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Anti Inflammatory Effect of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) In Albino Rats-An Experimental Study

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... Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, incurable disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract. IBD consists of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease [1][2][3]. The prevalence of IBD has changed globally in the last two decades. ...
... Many parts of the neem tree, especially the leaf, fruit, This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0) and bark, are extracted and used as medicine. Those are believed to possess activities that support the anti-inflammatory mechanism and as an immune-stimulant [2,3]. ...
... The peak incidence of ulcerative colitis occurs at 20-39 years and 70-79 years. The prevalence of ulcerative colitis is found to be more common in males than females, but there is a study reporting a shift in its prevalence to female dominance [1][2][3]12]. The high prevalence in high-income countries is caused by the delayed or low level of exposure to common antigens during childhood, altering the host's immune response. ...
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Objective: We aimed to determine the neem leaf extract's effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expressions in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis rats. Materials and methods: In the first phase of the study, colitis was induced by DSS administration in the case group and compared to the control group. In the second phase, 84 colitis rats were divided into groups I, II, and III receiving 7.8 mg/day of mesalazine, 100 mg/200 gm body weight, and 200 mg/200 gm body weight neem leaf extract, respectively. Results: TNF-α and IL-6 expressions were significantly increased in the case group compared to the control group. TNF-α and IL-6 expressions were decreasing in all groups receiving treatment. Group III showed an earlier decrease compared to group II. TNF-α and IL-6 expressions in group III were comparable with group I since the second week. This condition was observed in the 4th week between group II and group I. Conclusion: It can be concluded that neem leaf extract decreased the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in DSS-induced colitis.
... Neem leaf is rich in fatty acids and amino acids, mainly, glutamic acid, tyrosine, alanine, glutamine and cysteine. Neem leaf extracts (NLEs) and its constituents exhibit antibacterial 8 , anticarcinogenic 9-11 , antihyperglycemic 12,13 , anti-inflammatory [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] , antimutagenic 6 , antinociceptive 16,23 , antioxidant 6,24-30 , antiulcer 7,31 cardioprotective 32 , hepatoprotective 33 and immunomodulatory 34,35 properties (Table-1). Further, tribals in India used neem leaves to treat ecto-/endo parasites 36,37 and pathogenic nematodes 38 , skin diseases including fungal 39 , haemorrhage 39 in small ruminants and mange infection in camels 36 . ...
... Chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited not only NO production but also the expression of COX-2, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, iNOS along with other cytokines (IL-1β , IL6 and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner 17 . Moreover, NLEs potentially inhibited histamine, bradykinin and PGE 1 induced inflammatory edema in rat paw 15 . Similar observations were found where oral administration of ANLE at a dose of 200 mg/kg exerted significant regression of granuloma formation in cotton pellet granuloma assay further suggesting the anti-inflammatory potential of neem leaf 90 . ...
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The neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a tropical evergreen tree (Fam. Meliacae; Subfam. Melioideae) traditionally well known for its medicinal value. Beneficialt effects of different parts of neem are attributed to its biologically active principle 'Azadirachtin'. Apart from Indian subcontinent, neem is widely used in African countries as therapeutics, preservatives and insecticides. Neem leaves, natural source of flavonoids, polyphenols, isoprenoids, sulphurous and polysaccharides, play important role in scavenging the free radical and subsequently arresting disease pathogenesis. Considerable research has gone into neem for developing cost effective and non-toxic products. The present review has compiled different phytochemicals isolated from neem leaves, methods of extraction and their therapeutic use in preventing several diseases. Here, we highlighted the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of neem leaf that underscores the disease through regulation of physiological responses. Also, multiple roles of neem leaf and commercial use of neem formulation as an alternative in paving a frontier in the field of drug discovery are discussed.
... The test extract was administered 30 minutes before the inflammation inducer because the inflammation phases are of very short duration. Many studies (Levin andTaiwo, 1994 andJagadeesh et al., 2014) reported Indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), as a reference compound and it was used here to compare rates of oedema inhibition. ...
