Article

Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Indigenous knowledge has been constructed as inferior through the 'positional superiority', rationality, and reason claimed by Western knowledge in colonialist enterprises (Louis, 2007;Smith, 2001). ...
... The Western academy and its various disciplines, through research practices, have actively contributed to damaging narratives and deficit views of Indigenous peoples at best, and very harmful (lethal) consequences in communities at worst (Tuck & Yang, 2014). In fact, Maori scholar, Smith (2001) asserts that in many Indigenous communities 'research' is a dirty word. Despite the harm that research has done in Indigenous communities, social science disciplines, according to Unangax̂ scholar, Tuck and Yang (2014, p. 229), 'have inherited the persistent drive to supersede the conditions of their operations from settler colonial logic, and it is this drive, a kind of unquestioning push forward, and not the origins of the discipline that we attend to now'; thus, the continued drive to 'study' Indigenous and other marginalized communities through research continues unabated (Louis, 2007). ...
... Finally, I offer the following constructive commentary and recommendations to any researcher intending to work with, and for Indigenous communities. Indigenous methodologies and decolonizing research are meant to be purposeful and to contribute to community well-being (Louis, 2007;Smith, 2001). Quechua scholar, Sandy Grande (2015, p. 12) states that knowledge-making should not be contingent on settler imperatives, but to enact knowledge 'grounded in Indigenous specificity and well-being'. ...
... Simultaneously, by providing students with the South African authentic ETD realities facilitated by the two experienced practitioners, the module context was decolonised. This is because the authentic context and expert performance characteristic of Situated Learning mirrored deconstruction and reconstruction elements as referred to by Smith's (1999) discussion on decolonisation methodologies, and the decolonisation debate in higher education as referred to by Fataar (2018), Higgs (2016), and Le Grange (2016). ...
... According to Herrington and Oliver (1995), as well as Lombardi (2007), the apprentices should have a voice in choosing the tasks and how to approach and execute the task that would suit their own learning needs. Similarly, Smith (1999) recommends that management and academics allow students' voices to be heard regarding their learning in a decolonisation process, which is also what the students' protests in 2015 and 2016 called for. ...
... Entrenched in the application of indigenous activities and an authentic context in the classroom, was the fact that, instead of exclusively learning and applying theory from a colonised perspective, with the assistance of the ETD practitioners, the students constructed their knowledge and developed appropriate competencies relevant to the South African context. According to Mamdani (2016) and Smith (1999), colonialism conveyed not only theory from Western education but also the view that such theory could be applied to its outside borders. Similarly, Grosfoguel (2007) states that a world view exists, suggesting that colonial situations require a colonial administration. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study explored the learning and teaching of students registered for the undergraduate Training Management Module in the Industrial Psychology Department at a traditional university in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The aim of the study was to explore how situated learning can inform a more practically orientated learning and teaching of ETD practitioners. The criticism levelled at institutions of higher learning is that education, training and development practitioners are poorly trained to integrate theory taught, into practical situations. The objective of the study was to pilot a situated learning and teaching intervention strategy through a critical-emancipatory educational action research design at the research site, to arrive at a learning and teaching strategy on how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in the training management third-year undergraduate module at the University. Specific to this study was the employment of authentic South African-based realities and experiences, aimed at decolonising the curriculum and learning and teaching practices for training management students. The argument was that in the process of integrating the theory taught to practical, real industry applications within a South African context, students would construct their own understandings and develop the competencies required by employers in training and development. The empirical work was grounded in Lave and Wenger's Situated Learning Theory. Lave and Wenger argued that through the learning of facts and the practising of technical procedures, students learn and developing an identity in a community of practice, while acquiring knowledge and skills from more experienced mentors (as apprentices), who are acknowledged as partners and held accountable for work activities. In Situated Learning Theory, the cognitive development of a student is considered together with the social interaction that transpires in the learning environment through the use of situated learning characteristics. For this reason, it was deemed the most suitable theory to use in this study. The inquiry employed a critical-emancipatory education action research design, located within the critical social sciences framework. By applying McKernan's time process action research model, the lecturer teaching the subject moved from the traditional way of teaching to create a learning-centred environment, which comprised of formal and informal learning opportunities for the students. The participants included industry practitioners, students, an academic and the researcher, as an inside/outside researcher. The inquiry was characterised by qualitative and quantitative data collection methods and the data were analysed per cycle, over a two-year period. Two main findings emerged from the analyses, (i) the interrelatedness and interdependency of the characteristics of situated learning, and (ii) the scaffolding characteristic, which was the most fundamental one for the successful execution of theoretical content with practical activities for the students in the Training Management Module. The contribution to the creation of new knowledge lies in the fact that the findings of this study not only contribute to the existing literature on the theory and practice divide; but more importantly, they respond to the appeal for academics at higher education institutions to develop a learning and teaching strategy that will assist to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Such a strategy will provide students with the opportunities to develop relevant I-O specific competencies while completing their studies.
... This, in turn, has triggered scholars to disentangle what had hitherto been considered universal forms of knowledge and knowledge systems (see e.g. Smith, 2012). Far from representing neutral positioning such forms of conceptual (and beyond!) subjugation have been met with suspicion and ultimately called for a re-invention of terms and their frameworks. ...
... Far from representing neutral positioning such forms of conceptual (and beyond!) subjugation have been met with suspicion and ultimately called for a re-invention of terms and their frameworks. Accordingly, scholarly work has been denominating these colonially inherited asymmetries inter-alia 'epistemological tyranny' (Aveling, 2013), the 'reach of imperialism into our heads' (Smith, 2012) or a 'fatal (universalising) convergence and missed occasion' (Badie, 2018) of decolonising the world.1 In turn, these requested paradigmatic shifts demand suitable responses such as 'post-colonial discourse, (…) the empire writes back and/or writings from the margins' (Smith, 2012), approaches that could 'decolonise the mind' (Nursoo, 2018) or make us 'un-think or re-think' (des-pensar in Spanish) current paradigms of hegemony (de Sousa Santos, 2013). ...
... Accordingly, scholarly work has been denominating these colonially inherited asymmetries inter-alia 'epistemological tyranny' (Aveling, 2013), the 'reach of imperialism into our heads' (Smith, 2012) or a 'fatal (universalising) convergence and missed occasion' (Badie, 2018) of decolonising the world.1 In turn, these requested paradigmatic shifts demand suitable responses such as 'post-colonial discourse, (…) the empire writes back and/or writings from the margins' (Smith, 2012), approaches that could 'decolonise the mind' (Nursoo, 2018) or make us 'un-think or re-think' (des-pensar in Spanish) current paradigms of hegemony (de Sousa Santos, 2013). In that sense, epistemological transformations are called upon to alienate ourselves from the presumably decolonising posture that imposes a renewed redistribution of language and 'new' logic of the sense of life (Mbembe, 2010). ...
This piece critically engages with the spaces of encounter between indigenous peoples and the (Bolivian) State by exploring indigenous subordination and inequalities in a socio-legal sense. It explores 'epistemological oppression' and 'epistemological hesitance' as it arises and is being responded to in i) the vernacular, in empirical realities, ii) in constitutional law and its principles, iii) and in international legal orders including indigenous peoples' rights regimes. In a first step, indigenous knowledge is conceptualised and contextualised, understanding said encounters in the light of Bolivian constitutionalism and recent regressive indigenous politics under the intermittent right-wing government. Empirical, grassroots perspectives provide further insights into power dynamics and internalised asymmetries which become relevant to understand the knowledge-law nexus. In turn, we disentangle the constitutive elements of neo-colonial subordination, drawing on concepts of sovereignty, self-determination, citizenship and collective rights, and political recognition. Finally, hope is placed in the decolonising function of the law, international law in particular in the way it may reposition indigenous peoples vis-à-vis the State. A dedicated focus is placed on indigenous knowledge and its consideration in current jurisprudential developments. Constitutional law-Andean developments in particular-too is taken as a legal starting point for contextualising indigenous-State encounters, seen with decolonising lenses. In that sense, contemporary State architectures serve as unavoidable spaces of articulation that may reinforce neo-colonial tendencies through classical Western constitutionalism or create ambitious venues for indigenous rights to be recognised in a plural legal landscape.
... Indigenous people in many communities are beginning to demand that research that pertains to them utilize more appropriate, "decolonized" methodologies (see, for example, Smith, 2013). Some countries, for example Canada, have taken steps to ensure a shift in the way that research is conducted with Indigenous populations. ...
