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The role of sodium in the body

  • Romanian Association of Balneology


Is a metallic element with a symbol Na , the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides), atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F). From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .
Balneo-Research Journal Vol.2, Nr.1, 2011
The role of sodium in the body
stantin1, Iliuţã Alexandru2
1Institutul National de Rec
Is a metallic element with a sym
e same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs is
Munteanu Con
uperare, Medicina Fizica si Balneoclimatologie
bol Na ,
w pread in nature in the form of salts
(nitrates, carbonates, chlorides), atomic number
11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft
metal, reactive and with a low melting point ,
with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F).
From the commercial point of view, sodium is
the most important of all the alkaline metals.
Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry
Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current
through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental
sodium does not occur naturally on earth,
because it quickly oxidizes in air and is
violently reactive with water, so it must be
stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as
liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for
some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat
transfer applications .
Sodium doesn,t react with nitrogen, not
even at very high temperatures, but it can react
important compound found everywhere in the
for n
ammonia to form sodium amide. Sodium
and hydrogen react above 2000C (3900) to
form sodium hydride, react with carbon, but it
does react with halogens. It also reacts with
varios metallic halides to form the metal and
sodium chloride. The reaction of sodium with
alcohols is similar to the reaction of sodium
with water, but slower. Sodium in its metallic
form is very important in making esters and in
the manufacture of organic compounds, is also
living environment. Other uses are: to improve
the structure of certain alloys; in soap, in
combination with fatty acids, in sodium vapor
lamps, to descal metals, to purify molten
Sodium is the sixth most abundant
element in The Eart,s crust ,which contains
2,83% of sodium in all its forms. Na is , after
chloride , the second most abundant element
a component of sodium chloride (NaCl) a very
lved in seawater. The most important
sodium salts found in nature are sodium
chloride (halite or rock salt), sodium carbonate
(trona or soda) sodium borate (borax) , sodium
nitrate and sodium sulfate. Sodium salts are
found in seawater (1,05%), salty lakes, alkaline
lakes and mineral spring water. Is an essential
element for all animal life (including human)
and for some plant species .
In animals, sodium ions are used in
opposition to potassium ions, to allow the
organism to build up an electrostatic charge on
cell membranes and thus allow transmission of
nerve impulse when the charge is allowed to
dissipate by a moving wave of voltage change.
Sodium is thus classified as a ”dietary
inorganic macro-mineral” for animals.
Healt effects of sodium
Sodium is a compound of many
foodstuff, for instance of common salt, its is
necessary for humans to maintain the balance
of th , is also required e physical fluids system
erve and muscle functioning. Too much
sodium can damage our kidneys and increase
the chances of high blood pressure. The
amount of sodium a person consumes each day
varies from individual to individual and from
culture to culture , some people get as little as
2g\day, some as much as 20 grame. Sodium
essential, but controversely surrounds the
amount required.
Contact of sodium with water , including
perspiration causes the formation of sodium
Balneo-Research Journal Vol.2, Nr.2, 2011
hydroxide fumes , wich are highly irritating to
skin , eyes , nose and throat. This may cause
sneezing and coughing, very severe exposures
may results in difficult breathing coughing and
chemical bronchitis.
Contact to the skin may cause itching
,tingling , thermal and caustic burns and
perm es may
result in permanent damage and loss of sight .
e limit
soil ,
and m
ldosterone, which is made by
the ad
when you sweat .
anent damage . Contact with ey
Environmental effects of sodium
Sodium,s powered from is highly
explosive in water and a poison combined and
uncombined with many other elements.
Ecotoxicity: Median toleranc
) for the mosquito fish , 125 ppm\96hr (
fresh water); Median tolerance limit (TML) for
the bluegill , 88 mg\48hr ( tap water ).
Environmental fate : this chemical is nor
mobile in solid form although it absorbs
moisture very easily . Once liquid , sodium
hydroxide leaches rapidly into the
bly contaminating water sources .
Is found in blood and other fluids in the
interstitial compartment andendocelular,
sodium dedifuzie runing processes. A sodium
test checks how much sodium (an ele
ineral) is in the blood, sodium is both an
electrolyte and mineral, it helps keeps the water
(the amount of fluid inside and outside the
body,s cells) and electrolyte balance of the
body and is also important in how nerves and
muscles work.
