years, the prominent emphasis on the rapidly changing global climate and energy crisis has necessitated increased research in sustainable construction technologies [1,2]. In this context, the advancement of extrusion-based additive manufacturing, also known as 3D concrete printing (3DCP), has gained momentum in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry as a dominant option for a cleaner construction footprint [3][4][5][6]. The vote in favor of 3DCP is based on its potential to address the numerous environmental challenges attributed to the traditional construction methods: it drastically reduces labor and material costs, minimizes wastes, requires low mechanical energy, and cuts down construction time [7][8][9]. ...
Article
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3D concrete printing has gained tremendous popularity as a promising technique with the potential to remarkably push the boundaries of conventional concrete technology. Enormous research efforts have been directed towards improving the material properties and structural safety of 3D printed concrete (3DPC) over the last decade. In contrast, little attention has been accorded to its sustainability performance in the built environment. This study compares the energy efficiency, operational carbon emission, and thermal comfort of air cavity 3DPC building envelopes against insulated models. Four insulations, namely expanded polystyrene (EPS), extruded polystyrene (XPS), polyurethane foam (PUF), and fiberglass (FG), are iteratively paired with three different 3DPC mix designs, and their resulting performances are reported. A numerical optimization analysis is performed to obtain combinations of 3DPC building models and insulation with the least energy expenditure, carbon production, and thermal efficiency. The results indicate that insulation considerably enhances the overall environmental performance of 3DPC structures. The optimization process also demonstrates the potential of using 3D printable fiber reinforced engineered cementitious concrete (3DPFRECC) with polyurethane infill for amplified sustainable performance in modern construction.
... 3D models are increasingly used in the museums and research institutions worldwide for documentation of marks, or features in an object that are not detectable to a naked eye [14][15][16]; for monitoring the state of conservation of an artifact or site [17,18]; for carrying out virtual restoration projects [19][20][21]; and for dissemination [22,23]. They also allow real-scale measurements without a need of physical manipulation and the production of copies from originals [24]. ...
Chapter
With the contribution of new technologies, the 3D digitization of museum collections opens great possibilities to perform conservation, research, education, and dissemination tasks in a more versatile, accessible, and attractive way. Although these applications have been carried out throughout the last decade in some institutions, the use of these technologies in public museums is still very limited. In this context, there is a demand for new photogrammetric systems for 3D digitization of cultural heritage. In this chapter, the state of the art of photogrammetry with Structure from Motion as well as methods, instrumental setup, and software systems are reviewed. Based on this technique, an example of an easy low-cost 3D digitization system for low-budget public museums is presented. Their applications in the local public sphere are described, and a work plan for 3D digitization projects is proposed to be implemented in public museums that do not have easy access to this type of technologies.
... There are now many software, tools and new technologies that support 3D printing in the reconstruction of works of art, without touching and damaging the artistic surface. For example, digital 3D models can be faithfully reproduced by using laser scanning or photogrammetry [134,152]. ...
Article
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Recently, Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), one of the most encouraging additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, has fascinated great attention. Although FFF is growing into a manufacturing device with considerable technological and material innovations, there still is a challenge to convert FFF-printed prototypes into functional objects for industrial applications. Polymer components manufactured by FFF process possess, in fact, low and anisotropic mechanical properties, compared to the same parts, obtained by using traditional building methods. The poor mechanical properties of the FFF-printed objects could be attributed to the weak interlayer bond interface that develops during the layer deposition process and to the commercial thermoplastic materials used. In order to increase the final properties of the 3D printed models, several polymer-based composites and nanocomposites have been proposed for FFF process. However, even if the mechanical properties greatly increase, these materials are not all biodegradable. Consequently, their waste disposal represents an important issue that needs an urgent solution. Several scientific researchers have therefore moved towards the development of natural or recyclable materials for FFF techniques. This review details current progress on innovative green materials for FFF, referring to all kinds of possible industrial applications, and in particular to the field of Cultural Heritage.
... Despite the wide range of applications of this technique, such as rapid prototyping [3], art [4,5], and medical fields [6][7][8], there are still some defects and process failures to overcome, like hot-end clogging, overflow, layer separation, or warping. Among them, hot-end clogging is one of the most important process failures [9]. ...