... Kaupapa Māori research also encompasses an analytical approach that is about thinking critically, which includes critiquing Western definitions and constructions of Māori people and their worldview. It is also about valuing Māori self-determination and encouraging participation in the research process (Smith, 1999). Kaupapa Māori research does not exclude the use of other methods, but it seeks to integrate them in a culturally sensitive way that is beneficial for Māori (Smith, 1999). ...
... It is also about valuing Māori self-determination and encouraging participation in the research process (Smith, 1999). Kaupapa Māori research does not exclude the use of other methods, but it seeks to integrate them in a culturally sensitive way that is beneficial for Māori (Smith, 1999). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter aims to contextualize Indigenous parenting customs by discussing the historical trauma context which affects many diverse Indigenous cultures worldwide whose parenting practices have been, and continue to be, affected by colonization and the ensuing traumatization of entire communities. It also explains past and current discriminatory government policies and practices that shaped relationships between Indigenous parents and their children and most importantly, Indigenous parenting beliefs, values, and practices, or ethnotheories that are shared by diverse communities and that are understood to build resiliency in children. The chapter presents examples of unique issues and practices for specific Indigenous Nations from Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Scandinavia. It offers recommendations for future research using decolonizing Indigenous research methodologies. The parenting practices include continued differences between Indigenous parenting practices from those of Western parenting and differences between Nations, attachment and parental sensitivity, competency, autonomy, and discipline, cultural values and the transmission of values.
... xi) . Indigenous and Tribal Peoples have a deep mistrust of research, and this is evident in their reluctance to participate in research studies (Meyer, 2003;Smith, 2012) . This mistrust results from a history of oppression, genocide, and marginalization experienced by Indigenous and Tribal Peoples (Fong et al ., 2003) . ...
... , 2019;Kovach, 2009;Meyer, 2019;National Congress of American Indians, 2021;Rainie et al . , 2017;Smith, 2012) . At the center of this movement is sovereignty or selfdetermination, whereby Indigenous and Tribal Peoples reject colonial research practices forced on them and have reclaimed their past, present, and future . ...
... Both authors have been actively researching tourism in the Pacific for some time, with the first author having deep connections with people affected by the pandemic. Inspired by Banks & Scheyvens (2014) and Smith (1999), they regard this study as part of their obligation as researchers to interpret the tourism phenomenon in a manner that is emancipatory and genuine in its concern for Pacific people's sustainable development. It seeks to place people living in tourism destinations at the forefront of understanding adaptation and resilience to create knowledge that can be useful in informing better tourism practices that benefit both people and the planet. ...
... The Pacific Vanua Research Framework (PVRF) was adopted to guide the methodological orientation of this study and woven into its ethical considerations (Nabobo-Baba, 2008). The PVRF attempts to localise research methods, recognise local sensitivities, and decolonise research in the Pacific (Smith, 1999). Vanua research is grounded in Indigenous values which "…supports and affirms existing protocols of relationships, ceremony, and knowledge acquisition. ...
Article
Full-text available
As with small islands around the globe, many of the island states of the South Pacific are heavily dependent on tourism revenue. This article examines how tourism development and its disturbance by Covid-19 has influenced socio-cultural and economic changes among Indigenous communities in Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Samoa, Cook Islands, and Fiji. In particular, it demonstrates how the cessation of international tourism in established destination communities has created shifts in the way people live and their livelihood approaches which have moved towards a revival of customary practices. This study was led by Massey University researchers through partnerships with research associates (RAs) based in-country: an online survey and on-site interviews by RAs, along with Zoom interviews by the authors, provided primary data. The paper argues that although Covid-19 has had difficult financial consequences, it has also motivated innovative, culturally-based responses that allow people to adapt effectively to the loss in income associated with border closures. Such changes point to valuable lessons that could inform the management of more resilient tourism in the Pacific.
... Humanizing Methodologies assert the notion that historical methods of research are colonial in nature and approach (Smith, 2012 (Smith, 2012). ...
... Humanizing Methodologies assert the notion that historical methods of research are colonial in nature and approach (Smith, 2012 (Smith, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The continued shortage of Black Male Teachers (BMTs) in the United States presents an opportunity to reexamine the factors that impact teacher retention among Black males in US public schools. One predominantly Black, all-male higher education institution—commonly referred to as an HBCU, which stands for Historically Black Colleges and Universities—Morehouse College, is poised to play a key role in developing a pipeline of quality BMTs for high-need public schools with the recent launch of the Morehouse Center for Excellence in Education. This mixed-methods study analyzed and explicated the complex experiences of Morehouse alumni who became K-12 public school teachers and will inform the direction of this new education program, helping to support the conditions to help it become the prototype for preparing young men of color for the layered social and economic politics they encounter as minorities in the education profession. I as the researcher used the theoretical frameworks of self-determination theory, sociocultural theory, and human capital theory to explore the narratives of Black male Morehouse College alumni who have taught in the US public school system for at least one full year. This relational inquiry engaged stories from major decision points in the men’s life journeys, including their decision to: (a) attend Morehouse College, (b) become a teacher, (c) pursue professional development or teacher certification, and (d) continue as a teacher. Through the analysis of interviews and survey data, I explored how teacher retention among Morehouse alumni is influenced by the intersections of self-motivation, professional development, and prior experience as a young male of color, including formative educational experiences.
... However, the work we do as researchers is intricately tied to issues of power, privilege, and oppression (Milner, 2007). So much so, that to minoritized individuals, especially those who are Indigenous, research is one of the dirtiest words in the English language (Tuhiwai-Smith, 1999). ...
... Additionally, we must consider who owns the data after we collect it. In Western perspectives, researchers own data, but in decolonial approaches participants own data because it is their information and/ or knowledge that is being shared with researchers (Barlo et al., 2021;Tuhiwai-Smith, 1999). In sum, there are other areas in need of further discussion, and the suggestions here are only meant to lure the HPE research community to join a conversation about the larger context that educational research falls within, and implicate larger issues of power, privilege, and oppression in the everyday work that we do. ...
Article
Full-text available
As HPE begins to turn their attention to the lived experiences of minoritized groups in society, health professions education (HPE) researchers need to be aware of the history of social science research and the ways it contributes to creating systems of oppression. This is because as ‘knowledge producers,’ we make decisions about how to design our studies, analyze and interpret data, and report it in ways that are frequently oblivious to the harmful legacy of social science research, and how it continues to bring harm to minoritized communities. To not do so is to perpetuate a system that has historically served the dominant group at the expense of those who are limited in representing the world for themselves. This article proposes that HPE researchers engage in disruptive research practices by delinking with their disciplinary training, and reimagine their role in the research process. To accomplish this, I suggest that they engage in three strategies: attend to the research team’s composition, embrace critical theory and investigate epistemological ignorance. These strategies are nowhere close to exhaustive, and they do not extend as far as the conversation must go in reimagining our role in the research enterprise. However, in providing some initial thoughts on this topic, I hope to invite the HPE community into discussion on how we might harness our collective responsibility to resist research practices that are harmful and unjust to minoritized communities.
... In more capacious and equitable ways. Thus, research, activism, and policy-making need to be more critically reflexive of methodologies and methods used, and the cognitive biases that persist (Tuhiwai Smith, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The extremely uneven and inequitable impacts of climate change mean that differently-located people experience, respond to, and cope with the climate crisis and related vulnerabilities in radically different ways. The coloniality of climate seeps through everyday life across space and time, weighing down and curtailing opportunities and possibilities through global racial capitalism, colonial dispossessions, and climate debts. Decolonizing climate needs to address the complexities of colonialism, imperialism, capitalism, international development, and geopolitics that contribute to the reproduction of ongoing colonialities through existing global governance structures, discursive framings, imagined solutions, and interventions. This requires addressing both epistemic violences and material outcomes. By weaving through such mediations, I offer an understanding of climate coloniality that is theorized and grounded in lived experiences.