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This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of the ethanolic extracts of Leptadenia arborea in rats by oedematous reaction inhibition. Twenty four Albino rats were used in a 4×6×1 arrangement. The extract was given orally to rats of groups 1 and 2 at 500 and 1000mg extract /kg b.wt./rat respectively. Rats in group 3 received Indomethacin (reference anti-inflammatory) orally at 10 mg /kg b.wt. /rat. Group 4 rats received 1ml /kg b.wt./rat of normal saline (control). Thirty minutes subsequent to extract dosages, all rats were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 ml carragenan saline suspension (10% w/v) to induce local acute oedema in the sub-planter region of the left hind limb. The paw diameter was measured at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours post carrageenan injections for assessment of the oedema size. The ethanolic extract of L. arborea at both doses gave non-significant (p>0.05) oedema inhibition during the first 4 hrs, but showed only significant (p< 0.01) effect at the 6 th and 24 th hours compared to the control group. Maximum inhibitions 72.31 and 81.54% were attained 24 hrs respective to doses 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt. The inhibition percentages of Indomethacin during all measurements were better than the two test doses. The ethanolic extract of L. arborea has promising anti-inflammatory effect at the doses used.
... As active ingredients, extracts of herbs with specific medicinal properties can be included in this dosage form. Adhatoda vasica [10,11], Azadirachta indica [12][13][14], Aegle marmelos [15,16], Ricinus communis [17,18], Sida retusa [19,20] and Tragia involucrata [21,22] plants have been studied for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. However, their application in the raw form on the skin surface is difficult. ...
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Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/thermagel is a polyherbal topical medication formulated for managing inflammation and pain. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the skin irritation potential of Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/thermagel on a single and repeated application in New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were dermally exposed with Pankajakasthuri orthoherb cream/thermagel and the appearance of each application site at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 7th day and 14th day was recorded. The dermal reactions (erythema and edema) were evaluated according to the skin reactions scoring system. Pankajakasthuri orthoherb
... Pharmacological properties of neem seed oil (NSO) are abound in literature, for example, Naik et al. [4,5] investigated the pharmacologic and mechanistic properties and reported a dose-dependent increase in anti-inflammatory effect of the NSO in albino rats with a proposal that NSO could act by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Also Jagadeesh et al. [6] investigated the effect of NSO as an anti-inflammatory agent compared to that of indomethacin, a known anti-inflammatory drug, their results showed that NSO exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, NSO showed lower ulcerogenic ...
Article
Background: Neem seed is very vital because of its rich lipid content and bitter constituents. Aims: This study was designed to provide a scientific rationale for the preparation and use of Neem seed oil as suppositories using dika fat (DF), and macrogol (MG), as bases. Materials and Methods: The suppositories which were prepared by fusion method using a pre-calibrated mould, were characterized using parameters like appearance, crushing strength, weight variation, melting point, pH, liquefaction time and in-vitro release according to standard procedures. Results: Results show that, the suppository strengths were in the order; bland, MG (25.00 ± 1.50N) > DF (12.90 ± 0.72 N), while those containing medicaments were NSM1 (20.00 ± 1.92) > NSD1 (12.90 ± 0.94) > NSM2 (12.70 ± 1.24 N) > NSD2 (10.00 ± 1.35 N). The pH of medicated formulations were NSM1 (6.50 ± 0.01), NSM2 (6.54 ± 0.03) > NSD1 (5.73 ± 0.04) and NSD2 (5.07 ± 0.03). Melting point values show that, macrogol base had mean values of 36.80 °C ± 0.62 and 36.40 °C ± 0.46 for NSM1 and NSM2 respectively, whereas, those with DF gave an average melting point values of 32.10 °C ± 0.87 and 30.90 °C ± 0.79 for NSD1 and NSD2 respectively. Conclusion: Results obtained showed that suppositories prepared with Macrogol (MG) base exhibited better physicochemical properties than Dika fat (DF) base suppositories, therefore water soluble bases may be bases of choice in the delivery of neem seed oil. © 2019 Journal of Reports in Pharmaceutical Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.