Article
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One of the major drawbacks of material extrusion additive manufacturing (AM) is hot-end clogging. This study aims to answer the question, “How clogging happens and what thermal conditions lead to clogging during filament-based material extrusion?” Answering this question requires a clear understanding of temperature distribution inside the liquefier. However, this could not be achieved only through experimental measurements. Therefore, numerical simulations were also carried out by developing a 3D finite volume model of the hot-end. The results obtained from numerical simulations show good agreement with experimental measurements. They also give us a detailed picture of the temperature gradient near the nozzle. A series of experiments were performed to determine at what thermal conditions clogging occurs, and some criteria for avoiding clogging were presented. The temperature distribution of those thermal conditions that leads to clogging is then investigated numerically to analyze the clogging mechanism. As the results show, overheating the heat barrier increases the length of the filament, whose temperature is above the glass transition temperature. As this length exceeds a critical value, the filament buckles under the extruder motor force, and consequently clogging occurs. Graphical abstract
... In the late 1980s, Scott Crump invented the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) as a material extrusion technique [57]. This method was patented in 1989 [58], and it started to be commercialised in the early 1990s by Stratasys [59], which is a world leader in FDM technology and the leading manufacturer of industrial FDM systems. Stratasys was founded by Crump [60] and their wife, and due to the expiration of Crump's patent, the diffusion of this technology boomed through the development of a wide variety of low-cost FDM machines [61,62]. ...
Article
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In recent years, additive manufacturing has gained importance in a wide range of research applications such as medicine, biotechnology, engineering, etc. It has become one of the most innovative and high-performance manufacturing technologies of the moment. This review aims to show and discuss the characteristics of different existing additive manufacturing technologies for the construction of micromixers, which are devices used to mix two or more fluids at microscale. The present manuscript discusses all the choices to be made throughout the printing life cycle of a micromixer in order to achieve a high-quality microdevice. Resolution, precision, materials, and price, amongst other relevant characteristics, are discussed and reviewed in detail for each printing technology. Key information, suggestions, and future prospects are provided for manufacturing of micromixing machines based on the results from this review.
... Este método de fabricación se utilizaba inicialmente para la creación de prototipos rápidos [4] [5]. A este desarrollo le seguirían otros como las tecnologías de sinterización selectiva por láser, que permite fabricar piezas de diferentes materiales como plástico, metal, cerámica o vidrio [6] o el modelado por deposición fundida ampliamente empleada para la fabricaicón de piezas de material polímérico [7]. La norma ISO/ASTM 52900:2017 [8] clasifica los distintos procesos de fabricación aditiva en siete categorías: proyección de aglutinante, deposición de energía focalizada, extrusión de material, proyección de material, fusión de lecho de polvo, laminado de hojas, y fotopolimerización en tanque o cuba. ...
Conference Paper
La fabricación aditiva, comúnmente llamada impresión 3D, es un proceso de fabricación por el cual se crean objetos mediante la distribución de materiales en capas según un modelo digital desarrollado a partir de un software de diseño. La impresión 4D es una evolución de la impresión 3D que ofrece cambios de forma y/o función de los objetos después de su fabricación. La impresión 3D recibe su nombre por el uso de las tres dimensiones del espacio con el que se generan objetos tridimensionales, la impresión 4D adquiere una nueva dimensión, el factor tiempo. En este artículo se realiza un acercamiento a esta innovadora tecnología, estudiando la transición de la impresión 3D a la impresión 4D, y analizando la viabilidad del proceso y sus posibles aplicaciones en la sociedad y en el ámbito ingenieril. Para ello se estudian y describen los nuevos materiales que se incorporan al proceso, la estructura de los mismos, los mecanismos y estímulos necesarios para los cambios de forma y funcionalidad, las aplicaciones actuales y futuras, y el posible impacto del desarrollo de esta tecnología en el crecimiento de la industria.
... Figure 2. Schematic representation of a typical FDM setup [19] The general filament manufacturing method is called FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) as shown in Fig. 2. The extrusion-based molding technique was innovated by Scott Crump in late 1989 and later Stratasays Ltd. became a profit-oriented FDM machine manufacturer. Stratasys Fortus FDM printers can provide product volumes up to 915 mm3 × 610 mm3 × 915 mm3 with a layer thickness equivalent to 178 µm [8,18]. The division of filament material has been summarized by the author and [19] as shown in Table 1. ...
Article
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Three-dimensional printing (3DP) provides a fast and easy fabrication process without demanding post-processing. 3D-bioprinting is a special class in 3DP. Bio-printing is the process of accurately 3DP structural design using filament. 3D bio-printing technology is still in the development stage, its application in various engineering continues to increase, such as in tissue engineering. As a forming material in 3D printing, many types of commercial filaments have been developed. Filaments can be produced from either natural or synthetic biomaterials alone, or a combination of the two as a hybrid material. The ideal filament must have precise mechanical, rheological and biological properties. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is specifically developed and optimized for bio-printing of 3D structures. PCL is a strategy in 3D printing to better control interconnectivity and porosity spatially. Structural stability and less sensitive properties environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, etc make PCL as an ideal material for the FDM fabrication process. In this review, we provide an in-depth discussion of current research on PCL as a filament currently used for 3D bio-printing and outline some future perspectives in their further development.