... Thus, we propose that only by deliberately and proactively making room for diverse knowledges from below can decisionmaking authorities take account of multiple perspectives, values, and forms of knowledge to enable a fuller understanding of the sociological aspects of disease and of human behavioral responses to public health measures. Building on calls for inter-and transdisciplinary approaches to knowledge for sustainability Fazey et al., 2020), as well as for decolonizing scientific knowledge production (Raja et al., 2022;Tuhiwai Smith, 2012), we argue below that such a post-normal science with epistemic diversity at its core is essential for designing contextually appropriate measures to help us avert or at least better prepare for future global systemic crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
Full-text available
As COVID-19 emerged as a phenomenon of the total environment, and despite the intertwined and complex relationships that make humanity an organic part of the Bio- and Geospheres, the majority of our responses to it have been corrective in character, with few or no consideration for unintended consequences which bring about further vulnerability to unanticipated global events. Tackling COVID-19 entails a systemic and precautionary approach to human-nature relations, which we frame as regaining diversity in the Geo-, Bio-, and Anthropospheres. Its implementation requires nothing short of an overhaul in the way we interact with and build knowledge from natural and social environments. Hence, we discuss the urgency of shifting from current to precautionary approaches to COVID-19 and look, through the lens of diversity, at the anticipated benefits in four systems crucially affecting and affected by the pandemic: health, land, knowledge and innovation. Our reflections offer a glimpse of the sort of changes needed, from pursuing planetary health and creating more harmonious forms of land use to providing a multi-level platform for other ways of knowing/understanding and turning innovation into a source of global public goods. These exemplary initiatives introduce and solidify systemic thinking in policymaking and move priorities from reaction-based strategies to precautionary frameworks.
... Such is a process that I expect to be able to conduct simultaneously with my ELTPs as collaborators, with the purpose to incorporate elements of Narrative Pedagogy (Goodson & Gill, 2011) (NP); Narrative Inquiry (NI) (Barkhuizen, G, Benson, P & Chik, A., 2004;Barkhuizen, 2013;Clandinin. D. & Connelly, M., 2000), and Indigenous Research Paradigm (IRP) (Tuhiwai, 1999, Wilson, 2001Arévalo 2013). NP, NI and IRP consider experience as a common term that yields better understandings of educational life and context, compared with other methods used in social sciences and education to conduct research. ...
Book
Full-text available
La reflexividad sobre el lugar de enunciación del investigador es un paso fundamental para resquebrajar las estructuras jerárquicas que condicionan la relación con los sujetos en observación con los que, de acuerdo con la perspectiva decolonial, para trascender la relación sujeto-objeto se deben establecer relaciones heterárquicas. En este marco se inscriben los textos de este libro. Sus autores, en distinto grado de profundidad y logro, hacen un riguroso ejercicio de búsqueda y hacer venir (inventar) los intersticios del espacio institucional en el que realizan sus prácticas pedagógicas de modo que viabilicen una reflexión sobre las narrativas y subjetividades que contaminen la racionalidad colonial que comporta la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia. Sin duda, este libro inaugura una lectura transgresora por el hecho de, por una parte, repensar el proceso formativo del idioma inglés en tanto dispositivo colonial que normaliza la cosmovisión occidental como proyecto de vida posible y deseable en el Sur Global; y, por otra parte, al indagar en sus pliegues la existencia de contraconductas que escapan al disciplinamiento cognitivo...(Prólogo de Gabriel Alfonso Medina).
... 18 CRT's analytical framework employs a constructivist approach that enables resistance to claims of 'objectivity' in research favouring co-constructing knowledge with participants 19 , highlighting voices that remain invalidated and distorted in social science research. 20 The study has also drawn on artistic practices such as a/r/tography as an arts-based form of enquiry to disrupt standardised research criteria to evoke alternative possibilities of understanding. Through this, we have centred human emotion in the articulation of experience. ...
... In the academic milieu, refugees are often positioned as the researched rather than as researchers and writers. As such, their stories are often told by Western academics whose careers benefi t as a result (Smith 2012;. Of the four co-authors of this chapter, one is a Western academic born in an anglophone country, using the privilege of linguistic and social capital to access an avenue to which her co-authors may not (yet) have entry. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter looks at problems with the Australian Migrant English Program for refugee students wishing to access university education in Australia.
... Having a dialogue with participants moves them into the research process (as opposed to being objects of the research) as they are involved and engaged in the production of knowledge. Traditional ethnographies can produce imperialist tendencies in representing participants and their knowledge and thereby collude with the structures of domination (Fine, 1994;Said, 1993;Tuhiwai Smith, 1999. A dialogue with participants is vital to decolonial ethnography as power relations are embedded in ethnography. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A decolonial feminist ethnography is an empowering, ethically engaged methodology that can address the complexities of the lived world and the complications of power in research to bring forward different worldviews, knowledges and lived experiences. Integrating decolonial feminist theory into a critical ethnography can help achieve epistemological decolonisation by enabling researchers to engage in research that challenges inequality, power and politics, and recognises the intersections of voice, place and privilege throughout the research process. In practice, this is a performed ethnography, whereby empowerment comes from the space created between the researcher and participants, where the researcher moves with the participants and engages in a dialogic performance. This chapter provides insight into the theoretical development of this methodological approach, and then, moving beyond the theory, shares how the author used the embodied performances of moving and listening to engage in a dialogue with indigenous Maya women, where power was shared and knowledge produced together.
... Representation was the sixth R to be included. Representation of Indigenous communities has been a struggle since colonization, and the ability to "represent ourselves" is seen as a fundamental right (Smith, 2012). Kovach (2010) stresses the importance of including Indigenous voice and representation within research, using conversation as a means for gathering knowledge through the relational process of story-telling. ...
Article
Full-text available
Faculty members in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines are typically expected to pursue grant funding and publish to support their research or teaching agendas. Providing effective professional development programs on grant preparation and management and on research publications is crucial. This study shares the design and implementation of such a program for Native STEM faculty (NAF-STEM) from two tribal colleges and one public, non-tribal, Ph.D. granting institution during a 3-year period. The overall development and implementation of the program is centered on the six R’s Indigenous framework – Respect, Relationship, Representation, Relevance, Responsibility, and Reciprocity. The role of NAF-STEM and their interactions with the program, as members of the community formed by their participation, impacted the program. Their practices and the program co-emerged over time, each providing structure and meaning for the other. Through such reciprocity, NAF-STEM and the program research team continually refined the program through their mutual engagement. They took on the shared responsibility of the program while they participated in and shaped its practices. The process and results of formative and summative assessment and the impact of COVID-19 on the program are reported. Results of the program offer lessons on the implementation of six R’s framework in professional development at institutions of higher education.
... Key strategies to build broader partnerships with Indigenous peoples and local communities include: two-way learning, respect for culture, traditions, languages, and ways of knowing, allowing time and space for participatory planning and ensuring local priorities and needs are met, integration of local knowledge, protection of sensitive information, and ensuring informed consent (Borrini-Feyerabend et al., 2004;Barbour and Schlesinger, 2012;Preuss and Dixon, 2012;Smith, 2013). Starting with local priorities, allowing space and time for partnerships and use of cross-cultural methodologies, and recognizing, valuing, and utilizing Indigenous and non-Indigenous ecological knowledge systems, allows for the establishment of a "two-way approach" (Preuss and Dixon, 2012). ...
Chapter
Marine protected areas (MPAs) – clearly defined spaces dedicated to achieving long-term conservation of nature and nature’s values – have been identified as one of the most effective tools for safeguarding marine ecosystems. Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs) are increasingly recognized as an additional tool to achieve global biodiversity goals. As governments refine their conservation targets over the next decade and beyond, it is timely to discuss the role of MPAs and OECMs in meeting global biodiversity and sustainable development goals. Key areas needing improvement to achieve these goals include broader engagement with Indigenous peoples and community groups and increased sustainable financing and management effectiveness. In addition, MPAs and OECMs must be designed and managed to address climate change and include targeted restoration to promote recovery to effectively conserve marine ecosystems and support human needs.
... The papers in this Special Feature bring focus to the reality that place is the locale where historical experiences inform contemporary realities and struggles (Haraway 1988); where past colonial research practices were, and in some places continue to be, enacted (Smith 1999), and where legacies of inappropriate practice persist (de Sousa Santos 2007). However, place also embodies rich cultural practices (Horlings et al. 2020), complex local histories and stories (Le Heron et al. 2020), processes of re-connection and strengthening connection with country (e.g., Maclean and Bana Yarralji Bubu Inc. 2015), the intersection of knowledge networks and knowledge action systems, and new opportunities for knowledge co-production. ...
