Conference PaperPDF Available

Using Upper-Elementary Student Performance to Understand Conceptual Sequencing in a Blocks-based Curriculum

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

As more elementary schools commit to integrating computer science instruction into their curricula, they seek guidance on what concepts are appropriate for students at different grade levels. Currently, little is known about how best to sequence computer science learning across elementary grades. In this paper, we present an analysis of 123 students' (age 9-12, grades 4-6) activities in a curriculum implemented in a visual block-based programming language. The goal of this work is to better understand the developmental appropriateness of foundational computer science ideas. All 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students in a single school completed the first module of a curriculum during the same school year with the same instructor. We analyzed each task students attempted and found that for simple concepts, there was little difference in performance between grade levels. However, differences were found for more complex topics, such as whether they completed initialization tasks and the way in which they solved 2-d navigation tasks. A closer look revealed that students understood the basic concepts, but were challenged by deeper applications of the basic concepts and influenced by non-computer science skills. This work serves as an empirically grounded investigation of elementary computer science learning and contributes to our understanding of computer science learning trajectories and concept sequencing in the late elementary grades.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Using Upper-Elementary Student Performance
to Understand Conceptual Sequencing in a
Blocks-based Curriculum
Diana Franklin§, Gabriela Skifstad, Reiny Rolock, Isha Mehrotra, Valerie Ding,
Alexandria Hansen, David Weintrop§, Danielle Harlow
§ UChicago STEM Education
University of Chicago
1100 E. 58th St
Chicago, IL 60637
dmfranklin@uchicago.edu
dweintrop@uchicago.edu
Department of Computer Science
University of Chicago
1100 E. 58th Street
Chicago, IL 60637
{gskifstad, rrolock, imehrotra,
valerieding}@uchicago.edu
Gevirtz School of Education
UC Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
akillian@umail.ucsb.edu
dharlow@education.ucsb.edu
ABSTRACT
As more elementary schools commit to integrating computer
science instruction into their curricula, they seek guidance on
what concepts are appropriate for students at different grade
levels. Currently, little is known about how best to sequence
computer science learning across elementary grades. In this paper,
we present an analysis of 123 students’ (age 9-12, grades 4-6)
activities in a curriculum implemented in a visual block-based
programming language. The goal of this work is to better
understand the developmental appropriateness of foundational
computer science ideas. All 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students in a
single school completed the first module of a curriculum during
the same school year with the same instructor. We analyzed each
task students attempted and found that for simple concepts, there
was little difference in performance between grade levels.
However, differences were found for more complex topics, such
as whether they completed initialization tasks and the way in
which they solved 2-d navigation tasks. A closer look revealed
that students understood the basic concepts, but were challenged
by deeper applications of the basic concepts and influenced by
non-computer science skills. This work serves as an empirically
grounded investigation of elementary computer science learning
and contributes to our understanding of computer science learning
trajectories and concept sequencing in the late elementary grades.
1. INTRODUCTION
As more elementary school teachers begin to integrate computing
into their curricula, they must design activities for students with
disparate academic backgrounds and varying levels of prior
computing experience. While standards are being released to
articulate what concepts should be covered at what grade band, in
order for teachers to effectively bring computing into their
classrooms, further support is needed in two ways. First, goals
need to be articulated by grade level rather than grade band.
Second, we need to recognize that students often do not learn a
concept completely in one year. Just as students learn to add
numbers over three years in elementary school, students will
revisit computing topics with more complex and in-depth
exposure each year. Therefore, we need to understand how
foundational computing concepts develop over several grades.
This paper presents a study of students across upper elementary
grades (4-6) working through the same curriculum. By having
students of different ages learn the same concept and work
through the same set of activities, we can begin to understand
grade-appropriateness of different concepts and the effectiveness
of different types of instruction, as well as identify specific
challenges they face. In doing so, we lay the foundation for a
validated, grade-appropriate K-6 computer science curriculum
that can start the next generation of learners on a path towards
computing success.
In this work, we seek to answer the following two research
questions.
What computing concepts were challenging for students in
different grades?
Which non-computing concepts became stumbling blocks in
projects intended to develop computing expertise?
We begin with a background on work investigating similar
questions. We then describe our methods in Section 3. Section 4
presents our results, followed by a discussion in Section 5 and
ending with a conclusion.
2. BACKGROUND
Computer science instruction in elementary school is an emerging
field with many unanswered questions regarding designing age-
appropriate curricula. Pertinent questions include what concepts
should be covered at what ages? How deeply should each concept
be covered? And, how do concepts align with or rely on non-
computer science skills. In this paper, we attend to questions
about content and relationship to non-computing skills.
Papert’s work with the Logo language showed that programming
was well within the cognitive abilities of elementary-aged learners
[5]. Through working with late elementary aged students, Papert
and colleagues found students were able to learn and use concepts
such as sequence, loops, and conditionals. One of the more
successful descendants of Logo is Scratch [8], a block-based,
exploratory programming environment that gives students an
intuitive interface as well as the ability to “remix” (copy and
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or
classroom use is granted without fee provided that cop ies are not made or distributed
for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full
citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this wo rk owned by others
than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise,
or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific
permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from Per missions@acm.org.
SIGCSE '17, March 08-11, 2017, Seattle, WA, USA
© 2017 ACM. ISBN 978-1-4503-4698-6/17/03…$15.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3017680.3017760
231
modify) existing projects. The Scratch environment is widely used
and has been found to be effective at engaging diverse and
historically underrepresented learners in programming [7].