... To produce daily wearable clothing, which will provide flexibility and comfort, some areas of existing 3DP technologies as well as materials need further improvement (Wang, 2015;Yap & Yeong, 2014). Considering this, the latest 3DP machines and materials are being developed, keeping an eye on the detailed quality of final products (Balletti, Ballarin, & Guerra, 2017). Some of the challenges that the current 3DP throws towards us have been mentioned in Section 11.2. ...
Article
3D printing (3DP) is one of the modern approaches in the field of manufacturing. Although this process has been known for a fair amount of time, only the more-recent developments have revealed its potential for applications in different manufacturing sectors. Textiles, one of the basic human requirements, does more than just fulfilling the fundamental necessity of covering the body. Integrating 3DP technology in textiles has broadened the horizon of the textile world. This review explores the historical background as well as state-of-the-art developments in 3DP related to textiles and fashion. It discusses basic ideas about fundamental textile substrates, various 3DP technologies related to textiles, different printing devices and tools, materials used as print inks, direct printing of 3D objects on various textile substrates, fabrication techniques of 3D printed textile structures, different process parameters and their impacts, tests and standards, benefits and limitations. It also highlights the future for further implementation of 3DP technology in the textile industry. Overall, this issue of Textile Progress attempts to ascertain the potential of 3DP which, despite having some drawbacks, could enrich the outputs of the textile and fashion industry and motivate future designers and scientists to engage in its further exploration.
... Physical models can be used for tactile exhibitions (Neumüller et al., 2014), for research purposes, or in reverse architectural design (Adembri et al., 2015;Balletti et al., 2017;Verdiani et al., 2017), combining data from historical research. They also have an important role in engaging users in research, education, and training. ...
Article
The progressive abandonment of religious houses, culminating with the Portuguese definitive dissolution of the religious orders in 1834, led to the alteration, abandonment or ruin of 131 religious complex heritage sites in the south of Portugal. This article defines a framework for their analysis, combining methodologies from different fields to obtain a more comprehensive understanding. After the settlement's identification, the literature review, the archival research, a census and morphological analysis of the existing physical structures has been carried out. The multidisciplinary framework is tested on a specific case study, including the production of 3D digital documentation and can be applied to the 131 convents. Findings can promote an increased awareness by nearby communities and public administrations, and encourage initiatives of heritage conservation, valorisation, and rehabilitation. Simultaneously, the study contributes to recognition of the importance of cultural heritage related to the analysed religious heritage sites, at local, regional and national levels.
... One of the earliest additive manufacturing techniques was Stereolithography (SLA or SL) also known as optical fabrication, stereolithography apparatus, resin printing, or photo-solidification, which was invented by Chuck Hull in 1984 [9]. It harnesses the power of light, especially the ultraviolet light (UV), to cause chemical monomers and oligomers, to cross-link together, to create polymers, this process is called polymerization [10]. ...
Article
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Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an astonishing technology that has enabled the manufacturing of complex structures, with comparatively shorter times and the least material consumption. Currently, Graphene is gaining remarkable attention, as a filler material, used for the reinforcement of metal and polymer composites. In this paper, the 3D printing system, based on the digital light processing (DLP) method, is employed for the fabrication of bio-based resin specimens, to estimate their dynamic mechanical properties. For this purpose, two graphene concentrations (0.5 and 1 wt%) were mixed in resin (matrix) by a vortex mixer/shaker. The resultant mixture, in addition to the neat resin, was utilized for producing the test pieces, at three different layer thicknesses (35, 50, 100 µm). A comparison of the mechanical properties, between the DLP-printed neat resin and graphene/resin composite materials, was accomplished, to illustrate the impact of filler (graphene nanoplatelets) and the printing process settings (layer thickness). These determinants were assessed according to the microstructure and tensile characteristics of the examined materials. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a fairly even dispersion of graphene in the resin matrix. Moreover, it was found that smaller layer thicknesses provide a higher tensile strength. Further, a decrease in Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation can be observed, with higher graphene concentrations.
