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Abstract and Figures

Agroforestry is a sustainable land use system with a promising potential to sequester atmospheric carbon into soil. This system of land use distinguishes itself from the other systems, such as sole crop cultivation and afforestation on croplands only through its potential to sequester higher amounts of carbon (in the above- and belowground tree biomass) than the aforementioned two systems. According to Kyoto protocol, agroforestry is recognized as an afforestation activity that, in addition to sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) to soil, conserves biodiversity, protects cropland, works as a windbreak, and provides food and feed to human and livestock, pollen for honey bees, wood for fuel, and timber for shelters construction. Agroforestry is more attractive as a land use practice for the farming community worldwide instead of cropland and forestland management systems. This practice is a win–win situation for the farming community and for the environmental sustainability. This review presents agroforestry potential to counter the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 by sequestering it in above- and below ground biomass. The role of agroforestry in climate change mitigation worldwide might be recognized to its full potential by overcoming various financial, technical, and institutional barriers. Carbon sequestration in soil by various agricultural systems can be simulated by various models but literature lacks reports on validated models to quantify the agroforestry potential for carbon sequestration.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Agroforestry: a sustainable environmental practice for carbon
sequestration under the climate change scenariosareview
Farhat Abbas
1
&Hafiz Mohkum Hammad
2
&Shah Fahad
3
&Artemi Cerdà
4
&
Muhammad Rizwan
1
&Wajid Farhad
5
&Sana Ehsan
1
&Hafiz Faiq Bakhat
2
Received: 16 November 2016 /Accepted: 22 February 2017 /Published online: 9 March 2017
#Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017
Abstract Agroforestry is a sustainable land use system with a
promising potential to sequester atmospheric carbon into soil.
This system of land use distinguishes itself from the other sys-
tems, such as sole crop cultivation and afforestation on croplands
only through its potential to sequester higher amounts of carbon
(in the above- and belowground tree biomass) than the aforemen-
tioned two systems. According to Kyoto protocol, agroforestry is
recognized as an afforestation activity that, in addition to seques-
tering carbon dioxide (CO
2
) to soil, conserves biodiversity, pro-
tects cropland, works as a windbreak, and provides food and feed
to human and livestock, pollen for honey bees, wood for fuel,
and timber for shelters construction. Agroforestry is more attrac-
tive as a land use practice for the farming community worldwide
instead of cropland and forestland management systems. This
practice is a winwin situation for the farming community and
for the environmental sustainability. This review presents agro-
forestry potential to counter the increasing concentration of
atmospheric CO
2
by sequestering it in above- and belowground
biomass. The role of agroforestry in climate change mitigation
worldwide might be recognized to its full potential by overcom-
ing various financial, technical, and institutional barriers. Carbon
sequestration in soil by various agricultural systems can be sim-
ulated by various models but literature lacks reports on validated
models to quantify the agroforestry potential for carbon
sequestration.
Keywords Climate variability .Environmental
sustainability .Forest .Land use management .Model .Soil
Background
An agroforestry system
Growing of trees in combination with other field agricultural
activities, such as cultivation of crops and rearing of animals,
can typically be termed as an agroforestry system.
Agroforestry practices on agricultural land make an important
contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not system-
atically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or na-
tional carbon accounting. Agroforestry has traditionally been
important elements of temperate regions around the world.
This practice results in a number of benefits including ensured
food security, enhanced biodiversity, enrichment of an ecosys-
tem with increased resources, and attainment of various envi-
ronmental targets, e.g., maintaining atmospheric CO
2
to cer-
tain limits (Ajayi et al. 2011). In addition, the trees just planted
on 35% of agricultural lands increase farm productivity, re-
duce vulnerability to climate change, and decrease greenhouse
gases emission (Possu et al. 2016); hence, the practice has
been regarded as climate-smart agriculture (FAO 2010).
Cumulatively, these benefits provide mitigation strategies to
Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues
*Farhat Abbas
farhat@gcuf.edu.pk
*Shah Fahad
fahad80@yahoo.com; shah.fahad@mail.hzau.edu.cn
1
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,
Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
2
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of
Information Technology, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
3
College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural
University, Wuhan, Hubei, China
4
Departament de Geografia, Universitat de València, Blasco Ibàñez,
28, 46010 Valencia, Spain
5
Department of Agronomy, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water
and Marine Sciences, Uthal 90150, Pakistan
Environ Sci Pollut Res (2017) 24:1117711191
DOI 10.1007/s11356-017-8687-0
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Trees play a significant role in above-ground carbon sequestration increment, and it also increases the carbon level of cultivated land . Agroforestry also minimizes emissions resulting from forest degradation or harvest with the help of form timber and fuelwood (Minang et al., 2011;Madalcho and Tefera, 2016;Abbas et al., 2017). Agroforestry has considerable capability to sequester atmospheric carbon into the soil and in above and below-ground biomass ). ...
... Some of the estimated parameters in Table 4 require explanation. First, ρ is the estimated rho in the variance-covariance matrix showing a correlation between the error of the regression equation (1) and the error of the selection equation (2). Here, in the case of agroforestry,̂= −0.6692. ...