Most of the sodium in the body (about
85%) is found in blood and lymp fluid, sodium
levels in the body are partly controlled by a
hormone called a
renal glands.
Aldosterone levels tell the kidneys when
to hold sodium in the body instead of passing it
in the urine Small amounts of sodium are also
lost through the skin
Na+ balance between the three spaces by
separating membranes is by diffusion together
with ot o
acids and active processes with differentspeeds.
Interstitil balance and the intracellular
mining the concentration of
ated and is achieved by
, skin and adipose
OSMO-regulatory processes.
her substances that. water, K, amin
radioactive water is obtained in 120 min for Na
in 24 hours and for K in 25 min showing that
regulation of Na is independent of thewater.
These general types of balance are dependent
on the balance between intake and elimination
of a polynomial cation described above.
Sodium has an important role of
monovalent cation is best represented vital
blood is associated with metabolic and
enzymatic processes as cell activator, is m
iated cell membrane function, occurs.
- In the genesis and transmission of action
potentials in acetilocolinergic synaptic
- activation of protein function in
atic reactions.
- In the blood clotting process.
By deter
m dosage form follows its assets and
balancewith form-rel
gical methods, chemical, physico –
ical and physical.
The amount of sodium in the body is
3500-4500 mEq and found in two forms:
- Osmotic inactive in connective tissue
500 mEq , cartilage, bone
1400-1900 mEq
- Osmotic active, involved in stress-
Balneo-Research Journal Vol.2, Nr.2, 2011
This demonstrates the active pattern of
fixed Na, Na inactive circulating osmotic and
interstitial fluids andblood. This distribution
connective tissue,
amage higher. Heart failure
the extracellular space. Acts as an activator of
e have:
is involved in interactions with
te the Na activity.
Deter l activity
of N
emical bonds between Na
by changes in the interaction potential.
sthat outside factors Na metabolic
andosmotic rheologici have a special
ibution and physico-chemical factors that
richanionic groups that interact with Na.
Sodium is found in blood in two forms,
bound in ionic state, giving sodium levels
withwell-defined values: 136mEq
(hyponatremia) and 160 mEq
(Hypernatraemia).Maintaining these valuesis
). Interaction is done with different
energies according to the equation.
Na + heparin (H) H-Na, the interaction
energy E1 =
5HT + H H-5HT, the interaction
energy E2
Initially, E1> E2 and mixture w
ved by neuroumorale and
physicochemical Mechanism. In
Hypernatraemia Na + passing the interstitium
and is stored in bone and connectivetissue
disorders, and hyponatremia, Na + is mobilized
from storage and move intotissues . Many
medicines and other products also have sodium
in them , including laxatives , aspirin ,
mouthwash ,and toothpaste.
Of sodium homeostasis is maintained
sanghina complex biological mechanisms
andphysicochemical neuroumorale . The
capillary membrane did not pass the excess is
stored in the interstitium and
skin, and fat.
Too much sodium in the diet may raise
blood pressure in some people .for those who
have high blood pressure , eating foods with lot
of sodium makes their chance of heart disease
stroke, and kidney d
worse when too much sodium is eaten. It
increase the amount of water the body holds in
and this causes swelling of thelegs and hands.
Some people have problems when they eat
more than 4 miligrams (mg) of sodium per day.
Low sodium levels are uncommon and
most often occur as a side effect of tacking
medicines that make you urinate more, such as
diuretics, severe diarrhea or vomiting or heavy
sweating may also cause low sodium levels .
Role of sodium
Na+ is a cellular activator, plays a
decisive role in cell excitability processes in the
genesisand transmission of action potentials .
Influneteaza accumulation of amino acids
in fraction in enzymatic reactions.
Intervenes in synaptic transmission through
acetilcholinergic channels, clouds form in the
interstitial space pericelulari electropositive
potentialrole in the genesis of action .
Na chemical activity in the blood is
determined by the interaction of the local
compenentii is mostly transported bound. In
this method it is anionic sites of heparin
interaction with Na cations and s
5HT + Na + H Na H-5 HT
If Na
substances will drop to E1 E1 <E2 and
the equation
5HT + Na + H Na + H-5HT.
In this case Na has higher
ty. So the chemical activity of the serum
is about 5 HT interaction with H which is the
reference to estima
minations show that the chemica
a is lower than the reference value. It is
compatible with normal neural excitability.