Despite widespread use, work towards understanding the
cognitive affordances of the Scratch environment with this age
group is only beginning to emerge. Seiter and Foreman [11]
analyzed Scratch projects created by elementary-aged students to
identify what blocks students used at which grades. Others
research of younger learners working with blocks-based tools
discovered the need to teach learners about initialization [3] and to
consider the user when authoring programs [4], two ideas taken
for granted by educators working with older students.
Beyond computer science knowledge, programming projects are
often dependent on non-computer science prerequisite skills such
as mathematics knowledge, reading ability, and the ability to
handle general cognitive load. Flannery et al. [2], in their
description of designing Scratch Jr, identified that early
elementary school students struggle with several mathematics
concepts, as well as the overabundance of choices. Further, Hill et
al. [6] found that the mathematics concepts were above grade
level even for the advertised grades, and the students struggled as
a result in both high-achieving and low-achieving schools. Seiter
[10] similarly found evidence that overall academic performance
profoundly affects success in computing. Fourth-grade students in
a high-achieving school were able to complete projects with
synchronization and actions in isolation, only faltering when the
concepts were combined. Students in a low-achieving classroom,
however, were unable to advance past the first project, showing a
possible dependence between computing performance and
performance in other subject areas.
3. METHODS
To answer our stated research questions, we took an iterative,
design-based research approach to develop an age-appropriate
blocks-based programming environment and accompanying
curriculum. Design-based research is a systematic and flexible
methodology that allows for collaboration between researchers
and practitioners in real-world settings with the aim of improving
educational practice [12]. This work involved a collaboration
between educational researchers, computer scientists, and teachers
who were using our curriculum and programming environment in
schools. This collaboration often resulted in observations about
what was and was not working in classrooms with students.
Materials 3.1
Students completed Module 1 of a curriculum using LaPlaya [6],
a Scratch-like programming language and environment designed
for 4th grade students. Module 1 is a project-based curriculum in
which concepts taught are chosen to support the creation of a
culminating digital storytelling project. Within each concept, there
is a series of 3-4 tasks that students complete, each task slightly
more complex than the last. It is intended that these tasks be
completed in a single 45-minute work session. The lessons of
Module 1, along with the number of tasks are shown in Table 1.
LaPlaya is a visual block-based language and environment
inspired by Scratch but modified to be simpler for the younger
end of the age range (Figure 1). Some blocks were modified to
simplify the mathematics requirements (e.g. removing
percentages, decimals, and negative numbers). In addition, the
interface is configurable on a per-project basis, giving the
curriculum designer control over aspects of the interface, such as
which blocks, categories, sprites, scripts, and tabs are visible to
Table 1: Lessons and tasks in Module 1
Concept
Number of Tasks
Sequence, Interface
3
Breaking down actions
4
Event 1: On sprite clicked
3
Event 2: Other sprite clicked
4
Event 3: On key pressed
3
Initialization
3
X/Y Coordinates (optional)
5
Costume Changes
3
Scene Changes
3
the students for each task. Finally, each task has an automated
analysis capability that a student can run to find out whether they
have completed the task and, if not, get a hint as to what aspect is
incomplete.
Figure 1: LaPlaya learning environment with a 2-dimension
navigation puzzle directing the bear to the honey pot.
Data Collection 3.2
In the 2014-2015 school year, we tested our digital storytelling
module and programming environment with over 1,500 students
(ages 9-12) at 10 schools. For this paper, we analyze student work
from one elementary school where all 4th, 5th, and 6th grade
students completed the Module 1 curriculum (Table 1), totaling
123 students. The classes were required for students, and all
sections were taught by the same technology teacher, thus
controlling for teacher effects. Graduate student researchers
(GSRs) attended most classroom meetings and recorded detailed
field notes about student learning. In addition, GSRs collected
video recordings of each class meeting, audio recordings of
students asking questions, and interviews with teachers and
students. Finally, digital artifacts including all tasks and final
student projects were collected. After each class period, GSRs
wrote analytical memos [9] that were shared with the research
group. For this paper, we analyzed the digital artifacts collected.
Data Analysis 3.3
Our goal in data analysis was to identify what percentage of
students demonstrated understanding and to identify particular
challenges for students. For each task within an activity in Module
1, we wrote an analysis script to determine whether the artifact
displayed understanding of the concept as well as identify the
particular milestone of completion students reached. Each task’s
analysis code was tailored to that task.
232
To calibrate the analysis script, we first determined the minimum
requirements necessary to “demonstrate understanding” of the
concept. This is a lower bar than full completion of the task since
these were learning tasks with repetition built into them, both of
previously presented concepts and the current concept.
Demonstrated understanding was determined as completing all
scripts necessary for a single instance of applying that concept.
Second, we identified specific struggles. We split progress into
milestones and analyzed the code for reaching those milestones.
Finally, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted
to compare the completion rates for each activity across grade
levels, as well other variables related to specific tasks, to
determine if the observed differences were statistically significant.
4. RESULTS
We present several findings from our analysis of the student tasks.
We begin with the overall findings showing demonstrated
understanding of several concepts. We then present more detailed
results of several activities that show interesting behavior and/or
differences between grade levels. Our results are broken down
into three categories. We first present results that are gleaned from
looking at how students did at a concept level. We then look more
closely at how students completed tasks within a single concept.
Finally, we analyze their final projects to see what concepts they
used.
