Keyboards are in widespread use both on typewriters and as input devices to computers. Early refinements of the typewriter keyboard aimed at improving its mechanical action so that it would operate more smoothly with fewer malfunctions. Later, the work focused on improving typing speed and accuracy. This chapter describes keyboard design factors that affect skilled typing and data entry. The information presented should apply equally well to typewriter and computer keyboards. Some data also apply to telephones and other specialized keypads used for data entry tasks. Proponents of the best-publicized alternatives to the standard keyboard have generally failed to provide convincing empirical cases for their wholesale replacement of the standard, although they might see reasonable application in certain special settings. A well-designed standard keyboard is an extremely effective data-entry device and will probably remain a key component in human-computer interaction for the foreseeable future.