Increased chemical activity is accompanied by
increased neuromuscular excitability:
convulsions in rats by audiogene
hipermotricitate and behavioral disorders in
humans with type constitutional amend EEG
abnormalities, disorders of attention focused,
hemodynamic disorders . Interaction between
Na and protein in the blood is an energy barrier
in the path of movement due to lower Na
chemical activity.
Interaction of Na - blood proteins has
important role in regulating physical and
chemical cation transport and mass transfer to
the space endocelular excitable structures.
Nature of ch
possible protein was presented in the
previous chapter. Intensity variation is
dependent on chemical bonds of molecular
substances and graduate parameters expre
National Ligandarea depends primarily anionic
and cationic composition of the solution, not
only concetratia a ligand. Ligandare capacity
depends among other factors extraproteice
substances and molecular factors and protein
density and reactive nature of anionic and
cationic sites, conformation, hydration. Water,
structured by hydrogen bonds is fixed at the
side radicals and polarized covalent link,
Balneo-Research Journal Vol.2, Nr.2, 2011
stabilizes the protein molecule. Breaking
hydrogen bonds of water and protein loss
distortion Na train.
Na, protein conformational changes
induced nepolarizabil increases the field
strength of anionic sites and interact with water
diapolul. intensity of this influence is
diminished in the presence of other anions in
tein affinity decreases
sanghine or anionic groups can interact with
Natio agnetic,
on and depends on the cationic field
strength of hydrated Na, loss of water
molecules and thus shortens the ionic radius
increases the interaction energy. Energy is so
variable decreases asymptotically intercatie to
0 from center to periphery defining ion as a
series of crystalline ion beams. Pregnancy
induce Na ion energy of proteins and anionic
sites nearby field reduces the interaction of
cation radius. Not interact but any type of
anions in the blood. The degree of interaction
depends on their polarizabilitatea. Na
interaction with anionic sites of proteins results
in decreased activity of chemical and its ability
to react with other anions. Proteins are
substances but the most important for Na
transport, they are amphoteric substances have
high plasticity and thereby accommodate a
variety of other ligands. Their transport
capacity depends on their nativitatea.
Interacting with the metal changes its electron
charge transfer from metal. Anionic sites of
protein interaction intensity with cations and
other factors that depend on the coordination
number, compzitia in amino acids, amino
groups polarizabilitatea. Job strength is
influenced by neighboring internal groups with
variable polarity that interacts with strong
intensity-dependent induction square of the
distance between them.
Protein activity depends on the
dissociation of anionic sites as mutiple balance
theory: polypeptide chain length increases with
solution pH and electrostatic forces with
intensity. Denaturing pro
and coordination number of radicals
involving amino groups prototropice aspartic,
glutamic, hidistina, teronina, cysteine, argnina.
Charge density of proteins may influence the
interaction with cations. Decrease, decreasing
the affinity for cations. Charge density of
anionic sites induces a cationic cloud around
them and cause an uneven distribution of
cations in the vicinity. Monovalent cations the
selection depends on the density of anionic
charge of electrostatic field and their degree of
hydration. The charge density on protein
activity inversely affects sodium in solution.
The central issue is deciphering
the mechanisms of Na transport in the blood.
The data presented so far does not suggest an
individualized transportation but generally
shows a process involving many protein
Na. Type of connection also is not identified,
the interactions that were discussed at length.
These are weak interactions that influence
mainly by their number, by type and less by
their strength. Therefore the balance between
the three compartments cation gradient depends
not only on distribution but also anionic groups
between compartments. On the other hand, the
links oligoenergetice (weaker than that of 5HT
and heparin, taken as a referential value for
establishing and using our method in this
research) illustrates the physical and chemical
properties of Na-protein interaction. Complex
interactions involved in various National, is in
equilibrium with the free form, active
chemical, the method demonstrated by
competition and conflict with the workings of
excitable tissue. Increased chemical activity in
humans and rats is accompanied by cerebral
hyperexcitability, no data are available that
explain, among other things, the mechanism of
transfer of Na in the excitable membranes and
those obtained by using ion channel blocking
toxins. Determination of mental skills, in cents,
corroborated with serum Na activity suggests
that influence the intrinsic excitability last has
on the brain, the socio-intellectual performance
and adjustable. Attention was paid to the
importance of focused and distribution
processes, immediate auditory memory for
words, psycho-nevroteice trends, type
questionnaire for general image setting suitable
for the child population of Romania.