Figure 2: Percentage of students in each grade who
demonstrated understanding for each task in the curriculum.
Note: Y-axis begins at 50%.
Findings Between Concepts 4.1
We begin by presenting overall results for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade
students. Figure 2 shows the percentage of students who
demonstrated understanding (as defined by completion of one
instance of the concept) for each task within each activity (note:
the list of tasks can be found in Table 1).
While there were notable qualitative differences observed across
grade levels for completion rates (see Figure 2), no differences at
a statistically significant level were found. This is in part due to
the small size of groups, and this analysis should be repeated on a
larger sample to confirm or disconfirm the trends observed in
Figure 2. Despite not resulting in statistical significance, the
findings presented here are still useful for curriculum and
interface developers working to engage children
in learning computer science
Finding 1: Placing simple instructions in sequence and using
simple events in a block-based language is accessible to 4th-6th
grade students.
These results show that block-based programming environments,
with projects using only a few blocks, are accessible to students in
upper elementary school. Over 90% of 4th, 5th, and 6th grade
students completed the first set of tasks, which involved ordering
glide to sprite
1
blocks to draw simple pictures. Over 85% of
all students completed the second set of tasks, which involved
separately setting direction and moving a distance to navigate a
simple 2-d grid.
In addition, tasks involving multiple events with just one action
block per event were very accessible to all three grade levels.
Fourth and fifth grade students struggled slightly on some tasks,
but they attained over 80% completion on almost all tasks. The
Other Sprite Clicked
2
activity had more tasks, so many students
did not reach the last task, resulting in an anomalous dip. This
shows that sequence and simple scripts using events are accessible
to learners at the 4th grade level (and possibly even younger).
Finding 2: Initialization is challenging for 4th and 5th grade
students.
The one concept in this curriculum that challenged students was
Initialization. To initialize, students set the starting values for one
or two attributes of a sprite. Differences between grade levels
emerged, but, as stated earlier, the differences were not
statistically significant. In general, 6th grade students still did well
on these tasks, but 4th and 5th grade students struggled. There are
several possible explanations including LaPlaya not providing
enough scaffolding of computer science skills, not situating the
challenge in a compelling context, or being too complex overall.
Findings Within Concepts 4.2
After artifacts were analyzed for completion rates, they were
analyzed for the ways in which students solved the tasks. More
nuanced differences between students of different grade levels
emerged from this analysis.
Finding 3: 6th grade students are more precise at 2-dimension
navigation than 4th and 5th grade students.
Breaking Down Actions comprised of tasks navigating a bear to a
honey pot (Figure 1) while avoiding bushes in the path. The honey
pot has a script that detects when it is touching the bear. Once the
bear touches the honey pot, an animation of the bear with its nose
in the honey pot occurs.
This project was simplified and scaffolded in response to results
from the previous pilot year. As Figure 1 shows, a grid is drawn
on the background. Each grid line is defined as 50 steps, and all
sprites are aligned to the grid, simplifying distance calculation
students must make to successfully navigate the terrain (all
movements are multiples of 50).
One interesting attribute of this set of tasks revealed differences
across the grades related to the precision of movement commands.
Students could either program the bear to go to the honey pot
precisely or overshoot itthe in-project detection would trigger an
animation once the bear “touched” the honey pot. Therefore, a
1
The glide to sprite block was added to LaPlaya specifically
to create a very simple entry-level activity.
2
The on other sprite clicked event was added to LaPlaya
to remove the need for broadcast/receive messages to program
an action in one sprite caused by a mouse click on another.
233
student could have programmed the bear to travel an inaccurately
large distance and still receive positive feedback.
Figure 3: Percentage of students, by grade, who reached
milestones for the last 2-dimensional navigation task.
Figure 3 shows the progress of 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students in
completing the last task of the activity. Each point on the line
represents the percentage of students who reached that level of
completion. Milestone 3 corresponds to touching the honey pot,
whereas milestone 4 corresponds to touching the honey pot with a
relatively accurate measurement (stopping on the honey pot), and
milestone 5 corresponds to touching the honey pot with an
accurate and efficient solution (a single glide block calculated
accurately). Most students reach milestone 3: 98%, 96%, and 90%
of 6th, 5th, and 4th graders, respectively. Therefore, students easily
solved the tasks to the level of reaching the honey pot, which
satisfies the learning goals of this task.
Differences emerge, however, in inspecting the level of accuracy
and efficiency of their solutions. Only 81%, 63%, and 73% of 6th,
5th, and 4th graders, respectively, measured the distance accurately
(milestone 4). It seems counterintuitive that 4th grade students
performed better than 5th grade students until we look more
closely at their approach.
In order to better understand this trend, we performed a more
detailed analysis on all students’ solutions for tasks 2, 3, and 4 of
Breaking Down Actions. We analyzed the artifacts for two
factors. First, we categorized responses by the distance the bear
was moved (accurate, approximate, or incorrect). Second, we
analyzed whether the students used one or multiple glide blocks
to complete a single leg of the trip. In our system, a single glide
block’s default distance was 50 steps, corresponding to one grid
block. To move three grid blocks, one could place three glide
blocks in succession, removing the need to perform mathematical
calculations. The results from this analysis are presented in Table
2. In Table 2, the green and orange indicate contrasting
performance for accurate calculations using one block. Yellow
boxes indicate the two alternate approaches: accurate calculations
using multiple blocks and approximate calculations using a single
block.