... 2008 yılında MakerBot firmasının kurulması ile PLA ve ABS filament kullanan, ev ve ofis ortamlarında parça imalatı yapabilen, EYM yazıcıların seri imalatına geçilmiştir. Ucuz EYM yazıcıların piyasaya sürülmesi teknolojinin yakından tanınmasına ve yaygınlaşmasına sebep olmuştur [16]. ...
Article
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Eklemeli imalat geleneksel malzeme üretim tekniklerine göre sahip olduğu birçok avantaj nedeniyle son yıllarda hızlı bir şekilde yaygınlaşmaktadır. Bu avantajlardan bazıları, kalıba gerek kalmadan üretime izin vermesi, gerektiği kadar hammadde kullanılması, kişiye özgü ürün üretimi ve stok maliyetlerinin azaltılmasıdır. ISO/ASTM 52900 standardına göre yedi farklı eklemeli imalat teknolojisi mevcuttur. Eklemeli imalat teknolojilerinde metal, polimer, seramik ve mum olmak üzere bu yedi teknolojiye uygun olarak geliştirilmiş malzemeler kullanılabilmektedir. Polimer esaslı malzemeler söz konusu olduğunda malzeme ekstrüzyonu eklemeli imalat teknolojileri arasında en fazla kullanılandır. Malzeme ekstrüzyonu ticari olarak Fused Depositin Modelling (FDM)/Eriyik Yığma Modelleme (EYM) ve Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) olarak adlandırılmaktadır. EYM teknolojisi başta hızlı prototipleme ve ürün geliştirme alanlarında olmak üzere, havacılık, otomotiv, beyaz eşya, tekstil, sağlık ve eğitim sektörlerinde yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Özellikle ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) ve PLA (Polylactic Acid) gibi polimer malzemelerin yanında PEKK (Polyetherketoneketone), PEI (Polyetherimide) ve PPSU (Polyphenylsulfone) gibi polimerlerin de kullanımına izin vermesi nedeniyle EYM teknolojisi üstün özelliklerin tercih edildiği endüstriyel alanlarda da kullanılabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada endüstride kullanımı hızla yaygınlaşmakta olan EYM teknolojisi ve uygulama alanları hakkında detaylı bilgiler verilmiştir.
... Other museums are making use of 3D technologies in order to obtain accurate scanning and printing of objects which, according to Montusiewicz, Milosz andKesik (2018), Povroznik (2018) and Solima and Tani (2016), can also give access to replicas of many museum objects and art masterpieces, that cannot be easily transported or loaned to other institutions. Based on this, curators have the opportunity to create new exhibitions, cultural programs and expand the educational tools available in several ways: visitors with vision loss can benefit, for instance, from the adoption of scaled replicas or artifacts that were virtually restored to its original appearance, having access to new point of observation and getting a better comprehension of its main characteristics (Balletti, Ballarin, & Guerra, 2017;Hancock, 2015;Montusiewicz et al., 2018;Neumüller et al., 2014;Scopigno, Cignoni, Pietroni, Callieri, & Dellepiane, 2017;Solima & Tani, 2016). In addition, these solutions also give museums the advantage of being able to get touch replicas for a lower price than that of the original work, saving on the transportation costs and on the insurance ones as well (Solima & Tani, 2016). ...
Thesis
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New, renewed, and innovative museum experiences are constantly being provided to the general public. But millions of visually impaired persons worldwide are still deprived of access to enjoying and engaging with collections. People with visual impairments generally experience many barriers when visiting museum exhibitions, given the visual centricity of these exhibitions. The situation is worsened by a frequent lack of physical, intellectual, and sensory access to exhibits or replicas, increased by the inaccessibility to use information and communication technology-based alternatives or augmentative communication resources that may allow different interactions to sighted visitors. Few studies analyze applications of assistive technologies for multisensory exhibit design and relate them with visitors’ experiences. This research aims to contribute to the field of accessibility in museums by investigating the limitations that hinder the participation of blind and partially sighted persons in those exhibitions, adopting a participatory design methodology. Semi-structured interviews with seventy-two visually impaired Portuguese individuals revealed reasons and factors that contribute to positive and negative visiting experiences, and the statistical analysis of the assessment of sixteen accessibility resources demonstrates their frequency and potential usefulness in museum visits. A co-created framework to improve visitors’ autonomy is proposed, concluding that sensory, intellectual, and physical access must be integrated into the pre, on-site, and post phases of visiting museums. An accessible exhibition — Mysteries of the Art of Healing — mediated by technological solutions in ten interactive moments of the on-site visit was developed for the Pharmacy Museum of Porto, taking into account several principles proposed in the framework. Evaluation results with twenty-five participants who visited the exhibition in situ revealed its applicability within this context, and global satisfaction results showed to be very positive and mainly correlated to four variables: pleasantness of the interaction with digitally fabricated objects, entertainment provided by the ten experiences, interaction with the developed accessible interactives, and pleasantness regarding the handling of four manually fabricated replicas. It concludes that visually impaired visitors’ limited experiences in museums could be surpassed and their visits enhanced by moving beyond accessibility, embracing inclusion, and focusing on the creation of multimodal and multisensory approaches to promote engaging, memorable, and exciting visiting opportunities for all.