Correlation of serum Na activity show the state
mental skills consistent with
neuropsychological examination.
Determination of plasma sodium
Na interest has stimulated the
development of a large number of quantitative
methods in fluids where the dominant cation
excitable structures reflecting mental position.
nal dosage is difficult, it is diam
includes compounds are less colorful.
Add to this biologic heterogeneity of the
Balneo-Research Journal Vol.2, Nr.2, 2011
environment: high in electrolytes, anfotere
substances, macromolecular, ETC. More total
content determination is irrelevant to
deciphering the physiological role . For this
purpose it is necessary to determine the active
Na and balance chemical forms related to the
active form including membrane environment.
So interested in continutultotal in Na, active
free form concentration, interaction strength
and nature-related forms of transport. Classic
dosing methods are biological, chemical,
physical, chemical and physical .
Biological methods
They follow the chemical state of Na.
Sodium in red blood cells, which change
slowly with medium suspension. In muscle
there is a sequestered fraction of Na as in
amphibian oocytes. In humans, using the
ter precipitation and
centr a estimate (86.244).
expressing depedendenta radiation absorption
tensity is
proportional to atomic concentration. emission
sample radiate thermal neutron
, dialysis. Chromatographs was
eded monovalent and
iple of Gerbrandy to determine
electrolytes fraction bound to the 6-10% of Na
cnclus plasmtic is bound. This very small
fraction is explained by the fact that venous
stasis which involves the principle mentioned
is accompanied by accumulation of H to deploy
Na interactions with proteins. Other results
show that activity in the presence of Na and K
decreased alpha and beta proteins as in the
presence of fibrinogen.
Chemical methods
Their use requires a cation preseparare
compounds in solution interact with Na.
Chemical methods are suitable for determining
total Na sanghini af
ifugation. Titrmetric
Physical Methods
a) absorption spectrophotometry and
fluorimetric interaction are based on metal and
compounds containing it with electromagnetic
radiation, according to Lambert-Beer law
linear concentration of the substance.
Fluorometric methods consists in principle of
linear dependence between the number of
excited molecules and light emission during the
return to ground state According to our law of
Stokes. But require chelating compounds with
aromatic organic compounds preferably
fluorescent compounds formation. Chelating is
used in absorption spectroscopy. Methods
require a prior separation is the most common
separation methods Chromatographs.
b) eimisie spectroscopy: atomic emission
Flamfotometria is the method in which the
atom is excited by the flame and the in
are Na D lines of wavelengths 5890 and
5896 A. The method is applied to total dosages
of cationic (Na and K), organic substances are
completely destroyed by combustion has
special value for the clinic. flamatomica
spectrometry. Biological product is atomized
and excitation occurs with a cathode lamp
adjustable for specific wavelengths . Activation
using atomic spectrometry X-ray and X register
c) Electroanalytical methods with
potentiometric ion selective eletrozi-galvanic
cell potential measured against the reference
potential "0"-The principle potential from the
electrode is proportional to the
concentration refernta chemically active
species, selected ion-selective electrode similar
electrodes H in determining the pH. The
method is used in the determination of
electrolytes in whole blood, undiluted plasma
and other fluids. Method ion - selective active
ionized form of adding value to Na and K (mM
/ l) lower than values obtained flamfotometric
or due to Na binding protein or the formation
of ion pairs. Accuracy increases with the
dilution method is the maximum condition:
infinite dilution. Ion-selective Electrodele can
be used in vivo cell culture. This allows the
study report Na / K during cell function.
Voltametry anodic also uses selective
electrodes to the reference electrode of
d) The methods include methods of
isotopic analysis by isotope dilution
e) nuclear activation method. In this
tion emits β, α, y which can be
f) methods also require presepararea
Chromatographs cations with different
methods: electrop oresis, precipitation,
ally used to separate the organic species
and then to metal ions.
Adapting these methods for inorganic
analysis was done by modifying the two
phases, stationary and mobile simultaneously
or successively, as ne
ent cations of interest for.
... contienen 1 g de sodio (2) que otorga características físicas, químicas y sensoriales a los alimentos. La sal contribuye con la preservación de alimentos, generación de sabor y mejoramiento de otros atributos sensoriales (4) y el sodio por su parte, ejerce funciones fundamentales para el ser humano relacionadas con actividad cerebral y sistemas de fluidos (3). No obstante, un alto consumo de sal es determinante para la presión sanguínea de las personas (2). ...