Looking at the results for accurate calculations using 1 block for
each task, we can see that 6th graders were consistently more
accurate and efficient than 4th and 5th graders (73% vs 56%, 86%
vs 67% and 68%, and 70% vs 46% and 56%). These differences
are highlighted in green (6th graders) and orange (4th and 5th
graders). An interesting phenomenon occurs between 4th and 5th
grade students. In Task 2, 30% of 4th grade students solved it by
placing the correct number of consecutive glide blocks, whereas
very few 5th grade students solved it this way. Instead, 5th graders
appear to have attempted to calculate the accurate distance and
this became became a barrier to completion. By Task 4, 4th grade
students performed similarly to 5th grade students. In fact,
comparing Task 4 to Task 2, more 5th grade students used
consecutive blocks, and fewer 4th grade students did.
Table 2: Analysis of three tasks of Breaking Down Actions.
Statistically significant differences were found only for Task 1.
Fourth and fifth graders were significantly different for accurate
completion using multiple blocks, F(2, 142) = .262, p= .02. In
addition, 4th graders significantly differed from 5th graders for
incorrect responses using 1 block, F(2, 142) = -.08, p = .04.
Finally, 5th graders also significantly differed from 6th graders for
incorrect completion using 1 block, F(2, 142) = .08, p = .03.
With this data we cannot say definitively what caused this
discrepancy, but we speculate that this indicates that both 4th and
5th grade students struggled with the mathematical calculation for
distance. They solved the problem in two ways4th grade students
were more likely to use the simpler method of using multiple
glide blocks, whereas 5th grade students attempted the
calculations and were incorrect more often.
These results indicate that 2-d navigation in increments of 50 are
accessible to 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students, but the solution
strategy may be different for 6th grade students vs. 4th and 5th
grade students. For 4th and 5th grade students, it may be beneficial
to first practice with 2-d navigation with grid blocks of 1 step
before moving to 50-step grid blocks.
Finding 4: 4th grade students struggle to initialize multiple
characteristics of a sprite.
In one particular Initialization task, students were asked to
initialize two attributes of a cat: size and position. LaPlaya
includes a separate initialization event (denoted with a blue square
displayed alongside the traditional green flag) that the runtime
environment enforces use of by disabling the green flag button
until it is pressed. Students had already seen examples of
initialization scripts as well as been asked to initialize position in
previous tasks. This task introduced the need to initialize size. We
can see in Figure 4 that most students initialized position properly
(milestone 2). However, the number of students that properly
initialized size (milestone 3) was lower, with 4th grade students
showing the most significant drop. This means that more than
20% of 4th graders did not make any progress towards initializing
a second characteristic of the sprite after correctly initializing a
first feature, indicating they did not to apply their knowledge of
initializing position and rotation to correctly define a starting
state. This finding suggests that while initialization is appropriate
for students as early as fourth grade, more complex initialization
sequences that require coordination of multiple attributes or states
might be more suitable for older students.
234
Figure 4: Percentage of students in each grade who reached
milestones for the third Initialization task.
Culminating Projects 4.3
All students were given several programming sessions to
complete a summative project. We analyzed 135 projects in terms
of the total number of blocks, number of unique blocks used,
median script length, and number of unique block categories used.
The purpose of this analysis was to understand the scale of the
projects (total blocks and script length) and diversity (unique
blocks and unique categories) of computer science concepts
incorporated by the learners across the three grades.
Figure 5: Number of block categories used in final projects.
Finding 5: There was little difference between grades in terms of
total blocks used, median script length, and total unique blocks
used.
In general, the projects were relatively simple. At least 20% of
students in all three grades used no more than 9 blocks total and 4
unique blocks, while half of the students had median script
lengths of less than 3. All three grades showed similar behavior,
with only small differences, with the exception of diversity of
categories, which we discuss below.
Finding 6: 6th grade students tended to use more categories (3),
and the variance in the number of categories shrank as students
aged.
Figure 5 shows the average number of categories used by
students. This graph illustrates that while the average numbers are
close, the variance decreases as students’ grade increases. Further
analysis revealed that 6th grade students used blocks from 3
unique categories more often than younger students: 84% of 6th
graders versus 75% and 73% of 5th and 4th graders, respectively.
This indicates that even if students, on average, perform similarly,
perhaps the minimum standards for students at younger ages
should be lower
Figure 6: Percentage of students in each grade who used
blocks from each category.
Finding 7: Students were most likely to use blocks from the
“Events” category, followed by “Looks”, “Motion” and then
“Control.”
We further analyzed final projects to find out which categories of
blocks students used. Figure 6 shows the most commonly used
category contained the Event blocks. This is not surprising given
that an Event block is required in order for a script to be run. The
most common Event block was the blue square block used for
initialization. Thus, our requirement that an initialization event be
pressed before the green flag, and the corresponding curriculum,
likely succeeded in encouraging students to use this event. Other
Event blocks were used fairly evenly. The second most common
category was Looks, with say blocks (93 of the 123 final
projects) dominating the block use, followed by show/hide
(78/76) and switch costume (59). The third most common
category was motion, where blocks that define movement in the
X/Y coordinates were most common (83), followed by glide in
direction (51) and glide to coordinates (30). Finally,
among projects that used control blocks, the wait block was most
popular (78), with only a few using loops (which were not taught
explicitly in Module 1). In fact, more students used wait than
switch costume (the only use taught in our curriculum)
indicating that students transferred their knowledge of wait to
other blocks.