... Nowadays, this last aspect is highly relevant, due to the versatility of the digital products that are possible to obtain thanks to the technological revolution we witness in recent years. Actually, 3D models of heritage assets are used for a large number of applications, from documentation (Chiabrando, Sammartano, Spanò, & Spreafico, 2019) to the management (for example, thanks to HBIM platforms, which in recent years have become very useful tools for architects, restorers, archaeologists, and several other experts) (Salvador-García, Viñals, & García-Valldecabres, 2020), dissemination and sharing through online 3D viewers (Minto & Remondino, 2014), and 3D print (Balletti & Ballarin, 2019;Balletti, Ballarin, & Guerra, 2017) aimed at improving the accessibility to the heritage to visually impaired people and for many other purposes. ...
Article
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Digitisation processes of movable heritage are becoming increasingly popular to document the artworks stored in our museums. A growing number of strategies for the three-dimensional (3D) acquisition and modelling of these invaluable assets have been developed in the last few years. Their objective is to efficiently respond to this documentation need and contribute to deepening the knowledge of the masterpieces investigated constantly by researchers operating in many fieldworks. Nowadays, one of the most effective solutions is represented by the development of image-based techniques, usually connected to a Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetric approach. However, while images acquisition is relatively rapid, the processes connected to data processing are very time-consuming and require the operator’s substantial manual involvement. Developing deep learning-based strategies can be an effective solution to enhance the automatism level. In this research, which has been carried out in the framework of the digitisation of a wooden maquettes collection stored in the ‘Museo Egizio di Torino’, using a photogrammetric approach, an automatic masking strategy using deep learning techniques is proposed, to increase the level of automatism and therefore, optimise the photogrammetric pipeline. Starting from a manually annotated dataset, a neural network was trained to automatically perform a semantic classification to isolate the maquettes from the background. The proposed methodology allowed the researchers to obtain automatically segmented masks with a high degree of accuracy. The workflow is described (as regards acquisition strategies, dataset processing, and neural network training). In addition, the accuracy of the results is evaluated and discussed. Finally, the researchers proposed the possibility of performing a multiclass segmentation on the digital images to recognise different object categories in the images, as well as to define a semantic hierarchy to perform automatic classification of different elements in the acquired images. Highlights: • In the framework of movable heritage digitisation processes, many procedures are very time-consuming, and they still require the operator’s substantial manual involvement. • This research proposes using deep learning techniques to enhance the automatism level in the generation of exclusion masks, improving the optimisation of the photogrammetric procedures. • Following this strategy, the possibility of performing a multiclass semantic segmentation (on the 2D images and, consequently, on the 3D point cloud) is also discussed, considering the accuracy of the obtainable results.
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This study discussed practical work methods for architectural tasks based on digital technology. We carry out a series of data thefts and analyze them under a phenomenological approach. Among other things, we code the data, evaluate interpretations and draw conclusions to get valid and convincing answers. Searching for data electronically on publications released between 2010 and 2022 is because, during this era, there was a rapid development of the use and transformation of lodges in the world. After reviewing the data, we reported it qualitatively by relying on secondary data in a systematic review design. The results include that digital applications have helped architects' world tasks effectively and efficiently. We hope these findings contribute to the works of academics, researchers, and policymaking.
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3D printing is an additive manufacturing technique which involves the physical fabrication of an object from a digital model, by binding thin successive layers to build up the final shape. It was originated in the 1980s and currently is widely available for its use in contemporary sculpture. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is one of the most accessible techniques for artists to carry out their work, turning ABS and PLA into the most commonly thermoplastics used in FDM machines. From an art conservation standpoint, it is essential to know the properties of these materials, as well as the different degradation processes that these polymers may undergo due to the action of the environment. For this reason, this work aims to characterize samples of ABS and PLA materials, in order to study their initial properties and check whether any chemical, morphological or colorimetric changes have been produced after an accelerated artificial ageing process. Samples were prepared in two forms (filament and printed pieces) and two types of ageing tests were carried out, one under controlled conditions of UV radiation and another one exposed to the action of temperature (T). All samples suffered variations in their properties although no difference was ascertained between the filament and printed forms. The results showed that ABS samples experienced alterations in all analysed properties due to the action of UV and temperature, while PLA samples experienced fewer changes in their properties, resulting the differences more significant after temperature ageing.