... La reformulación de productos procesados es una de las estrategias más eficaces para reducir el consumo de sodio (3). Esto se puede lograr disminuyendo el contenido de sal en la formulación o sustituyendo la sal por ingredientes alternativos como cloruro de potasio, salsa de soya, cloruro de magnesio, cloruro de calcio y sal de mar baja en sodio o potenciadores de sabor (lisina, guanilato disódico, inosinato disódico, extracto de levadura, lactato de potasio, especias saborizantes, glutamato monosódico y proteína vegetal hidrolizada) (8). ...
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El consumo excesivo de sodio es causa importante de enfermedades no transmisibles incluyendo hipertensión. En esta investigación se evaluó una metodología sensorial para reducir el contenido de sodio en salsas de tomate y mayonesas, productos altamente consumidos en Costa Rica. Se caracterizaron, por triplicado, 16 salsas y 7 mayonesas comerciales para determinar los ingredientes más comunes y sus características físicoquímicas. Se comparó el contenido de sodio reportado en la etiqueta contra el valor determinado experimentalmente. Se formularon prototipos de ambos productos y se determinó el umbral de diferencia apenas perceptible (DAP) para el gusto salado utilizando el método de estímulo constante con 40 panelistas no entrenados (d'= 1, significancia de 0,05 y potencia de prueba de 0,95). Se contruyeron las curvas psicofísicas con concentraciones de sal entre 0,67% y 2,5% para salsa de tomate y 0,13% y 4,16% para mayonesa; obteniéndose DAPs de 0,51% y 0,26% respectivamente; equivalentes a 28,3% y 14,4% menos de sal en cada producto. Para la validación del umbral, se aplicó una prueba de discriminación 2-AFC con 40 panelistas comparando la formulación regular con la reducida en sodio. Los panelistas no detectaron diferencias significativas entre mayonesas (P>0,05) pero sí entre salsas (P<0,05), por lo que se aplicó una prueba de agrado con 112 consumidores y se determinó que la salsa reducida en sodio resultó de mayor o igual agrado que la contraparte. Estos resultados guiarían a la industria alimentaria regional hacia el mejoramiento del perfil nutricional de estos productos. The excessive consumption of sodium is an important cause of noncommunicable diseases including hypertension. This research aimed, using a sensorial methodology, to reduce sodium content in tomato sauces and mayonnaise, highly consumed products in Costa Rica. A total of 16 commercial sauces and 7 mayonnaises were characterized to determine their most common ingredients and physicochemical properties. The sodium content reported in the labed was compared against values obtained experimentally. Prototypes for both products were developed and the threshold for the just noticiable difference (JND) for salty flavor was determined using the constant stimulus method with 40 panelists (d'= 1, 0.05 significance and a test power of 0,95). Psychophysical curves were built with salt concentrations between 0.67% and 2.5% for tomato sauce and 0.13% and 4.16% for mayonnaise; obtaining JNDs of 0.51% and 0.26% respectively; equivalent to 28.3% and 14.4% less salt in tomato and mayonnaise. To validate the threshold, a discriminatory 2-AFC test with 40 panelists was performed to compare the regular formulations against those reduced in sodium. Panelists did not detect significant differences among mayonnaises (P>0.05) but they did found differences between sauces (P<0.05). Thus, for tomato sauce a consumer liking test with 112 consumers was performed and it was found that sodium reduced tomato sauce was equally or more liked than its counterpart. These results guide the regional food industry towards the improval of the nutritional profile of both products.
... Likewise, the levels of potassium (0.14 to 1.85 mg/L) and sodium (0.18 to 12.96 mg/L) were within the permissible limit of WHO and SANS and may not cause health related problems. Sodium is essential in humans for the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes, and for proper functioning of the nerves and muscles, however, excessive sodium in the body can increase the risk of developing a high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and kidney damage 49,50 . Potassium is very important for protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, thus, it is very important for normal growth and body building in humans, but, excessive quantity of potassium in the body (hyperkalemia) is characterized with irritability, decreased urine production and cardiac arrest 51 . ...