Overall, this suggests that specific blocks in the Looks category
are simpler for students than Motion blocks. Only for 6th grade
students was the use of Motion blocks similar to that of Looks.
This could be related to familiarity with the coordinate plane and
better performance on the 2-d navigation puzzles, though it is
unknown whether or not the relationship is causal. In addition, the
idea of initialization is accessible, but, as we saw in Section 4.2.2,
the details are challenging to get correct.
5. DISCUSSION
This work provides several insights that can be applied to activity
development in upper elementary school grades. First, sequence
and simple events are very accessible to young students. This
finding reinforces design decisions made by other environments
designed for younger learners, such as Logo and Scratch Jr. and
235
adds empirical evidence towards the design of curricula for
elementary students focusing on movement-based activities (or
“turtle graphics” activities in Logo parlance).
Second, activities involving precise mathematical calculations can
result in undesirable difficulty and potentially be a barrier for
some students toward engaging with the underlying computer
science concepts. In this work, we found that while all students
were able to give navigational commands to their sprite, when
students needed to use precise mathematical calculations, younger
learners performed worse than older learners. Our analysis
showed the difference was attributed to mathematical aspects of
the task rather than difficulty with the concept. The important take
away from this finding for curriculum designers is to try to
minimize the external mathematics required for activities as it
may introduce an unintended barrier to the desirable computer
science content of the lesson.
A third discussion point from this study is related to our
investigation of initialization. This work reveals a developmental
difference in terms of initializing a single attribute of an object
and initializing multiple attributes. One might assume that
initialization is an atomic idea that a student does or does not
understand. However, this work shows there to be more to the
concept of initialization of sprites for younger learners. The
implications of this are twofold. First, when teaching initialization
or designing initialization activities, it is important to design in a
trajectory from simple to more complex tasks so students better
understand the concept of initialization. Second, and more
importantly, this shows the need to carefully analyze all aspects of
introductory computer science instruction and not take for granted
any part of the act of programming. It is easy for an expert
programmer, or even just a casual programmer, to think of
initialization as an atomic unit that students either do or do not
understand. We suspect that there are other aspects of
programming that share this characteristic and plan on further
investigating them as future work.
Finally, this work is further evidence of the existence of
developmentally appropriate computer science instruction and
shows that there are concepts more and less suitable for students
across grades 4, 5, and 6. In conducting this work, we can begin to
tease apart differences in these early stages of computational
learning and use them to inform age-appropriate instruction. At
the same time, these findings provide clues for the development of
a larger K-6 computer science trajectory, another avenue of future
investigation we intend on pursue to more fully map out what
effective computer science instruction might look like in upper
elementary school.
6. CONCLUSION
This paper presented detailed analysis on how students progressed
through an upper-elementary computing curriculum. We
identified several insights, applied both within and across
concepts that can guide development of effective K-6 computer
science instruction. It is through studies such as these that we can
gain knowledge necessary to create curricula aimed at a broad set
of students’ developmental and academic levels, as well as the
ability to provide differentiation and accommodation for
individual students.
7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is supported by the National Science Foundation CE21
Award CNS-1240985. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or
recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.
8. REFERENCES
[1] Clements, D.H. and Battista, M.T. 1989. Learning of
geometric concepts in a Logo environment. Journal for
Research in Mathematics Education. (1989), 450467.
[2] Flannery, L.P. et al. 2013. Designing ScratchJr: Support for
early childhood learning through computer programming.
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on
Interaction Design and Children (2013), 110.
[3] Franklin, D. et al. 2016. Initialization in Scratch: Seeking
Knowledge Transfer. Proceedings of the 47th ACM
Technical Symposium on Computing Science Education
(2016), 217222.
[4] Hansen, A. et al. 2016. User-Centered Design in Block-
Based Programming: Developmental & Pedagogical
Considerations for Children. (2016), 147156.
[5] Harel, I. and Papert, S. 1990. Software design as a learning
environment. Interactive Learning Environments. 1, 1
(1990), 132.
[6] Hill, C. et al. 2015. Floors and Flexibility: Designing a
programming environment for 4th-6th grade classrooms.
Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on
Computer Science Education (2015), 546551.
[7] Maloney, J.H. et al. 2008. Programming by choice: Urban
youth learning programming with Scratch. ACM SIGCSE
Bulletin. 40, 1 (2008), 367371.
[8] Resnick, M. et al. 2009. Scratch: Programming for all.
Communications of the ACM. 52, 11 (Nov. 2009), 60.
[9] Saldaña, J. 2015. The coding manual for qualitative
researchers. Sage.
[10] Seiter, L. 2015. Using SOLO to Classify the Programming
Responses of Primary Grade Students. Proceedings of the
46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science
Education (New York, NY, USA, 2015), 540545.
[11] Seiter, L. and Foreman, B. 2013. Modeling the Learning
Progressions of Computational Thinking of Primary Grade
Students. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International
ACM Conference on International Computing Education
Research (New York, NY, USA, 2013), 5966.
[12] Wang, F. and Hannafin, M.J. 2005. Design-based research
and technology-enhanced learning environments.
Educational technology research and development. 53, 4
(2005), 523.
236
... Scholars have attempted to investigate different ways of introducing CS in K-12 (e.g., [26,41]). For example, Franklin et al. [26] examined how 4th-6th grade students experienced various programming tasks with a visual block-based coding curriculum. ...