... I was very deliberate in situating myself by reflexively examining my positional status in this study, and making it visible with my interviewees (followingNast, 1994;; Rose, 1997;; Sundberg, 2003 suggestions). I continued to be transparent with my identity through the whole process of my research, as a step toward confronting relations of power and knowledge (followingSmith, 2006). Also, I talked to different players representing a diversity of positions and analyzed all documents that I was able to reach. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Political strategies undertaken by nation-states to conserve biodiversity, particularly through the creation of protected areas (PAs), have had deleterious impacts on many local and indigenous groups worldwide. Increasing recognition of these impacts has led to calls for more democratic conservation strategies and indigenous rights recognition in PAs. Addressing this legacy requires an understanding of the complexity and diversity of past experiences as well as an appreciation of the factors that might support the establishment of more democratic arrangements within contemporary PA contexts. Focusing on the experience of Chile, where twenty-nine percent of state-designated PAs are established on indigenous territories, separate lines of inquiry are explored in each of two manuscripts that comprise the core of this thesis. The first examines the history of rationalities for the creation and expansion of PAs on and into indigenous territories and the resulting impact of state-led strategies of territorialization on indigenous peoples. The second investigates recent and emerging relations between the State and indigenous peoples as outcomes of particular instances of resistance, accommodation and negotiation in PA contexts. Particular attention is given to the factors that support the meaningful participation of indigenous peoples in the governance of PAs. The research is written from my vantage point as a Chilean geographer with a professional background in PA policy and is based on literature and document analysis, as well as interviews with representatives from Chilean state government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and indigenous organizations. iv Acknowledgements
... However, other scholars such as Kumaravadivelu (2016) and Mignolo (2007Mignolo ( , 2010 root for a different way of thinking about and managing knowledge (also see Smith, 1999) that the current paper thinks has some relevance to ELT, especially in the post-Davian era. For example, Mignolo (2007Mignolo ( , 2010 advocates de-coloniality as an alternative way of looking at the frameworks of knowledge. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper sets out to answer two questions by characterizing and deconstructing Alan Davies’s seminal views and concepts - especially his ostensive views and his native speakerism - within the context of applied linguistics. Arguing that these are some of Davies’s seminal views and concepts, it offers a philosophical framing of his ostensive views and his other views by maintaining that they entail elements of philosophizing and fragments of the postmodern turn in the manner in which they are articulated in relation to applied linguistics. The paper also argues that Davies’s views of native speakerism are constructed within a classical binary perspective and, thus, can be construed to be fostering othering non-native speakers. In addition, it situates native speakerism within de-coloniality, epistemic break and de-linking, arguing that a de-colonial framework lends itself well to critiquing native speakerism. On this basis, it contends that there is a need to reconceptualize the notion of native speakerism that resonates with a de-colonial perspective. Lastly, the paper offers implications de-coloniality has for ELT.
... (págs. [59][60] Gough (2000) describe con precisión lo difícil que es nuestra tarea, pero hay que hacerla: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Necesitamos luchar por una teoría y una práctica del currículo que se aleje de los ámbitos regidos por los sistemas de significación dominantes que nos mantienen confinados en determinados marcos, pero sin descuidarlos ni disminuirlos. En una palabra, necesitamos desterritorializar la teoría curricular. Si somos capaces de hacerlo, también demostraremos que cada grieta en la plataforma dominante produce una diferenciación que amplía nuestros poderes de acción y compromiso, y nuestras emociones11 . En otras palabras, la teoría del currículo debe leerse como un "acto de llegar a ser", como algo que busca producir la diferencia y, por tanto, articular nuevos trabajos.
... This ongoing partnership between Hā Kūpuna and ALU LIKE is centered in Indigenous research methodologies, which privilege Indigenous ways of knowing and being, emphasize relationships and accountability for all involved in the research project, and seek to benefit Indigenous communities rather than to extract data in ways that reproduce colonial power structures (38)(39)(40). As in other Indigenous communities, extractive practices of research have previously caused many Native Hawaiians to distrust research, reporting that researchers tend to gather and publish data that perpetuate negative news about their health and do not use research as a means to improve the educational, economic, social, or health conditions of their communities (41). ...
Article
Full-text available
Native Hawaiians are proud and resilient people who have endured significant impacts from colonization. Despite being in a time of vibrant cultural revitalization, Native Hawaiians have a shorter life expectancy than other racial and ethnic groups in Hawai‘i. The primary aim of this paper was to share data from the first year of a 5-year study with Native Hawaiian kūpuna (elders) on their experiences with healthcare, along with barriers to accessing healthcare. Ten kūpuna living in rural areas of Hawai‘i participated in three interviews each, which were held in an informal, talk-story style. The first interview focused on establishing rapport. The second interview focused on the kūpuna's strengths, resiliencies, and what they would like to pass to the next generation. The third interview focused on the elders' experiences with healthcare, which is the focus of this paper. All ten kūpuna reported growing up with limited access to Western healthcare; rather, their families successfully treated many illnesses and injuries with lā‘au lapa‘au (Hawaiian herbal medicine) and other traditional healing practices, as they had done for generations. As Western medicine became more prevalent and accessible, they used both, but many preferred holistic treatments such as prayer, a return to the traditional diet, and lā‘au lapa‘au. As a group, the kūpuna rated their health as fair to good; two had diabetes, two had cardiovascular disease, four had neuropathies, and five were cancer survivors. The kūpuna reported high turnover among providers in rural communities. Limited access to specialists often required them to travel to Honolulu for care, which was costly and especially difficult during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Regardless of provider ethnicity, the kūpuna appreciated those who took the time to get to know them as people and respected Hawaiian cultural practices. They advised that Western providers speak honestly and directly, have compassion, and build connections to patients and their communities.
... The paper draws on qualitative research between 2008 and 2018, resulting in 63 interviews with state company and state institution representatives at national, departmental and municipal levels in Ecuador and Bolivia, with Indigenous leaders of Andean and Amazonian lowland organizations, as well as various local producers and staff at environmental NGOs in several highland areas and Amazonia. 1 In-depth (semi-structured) interviews and participant observation were embedded in a collaborative and dialogical approach with participants (Ndlovu-Gatsheni, 2017;Zavala, 2013;Tuhiwai-Smith, 1999). Close analysis of legal and constitutional documents complemented interviews, while economic data from international institutions and Central Bank databases was analysed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Indigenous organizations in the Andean countries of Ecuador and Bolivia originated novel proposals to pluralize sovereign arrangements through plurinational statehood. Reflecting diverse Indigenous groups’ relations with postcolonial states, these proposals created a unique basis for re-negotiating (sovereign) resource governance. Despite the constitutional endorsement of the plurinational state model however, the latest empirical evidence confirms growing state control over subsoil resources that excises Indigenous peoples from decision-making over resources. In this paper, we trace the emergence of novel agendas for sovereignty-multiplicity, showing how Indigenous agendas had anticipated the need to go beyond their rights over subsoil resources and autonomous territories. These agendas implied re-negotiating national sovereignty in light of the countries’ internal ethno-political and epistemic heterogeneity. Under nominally plurinational states however, resource governance outcomes perpetuate and normalise longstanding epistemic and power differentials between rights-bearing political subjects and Indigenous subjects. We highlight the colonial-modern bases of current sovereignty arrangements, identifying the presumptions and legal parameters that shape the dynamics between states, people and Indigenous people. Situating resource governance in relation to the concept of modernity/coloniality, we propose to (re)think sovereignty arrangements in the colonial present in light of internal heterogeneity.
... Conscious of the fact that, since colonial times, western-based education has always tried to undermine Indigenous cultures (Smith, 1999;Reyhner & Eder, 2004), the fundamental goal in the construction of an Indigenous university was to create an educational institution of and for the people that was oriented towards revitalizing and vindicating cosmologies, knowledge and traditional practices. That is to say, a school in which one does not have to hide ones' particular way of being and knowing in the world. ...