... Kashayams otherwise called herbal decoctions are polyherbal formulations with water soluble principles used in Indian traditional system of medicine and for the current study Balaguluchiadi Kashayam (BgK), Punarnavadi Kashayam (PuK) and Gugguluthiktam Kashayam (GuK) were taken. Accumulating evidence have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia [16,17], an essential herb of three kashayams and also Indian bdellium [18,19], Azadirachta indica [20], Justicia adhathoda [21] which forms the components of GuK. Balaguluchiadi Kashayam consists of 10 herbs including Sida cordifolia [22], Adenanthera pavonina [23], Cedrus deodara [24] whose anti-inflammatory properties have been evidenced while Punarnavadi Kashayam was made from 6 plants like Boerhavia diffusa [25], A. indica [26], Adhathoda vasicca [27]. ...
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Background: Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) mediates activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) resulting in induction of proinflammatory genes such as that encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) which played a significant role in cartilage destruction of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Low risk and better efficacy made herbal drugs more reliable than nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) in RA treatment. Gugguluthiktam Kashayam (GuK), Punarnavadi Kashayam (PuK) and Balaguluchiadi Kashayam (BgK) are ayurvedic polyherbal formulations prescribed in classical ayurvedic texts Sahasrayogam and Ashtangahridayam as medicines for the treatment of RA. Objective: The objective of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of anti-arthritic effect of these Kashayams on TLR-4 signal transduction pathway in collagen induced arthritic rats. Material and methods: The wistar rats grouped into group I - Normal, group II- Collagen induced arthritis (CIA), group III- CIA + BgK, group IV- CIA + PuK, group V- CIA + GuK, group VI - CIA + Indomethacin (3 mg/kg b.wt.). Treatment with Kashayam (2 ml/kg b.wt) started after 14 days of primary immunization with type II collagen and continued for a period of 45 days. Results: Arthritis index, C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in serum and protein level of TLR-4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88), NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) in cartilage were significantly elevated in CIA rats. Further, treatment with Kashayams downregulated all these inflammatory mediators hitherto TLR-4-NF-kB signal transduction pathway except IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine which showed a reverse effect. Conclusion: This molecular mechanism of the investigation confirmed the clinical efficacy of Kashayams in preventing the progression of RA and gave an intuition of the scientific validation of Kashayams, an Ayurvedic classical medicine.
... siamensis Valeton (A. indica), also known as Sadao in Thailand, is a member of the Meliaceae family (18). The edible parts of A. indica are young leaves and young flowers (19). A. indica is considered a safe medicinal plant and previous studies indicated that it exhibits antioxidative (20), anti-inflammatory (21), antiulcerative (22), and anticancer effects (23). Furthermore, A. indica has been demonstrated to exhibit antidiabetic properties (24). ...
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Chronic hyperglycemia causes nerves to be more susceptible to compression, which often occurs as a result of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress impairs nerve function and delays nerve recovery. Azadirachta indica, a herb from Thailand, possesses antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of A. indica flower extract on the functional recovery of a sciatic nerve crush injury in rat models of diabetes mellitus (DM). Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into seven groups including the control rats, rats with DM subjected to sham surgery and treated with vehicle, and rats with DM subjected to the crush surgery and treated with vehicle or A. indica flower extract at a dose of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg animal body weight, or with vitamin C. DM was induced using a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg animal body weight). Rats subjected to a sciatic nerve crush injury or sham surgery were orally treated with either vehicle, A. indica flower extract or vitamin C for 21 days. Functional recovery was assessed every 3 days using a walking track analysis, foot withdrawal reflex test and rotarod test. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and their left sciatic nerves were harvested in order to determine malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase activity and axon density. The treatment with A. indica flower extract significantly improved functional recovery, especially motor and sensory functions. The extract significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels, and increased superoxide dismutase activity and axon density. The results ofthe current study indicate that the mechanism underlying the enhanced functional recovery of the sciatic nerve following treatment with A. indica flower extract may be associated with an antioxidative effect. However, further studies are required to confirm the current results.