... Scholars have attempted to investigate different ways of introducing CS in K-12 (e.g., [26,41]). For example, Franklin et al. [26] examined how 4th-6th grade students experienced various programming tasks with a visual block-based coding curriculum. Although students were able to understand the basic concepts, the more complicated CS concepts were challenging, especially to the younger students that had not yet mastered certain mathematical concepts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many stakeholders have suggested that if girls are not engaged in computer science at an early age, the field of computer science (and computing-related fields) will continue to lack gender diversity. We need more explorations of how curriculum impacts girls’ interest in computer science at the elementary level. The focus of this research project was to examine how an elementary problem-based learning curriculum impacted girls’ understanding of and interest in computer science. By utilizing a curriculum focused on a problem that emphasized social activism, we hypothesized that PBL CS could increase interest in CS for girls. This study used a mixed-method sequential explanatory research design to examine the implementation of a CS PBL curriculum with four 6th grade teachers and their 263 students. We collected student CS knowledge pre-tests and post-tests, student attitude surveys, student focus group interviews, teacher interviews, and researcher observation reflection notes. The knowledge tests were analyzed using a mixed measures ANOVA. The survey responses were analyzed using ANOVAs and effect sizes for each comparison were calculated using partial eta squared. The qualitative data was analyzed using a thematic approach that required four researchers to come to a consensus. Results suggested that although girls had less understanding of CS at the beginning, by the end of the curriculum, girls and boys performed similarly. However, there were still elements that were not successful. Girls’ attitudes towards computer science were significantly lower than the boys. Conceptually, the curriculum needs to specifically address how computer science could impact values held by girls.
... Computational concepts such as sequences, loops and conditionals were identified as basic concepts for young learners [49]. A high percentage of students in fourth-to sixth-grade (aged 9-12) can complete sequence-related tasks [50]. The conditional concept was conceived by students, but not fully, particularly when the conditional block was combined with other blocks such as when they were nested within a forever loop [51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of the science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics disciplines in education, subjects tend to use contextualized activities or projects. Educational robotics and computational thinking both have the potential to become subjects in their own right, though not all educational programs yet offer these. Despite the use of technology and programming platforms being widespread, it is not common practice to integrate computational thinking and educational robotics into the official curriculum in secondary education. That is why this paper continues an initial project of integrating computational thinking and educational robotics into a secondary school in Barcelona, Spain. This study presents a project-based learning approach where the main focus is the development of skills related to science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics and the acquisition of computational thinking knowledge in the second year of pupils’ studies using a block-based programming environment. The study develops several sessions in the context of project-based learning, with students using the block-programming platform ScratchTM. During these sessions and in small-group workshops, students will expand their knowledge of computational thinking and develop 21st-century skills. We demonstrate the superior improvement of these concepts and skills compared to other educational methodologies.
... For all three RQs we are also interested in how these effects are moderated by student age; we believe that in a relative comparison Stride may be preferable at younger ages and Java at older ages. Franklin et al. [5] found no performance difference in programming learners between ages when faced with simple concepts, but for advanced concepts, age was found to be a factor, so we believe it could be a factor in this study of object-oriented programming. RQ1 (speed) is relevant to the usability of the editor. ...
... Engaging both genders, especially girls, in learning CT and programming may increase girls' interest in CS, prepare them for future studies, and address gender equity in this field. Hence, a better understanding of how both genders develop CT is important for the design of evidence-based learning environments that are beneficial to both genders across ages (Angeli & Giannakos, 2020;Flannery & Bers, 2013;Franklin et al., 2017;Strawhacker & Bers, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Lay Description What is currently known about the topic Learning progressions for computational thinking have been defined in K‐12 curricula globally. Engaging in programming and non‐programming (unplugged) activities can increase students' CT skills. Controversial results have been reported on the age–gender interaction effects on CT development. Lack of understanding on children's actual progressive development of CT. What this paper adds A developmental progression was found in CT skills of students aged 9–13. Students aged 12 and above had some a priori understanding of CT. No gender difference across ages existed in conditionals, logical operators, pattern recognition and generalization skills before instruction. Students aged 9–11 benefitted the most from an intervention combining both programming and unplugged activities compared to older students. Students' CT acquisition in the intervention was unaffected by gender. Given the intervention, students aged 9 and above developed conditionals, logical operators and pattern recognition skills. However, generalization skill was developed only for students aged 12 and above. Implications for practice and policy The findings lay the foundation for designing evidence‐based age‐appropriate CT learning progression and pedagogies. Age‐appropriate learning content: Given appropriate learning experiences, students aged 9 and above may be ready to learn certain CT concepts and skills, including conditionals, logical operators and pattern recognition. CT pedagogies: Using programming and unplugged activities to develop CT requires careful consideration of students' cognitive development and gender needs.
... Young learners can create programs, using coarse grained movement within a 2D grid , events, sequences of costume changes and movements, unconditional and fixed repetition, and simple conditional statements that do not use Boolean operators. More difficult concepts, even for late primary stage children and early secondary stage, are the initialisation of multiple sprite properties, complex conditionals with Boolean operators, simple variables, lists and procedures (Aivaloglou et al., 2017;Franklin et al., 2017;Rivers et al., 2016;Seiter & Foreman, 2013). As contexts for learning, stories, animations, games and simulations reflect increasing complexity of programming concepts and appeal to the broadest range of learners. ...