Article
Full-text available
The neocolonial undercurrent of internationalization that drives educational policies and standards, imposes a EEUUrocentric worldview and perspective of human development upon the global South. Beyond the discourse of international cooperation, this vision sustains what Quijano describes as the ‘coloniality of power’ that deepens inequalities between universities of the global North and South. In Latin America, there are various alternative educational projects, including indigenous universities that turn inwards toward rich pluriversal contexts, histories of resistance, and diverse tapestries of knowledge to address local problems and train youth to generate new horizons for ongoing indigenous and afro-mestizo social movements. This article is a reflective analytical account of our seven-year experience as volunteer educators at the Universidad Intercultural de los Pueblos del Sur (UNISUR) from an intercultural and decolonial feminist perspective. Founded in 2007 in southern Mexico, UNISUR was formed as a grassroots indigenous university of and for the original peoples of Guerrero state. Our account disrupts the hegemonic vision of an internationalized education that sustains racialized ‘colonialities of power’ and instead proclaims the right to self-determination, to the empowerment of women, and to an education based on principles of decolonial epistemic equity.
... Based on Indigenous-centric research paradigms (Marshall, 2021;RiverOfLife et al., 2021;Moggridge and Thompson, 2021;Perez and Longboat, 2019;Tuhiwai Smith, 2012), we recommend future NMV to clearly articulate who the intended or likely beneficiaries will be. Typically, academic research ethics protocols would not be granted unless the communities involved indicate that they agree with and perceive benefits in the study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-market valuation (NMV) can be effective to understand the value people place on ecosystem goods and services for which there are no market prices. Over the last 20 years, NMV has increasingly been applied to Indigenous contexts, albeit with important conceptual and methodological limitations. We conduct a global systematic literature review and detailed meta-synthesis of 63 peer-reviewed studies on NMV research applied to Indigenous peoples’ values. Selected studies are categorized by methods, year of publication, geographic area and ecosystem components. Australia (n = 19), the USA (n = 9) and Canada (n = 8) account for over half of all articles. Important knowledge gaps remain in the NMV peer–reviewed literature for other geographic areas. Our taxonomy based on ‘whose values’ and ‘which values’ reveals that a large proportion of studies (n = 24) focused on values held by Indigenous peoples, predominately on direct-use values (n = 12) and total economic values (n = 10). Studies based on the general population (n = 17) typically examined altruistic and/or existence values (n = 15). Our analysis identified seven main strategies used by previous studies to overcome critical limitations of NMV when applied to Indigenous peoples’ values. Strategies include: (1) engaging directly and ethically with Indigenous peoples; (2) investigating multi-dimensional values; (3) valuing health benefits; (4) adopting non-monetary payment vehicles; (5) using market prices for valuation; (6) sampling the broad population; and (7) investigating non-cumulative values. Based on this review, we provide seven critical questions to guide future NMV research: (1) What is the purpose?; (2) How does Indigenous knowledge inform NMV?; (3) Who benefits?, (4) What ethical frameworks apply?; (5) Whose values are considered?; (6) What is the expected change?; and (7) How are NMV limitations handled? Our contribution provides researchers and policy-makers with the most up-to-date review of the state-of-knowledge and suggestions for best-practice on the use of NMV methods when applied to Indigenous peoples’ values.
... Although there are various iterations of Grounded Theory, they all share a focus on "studies of individual and collective actions and social and social psychological processes" (Thornberg and Charmaz 2012, p. 42). Critical Indigenous Research Methodologies (CIRM) have developed out of a long tradition of Native scholars and communities who have argued that research with Indigenous peoples must adhere to a set of guiding principles (Smith 1999). These principles include fore-fronting the inherent sovereignty and self-determination of tribal nations, honoring and building on relationships within and between researchers and community members, and pursuing research questions that will advance community needs and interests (Brayboy, Gough, Leonard, Roehl, and Solyom 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on a research project that explored ethical, cultural, and/or spiritual conflicts and the various strategies used to navigate the conflicts among over 400 Indigenous students and professionals in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine [Our initial project was conceptualized as including STEM fields (not including the final M for medicine/health-related fields). However, our work included survey respondents and interviewees in medicine/health-related fields, so our subsequent analysis and discussion uses the more inclusive acronym of STEMM.] (STEMM) fields. These navigational strategies include teaching others and leveraging their support, engaging in ceremonial practices to provide protection and correction when needed, being in the right mindset and/or acting in the right ways, and—for some—changing pathways altogether. By centering Indigenous students' and professionals’ voices and experiences, we learn how intentional, complex, and thoughtful their strategies must be.
... Through privileging the voices of current Indigenous sportswomen, we make space for and value their lived experiences, ways of being and knowing. Borrowing from Tuhiwai-Smith (2003) our project is to contribute -albeit in some small way -to challenging dominant Western forms of knowledge and objectivity conceived of as 'regimes of truth' . Through questioning their legitimacy and extending this conceptual lens complexities, nuances, and possibilities for these women as SRMs can be illuminated. ...
Article
A model can be conceived as something or someone who is endowed with visibility. In contrast, a sport role model (SRM) tends to be demarcated in moral terms. The SRM is said to inspire behaviour and attitude, thereby setting an example to follow. High-profile athletes are widely feted as public figures outside of sport, as happens with celebrities in other contexts (Dix, Phau, and Pougnet 2010). However, challenging a ‘virtuous cycle of sport’ (Grix and Carmichael 2012, p. 76) where, owing to a trickle-down effect, the broader population draws inspiration from athletes, takes up sport activities or increases their physical activity levels (Ishigami 2019), research shows that ‘only 10 percent of elite athletes have been inspired by other elite athletes … to start with their current sport’, and even fewer inspire young people to live as ‘model’ citizens (De Croock, De Bosscher, and van Bottenburg 2012). However, on the other hand, scholars suggest that female role models, including family members, friends and other community and elite sports people, promote girls’ and women’s participation in sport activities and programs (Adriaanse and Crosswhite 2008, McGuire-Adams 2017). Still, scholars remain unconvinced about the efficacy of a ‘role model effect’ in terms of sport engagement (Adair 2015). While this tension is acknowledged, the situation appears somewhat different for a small cohort of Australian sportswomen—Indigenous women and girls (Stronach, Maxwell, and Taylor 2015).
Article
Full-text available
Although the field of island studies has from the start regarded itself as a defender of islands and islander interests, it is entangled in coloniality. This editorial focuses on issues of power, knowledge, and position. Who wields power in island studies? Who knows about islands? Where is island studies located, and how does it position itself? The paper discusses problems such as tokenism and forced inclusions, denial and circumscription of expertise, and onto-epistemological discrimination and hegemony within island studies. Ultimately, the paper advances the need for critical reflexivity and decolonial methodology within island studies, for pluralistic approaches to inclusivity and recognition of epistemic differences.
Article
This study examines indigenous Fijian and Papua New Guinean enterprises on customary land. It explores the duality of merging indigenous and Western principles of entrepreneurship and the ability to balance business and socio‐cultural imperatives. A qualitative, ethnographic‐case study approach is deployed, with talanoa/tok stori used to collect empirical materials. Two interrelated themes emerged from the study: The need for indigenous enterprise models to contribute to a more holistic conception of well‐being, and as a result, the requirement to rethink how surplus is distributed beyond mainstream shareholder ownership models. This study reveals a more nuanced approach to distributing surplus based on indigenous conceptions of kinship. The specific theoretical contribution of this study is an indigenous conception of surplus distribution that offers a challenge to traditional shareholder models.