... Vc-mean edema volume in control group. [21] Figure 1: Carrageenan induced rat paw edema. ...
Research
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The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare antiinflammatory potential in different extract from leaves of plants along with analysis of phytochemicals responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of various phytoconstituents such as- Phenol, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins and steroids. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was estimated using gallic acid as standard. Total phenolic content was 207.39 ± 8.77 mg GAE/g and 58.08 ± 4.41 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of A. indica respectively while 110.00 ± 6.87 mg GAE/g and 75.80 ± 5.55 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of J. adhatoda respectively. A well established method: carrageenan induced rat paw edema was adopted for the study of anti-inflammatory activity where adult Wistar albino rats (110-160)gm of either sex were selected for study. Adult rats were divided into 10 groups, carrageenan was injected in hind paw and treated with extract at the standard dose of 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg. The paw volume was measured at different time intervals i.e. 0,2,4 and 12 hours. Percentage inhibition of inflammation was proportional with the total phenolic content. The result indicates that methanol extract of A. indica has highest anti-inflammatory activity than both extract of J. adhatoda while its chloroform extract has least activity among all extracts
... Vc-mean edema volume in control group. [21] Figure 1: Carrageenan induced rat paw edema. ...
Article
The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare antiinflammatory potential in different extract from leaves of plants along with analysis of phytochemicals responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of various phytoconstituents such as- Phenol, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins and steroids. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was estimated using gallic acid as standard. Total phenolic content was 207.39 ± 8.77 mg GAE/g and 58.08 ± 4.41 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of A. indica respectively while 110.00 ± 6.87 mg GAE/g and 75.80 ± 5.55 mg GAE/g for methanol and chloroform extract of J. adhatoda respectively. A well established method: carrageenan induced rat paw edema was adopted for the study of anti-inflammatory activity where adult Wistar albino rats (110-160)gm of either sex were selected for study. Adult rats were divided into 10 groups, carrageenan was injected in hind paw and treated with extract at the standard dose of 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg. The paw volume was measured at different time intervals i.e. 0,2,4 and 12 hours. Percentage inhibition of inflammation was proportional with the total phenolic content. The result indicates that methanol extract of A. indica has highest anti-inflammatory activity than both extract of J. adhatoda while its chloroform extract has least activity among all extracts. KEYWORDS: Phytochemical screening, anti-inflammatory activity, total phenolic content, Azadirachta indica, Justicia adhatoda.
... In the present study, NSO at 2 ml/kg showed 52.99% reduction in paw edema at 3 h. [11] The phytochemical ingredients like triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, nimbidin, sodium nimbidate, gallic acid, catechin, and polysachharides could also be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of NSO. Flavonoids play a major role here as they not only inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis, but also inhibit endoperoxidases and the enzymes like protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are involved in the inflammation process. ...
Article
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology that affects 0.5% of the population and can result in disability owing to joint destruction, characterized by joint synovial inflammation and progressive cartilage and bone destruction resulting in gradual immobility. The greatest disadvantage in the presently available potent synthetic drugs lies in their toxicity and reappearance of symptoms after discontinuation. With limitations of existing drug molecules herbal drugs are gaining interest among RA patients. Medicinal plants are plants containing inherent active ingredients used to cure disease or relieve symptoms of arthritis. The aim of this review is to update information on RA including causes, epidemiology, prevalence, symptoms and diagnosis, classification, medications, toxicities of allopathic anti-rheumatic drugs and importance of herbal drugs for the management of RA. The present review also focuses on the medicinal plants that interact with the mediators of inflammation and are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Article
In ethnomedicine, plant parts and compounds are used traditionally to treat different diseases. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is the most versatile and useful medicinal plant ever found. Its every part is rich in bioactive compounds, which have traditionally been used to treat different ailments including infectious diseases. Bioactive compounds such as nimbolide, azarirachtin, and gedunin of neem are reported to have a tremendous ability to regulate numerous biological processes in vitro and in vivo. The present review article aims to explore the importance of neem extracts and bioactive compounds in the regulation of different biological pathways. We have reviewed research articles up to March 2020 on the role of neem in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, immunomodulatory, and apoptotic activities. Studies on the concerned fields demonstrate that the bioactive compounds and extracts of neem have a regulatory effect on several biological mechanisms. It has been unveiled that extensive research is carried out on limonoids such as nimbolide and azarirachtin. It is evidenced by different studies that neem extracts are the potential to scavenge free radicals and reduce ROS-mediated damage to cells. Neem can be used to normalize lipid peroxidation and minimize ROS-mediated cell death. Besides, neem extracts can significantly reduce the release of proinflammatory cytokines and elevate the count of CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells. This review indicates the pivotal roles of A. indica in the regulation of different biological pathways. However, future investigations on other bioactive compounds of neem may reveal different therapeutic potentials.