Research
Full-text available
‘Learning about Progression’ is a suite of research-based resources designed to provide evidence to support the building of learning progression frameworks in Wales. ‘Learning about Progression’ seeks to deepen our understanding of current thinking about progression and to explore different purposes that progression frameworks can serve to improve children and young people’s learning. These resources include consideration of how this evidence relates to current developments in Wales and derives a series of principles to serve as touchstones to make sure that, as practices begin to develop, they stay true to the original aspirations of A Curriculum for Wales – A Curriculum for Life. It also derives, from the review of evidence, a number of fundamental questions for all those involved in the development of progression frameworks to engage.
Article
Industrial workplaces increasingly require end-users to create programs for embedded systems, but little expert scrutiny has been devoted to studying this domain. As a result, industrial end-user programmers may rely on programming languages and development environments that do not necessarily follow the state-of-the-art of software engineering. Consider Ladder Logic, the most popular language used to program the most widely deployed type of industrial hardware, programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Ladder Logic’s fundamental design is based on electric relay circuits that have long since disappeared from practice. Does Ladder Logic inhibit the productivity of end-user programmers, slowing progress in industrial settings like manufacturing sites and scientific labs where it is widely used? To better understand the usage of domain-specific languages in industrial practices, we conducted a survey with 175 technical employees from an international engineering conglomerate. This survey introduced participants to Ladder Logic and asked them questions that all programmers, including novices, should answer with ease. Nearly 70% failed, including those with previous Ladder Logic experience. We combined end-user performance with answers in an open-ended question, where many employees complained about the programming language. The breadth and depth of these struggles suggest that outdated languages, which industrial end users must increasingly use, could dramatically impact productivity and that further studies on these industrial end user programmers be necessary to better support them in their increasingly complex workplaces.
Chapter
Recent years have seen growing interest in utilizing digital storytelling, where students create short narratives around a topic, as a means of creating motivating problem-solving activities in K-12 education. At the same time, there is increasing awareness of the need to engage students as young as elementary school in complex topics such as physical science and computational thinking. Building on previous research investigating block-based programming activities for storytelling, we present an approach to block-based programming for interactive digital storytelling to engage upper elementary students (ages 9 to 10) in computational thinking and narrative skill development. We describe both the learning environment that combines block-based narrative programming with a rich, interactive visualization engine designed to produce animations of student generated stories, as well as an analysis of students using the system to create narratives. Student generated stories are evaluated from both a story quality perspective as well as from their ability to communicate and demonstrate computational thinking and physical science concepts and practices. We also explore student behaviors during the story creation process and discuss potential improvements for future interventions.
Article
Block-based programming (BBP) environments have become increasingly commonplace computer science education. Despite a rapidly expanding ecosystem of BBP environments, text-based languages remain the dominant programming paradigm, motivating the transition from BBP to text-based programming (TBP). Support students in transitioning from BBP to TBP is an important and open design question. This work identifies 101 unique BBP environments, analyzes the 46 of them and identifies different design approaches used to support the transition to TBP. The contribution of this work is to provide a snapshot of the current state of BBP environments and how they support learners in transitioning to TBP.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The intended curriculum — the curriculum that is intended to be taught through policy, curriculum documents, or other required mandates — and the enacted curriculum — the curriculum that is actually taught in classrooms by teachers — are ideally aligned. However, often there is a chasm between the two. With computing education being relatively new to schools and teachers across many countries, we wanted to learn if a chasm existed and, if it did, how wide it is across different countries. Working as part of an international team, we created a set of templates for measuring intended curricula and a survey instrument, MEasuring TeacheR Enacted Curriculum (METRECC), to measure enacted curricula. The original pilot investigated the enacted curriculum in seven countries (with 244 teacher participants). Our research found that both visual and text-based programming languages are being used across K-12, warranting further research into potential impact on student learning and motivations. Unplugged activities are commonly used across K-12, extending into later years despite not being explicitly defined in intended curricula. Further, teachers’ motivations for programming language choice are consistent across countries and our study revealed that student-driven factors motivate selection. This initial study was followed by additional analysis with respect to teacher self-esteem that was found to differ across multiple factors such as experience in teaching CS in years and gender. We punctuate our work with the adaptation of the instrument for use in South Asia and a call to the community to consider middle- and low-income nations in future research.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an analysis of 123 students' (aged 9-12) digital stories created in a visual block-based programming language across three grade levels (grades 4-6). These students were all involved in the same introductory computer science curriculum. Participating students attended the same school and received computer science instruction from the same teacher within the context of the academic day. We analyzed each project for the extent of user-centered design that the student programmed. Specifically, we identified two components of user-centered design: 1) the programmed control choices students used, and 2) if/how they communicated those mechanisms of control to the user. Our work indicates that students in fifth and sixth grade (aged 10-12) used higher diversity of event blocks and coordinated action across multiple sprites at a higher rate compared to fourth grade students (aged 9-10). In contrast, fourth grade students tended to create more simplistic programs, rarely coordinating actions across multiple sprites. This work suggests that the construct of user-centered design within visual block-based programming languages is more complex than previously indicated. Additionally, explicit instruction about user-centered design is necessary, but may be more effective when a student reaches the age of 10 or 11 years old. CCS Concepts • Human-centered computing~ User centered design • Human-centered computing~ Graphical user interfaces • Social and professional topics~ Computing education • Social and professional topics~ K-12 education