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In the last decade, increased awareness of the importance of preserving old masonry structures of cultural heritage has turned to the development of sustainable strategies for their reconstruction and seismic strengthening. This research includes the analysis and determination of the necessary measures due to the assessment of the condition of the constructive and structural parts of the buildings belonging to the old City Fortress in Novi Pazar. In this study, the fragility and vulnerability of the building is identified in order to sanction and recommend strengthening and seismic resistance to potentially strong levels of earthquakes, preserving the original structure of the building and its authenticity and integrity. The presented techniques aim to improve seismic performance and preserve structures for future generations, with the least impact on changing the value of the investigated cultural heritage. On the other hand, due to the modern demands of society, it is recommended to implement digital conservation and management of cultural heritage in order to create new content and ensure accessibility for all.
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In this paper, a hybrid commercially available alumina/polymer filament was 3D printed and thermally treated (debinding and sintering) to obtain ceramic parts. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis was used to thoroughly characterize the green and sintered parts in terms of their mesostructured, as well as their flexural properties. The sintered samples show an α alumina crystalline phase with a mean density of 3.80 g/cm3, a tensile strength of 232.6 ± 12.3 MPa, and a Vickers hardness of 21 ± 0.7 GPa. The mean thermal conductivity value at room temperature was equal to 21.52 ± 0.02 W/(mK). The values obtained through FFF production are lower than those obtained by conventional processes as the 3D-printed samples exhibited imperfect interlayer bonding and voids similar to those found in the structures of polymeric FFFs. Nonetheless, the highly filled ceramic filament is suitable for use in affordable and easy-to-operate FFF machines, as shown by the cost analysis of a real printed and sintered FFF part.
Chapter
During the early years of the 2020s, large parts of the world came to a standstill instigated by COVID-19. The pandemic dramatically affected people’s mobility, including intensive lockdowns, border closures, and prohibition of local and international travel. These restrictions had dramatic implications for tourism, particularly for destinations that live from it and need it to survive. Locations, particularly with cultural heritage attractions such as monuments, historical buildings, archaeological sites, landscapes, urban ensembles, and sites known for their customs, folklore, oral and performing traditions, and religious manifestations, suffered the consequences. While digital leisure experiences cannot replace in-person visits, recent developments in digitalisation, such as 360-degree technology, virtual and augmented reality, and gaming, both ‘serious’—video games designed for educational objectives—and for pure entertainment, are increasingly impacting how we visit, interact with and consume cultural heritage. This chapter investigates the latest trends in digitalisation in its application to cultural heritage tourism in Asia, particularly in contexts of crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic, where in-person opportunities to engage with cultural heritage assets are significatively reduced. The chapter argues that, albeit initially largely unintentional, the push for these new technologies during the pandemic has generated more sustainable and equal access paths to cultural heritage assets, particularly for visitors with limited means or mobility.KeywordsCultural heritage tourismAsian cultural heritageSustainable cultural tourismCrisis management and digitalisationNew technologies and cultural heritage
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Antiques usually require careful handling, so these objects cannot be made available to the general public and are handled only by restoration specialists. This article focuses on the preservation of antiquities in terms of cultural heritage and the availability of these objects for access by visitors, it describes and evaluates the development of a method to support the digitisation of objects considered solids of revolution. The artifacts were provided by the Museu Joaquim José Felizardo in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, and were used to set the table in the former Confeitaria Rocco (bakery). The 3D process consisted of the following steps: laser scanning, data processing of the coordinates obtained from the surface of the object into point clouds, creation of the virtual model, creation of a physical model using additive manufacturing, and evaluation of the physical model in comparison with the original artifact. The obtained results show that highly accurate models can be created using the proposed method. Therefore, virtual data can be obtained for the conservation, restoration and creation of replicas for studies and accessibility.