Article
The various plants have a potential medicinal implication. Medicinal plants are considered as imperative therapeutic aid. Therapy of classical NSAIDs and the opoids in the management of inflammatory and pain stipulation are major problems. The conservative drug available in the marketplace treat inflammation and analgesia produces various side effects. For conquer this problems medicinal plants play a major role to alleviate many diseases related with inflammation and analgesia. These reviews try to make accessible an overview of reported analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of plants with various screening models like Carrageenan induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma method, Formaldehyde-induced paw edema models, Eddy's hot plate method, Formalin test, Acetic acid induced writhing test, Tail flick method, etc and inducing agents.
Article
Full-text available
The various plants have a potential medicinal implication. Medicinal plants are considered as imperative therapeutic aid. Therapy of classical NSAIDs and the opoids in the management of inflammatory and pain stipulation are major problems. The conservative drug available in the marketplace treat inflammation and analgesia produces various side effects. For conquer this problems medicinal plants play a major role to alleviate many diseases related with inflammation and analgesia. These reviews try to make accessible an overview of reported analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of plants with various screening models like Carrageenan induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma method, Formaldehyde-induced paw edema models, Eddy's hot plate method, Formalin test, Acetic acid induced writhing test, Tail flick method, etc and inducing agents.
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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a typical fiery immune system ailment ordered by the synovitis of both little and huge joints, which may prompt the harm of ligament and bones causing huge incapacities because of decimation of bones surfaces, whenever left untreated. It is a multifactorial and heterogeneous sickness having commitment of both hereditary (50-60%) and natural variables. The ignorance of overall population may be a contributing component in the high predominance pace of RA around the world. This review article centers around the causing factors (hereditary qualities and natural) associated with this staggering ailment. We likewise gave brief diagram of the treatment alternatives and creature models of RA. The writing was investigated utilizing network terms in PubMed search ''etiology of RA, hereditary qualities of RA, ecological elements in RA, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in RA''. The information was completely looked into and exhaustive data was removed to help the per users in improving comprehension towards the systems, which trigger the results of RA. The more we increment mindfulness about RA, the better we deal with this illness and subsequently can improve way of life and financial status.
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A method is presented for measuring the edema induced by injection of 0.05 ml of 1% solution of carrageenin, an extract of Chondrus, into the plantar tissues of the hind paw of the rat. Peak edema develops within the first 3 to 4 hours, and is inhibited by pretreatment of the animals by single oral doses of antiinflammatory agents, steroid or non-steroid. Log dose responses to drugs are linear and parallel, and yield potency ratios with relatively narrow confidence limits. The potency ratios obtained for aspirin, phenylbutazone and hydrocortisone are fairly close to the ratios of their respective daily doses in the treatment of rheumatic disease. A potent antihistaminic-antiserotonin compound, cyproheptadine, is without effect on carrageenin-induced edema.
neem lead extract (NLE) on cotton pellet granuloma in Albino rats
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Anti inflammatory activity of neem seed oil
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Bhabagrahi R, effect of neem lead extract (NLE) on cotton pellet granuloma in Albino rats
Bhabagrahi R, effect of neem lead extract (NLE) on cotton pellet granuloma in Albino rats. Ind J Pharmacol, 2002; 34: 297-8.