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growing movement to use visual block-based languages (VBBLs) in elementary and middle school classrooms, questions arise about the learning outcomes of such activities. While some schools are content to use VBBLs to spark interest and motivation for the future pursuit of computing, others are asking, Does this early exposure produce knowledge that transfers to traditional text-based languages (TBLs)? If transfer is a goal, then a corollary is, How do we design the transition to maximize the transfer? This paper focuses on initialization of state and variables, exploring the differences between Scratch and two TBLs: C and Java. Based on observations of 9-12 year old students in a VBBL curriculum, we identify four pieces of knowledge that are critical for C and Java but are not nearly as obvious in Scratch, including whether, when, and how to perform initialization. We conclude with suggestions for instruction and development environment that may improve transfer.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent renaissance in early computer science education has provided K-12 teachers with multiple options for introducing children to computer science. However, tools for teaching programming for children with wide-scale adoption have been targeted mostly at pre-readers or middle school and higher grade-levels. This leaves a gap for 4th -- 6th grade students, who differ developmentally from older and younger students. In this paper, we investigate block-based programming languages targeted at elementary and middle school students and demonstrate a gap in existing programming languages appropriate for 4th -- 6th grade classrooms. We analyze the benefits of Scratch, ScratchJr, and Blockly for students and curriculum developers. We describe the design principles we created based on our experiences using block-based programming in 4th -- 6th grade classrooms, and introduce LaPlaya, a language and development environment designed specifically for children in the gap between grades K-3 and middle school students.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the effects of computer programming in Logo on specific geometric conceptualizations of primary grade children, 48 third graders were randomly assigned to either a Logo or a control group. The Logo group was given 26 weeks of instruction in a Logo environment. The children were then interviewed to ascertain their conceptualizations of angles, shapes, and motions. In both groups children's notions of angle and angle measure were multifaceted and included a number of misconceptions, although performance was uniformly higher for the Logo group. The Logo children were more aware than the control children of the components of geometric shapes and were more likely to conceptualize geometric objects in terms of the actions or procedures used to construct them.
Article
To investigate the effects of computer programming in Logo on specific geometric conceptualizations of primary grade children, 48 third graders were randomly assigned to either a Logo or a control group. The Logo group was given 26 weeks of instruction in a Logo environment. The children were then interviewed to ascertain their conceptualizations of angles, shapes, and motions. In both groups children's notions of angle and angle measure were multifaceted and included a number of misconceptions, although performance was uniformly higher for the Logo group. The Logo children were more aware than the control children of the components of geometric shapes and were more likely to conceptualize geometric objects in terms of the actions or procedures used to construct them.
Conference Paper
This paper presents an assessment designed to measure computational thinking skills of fourth grade students. The students in two public schools were given a set of Scratch programming challenges. The SOLO taxonomy was used to classify student programming responses based on the degree of understanding of the problem structure. The majority of fourth grade students from one school demonstrated the ability to synchronize the costume and motion of a single character sprite, as well as synchronize a basic conversation between multiple sprites. However, they struggled to integrate motion and costume changes into a multi-sprite conversation. The majority of fourth grade students from the second school, where reading and math comprehension scores fall below the state minimum requirements for proficiency, were unable to demonstrate a basic understanding of the programming tasks. The results suggest that fourth grade students who read at grade level are capable of understanding the relationships between multiple concerns within a single script, along with synchronizing a single concern across multiple scripts, but are challenged when synchronizing multiple concerns across multiple scripts.
Conference Paper
We introduce the Progression of Early Computational Thinking (PECT) Model, a framework for understanding and assessing computational thinking in the primary grades (Grades 1 to 6). The model synthesizes measurable evidence from student work with broader, more abstract coding design patterns, which are then mapped onto computational thinking concepts. We present the results of a pilot-test study of the PECT Model in order to demonstrate its potential efficacy in detecting both differences in computational thinking among students of various ages as well as any clear overall progressions in increasing computational sophistication. Results of this sort are vital for establishing research-based and age-appropriate curricula for students in the primary grades, i.e., developing non-trivial, challenging but not overly daunting lesson plans that utilize the cognitive development stage of each grade level most effectively.
Conference Paper
ScratchJr is a graphical programming language based on Scratch and redesigned for the unique developmental and learning needs of children in kindergarten to second grade. The creation of ScratchJr addresses the relative lack of powerful technologies for digital creation and computer programming in early childhood education. ScratchJr will provide software for children to create interactive, animated stories as well as curricula and online resources to support adoption by educators. This paper describes the goals and challenges of creating a developmentally appropriate programming tool for children ages 5-7 and presents the path from guiding principles and studies with young children to current ScratchJr designs and plans for future work.
Article
This article describes a learning research called the Instructional Software Design Project (ISDP), and offers a Constructionist vision of the use of computers in education. In a Logo‐based learning environment in a Boston inner‐city public school, a fourth‐grade class was engaged during one semester in the design and production of educational software to teach fractions. Quantitative and qualitative research techniques were used to assess their learning of mathematics, programming, and design, and their performance was compared with that of two control classes. All three classes followed the regular mathematics curriculum, including a two‐month unit on fractions. Pre‐ and post‐tests were administered to the experimental and control groups. The evaluation revealed greater mastery of both Logo and fractions as well as acquisition of greater metacognitive skills by the experimental class than by either control class. Selected results from several case studies, as well as an overall evaluation are presented and discussed. Using ISDP as a model project, a Constructionist vision of using technology in learning is elaborated. The ISDP approach of using Logo programming as a tool for reformulating knowledge is compared with other ways of learning and using Logo, in particular the learning of programming per se in isolation from a content domain. Finally, ISDP is presented as a way of simultaneously learning programming and other content areas; and the claim is made that learning both of these together results in better learning than if either were learned in isolation from the other.