Thesis
Full-text available
Australian higher education has its roots deep in the soil of colonisation and European imperialism. Therefore, it has developed as a system that is exclusive rather than inclusive of social and cultural diversity. The poor levels of higher education participation and outcomes for Indigenous students and students with a disability indicate the need to examine current practices and their impact on Indigenous people with a disability. This study aimed to explore how the higher education sector can mitigate barriers faced by Indigenous students with a disability and scaffold their successful engagement with and outcomes in higher education. Founded on Indigenous Standpoint Theory, as presented by Gilroy (2009a), the methodology of this research foregrounds the central role of Indigenous people with lived experience of disability—in the study design, its implementation and in the validation of the results. This research applied a mixed methods convergent parallel design. As described by Creswell and Plano Clark (2011), the study involved collecting and analysing two distinct datasets. The Quantitative Track comprised an audit of Australian university websites and a review of Disability Action Plans to ascertain the nature of service delivery. The Qualitative Track comprised listening to the stories and truthtelling of five Indigenous people with a disability who had undertaken higher education in Australia. Following the collection and analysis of the unique datasets, a process of comparison and identifying relationships between the two Tracks was undertaken. The study revealed the following six key findings: 1. Systemic barriers for Indigenous students with a disability were created by variable and bureaucratic institutional processes. Examples include the widespread requirement for medical diagnosis of a disability before the provision of assistance and lack of flexibility in course design, delivery and assessment. 2. The Indigenous perspective of on disability was found to be a dual consideration with Indigenous students not presenting for disability support and Indigenous staff not accessing disability services and supports for their students. 3. Institutional supports for Indigenous students and students with a disability were siloed into different areas, creating a lack of clarity for Indigenous students regarding where to go for help and placing them at risk of missing out on services and supports available to non-Indigenous students. 4. Systems were not cognisant of the additional barriers faced by students who were both Indigenous and had a disability. 5. The ineffective transition from higher education to employment was a major frustration. Participants found themselves in a continuous loop of attempting further qualifications to improve their life opportunities. 6. There was a desire for and appreciation of supportive and respectful communications from support services. Further, a spirit of resilience, determination and the desire to succeed was observed in participants. This study has identified a need for both public and private providers in the higher education sector to effectively coordinate their support services for Indigenous students with a disability. Within the current institutional funding model, this cohort may be better served by ensuring the following: • Services are coordinated and easy to navigate within the institution. • Students can present for supports without requiring supporting documentation to verify disability. • All staff are committed to the principles of person-centredness to ensure that individual student needs are recognised and supported. • Materials are produced following the principles of Universal Design of Learning to mitigate the need for students to declare that they have a disability. • There is institutional commitment to cultural safety to ensure that knowledge of and respect for Indigenous culture, community and knowledge is embedded throughout all facets of the institution. This thesis presents a framework to provide a pathway for institutions to achieve these desired outcomes and embed the processes in their Disability Action Plans.
Article
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic caused the abrupt curtailment of on‐campus research activities that amplified impacts experienced by female and racialized faculty. In this mixed‐method study, we systematically and strategically unpack the impact of the shift of academic work environments to remote settings on tenured and tenure‐track faculty in Canada. Our quantitative analysis demonstrated that female and racialized faculty experienced higher levels of stress, social isolation and lower well‐being. Fewer women faculty felt support for health and wellness. Our qualitative data highlighted substantial gender inequities reported by female faculty such as increased caregiving burden that affected their research productivity. The most pronounced impacts were felt among pre‐tenured female faculty. The present study urges university administration to take further action to support female and racialized faculty through substantial organizational change and reform. Given the disproportionate toll that female and racialized faculty experienced, we suggest a novel approach that include three dimensions of change: (1) establishing quantitative metrics to assess and evaluate pandemic‐induced impact on research productivity, health and well‐being, (2) coordinating collaborative responses with faculty unions across the nation to mitigate systemic inequities, and (3) strategically implementing a storytelling approach to amplify the experiences of marginalized populations such as women or racialized faculty and include those experiences as part of recommendations for change.
Article
In this article, I discuss Indigenous radio’s ongoing importance for tribal communities in the US from my perspective as a settler scholar, drawing on multifaceted research into Indigenous radio’s programme content and production practices before and during the pandemic. For this research, ‘Indigenous radio’ refers to radio produced, managed, presented and/ or owned by tribal communities. Other terms in use to describe Indigenous radio include Native American, Indian, or tribal radio, demonstrating that there is not a single universalising term and reflecting a diversity in tribal cultures, languages and practices more generally. Building on this understanding of the inherent diversity of Indigenous radio, I describe the ways in which my overarching research project investigates Indigenous radio holistically, via critical outputs combining a literature review of Indigenous theoretical approaches, an online interactive map of tribal stations and in-depth case studies of tribal stations. Through these, I explore community-building practices of Indigenous radio as produced through what Indigenous theorists Glen Coulthard and Leanne Betasamosake Simpson (2016) term grounded normativity. Building on this avenue of exploration, I suggest the place-based values embedded in Indigenous radio production practices and content can function as everyday acts of resurgence, following Jeff Corntassel’s (2012) conceptualisation of ways in which Indigenous resurgence can reinforce a project of decolonisation. To exemplify and situate these arguments, I draw on examples of radio production and practitioner insights from selected tribal stations embodying diverse tribal production practices and content, before turning to focus on pandemic practices in Indigenous radio. When the pandemic emerged, my research focus necessarily widened to include and examine COVID-related practices and programming in tribal radio, enabling reflection on these in the context of a paradigm shift in which the value of tribal radio's community-building work has become acute.
Thesis
Full-text available
The research study investigates the social and political dimension of contemporary street art production in the deeply divided cities of Beirut and Belfast. Specifically, it examines how historical experiences with the ethnonational and the neoliberal urbanisation of space constitute and maintain the perceptions and motivations of street artists to engage with everyday life. While more is understood on the neoliberal urban and ethnonational impact of social realities on the social perceptions within the milieu of divided cities, much less is understood about the impact of new social realities about the social perceptions of street art communities. The research design for the project compared the urban and social phenomenon of street art in the post-conflict cities of Beirut and Belfast, over a four-month, blended case study and focused ethnography. The researcher conducted twenty-two semi-structured interviews with eighteen street artists, three festival organisers and one city management official, and observed participants while volunteering at two street art festivals in Belfast. By shedding light on some of their artistic practices, the findings reveal that street art communities engage in small- ‘p’ political acts. They re-purpose taken-for-granted spaces within the city to demonstrate how street artists adjust their practices to reveal pragmatic and rule-based forms of placemaking to avoid jarring with sectarian identities while bringing attention to the democratic, transient and transformative nature of their practices. While they do not have an impact on the nature of space, their interactions could remark on the possibilities for the co-production of space. Moreover, they intend to awaken the slumber of urban dwellers with the visceral enjoyment and experiences of creating and producing street art for the inhabitants of the space. While small, their artistic interventions gift the inhabitants of Beirut and Belfast with ephemeral and gratuitous forms of interactions which present an opportunity, however temporary, for different social worlds to meet.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we reflect on the role of heartache during the first 2 years of The LGBTQ Intergenerational Dialogue Project. The project—a partnership between an LGBTQ community center, an art and design college, and a public research university—brings together racially, socioeconomically, and gender diverse cohorts of LGBTQ young (18–26 years old) and older adults (62–81) for dialogue, creative collaboration, and shared dinners. The project was conceived as a collaborative ethnographic pedagogical experiment in which participants became partners in research, education, and community formation. We quickly realized that heartache would be central to our journey together, as we navigated this rare opportunity for LGBTQ intergenerational contact. Grief, anger, and pain generated through interactions between LGBTQ people can be surprising, and especially weighty, components of Queer Battle Fatigue. It is necessary, we argue, to explore the heartache we experience within queer spaces as a pedagogical tool with which to strengthen queer communities.
Chapter
Full-text available
From the era of European empire to the global trades escalated after the World Wars, technological advancement, one of the key underlying conditions of globalization, has been closely linked with the production and reproduction of the colonizer/colonized. The rhetoric of modernity characterized by “salvation,” “rationality,” “development,” and nature-society or nature-culture divides underlies dominant perspectives on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education that have historically positioned economic development and national security as its core values. Such rhetoric inevitably and implicitly generates the logic of oppression and exploitation. Against the backdrop of nationalist and militaristic discourse representing modernity or coloniality, counter-voices have also arisen to envision a future of STEM education that is more humane and socioecologically just. Such bodies of critiques have interrogated interlocking colonial domains that shape the realm of STEM education: (a) settler colonialism, (b) paternalism, genderism, and coloniality, and (c) militarism and aggression and violence against the geopolitical Other. Our ways of knowing and being with STEM disciplines have been inexorably changed in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, which powerfully showed us how we live in the global chain of contagion. What kinds of portrayal can we depict if we dismantle colonial imaginaries of STEM education and instead center decolonial love—love that resists the nature-culture or nature-society divide, love to know our responsibilities and enact them in ways that give back, and love that does not neglect historical oppression and violence yet carries us through? STEM education that posits decolonial love at its core will be inevitably and critically transdisciplinary, expanding the epistemological and ontological boundaries to embrace those who had been colonized and disciplined through racialized, gendered, and classist disciplinary practices of STEM.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, the authors explore what more-than-human approaches can contribute to development research, teaching and practice. The authors believe that this work is timely as development studies and practice have yet to engage with more-than-human insights in any significant way. They first develop the concept of more-than-human development before analysing the challenges it poses to how we conceptualize and approach core development concerns such as community and empowerment. They then reflect on the ramifications of the concept for practice and policy, before finally exploring how to incorporate more-than-human approaches into pedagogy.