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In the past three decades, 3D printing technologies have emerged as a convenient tool for the repair and maintenance of heritage structures. But hitherto little has been reported on multi-material 3D printed composites with 4D properties for the repair and maintenance of heritage structures. The present study reports the investigations on multi-material 3D printing of conducting and non-conducting polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite layers with self-actuating and self-healing properties to repair non-structural cracks in heritage buildings. The non-conducting (PVDF-CaCO 3 ) and conducting (PVDF-graphene-Mn doped ZnO) composites were 3D printed and tested for electrostriction-based strain measurement for 4D analysis. The thermo-mechanical properties of the composite solution were obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The electrical, bonding, and morphological properties were investigated by current-voltage (I-V), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Results of the self-elongation and contraction by electrostriction in PVDF composite demonstrate the feasibility of 3D printing technology as a novel tool to fabricate cost-effective smart solutions for the repair and maintenance of heritage structures.
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In the recent past, some studies have been reported on applications of 3D printing processes as an innovative and cost-effective solution for the maintenance and repair of heritage structures. But hitherto little has been reported on ascertaining the weathering effect (acid rain) on such heritage structures revamped as 3D printed customized solutions. This study highlights the effect of H2CO3 on 3D printed customized innovative strips with alternate layers of conducting (polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-6%graphene-3%Mn-doped-ZnO) and non-conducting (PVDF-6%CaCO3) composites engineered for controlled self-expansion and contraction (SEC). Based on the acceptable SEC features of the innovative 3D printed strip (as 4D characteristics), the composite structure was tested for corrosion resistance to mimic the acid rain environment. The results obtained for composite structure based on the Tafel exploration outlined that the proposed 3D printed solution possesses acceptable corrosion resistance (2.84 × 10⁻⁷ mm/y) towards chemical weathering faced by heritage structures.
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The Bigyeokjincheolloe (bomb shell), a scientific cultural heritage, has outstanding historical value for sustaining a gunpowder weapon of Joseon. In this study, the bomb shell was modeled through three-dimensional (3D) scanning centered on the external shape and γ-ray radiography-based on the internal shape. In particular, to improve the contrast in the radiographic image, optimization and image processing were performed. After these processes, the thickness of the inner wall (2.5 cm on average) and the positions of the three mold chaplets were clearly revealed. For exhibition purposes, the 3D model of the bomb shell was output to a 3D printer and the output was rendered realistic by coloring. In addition, the internal functional elements, such as Mokgok, fuse, mud, gunpowder, and caltrops, were reproduced through handwork. The results will contribute to the study of digital heritages in two ways. First, the internal and external shapes of the bomb shell were modeled by fusing two different technologies, namely, 3D scanning and γ-ray radiography. Second, the internal shape of the bomb shell was constructed from the original form data and the reproduction was utilized for museum exhibitions. The developed modeling approach will greatly expand the scope of museum exhibitions, from those centered on historical content to those centered on scientific content.
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Additive Manufacturing is accelerating at a rapid pace across the globe and 3D Printing systems are the key technologies for cost-effective manufacturing in today's generation of Industry 4.0. In this article a thorough examination of the key 3D printing technologies, materials, and developments in trending applications was conducted. The trending applications of 3D printing in various sectors are addressed. A Case study of 3D printing of a Ganesh idol was demonstrated. The key advantages of additive manufacturing or 3D printing is fast prototyping, flexible design, mass customization and waste minimization. Thus, this paper provides an overview of 3D printing, as well as a survey of applications and insights how rapidly the 3D printing technology is evolving and focusing on global research outcomes.