... It is an intermediate step through which Stata estimate ρ. The sigma value is the estimated in the variance-covariance matrix; it is the variance of the regression error term in equation (1). Here, in the case of agroforestry ̂= 0.1174, Stata estimates it through ( ). ...
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This study estimates the impacts of adopting agroforestry and other soil conservation technologies (SCTs) on agricultural production in Pakistan. Using the stratified random sampling technique, 428 farmers were interviewed through well-designed questionnaires. The treatment effects model is used to accommodate the self-selective nature of technology adoption. It is found that agroforestry and chemical fertilizer significantly increase land and total factor productivity (TFP). However, the average treatment effect on adopters of agroforestry technology is slightly negative due to the negative self-selection effect. It can be concluded that these SCTs can be characterized as preventive actions taken by the farmers facing adverse conditions. Using the same estimation technique, SCT's impacts were analyzed on land and labor productivity. Its results are comparable with those of TFP results, conforming that these SCTs primarily increase land productivity.
... Trees play a significant role in above-ground carbon sequestration increment, and it also increases the carbon level of cultivated land . Agroforestry also minimizes emissions resulting from forest degradation or harvest with the help of form timber and fuelwood (Minang et al., 2011;Madalcho and Tefera, 2016;Abbas et al., 2017). Agroforestry has considerable capability to sequester atmospheric carbon into the soil and in above and below-ground biomass ). ...
... Some of the estimated parameters in Table 4 require explanation. First, ρ is the estimated rho in the variance-covariance matrix showing a correlation between the error of the regression equation (1) and the error of the selection equation (2). Here, in the case of agroforestry,̂= −0.6692. ...
... It is an intermediate step through which Stata estimate ρ. The sigma value is the estimated in the variance-covariance matrix; it is the variance of the regression error term in equation (1). Here, in the case of agroforestry ̂= 0.1174, Stata estimates it through ( ). ...
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This study estimates the impacts of adopting agroforestry and other soil conservation technologies (SCTs) on agricultural production in Pakistan. Using the stratified random sampling technique, 428 farmers were interviewed through well-designed questionnaires. The treatment effects model is used to accommodate the self-selective nature of technology adoption. It is found that agroforestry and chemical fertilizer significantly increase land and total factor productivity (TFP). However, the average treatment effect on adopters of agroforestry technology is slightly negative due to the negative self-selection effect. It can be concluded that these SCTs can be characterized as preventive actions taken by the farmers facing adverse conditions. Using the same estimation technique, SCT’s impacts were analyzed on land and labor productivity. Its results are comparable with those of TFP results, conforming that these SCTs primarily increase land productivity.
... All areas with median or higher tree cover have no change. Increasing tree cover by this relatively small amount, increased global above-and belowground biomass on agricultural land by 4.60 PgC [35,36] bringing the global total to 53.05 PgC, more than 9.5% over the 2010 baseline (based on the updated data from the Spawn and Gibbs map [32,33] ). ...
... As the need for transformative change in agricultural systems becomes more apparent, urgent, and generally recognized [24,26,27,35,36] , gaining a better understanding of the potential mitigation benefits of various agroforestry and treebased systems has become an essential component of international land sector mitigation efforts [9,10,15,37] and national carbon accounting [9,10,20] . The comparison of the IPCC Tier 1 estimation by Zomer et al. [29] with the updated and better validated Spawn and Gibbs [33] harmonized map has shown that these initial estimates published in 2016 were robust and at appropriate magnitude, especially accurate at the global level, but showing considerably more variability at the regional to country level. ...
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... Next to natural forests, agroforestry systems are more efficient at sequestering carbon than annual cropping systems [20,27]. e establishment of coffee agroforestry can cause SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels [28]. erefore, a coffee-based agroforestry system may present an attractive opportunity for coffee growers to benefit economically if the carbon sequestered is sold through carbon trading. ...
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There is a limited effort in Ethiopia to study scientifically the ecological features of traditional coffee-based agroforestry systems. This study was initiated to determine the structure, composition, and carbon stock of woody species along an elevation gradient of a traditional coffee-based agroforestry system in Yirgacheffe district, southern Ethiopia. Woody plants’ inventory was conducted in thirty-eight sampling quadrats (20 ∗ 20 m) along five elevation contours and eight transects. Thirty-eight soil samples were taken from randomly selected subplots at 0–30 cm soil depths. In this study 32, woody plant species representing 23 families were recorded. Species richness ranged from 13–17 along the elevation gradient. Woody plant diversity indices appear to have a slight variation with increasing elevation gradient. Shade tree and coffee shrub density, DBH, and height showed significant variations along the elevation gradient. Total aboveground woody biomass carbon stock along elevation gradient ranged from 11.07 to 27.48 Mg·ha−1. Soil organic carbon stock was slightly different across elevation gradients with a mean range of 83.91 to 89.29 Mg·ha−1. These indicate that the agroforestry system has significant potential of storing and enhancing ecosystem carbon stocks across all the elevation gradients. The findings generally show that agroforestry systems in the study area are diverse, structurally complex with significant carbon storage in the soil and woody biomass.
... The resultant deviations, therefore, affect ecosystem functioning and microclimate dynamics. In essence, vegetation plays a pivotal role in global climate, natural resources management, carbon sequestration and ecological biodiversity [15][16][17]. ...
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