Article
Sharing ecological research with stakeholders has broader impacts for conservation and sustainability outcomes. However, ecologists face major challenges to effective communication with stakeholders, including lack of reciprocal trust, unacknowledged incentives, differing goals, and scientific inaccessibility. These obstacles largely stem from professional training in ecology prioritizing effective communication among peers over the public. Here, we argue that coding skills honed for peer communication can be leveraged to overcome these challenges within a “coding for broader impact” framework that provides tasks to promote effective communication and culminates in individualized stakeholder reports. The reports explicitly incorporate stakeholder knowledge and are coded in conjunction with tasks for peer communication. We illustrate the framework through three case studies in which we shared data and information about backyard biodiversity, agricultural impacts, and tick‐borne disease with homeowners, farmers, and land managers. A coding for broader impact framework allows a common analytical tool to become a public communication skill valuable to diverse stakeholder audiences.
Article
Purpose: Widening participation has increasingly been implemented to address the inaccessibility of medicine as a profession. However, 'less privileged' students who do 'get in', often struggle to 'get on'. This participatory action research project (PAR) gives space to medical students, who identify as 'less privileged' to express and explore their experiences. Methods: PAR is underused in health profession education and is shown to increase marginalised communities' hope for change within historically oppressive structures. Here, participants and the researcher become partners in the process of developing research agendas and discussing themes raised in analysing marginalising experiences in medical education. Using an intersectional approach, students self-referred to join comics-based workshops and 1:1 interviews. Comics were used to elicit data and as a tool to analyse complex and interrelated themes raised. Participants re-imagined their experiences into how they wish they had happened to develop ideas and actions for change. Results: We present four students' detailed accounts of marginalization where their lived experience, feelings and ideas give us a source of knowledge to challenge classist, racist, and sexist degradation widespread in medical culture. In particular, class elitism negatively impacted three women of working-class origins. Alongside other critical theorists, Bourdieu's work is used to understand how social class hierarchies are reproduced in medical culture, healthcare and society. Conclusion: This project was an action in and of itself, creating a space to build community for marginalised students who feel 'peripheral' to commonly performed medical culture. Further actions were put forward for the medical school to implement as part of the decolonising and diversifying the medical curriculum movement. We also call for class to be put on the Equality, Diversity and Inclusion agenda, and for issues of financial insecurity and stress experienced by medical students of working-class origins to be recognised and further addressed within medical education.
Book
Full-text available
Editorial The RSD10 symposium was held at the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2nd-6th November 2021. After a successful (yet unforeseen) online version of the RSD 9 symposium, RSD10 was designed as a hybrid conference. How can we facilitate the physical encounters that inspire our work, yet ensure a global easy access for joining the conference, while dealing well with the ongoing uncertainties of the global COVID pandemic at the same time? In hindsight, the theme of RSD10 could not have been a better fit with the conditions in which it had to be organized: “Playing with Tensions: Embracing new complexity, collaboration and contexts in systemic design”. Playing with Tensions Complex systems do not lend themselves for simplification. Systemic designers have no choice but to embrace complexity, and in doing so, embrace opposing concepts and the resulting paradoxes. It is at the interplay of these ideas that they find the most fruitful regions of exploration. The main conference theme explored design and systems thinking practices as mediators to deal fruitfully with tensions. Our human tendency is to relieve the tensions, and in design, to resolve the so-called “pain points.” But tensions reveal paradoxes, the sites of connection, breaks in scale, emergence of complexity. Can we embrace the tension and paradoxes as valuable social feedback in our path to just and sustainable futures? The symposium took off with two days of well-attended workshops on campus and online. One could sense tensions through embodied experiences in one of the workshops, while reframing systemic paradoxes as fruitful design starting points in another. In the tradition of RSD, a Gigamap Exhibition was organized. The exhibition showcased mind-blowing visuals that reveal the tension between our own desire for order and structure and our desire to capture real-life dynamics and contradicting perspectives. Many of us enjoyed the high quality and diversity in the keynotes throughout the symposium. As chair of the SDA, Dr. Silvia Barbero opened in her keynote with a reflection on the start and impressive evolution of the Relating Systems thinking and Design symposia. Prof.Dr. Derk Loorbach showed us how transition research conceptualizes shifts in societal systems and gave us a glimpse into their efforts to foster desired ones. Prof.Dr. Elisa Giaccardi took us along a journey of technologically mediated agency. She advocated for a radical shift in design to deal with this complex web of relationships between things and humans. Indy Johar talked about the need to reimagine our relationship with the world as one based on fundamental interdependence. And finally, Prof.Dr. Klaus Krippendorf systematically unpacked the systemic consequences of design decisions. Together these keynote speakers provided important insights into the role of design in embracing systemic complexity, from the micro-scale of our material contexts to the macro-scale of globally connected societies. And of course, RSD10 would not be an RSD symposium if it did not offer a place to connect around practical case examples and discuss how knowledge could improve practice and how practice could inform and guide research. Proceedings RSD10 has been the first symposium in which contributors were asked to submit a full paper: either a short one that presented work-in-progress, or a long one presenting finished work. With the help of an excellent list of reviewers, this set-up allowed us to shape a symposium that offered stage for high-quality research, providing a platform for critical and fruitful conversations. Short papers were combined around a research approach or methodology, aiming for peer-learning on how to increase the rigour and relevance of our studies. Long papers were combined around commonalities in the phenomena under study, offering state-of-the-art research. The moderation of engaged and knowledgeable chairs and audience lifted the quality of our discussions. In total, these proceedings cover 33 short papers and 19 long papers from all over the world. From India to the United States, and Australia to Italy. In the table of contents, each paper is represented under its RSD 10 symposium track as well as a list of authors ordered alphabetically. The RSD10 proceedings capture the great variety of high-quality papers yet is limited to only textual contributions. We invite any reader to visit the rsdsymposium.org website to browse through slide-decks, video recordings, drawing notes and the exhibition to get the full experience of RSD10 and witness how great minds and insights have been beautifully captured! Word of thanks Let us close off with a word of thanks to our dean and colleagues for supporting us in hosting this conference, the SDA for their trust and guidance, Dr. Peter Jones and Dr. Silvia Barbero for being part of the RSD10 scientific committee, but especially everyone who contributed to the content of the symposium: workshop moderators, presenters, and anyone who participated in the RSD 10 conversation. It is only in this complex web of (friction-full) relationships that we can further our knowledge on systemic design: thanks for being part of it! Dr. JC Diehl, Dr. Nynke Tromp, and Dr. Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer Editors RSD10
Article
Scholars across disciplines and throughout PK‐20 education have argued that color‐blind ideology works to perpetuate racial inequities in education via policies, research, curriculum, instruction, and student‐teacher interactions. This study explores an underexamined issue in relation to color‐blind ideology in STEM education. Specifically, it examines how a sample of college science faculty members use color‐blind framings to make sense of the underrepresentation of Black, Indigenous, and Latinx students in their fields. Interviews were conducted with 42 professors (majority tenured/tenure‐track, white, male, and continuing generation to college) in a College of Sciences at a research‐intensive, historically white institution in the United States. Thematic analysis showed that while many faculty members implicated systemic racism in their sense making about the underrepresentation of racially minoritized students in STEM, the majority used color‐blind frames (abstract liberalism, cultural racism, and minimization of racism) by focusing on individual behaviors and choices, cultural deficits, under‐preparation, and poverty. Consistent with the research on color‐blind ideology, professors were able to explain racial phenomena without implicating race/racism, which allowed them to absolve themselves from responsibility in addressing racial inequality issues in higher education. Faculty members who made sense of underrepresentation through systemic racism framings tended to recognize that they had a role to play in ameliorating these issues for students of color. These findings have implications for future research and professional development efforts.
Article
The pluralistic nature of food culture and food systems produces complex and blended realities for research, often prompting approaches that embrace mixed methods and cross-sector partner­ships. In parallel, calls for the decolonization of research methods have brought attention to the importance of relationality when working with local communities and traditional knowledge hold­ers. This article presents the process and outcomes of the Timor-Leste Food Innovators Exchange (TLFIX), a multifaceted initiative centered on the contemporary and historic foodways of Timor-Leste, including current challenges to individual health, cultural identity, and economic-ecological sustainability brought about by centuries of colo­nial and transnational influence. Conceived within an international development context, TLFIX aimed at building local empowerment, economic development, and social change. Methods included quantitative, qualitative, and material-based ap­proaches, including surveys, storytelling, and culi­nary innovation. As a “consulting academic” on the project, I contributed to the research design, coached team members on storytelling-as-method, and participated in a portion of the work. For the current text, I use the notions of recombinance, respon­siveness, and relationality to interpret our collective experience and to frame an example of carrying out mixed-method and mixed-participant work in com­plex food contexts. As a whole, this example illus­trates ways in which to leave space for improvisa­tion and emergence within food practice and scholarship.