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Water quality has been linked to health outcomes across the world. This study evaluated the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water supplied by the municipality from source to the point of use at Thulamela municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa; assessed the community practices regarding collection and storage of water and determined the human health risks associated with consumption of the water. Assessment of water quality was carried out on 114 samples. Questionnaires were used to determine the community’s practices of water transportation from source to the point-of-use and storage activities. Many of the households reported constant water supply interruptions and the majority (92.2%) do not treat their water before use. While E. coli and total coliform were not detected in the water samples at source (dam), most of the samples from the street taps and at the point of use (household storage containers) were found to be contaminated with high levels of E. coli and total coliform. The levels of E. coli and total coliform detected during the wet season were higher than the levels detected during the dry season. Trace metals’ levels in the drinking water samples were within permissible range of both the South African National Standards and World Health Organisation. The calculated non-carcinogenic effects using hazard quotient toxicity potential and cumulative hazard index of drinking water through ingestion and dermal pathways were less than unity, implying that consumption of the water could pose no significant non-carcinogenic health risk. Intermittent interruption in municipal water supply and certain water transportation and storage practices by community members increase the risk of water contamination. We recommend a more consistent supply of treated municipal water in Limpopo province and training of residents on hygienic practices of transportation and storage of drinking water from the source to the point of use.
... Sodium is among the top six elements in the earth's crust, comprising 2.83% sodium in all its forms. The most important sodium salts found in nature are sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium borate, sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate [14]. To obtain sodium chloride, the weight of sodium must be multiplied by 2.54. ...
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Nowadays, the dietary sodium chloride intake is higher than the daily recommended levels, especially due to its prominent presence in food products. This may cause an increase of high blood pressure leading to cardiovascular diseases. Cereal products, and in particular bread, are the main source of salt in human diet. However, salt is a critical ingredient in bread making, and its reduction can have a negative impact on bread quality. This review focuses on physiological role of sodium chloride, its effect on the human body and legislative recommendations on its consumption. Moreover, it presents sodium chloride effects on the bread making from the technological and sensory point of view and presents different options for salt reduction in foods focusing on bakery products. It may be concluded that salt reduction in bread making while maintaining dough rheological properties, yeast fermentation rate, bread quality through its loaf volume, color, textural properties, sensory characteristics is difficult to be achieved due to sodium chloride’s multifunctional role in the bread-making process. Several strategies have been discussed, focusing on sodium chloride replacement with other type of salts, dry sourdough and flavor enhancers.
... The deficiencies of zinc and copper cause growth retardation of animals [18,19]. Sodium and Potassium are the prime dietary metal requirements of humans to keep a good balance of physical fluids system and to active nerve and muscle properly [20], [21]. Calcium is a key nutrient in the human body that mainly helps the bones rebuild properly and stay strong [22]. ...
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Contamination of heavy metals in fish feed ingredients is regarded as a major crisis globally especially in developing countries because it may be the source of toxicity in the food chain. Fish farming in Bangladesh is growing very rapidly and fish available in the markets are mostly coming from fish farms where fish farmers mostly use commercial fish feeds manufacturing with different ingredients. In this study, several types of ingredients based on different origins were collected from several areas and after measuring dry weight these were digested by a mixture of acids. This study is concerned to access the toxic and essential metals in different fish feed ingredients which are frequently used to produce commercial fish feed in Bangladesh. The concentration (mg kg-1 dry weight) range of toxic metals such as; Pb (0.56- 1.73), Cd (0.12-0.97), Cr (0.15-0.88), As (BDL), Hg (BDL), Ni (1.10-2.50) and essential metals such as; Fe (13.57-48.96), Cu (10.11-28.09), Zn (10.60-26.25), Na (12.07-35.00), K (13.06-28.97), Ca (10.00-47.96) in selected fish feed ingredients were recorded by Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES, Optima 7000DV) with significant variation (P<0.05). The analyzed toxic and essential metal concentrations in most of the ingredients were within the safe limit proposed by World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization and European Union indicating no health risk
... The body uses sodium to maintain fluid levels and it is necessary for the health of the heart, liver, and kidneys. It regulates blood fluids and prevents low blood pressure [10,11]. Calcium is a key nutrient in the human body. ...
... One was positive: Na concentration in live turtles was significatively higher than that observed in dead turtles. This result was expected, since Na is necessary to maintain the balance of the physical fluid system and ensure nerve and muscle functioning (Munteanu and Iliuta, 2011). However, when an organism dies, the decomposition process begins immediately, involving the breakdown of soft tissues. ...
