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Darwin, Marx y Freud



Darwin, Marx y Freud produjeron una gran revolución en contra del racionalismo idealista que había dominado el pensamiento humano por siglos. En esta nueva visión el hombre es solo un animal más, una de tantas especies. El propósito de la evolución no es la creación del hombre, ni es éste la cúspide más sofisticada de la misma. El hombre es explotador, agresivo y dominado por su instinto sexual y su inconsciente. En este manuscrito el Doctor Carlos Obregón: 1) explica el pensamiento de los mencionados autores; 2) revisa sus contribuciones a la luz de la ciencia contemporánea; 3) valora las propuestas más socorridas en el pensamiento social actual a la luz de los dos puntos anteriores; y finalmente 4) sugiere cuál sería el camino correcto a seguir en ciencias sociales. La tesis que se sostiene es que, a pesar de los grandes avances en las teorías recientes, hay un regreso injustificado al racionalismo idealista; y que todavía hay mucho qué aprender de los tres gigantes del pensamiento que se presentan en esta obra.
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Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion in early life increased, there was a stepwise decrease in risk of mortality resulting in a 2.5-fold difference between the lowest and highest quartiles. Positive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later. Underlying mechanisms of balanced emotional states are discussed.
The term reflective function (RF) refers to the psychological processes underlying the capacity to mentalize, a concept which has been described in both the psychoanalytic (Fonagy, 1989; 1991) and cognitive psychology literatures (e.g. Morton & Frith, 1995). Reflective functioning or mentalization is the active expression of this psychological capacity intimately related to the representation of the self (Fonagy & Target, 1995; 996; Target & Fonagy, 1996). RF involves both a self-reflective and an interpersonal component that ideally provides the individual with a well-developed capacity to distinguish inner from outer reality, pretend from ‘real’ modes of functioning, intra-personal mental and emotional processes from interpersonal communications. Because of the inherently interpersonal origins to how the reflective capacity develops and expresses itself, this manual refers to reflective functioning, and no longer of reflective-self functioning (see Fonagy, Steele, Moran, Steele, & Higgitt, 1991a), as the latter term is too easily reduced to self-reflection which is only part of what is intended by the concept.
In the past, researchers have treated the development of the emotions and the task of emotional regulation as two separate topics, the former emphasizing 'normative' questions and the latter emphasizing 'individual' differences. Until now, understanding the first topic has never been seen as relevant for the second. This is the area pioneered by Emotional Development. This book presents the early phases of emotional life from a developmental perspective. It argues that emotional generation hinges on the developing ability to express arousal or 'tension' in accordance with one's context. It reveals the common core processes underlying the emergence of specific emotions and the capacity for emotional regulation. It explains the timing of emotional emergence, why emotions function as they do, and also explores individual styles of emotional regulation. Close ties between emotional development, cognitive, social and CNS development are discussed, too.
While other books concentrate on the different facets of aggression, these publications tend to focus on a single aspect of the subject and do not make any attempt to integrate biology and behavior. This lack of integration in the literature has created a major gap in our current understanding of the factors that influence aggressive actions. The Neurobiology of Aggression and Rage is an up-to-date review and analysis of the biological factors and processes involved in the expression and control of rage and aggressive behavior. Focusing on the understanding of the anatomical substrates of the major forms of aggression, the text also examines their basic underlying physiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms. It integrates various levels of analysis, including neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, genetic, and neurochemical, in which homologies are shown between humans and lower forms with respect to normal and abnormal expressions of aggressive behavior. Written by a renowned researcher who has dedicated the past 40 years to studying the neurobiology of aggression and rage, this unique book updates our knowledge of the facts, issues, theories, and scientific approaches used in the study of aggressive processes. It provides insight and education for society and may ultimately lead to improved therapies to help control this misunderstood emotion.
A long-term collaborative study by palaeolithic archaeologists and cognitive psychologists has continued in its investigations into the stone tool-making and tool-using abilities of a captive bonobo (a 180 pound male, named Kanzi, aged 12 years at the time of experiments reported here). A major focus of this study has been examination of the lithic reduction strategy over time and detailed analysis of the artefacts Kanzi has produced in 2 years of experimentation since our original report. Kanzi has exhibited marked improvement in his stone-working skills, although to date the artefacts he has produced still contrast with early hominid-produced artefacts in a number of attributes. Statistical analysis revealed that Kanzi is clearly preferentially selecting larger, heavier pieces of debitage (flakes and fragments) for use as tools. 1999 Academic Press