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Yaşanan teknolojik gelişmeler bütün sanayi ve sektör türlerini etkilemekte, gündelik hayatın rutin uygulamalarında dahi teknolojik gelişmelerin izlerini görmek mümkün hale gelmektedir. Bu gelişmelerin en heyecan verici olanı üç boyutlu yazıcılar olarak görülmektedir. Henüz yaygınlığı konusunda bazı sorunlar ile karşılaşılsa da gelecekte bu yazıcıların masaüstü boyuta ve herkes tarafından uygun maliyetle satın alınabilir seviyeye ineceği düşünülmektedir. Bu makalenin amacı üç boyutlu yazıcıların pazarlamanın 4P'sine olan katkısını ortaya koymaktır. Yapılan geniş literatür taraması sonucunda üç boyutlu yazıcıların ürün kavramına, sürdürülebilirliğe, çevre dostu ürünler üretme, kişiselleştirme, daha güvenli, sağlıklı ve faydalı ürünler üretebilme konularına katkı sağlayacağı görülmüştür. Fiyat kavramına ise daha uygun maliyetli, üreticilerden bağımsız ucuz ürünlere sahip olabilme konularında katkı sağlayacağı; dağıtımda karbon ayak izini ve fiziksel dağıtım kanallarına olan bağlılığı azaltmayı vaat etmesi, farklı dağıtım stratejilerinin oluşmasına ve yeni lojistik/dağıtım ittifaklarının kurulmasına imkân tanıması konularında katkı sağlayacağı görülmüştür. Son olarak tutundurma kavramına ise kişilerin kendi markalarını üretebilme ve üç boyutlu yazıcıların reklam ve tutundurmasını kendileri yapacakları yönünde katkı sağladığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca makale içinde yapılan geniş çaplı literatür taraması sonucunda ürün, fiyat, dağıtım ve tutundurma faaliyetlerine ilişkin ileride yapılacak çalışmalarda ölçek olabilme potansiyeline sahip ifadelere de yer verilmiştir. Abstract The technological developments experienced affect all types of industries and sectors, and it becomes possible to see the traces of technological developments even in the routine applications of daily life. The
Chapter
Mechanical design and engineering can support projects with high-added value in the Cultural Heritage field, such as restoration of artefacts like statues and architectonical decorations. Many examples have been carried out, along the recent past, in the field of ancient bronze restorations (as for Marco Aurelio, Satiro Danzante di Mazara del Vallo and Principe Ellenistico). Engineering design techniques help the assessment of structural problems through physical measurements and FEA simulations; the digital acquisition of surfaces represents a fundamental base for CAD modelling, and the inner frame design helps for guaranteeing stability and manoeuvrability requirements for transport and exhibition. Workflow peculiarities and requirements to accomplish the restorers’ activities and investigations may highlight best practices and rules. The design of the new inner frame of the Vittoria Alata of Brescia, an ancient roman bronze statue, represents a recent example of this kind. Its design workflow was provided in the loop of the restoration program, and it was assessed considering structural integrity, surfaces protection, inner inaccessibility, and dimensions. The solutions adopted are the result of a collaborative process with restorers to evaluate each proposed concept, in compliance with the studies and the constraints highlighted during the investigations. CAD-CAE tools applied starting from the 3D acquisition, helped the development and its verification, reducing the efforts during the manufacturing phase and final set-up. This paper aims to discuss the obtained result demonstrating how structural analysis and mechanical design anchored to 3D acquisitions may help restoration of bronze statues.
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In the field of cultural heritage, replication has been performed for preservation, exhibition, and education purposes. In particular, due to advancement in computer technology, replication which combines the three-dimensional (3D) scanning and printing has widely performed. These technologies have been able to ensure morphological similarity as well as to avoid damaging artifacts in a contactless manner. In this study, a design mock-up for producing replacements was made for the purpose of preserving original forms, usability, and mass production for ritual utensils used in ancestral memorial rites annually. 3D precision scanner was used to obtain external information of ritual utensils and shape information of pattern parts. The measurements on height, width, and thickness of the body, and two handles and three feet showed fine shape differences, respectively. Therefore, representative models were selected and reconstructed. In addition, the upper and lower parts of the body, handles, and feet were separately manufactured for mass production by using sand casting. A model manufactured during the reverse design like above was completed by considering average shrinkage (4%) for the casting of copper-tin alloys. A model was completed and 3D-printed with a material extrusion technique, and a design mock-up for replication was created. In this study, a 3D printing technology was applied to ritual utensils and presented a replication methodology applicable to used artifacts. For this purpose, a model suitable for the replication method was produced based on the data obtained by 3D scanning of ritual utensils. A design mock-up, which is 3D-printed with a material extrusion technique, has enhanced design completeness by performing continuous design and dimensional inspection.
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Chapter
Additive manufacturing, if seconded by a paradigm change to the museum model, can be employed in many ways to reintegrate touch, and other non-retinal senses into our cultural experiences. These multi-sensorial forms of experiencing culture also have a great benefit for the accessibility of cultural heritage, especially for persons with learning difficulties, for children, the elderly, for blind or visually impaired visitors. 3D Printing is in a phase of rapid technological changes and promises more enhancing experiences for the field of cultural heritage. This would provide a more holistic appreciation of the produced objects, but make it necessary to develop basic guidelines for 3D printed models. We expect that 3D Printing will not only become vital in the field of reconstruction of objects, but also for research, documentation, preservation and educational purposes, and it has the potential to serve these purposes in an accessible and all-inclusive way.
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Complete digital recording of Cultural Heritage is a multidimensional process. It depends highly on the nature of the subject of recording as well as the purpose of its recording. The whole process involves the three-dimensional digitization, digital data processing and storage, archival and management, representation and reproduction. In this paper we briefly review methods for three-dimensional digitization that are applicable to cultural heritage recording.
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