This study reports the largest inorganic elements database in the blood of live marine turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), with 241 live as well as 38 dead nesting turtles sampled and analyzed for 26 inorganic elements, including essential (Al, As, B, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Se, S, V, and Zn) and non-essential elements (Cd, Li, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl, and Hg). We compared inorganic element concentrations in live and dead olive ridleys from the arribada beach "La Escobilla" located on the Pacific coast of southeastern Mexico. The most outstanding result of our study is the higher Cd concentration in dead (mean 4.27 μg g −1 ww: min 0.01-max 81.5) compared with live animals (mean 0.14 μg g −1 ww: min 0.02-max 0.52). This population has been previously reported to have the highest Cd concentration worldwide in kidney and liver samples from marine turtles (with 150.88 ± 110.99 and 82.88 ± 36.65 μg g −1 ww, respectively). Other important findings of this study include the low Hg concentration along with the decrease in Pb over the years in this population. The study also uses a new statistical method-the iconography of correlations-in which all available information is used without removing individuals or variables with missing information for the whole analysis, which is a common problem in ecotoxicology. A major advantage of this method compared to other multivariate methods is that the missing information can be easily handled, because the correlations (2 variables) and partial correlations (3 variables) are estimated only with the available data using a one-at-a-time strategy.
... Sodium (Na), along with potassium (K), is an electrolytic compound necessary for humans to regulate the physical fluids system. It is also required for nerve and muscle functioning but over-consumption can lead to kidney damage and increased chances of high blood pressure [29] . Calcium (Ca +2 ) and magnesium (Mg +2 ) act as binding agents to fuse the cell walls together and are present in exchangeable amounts [30] .The excess fluid excretion as a result of Na-K relationship in the body may account for the traditional use of B. sapida in the treatment of oedema, however, the lower Na and K content of B. sapida is advantageous because of its relationship with hypertension in humans. ...
The contribution of the perpetuation of atrial fibrillation is caused by electrical remodeling in which calcium, sodium and potassium channels could refer to changes in the ion channel protein expression, development of fibrosis, gene transcription and ion channel redistribution. Calcium and magnesium could influence the risk of atrial fibrillation which is the leading cause of cardiac death, heart failure and ischemic stroke. The elevated serum concentration of calcium had a higher range of in-patient’s mortality, increased total cost of hospitalization and increased length of hospital stay as compared to those without hypercalcemia in atrial fibrillation patients. Moreover, chloride channels could affect homeostasis, atrial myocardial metabolism which may participate in the development of atrial fibrillation. Up to a 50% risk of incidence of AF are higher in which left ventricular hypertrophy, sudden cardiovascular death and overall mortality relate to a low serum magnesium level. Additionally, magnesium prevents the occurrence of AF after cardiac surgery, whereas greater levels of serum phosphorus in the large population-based study and the related calcium–phosphorus products were linked with a greater incidence of AF. Numerous clinical studies had shown the high preoperative risk of AF that is linked with lower serum potassium levels. The conventional risk factor of increased risk of new onset of AF events could independently link with high dietary sodium intake which enhances the fibrosis and inflammation in the atrium but the mechanism remains unknown. Many drugs were used to maintain the electrolyte imbalance in AF patients.
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases in the world. Recent studies suggest a link between type 2 diabetes and microbiota, as well as the ability to treat and prevent it using personalized approaches to nutrition. In this work, we conducted clinical studies on the effects of a personalized diet on 56 female patients. Biochemical, physical, and immunological parameters were measured by standard methods on days 1 and 18 of the experiment. Gut and oral microbiota studies were performed in dynamics on days 1, 7, 11, and 18 using real-time polymerase chain reaction. With the help of the developed information system, a personalized diet was developed for each participant of the experiment. In the group of patients following personalized diets a statistically significant decreasing levels of glucose, thymol test, creatinine, very low-density lipoprotein, urea, secretory IgA, and tumour necrosis factor-α, and improvement in all physical parameters were observed. There was a statistically significant increase in uric acid, sodium, and magnesium. Statistically significant changes in gut microbiota were observed in Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli (lac+, lac−), Lactobacillus spp., and Candida spp. Such microorganisms of oral microbiota as E. faecalis, Lactobacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida spp. demonstrated statistically significant changes. All these changes indicate an improvement in the patients’ condition in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our algorithm used for the development of personalized diets for patients with diabetes type 2 demonstrated clinical efficacy of its implementation.
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