Thesis
Full-text available
This study reflects on the predicament of the young Tharu Kamalri women after their legal emancipation in 2013, who had formerly been subjected to be the victims of bonded servitude in the name of the Kamlari system prevailing in Dang district of western Nepal. This study presents and analyses the accounts of the lives of young Kamlari women during their years in servitude, along with their experiences after they gained freedom. The freedom they obtained did not always bring the changes they expected. This study assumes that the much awaited freedom could not overcome the legacy of the evils of bonded servitude that existed from historical times, specifically, victimizing the young women of Tharu indigenous community. This study seeks to examine how the historical and systemic injustice and the socio-economic disparity occurred on a multidimensional basis, specifically victimizing the young Tharu women, forcing them to enter into bondage, thus continuing their oppression. While doing so, this study incorporates the theory of intersectionality to explore how the young Tharu women have been forced to be victims of bonded servitude owing to the intersection of multiple oppressions based on their ethnicity, class and gender.
Article
Here we reflect on diverse economies scholarship following Gibson‐Graham’s call to adopt performative practices for other worlds. Urging scholars to move from paranoia to possibility through weak theory methodology, their call provided momentum for work on economic difference that sustained critiques of capitalocentrism launched in 1996. In this clarion call to read for difference and possibility, a diverse economies framing facilitated a wholesale rejection of strong theory and paranoia. As a subdiscipline in the making, diverse economies scholars are challenged and critiqued as we seek to develop the framework and apply it to economic activities that exist within, alongside, and outside capitalism. Creating the language of diverse economies is continuous; here we consider a geopolitics of knowledge production in reading economic practice for difference, challenging the disuse of strong theory. We argue for deeper engagement with the power imbalances present in building livable worlds, putting diverse economies and decolonial theory in conversation to address power and strike a balance between paranoia and possibility.
Book
Full-text available
This Element explores the uncertain future of public policy practice and scholarship in an age of radical disruption. Building on foundational ideas in policy sciences, we argue that an anachronistic instrumental rationalism underlies contemporary policy logic and limits efforts to understand new policy challenges. We consider whether the policy sciences framework can be reframed to facilitate deeper understandings of this anachronistic epistemic, in anticipation of a research agenda about epistemic destabilization and contestation. The Element applies this theoretical provocation to environmental policy and sustainability, issues about which policymaking proceeds amid unpredictable contexts and rising sociopolitical turbulence that portend a liminal state in the transition from one way of thinking to another. The Element concludes by contemplating the fate of policy's epistemic instability, anticipating what policy understandings will emerge in a new system, and questioning the degree to which either presages a seismic shift in the relationship between policy and society.
Thesis
Like many countries in the Global South, Colombia has committed itself to providing quality, inclusive education for children with disabilities. However, while there is general agreement on the principle of inclusive education as something to be pursued, its meaning and nature is contested. Furthermore, a growing body of literature has questioned the relevance and application of models of inclusive education that have been generated in countries of the Global North, and subsequently, exported to Southern contexts. Moreover, there is a notable absence of literature that engages with how to operationalise inclusive education in a way that acknowledges, and is responsive to, the differing realities and priorities of rural contexts in countries of the Global South. Colombian educators have developed and implemented a successful child-centred model of rural education, called ‘Escuela Nueva’. As a learner-centred approach for multigrade classrooms, its design includes elements that could support the education of children with disabilities: children of different ages and abilities learn at their own pace, working in teams through the provision of self- instructional learner guides; participatory tools build class cohesion; and student committees contribute to decision-making in the school. In contrast to traditional models of teacher training in Colombia, teachers are trained using the same principles and materials as those that they will use in the classroom and learn how to facilitate, rather than direct, lessons. However, there is very little research that has explored teacher practice and children’s experiences in rural contexts, whilst none has examined both Escuela Nueva and disability. Consequently, my research aimed to explore how the school staff, parents and children of five rural Escuela Nueva schools in Colombia, understood and addressed the educational needs of children with disabilities. Adopting a qualitative case study approach, I conducted 46 interviews and 15 non-participant classroom observations across the five rural schools of Las Colinas, over a period of eight months. This included interviews with 11 school staff, 14 parents and five senior staff from Foundation Escuela Nueva. To seek the views of children, I i used a multi-method visual participatory approach with 53 children aged between 7 and 11 years, of whom, 26 were children with disabilities. My findings suggest that, while Colombian legislation advocates for a biopsychosocial understanding of disability, all participants understood disability as an individual deficit, thus reflecting the medical model of disability. Consequently, the impact of intersecting factors, such as poverty and rural location, on parents’ ability to support their child with a disability were often not recognised by teachers. Moreover, the bureaucratic disability diagnosis and support systems are designed for urban populations and do not recognise the challenges that rural parents face when trying to access them. Thus, multiple disconnects were observed between state systems, schools and parents. Challenging deficit accounts of rural teacher practice, my research into how children’s needs were addressed in EN classrooms revealed that the majority of teachers delivered high quality, inclusive teaching using the EN approach. Nevertheless, the findings problematised some elements of the EN model in terms of the extent to which they were able to support children with disabilities. My research revealed how the capacity of an EN teacher to deliver inclusive education is affected by a range of factors at multiple levels, of which the EN materials and tools are just one. Emphasising the role of context, teachers located in small, single-class schools had increased demands on their time, but less access to support from colleagues, than those in multi-class schools. Moreover, no teachers had received training on disability and the Escuela Nueva microcentre support structure for teacher practice had not been sustained. Consequently, I argue that, not only should state and school processes address the needs of the child, but also, the needs of those that are implementing them. Teachers require ongoing, situated, support that addresses not only support for their practice, but also, includes processes that build upon local strengths to address the disconnects and dilemmas that teachers and parents are facing within their context.
Article
In recent decades, transdisciplinary research has been increasingly recognised as necessary to produce solutions for sustainable development; however, implementation challenges remain. The emerging field of planetary health offers a unique lens to guide a new synthesis of perspectives, recognising interlinkages between environmental and human health, and interdependence across global development contexts, that is, at the environment‐health‐development nexus. This broad, practice‐based literature review consolidates learnings from previous transdisciplinary research across these diverse yet interrelated fields, and aims to deepen understanding of, and identify opportunities for, enabling collaborative practice. This review found structural, relational, and individual factors enabling and constraining collaboration. Local research contexts and academia's disciplinary traditions posed structural constraints that required relational efforts at the project, organisational and individual levels to address. This analysis revealed strategic opportunities for funding programs and researcher training that can be leveraged to increase capacity for relational work, further enabling collaboration in transdisciplinary research.
Article
African countries are today the major importers of the lowest grade of second‐hand clothing (SHC). With the opening of global markets and the intense circulation of fast fashion in the Global North from the 1990s, the trade of SHC has exploded in the twenty‐first century. The fast fashion business model, which fuels the SHC trade, has led to reduced quality of clothes, limited clothing lifetime, and accelerated discard of clothing, which end up as donations or become waste. The complexity of the international geographies of the SHC trade creates opacity and secrecy, maintaining inequalities and imbalances between Global North (GN) and South (GS), which continue a relationship of colonial dependence. This paper presents a critical look at SHC exchange in Kantamanto, the biggest SHC market in West Africa, situated within the central business district of Accra, Ghana. The paper scrutinizes the export of unwanted donated clothing, popularly known as “Obroni w'awu” (white man is dead), to Kantamanto. We use direct observation along with an interpretive research design through the analysis of photos taken from Kantamanto, and scholarly and gray literature. The paper documents local practices of reuse, exposing a duality: on the one hand, clothing's symbolic value that is lost in the GN is reconstituted in the GS through exchange and labor‐creating local economies. On the other, the global trade of SHC has become synonymous with dumping, continuing a colonialist relationship between the GN and GS whereby the GN exports unwanted clothing to predominantly African countries’ landfills.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.